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SUBMIT TO:

SUBMIT BY:

IKA FARZANA BINTI GAAFFAR (2015229982)

NAQIBAH BINTI ABDUL MALEK (2015430194)

NAZRIN BIN MUSTAPHA (2015283858)

NOOR ERA FAZIRAH BINTI JUNDAM (2015687106)

NUR AMIRA JASMIN BINTI MAT REFIN (2015663662)

Ziegler-Nichols Method

Objective of study

To study an analytical calculating the gain of the controller (kc), integral time (TI) and

derivative time (TD) for PID controlled system whose process is modelled in first order plus

time delay (FOPTD) form.

explaination of method

The method that we used in conventional PID tuning is Ziegler-Nichols Method. The Ziegler-

Nichols Method are the most popular method used in process control to determine the

parameter of PID controller. This method is the principal method used to tune the PID

controller.

There are 2 methods in Ziegler-Nichols Method which are step respond method and ultimate

frequency method.

Ultimate frequency

Step response

o Step response method based on open-loop step response of the system.

The unit of the step response it characterizes by two parameters which

are delay (L1) and time constant (T).

These are determined by drawing a tangent line at the inflexion point, where the sloop of the

step response has its maximum value. The intersection of the tangent and the coordinate axes

give the process parameter which are used in calculating the controller parameters.

1 PID 1.2T/L1 2 L1 0.5 L1

results

The Figure 1 above shows the response curve when Ziegler-Nichols Method is being used.

Based on the article, T and L1 that being used in the system is 2.8 and 3, respectively. From

calculations that have been made by referring to the table 1, the value of KP, KI, and KD

obtained are KP=1.12, KI=0.167 and KD=1.5. As the system is first-order model with dead time

is given by the following transfer function:

2.8

() =

3 + 1

Therefore, the result obtained is as below.

Figure 6: Tuning obtained from Simulink at N=50

Figure 8: Tuning obtained from Simulink at N=1000

As to compare the result taken from the article (Figure 2) and obtained from Simulink (Figure

4 to Figure 8), there is slightly different in terms of the pattern of the tuning. This happened

because of lack of information that has been given in the article. From the article, the

parameters for the KP, KI, and KD has been given, thus the values can be insert into the

following equation.

1

+ + 1

1 +

However, it is unable to find the value of N. Therefore, we were trying to insert the value of N

by 1, 10, 50, 100, and 1000, the pattern starts to varies from N=1 to N=10 but start to remain

the constant starting N=50. As a consequence, N=50 shows the closest pattern of tuning as to

compare with the tuning obtained from the article.

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