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CITIES

An important commercial centre


A vibran cultural centre
A major tourist attraction
A sprawling metropolis
Gridlocked rush-hour traffic
Accessible open spaces
Run-down estates
Affluent suburbs
Steeped in history
Seriously polluted
Densely populated
Friendly and welcoming

Urban sprawl is the unchecked spreading of a city or its suburbs. It often involves the
construction of residential or commercial buildings in rural areas or otherwise
undeveloped land on the outskirts of the city. Typical residents of these areas live in
single-family homes and travel by car to their jobs in the city. Concerns over urban
sprawl largely focus on negative consequences for residents and the local space
environment. The tendency of people living in these neighbourhoods to coomute to
work means that urban sprawl is sometimes associated with increased air pollution
from car exhaust fumes.

realated to towns and cities:


realated to trade or business:
particular part of a place:
not previously built on:
people who live in a place:

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE


Demolition Demolish demolished
(development Develop developed
developer Undeveloped
Resident (person) Reside Residential
Residence
Environment X Environmental
(person, activist)
Pollution (problem) Pollute polluted
Pollutant (substance

Some adjectives have a special meaning as noun suffixes:

- Free: without an undesirable thing


- Friendly: suitable for or welcoming of
- Mad: liking or doing sth obsessively
The noun in these phrases is singular

in everyday speech and writing we use people as the plural form of person. The plural
form persons is rarely used in speech, but is used in certain formal contexts

COLLOCATIONS PHRASAL VERBS IDIOMS


Densely populated Break down Go to town on sth
Leafy suburbs Get around Hit the road
Open spaces Look forward to Cut and dried
Violent crime
Tourist atrractions
Traffic congestion
City centre
Public transport system
Pedestrian area
Exhaust fumes
Air pollution
Traffic jams
Rush hours

Hustle and bustle: busy, noisy activity


Peace and quiet: calm atmosphere
Pros and cons: advantages and disadvantages
Ups and downs: good times and bad times
Give and take: compromise

there are even socially INCLUSIVE CCTB systems, which allow local residents to tune in
to community TV and watch what is happening outside their front doors.
the installation of cameras has SURPRISINGLY little impact on crime. In only one of the
14 areas could a significant drop in crime levels be linked to CCTV.

EXAM PRACTICE

Build-up Renaissance
Packed Lined
Remnant Storeys
Bedsit Squashed
Dreadful Dentistry
Landmark Arche
Decidedly Drains
Rotten
PERSONAL HISTORY