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usually hardened through, but when case hardening is used, the thickness of the hardened layer

and the strength of the sap should be sufficient to avoid subsurface cracking. (For more details, see
Subsection 6.2.8.)
One of the typical modes of failure of RBs is abrasive wear, which occurs when abrasive
contaminants get into the lubricant. In such cases, pitting may not happen, but the clearances in
the bearing grow, and it may become unsuitable for its main role, i.e., to keep the adjoined part in
a certain position relative to the housing. To prevent lubricant contamination, better seals and oil
filters should be employed. But in hard usage (such as in agriculture and construction site machinery,
in mining, and so on), it is quite difficult to completely prevent abrasives from entering the lubricant.
Strength of the cage is one of the important contributors to a bearings reliability, especially at
high speeds. The cage is exposed to centrifugal forces and to loads from vibrations and imbalance.
In addition, the cage interacts with the rolling elements: in the loaded zone of the bearing, the cage
is a driven part, and in the unloaded zone it is a driving part. In the unloaded zone, the rolling
elements are separated from the cage by an oil film. In this way, the rolling elements may continually
correct their position relative to the cage so as to interact with it predictably. If the rolling elements
are clamped between the inner and the outer rings (for instance, because of a too tight fit or as a
result of a shafts overheating), the unloaded zone may disappear. In this case, the rings move the
rolling elements forcibly and after some period of time, their spacing may change and become
uneven. But the spacing of the cage pockets remain