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# Mini project Assignment

SUBMIT TO:

SUBMIT BY:

## DG NURDAYANA BINTI AZMAN (2015896342)

IKA FARZANA BINTI GAAFFAR (2015229982)
NAQIBAH BINTI ABDUL MALEK (2015430194)
NAZRIN BIN MUSTAPHA (2015283858)
NOOR ERA FAZIRAH BINTI JUNDAM (2015687106)
NUR AMIRA JASMIN BINTI MAT REFIN (2015663662)
Ziegler-Nichols Method
Objective of study

To study an analytical calculating the gain of the controller (kc), integral time (TI) and
derivative time (TD) for PID controlled system whose process is modelled in first order plus
time delay (FOPTD) form.

explaination of method

The method that we used in conventional PID tuning is Ziegler-Nichols Method. The Ziegler-
Nichols Method are the most popular method used in process control to determine the
parameter of PID controller. This method is the principal method used to tune the PID
controller.

There are 2 methods in Ziegler-Nichols Method which are step respond method and ultimate
frequency method.

Ultimate frequency
Step response
o Step response method based on open-loop step response of the system.
The unit of the step response it characterizes by two parameters which
are delay (L1) and time constant (T).

These are determined by drawing a tangent line at the inflexion point, where the sloop of the
step response has its maximum value. The intersection of the tangent and the coordinate axes
give the process parameter which are used in calculating the controller parameters.

## No. Type of controller KP TI TD

1 PID 1.2T/L1 2 L1 0.5 L1
results

## Figure 2: Step Response of Ziegler-Nichols Method

The Figure 1 above shows the response curve when Ziegler-Nichols Method is being used.
Based on the article, T and L1 that being used in the system is 2.8 and 3, respectively. From
calculations that have been made by referring to the table 1, the value of KP, KI, and KD
obtained are KP=1.12, KI=0.167 and KD=1.5. As the system is first-order model with dead time
is given by the following transfer function:

2.8
() =
3 + 1
Therefore, the result obtained is as below.

## Figure 5: Tuning obtained from Simulink at N=10

Figure 6: Tuning obtained from Simulink at N=50

## Figure 7: Tuning obtained from Simulink at N=100

Figure 8: Tuning obtained from Simulink at N=1000

As to compare the result taken from the article (Figure 2) and obtained from Simulink (Figure
4 to Figure 8), there is slightly different in terms of the pattern of the tuning. This happened
because of lack of information that has been given in the article. From the article, the
parameters for the KP, KI, and KD has been given, thus the values can be insert into the
following equation.

1
+ + 1

1 +

However, it is unable to find the value of N. Therefore, we were trying to insert the value of N
by 1, 10, 50, 100, and 1000, the pattern starts to varies from N=1 to N=10 but start to remain
the constant starting N=50. As a consequence, N=50 shows the closest pattern of tuning as to
compare with the tuning obtained from the article.