This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.1.9 December 1, 2009)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiii xix xx xxi xxi xxii xxiv xxiv xxv xxv xxv xxv xxvi xxvii xxvii xxvii xxviii xxviii xxviii xxviii xxviii xxviii xxix xxxix xxxix xxxix

iii

iv

CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv

1 Introduction 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.5.5 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.6 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 20 22 24 33 33 41 41 41 42 43 43 44 46 49 50 51 51 52 55 55 55 57 57 58 62 65 69 71

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Center of the Mass . . . . . . 3.1.2 Center of Area . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.2.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.2.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.2.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.2.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.4 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.4.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . 85 . .1 Stability . . . 6. . 117 119 119 120 121 123 123 130 132 139 139 139 140 141 142 143 147 148 151 152 154 155 156 158 159 161 162 169 5 Mass Conservation 5. . .7. . . 6. . 6. . Density . . 6. . .1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . . . . . . . . 6 Multi–Phase Flow 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 .9. . . 5. . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 .4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . .10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . 4. .2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . .2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity 6. . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 History . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . 76 . . . . . . . . . . .6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .2 Control Volume . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Non Deformable Control Volume 5. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability .8. 4. . .8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . .9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . .9.8. . . . . . .2 Surface Tension . . 5. . . . . . 6. . . .3. . . . . . 4. .2 Constant Density Fluids . .2 Force on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 4. . . . . . . . 6. . . .5. . . .5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes .1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 6. . . . 4. . . . 110 4. . . v .1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . .4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . 6. .5 Examples For Mass Conservation . 74 . . . . .1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . .7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . .4 Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 I Integral Analysis . . . . .1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 4. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . 6. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . .6. . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 4. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS Index 171 Subjects Index . 171 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . . .1 3. . . . .8 1. .8 Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . . . . . . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . .12 1. . . . . . . Description of liquid surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 1. . . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . .3 3.LIST OF FIGURES 1. . Surface Tension control volume analysis. . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . . . . .2 1. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder with the element for calculation moment of inertia. . . .18 3. . . Forces in Contact angle.17 1.5 3. Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics. . . . .7 3. . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . .9 1. .2 3. . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress. .11 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . .14 1. . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 22 24 25 27 29 29 42 42 44 45 45 46 47 47 vii . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . .6 3. . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D.4 1. . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . .13 1. . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated. . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. . . . . . .” . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces. . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description. .38 4. . . . . .24 4. . . .viii LIST OF FIGURES 3. . . . . . . . Dam is a part of a circular shape. . . . . . . .41 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . . . .8 4.37 4. . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube.27 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 4. . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . .22 4. . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . . . . . . .30 4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. . . . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body. . . . .33 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area. . . . . .12 4. . . . .2 4. . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area. . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 4. . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. . . .21 4. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . . . . . . .17 4. . . . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4.36 4. .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. . . . . .10 4.11 4. .34 4. . . . . .9 4. . . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .20 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The forces on curved area. . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 4. . . . . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. .25 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O. . . . . . .14 4. . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . .19 4. .31 4. . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher.40 4. . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. . . . . . . . . . .18 4. Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density. . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . .9 Description of parabola .13 4. . . . . 3. . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . . . . . .15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 50 55 58 58 59 60 64 67 69 73 73 74 74 75 76 78 78 80 81 84 86 86 87 88 88 90 90 91 92 93 94 99 100 100 102 102 103 104 105 107 108 110 . . . . . .28 4. .26 4. . . . . . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. . . . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Product of inertia for triangle .4 4. . . . . .39 4. .moment of inertia and center of area. . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . . .

. . . . . . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . .8 6. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . .7 6.9 6. . . . . . . . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . . .10 6. . . . . . .13 6.16 Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. .4 6. . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles.3 6. . . . . . . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . . . . . .42 4. . .4 5. . . . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . .2 6. . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . .43 4. . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . Description of depression to explain the instability. . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. ix 111 112 113 114 119 120 121 122 125 129 133 141 143 144 144 145 146 147 157 158 159 160 160 161 162 162 168 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . .15 6. Control volume and system in motion . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes Height of the liquid for example 5. . .44 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . .11 6. . . . .12 6. . . . . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . Piston control volume . . . . . .14 6. . . . . .45 5. . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . .

x LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi . . . . . . . Continue .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . .5 1. . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1 1. . . .5 1. . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids .4 1. . . . . . continue . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . .7 2. . . 13 13 14 15 20 21 25 26 31 32 38 53 54 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xii LIST OF TABLES .

page 34 System energy at state i. see equation (2. see equation (2.0).1). page 155 The area of surface.26).17). page 35 subscribe for control volume. see equation (2. page 34 The gravitation constant.v.62). see equation (6.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R Universal gas constant. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.0). page 55 Enthalpy. page 33 µ µ0 Ξ A a Bf c.2). page 34 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 120 Speciﬁc pressure heat. page 55 Body force. see equation (2.23). see equation (1. page 70 general Body force. page 37 Internal energy. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 37 Speciﬁc volume heat.6). see equation (2.0).22). see equation (4.17). see equation (2. see equation (4. see equation (1.9).43). page 85 The acceleration of object or system.18). Ti0 . page 36 xiii .3). see equation (2.. Cp Cv EU Eu Ei G gG H viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (4. page 37 Units length. see equation (4. page 12 Martinelli parameter. see equation (5.117).

see equation (2. see equation (1. page 36 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. see equation (5. page 34 Speciﬁc gas constant.17). page 12 velocity .xiv h k L Speciﬁc enthalpy. see equation (2. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (1.27). see equation (2.6). see equation (2. page 57 Subscribe sys.24). page 37 Angular momentum.14).1. see equation (4.18). page 120 . page 34 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2.17). page 12 Torque. see equation (2. page 34 the coordinate in z direction.6). page 34 Work per unit mass. page 78 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z sys Energy per unit mass.0).13). see equation (3. see equation (4. see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (3. page 52 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2.2). see equation (1.17).38).85). page 51 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure.4). page 36 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. page 38 Entropy of the system.2). page 34 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2.40).

8.1. Add the open question concept.5 Nov 01.1. Add example on angular rotation.The Book Change Log Version 0. English corrections Version 0. 2009 (2.8.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released. xv . Improve the twoFig macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title.9 Dec 01.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation.1. 2009 (2. Two open questions were released. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues.1 Sep 17. Version 0. 2009 (2. Add some examples to static chapter. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Thermo chapter.

xvi

Add an example to mechanics chapter.

LIST OF TABLES

Version 0.1.8a

July 5, 2009 (2.6 M 183 pages)

Fixing some long titles issues. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.

Version 0.1.8

Aug 6, 2008 (2.4 M 189 pages)

Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.

Version 0.1.6

Jun 30, 2008 (1.3 M 151 pages)

Fix the English in the introduction chapter, (thanks to Tousher). Improve the Index (thanks to Irene). Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).

Version 0.1.5a

Jun 11, 2008 (1.4 M 155 pages)

Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.

Version 0.1.5

Jun 5, 2008 (1.4 M 149 pages)

Add the introduction, viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.

LIST OF TABLES

xvii

Version 0.1.1

May 8, 2008 (1.1 M 111 pages)

Major English corrections for the three chapters. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. Minor corrections for all three chapters.

Version 0.1a April 23, 2008

Version 0.1a

April 23, 2008

The Thermodynamics chapter was released. The mechanics chapter was released. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).

xviii

LIST OF TABLES

Notice of Copyright For This Document:

This document is published under modiﬁed FDL. The change of the license is to prevent from situations that the author has to buy his own book. The Potto Project License doesn’t long apply to this document and associated docoments.

**GNU Free Documentation License
**

The modiﬁcation is that under section 3 “copying in quantity” should be add in the end. ”If you print more than 200 copies, you are required to furnish the author with two (2) copies of the printed book.” Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright ©2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document ”free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the eﬀective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and

xix

while not being considered responsible for modiﬁcations made by others. in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. it can be used for any textual work. royalty-free license. The ”Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated. as being those of Invariant Sections. 1. commercial. represented in a format whose speciﬁcation is available to the general public. Such a notice grants a world-wide. (Thus. or of legal. A ”Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy. regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words. that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for . because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. or with modiﬁcations and/or translated into another language. philosophical. But this License is not limited to software manuals. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work. The ”Document”. if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics. This License is a kind of ”copyleft”. You accept the license if you copy. either copied verbatim. below.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters. unlimited in duration. A ”Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. It complements the GNU General Public License. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software. and is addressed as ”you”. which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. The ”Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed. modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A ”Modiﬁed Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it. If a section does not ﬁt the above deﬁnition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. Any member of the public is a licensee. which is a copyleft license designed for free software. a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. ethical or political position regarding them. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.xx LIST OF TABLES publisher a way to get credit for their work. refers to any such manual or work. in any medium. to use that work under the conditions stated herein. in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.

either commercially or noncommercially. but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no eﬀect on the meaning of this License. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . and you may publicly display copies. the copyright notices. You may also lend copies. ”Dedications”. ”Endorsements”. ”Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title. and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. legibly. the material this License requires to appear in the title page.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE xxi images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor. has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modiﬁcation by readers is not Transparent. under the same conditions stated above. A copy that is not ”Transparent” is called ”Opaque”. 3. SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available. (Here XYZ stands for a speciﬁc section name mentioned below. XCF and JPG. preceding the beginning of the body of the text. plus such following pages as are needed to hold. and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent ﬁle format whose markup. PostScript or PDF designed for human modiﬁcation. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG. A section ”Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. and standard-conforming simple HTML. Texinfo input format. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium. and the machine-generated HTML. The ”Title Page” means. or ”History”. provided that this License. PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.) To ”Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section ”Entitled XYZ” according to this deﬁnition. and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License. 2. SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. the title page itself. you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. for a printed book. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup. However. such as ”Acknowledgements”. LaTeX input format. or absence of markup. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors.

C. you must take reasonably prudent steps. and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions. be listed in the History section of the Document). and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts.xxii LIST OF TABLES If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document. as the publisher. . if it has fewer than ﬁve). to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover. you must enclose the copies in covers that carry. one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modiﬁcations in the Modiﬁed Version. You may add other material on the covers in addition. B. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modiﬁed Version. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. with the Modiﬁed Version ﬁlling the role of the Document. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers. 4. provided that you release the Modiﬁed Version under precisely this License. you should put the ﬁrst ones listed (as many as ﬁt reasonably) on the actual cover. that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies. clearly and legibly. but not required. if any) a title distinct from that of the Document. as authors. Copying with changes limited to the covers. List on the Title Page. In addition. If you use the latter option. and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. thus licensing distribution and modiﬁcation of the Modiﬁed Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. unless they release you from this requirement. you must do these things in the Modiﬁed Version: A. if there were any. together with at least ﬁve of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100. free of added material. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modiﬁed Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to ﬁt legibly. numbering more than 100. and from those of previous versions (which should. It is requested. to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document. you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy.

O. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. Preserve the network location. add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modiﬁed Version’s license notice. immediately after the copyright notices. and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. N. and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. L. and publisher of the Modiﬁed Version as given on the Title Page. These may be placed in the ”History” section. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ”Endorsements” or to conﬂict in title with any Invariant Section. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document. H. new authors. Delete any section Entitled ”Endorsements”. in the form shown in the Addendum below. F. authors. Such a section may not be included in the Modiﬁed Version. if any. Include. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. Preserve its Title. given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modiﬁcations adjacent to the other copyright notices. Include an unaltered copy of this License. and add to it an item stating at least the title. year. then add an item describing the Modiﬁed Version as stated in the previous sentence. Preserve the Title of the section. you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. create one stating the title. To do this. xxiii E. . G. unaltered in their text and in their titles. M. I. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE D. and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page. If there is no section Entitled ”History” in the Document. Preserve the section Entitled ”History”. year. J. K. a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modiﬁed Version under the terms of this License. or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. For any section Entitled ”Acknowledgements” or ”Dedications”. If the Modiﬁed Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modiﬁed Version. forming one section Entitled ”History”. provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modiﬁed Version by various parties–for example. under the terms deﬁned in section 4 above for modiﬁed versions. provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. 6. and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. COMBINING DOCUMENTS You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover. you must combine any sections Entitled ”History” in the various original documents. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License. and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection. provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document. statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative deﬁnition of a standard.xxiv LIST OF TABLES You may add a section Entitled ”Endorsements”. make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it. but you may replace the old one. and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. You must delete all sections Entitled ”Endorsements”. and any sections Entitled ”Dedications”. and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice. or else a unique number. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. You may extract a single document from such a collection. in parentheses. You may add a passage of up to ﬁve words as a Front-Cover Text. you may not add another. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modiﬁed Version. and distribute it individually under this License. . the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known. unmodiﬁed. In the combination. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but diﬀerent contents. and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text. previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of. likewise combine any sections Entitled ”Acknowledgements”. provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents. 5.

in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate. or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. or rights. then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate. 9. 10. TERMINATION You may not copy. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer. and all the license notices in the Document. When the Document is included in an aggregate. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new. this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document. See http://www. However. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modiﬁcation. modify.gnu. and any Warranty Disclaimers.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE xxv 7. the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate. sublicense or distribute the Document is void. is called an ”aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. ”Dedications”. If the Document speciﬁes that a particular numbered version of this License ”or any later . sublicense. the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title. parties who have received copies. but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. the original version will prevail. 8. revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. You may include a translation of this License. so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. or ”History”. modify. Any other attempt to copy. but may diﬀer in detail to address new problems or concerns.org/copyleft/. If a section in the Document is Entitled ”Acknowledgements”.

xxvi LIST OF TABLES version” applies to it. we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If you have Invariant Sections. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. or some other combination of the three.” line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that speciﬁed version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. no Front-Cover Texts. and no BackCover Texts. with the FrontCover Texts being LIST. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. such as the GNU General Public License. Version 1. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts. replace the ”with.. . to permit their use in free software.. with no Invariant Sections. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright ©YEAR YOUR NAME. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. Permission is granted to copy.Texts.

Contact at: barmeir at gmail. time. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. date. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. etc.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005 xxvii . The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. etc. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. contact info. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. just smaller in the sense of less text changed.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. Minor contributions (typo corrections.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity.

Dan H. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Contact at: my email@provider. describing how you contributed to the book. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.net . Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes.xxviii LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms.

Tousher Yang April 2008. January 2008.CREDITS xxix Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. review of statics and thermo chapters. . help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). Gupta.

xxx LIST OF TABLES .

he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Spain. xxxi .E. and Canada. books and software. As the change in the view occurred. Currently. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Dr. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. the author’s models were used in numerical works. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. In his early part of his professional life. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). Eckert. Now. In the area of compressible ﬂow.G. For example. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. R. British industry.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph.D. All the models have practical applicability. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. in GM. Moreover.

Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. The author lives with his wife and three children. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. A past project of his was building a four stories house. . he often feels clueless about computers and programing. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry.xxxii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. practically from scratch. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. the author just know to learn quickly. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground.

3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. is a new idea3 .harvard. the creation of the POTTO Project. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. like an open source. xxxiii . the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice.org/wiki/Main Page). punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. Hence. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. However. There is always someone who can add to the book. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. one of this author’s sages. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. Kook. On one hand. As individuals we have to obey the law. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. The POTTO Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation.wikipedia. one should increase wisdom.law. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). As R. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders.

the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . one also begins to better understand the material. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics.. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. For some authors. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. 77:139.uk/bugclub/raiders. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. For some contributors/authors. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises.html) .ex. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. The answer varies from individual to individual. While one can be as creative as possible. In a way. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES related problems. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. For example. In these cases. Thus.ac. So can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. For others. The social function can have at least two components. 1989 (see for information http://www. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. It is not just for experts to contribute. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks.” American Scientist. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. Thus. Whatever the reasons. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. Nigel R.

0.0.0. some errors are possible and expected. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book.01 5 Data are not copyrighted.0. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)).” In this process. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book.0.2 0. Thus.0. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. These data (tables. But more than that. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written.0 0.0 0.0 0.1.1 0.CREDITS xxxv process. while in other cases only the gate keeper. Books under development in Potto project. Even if not complete. Additionally. .4. Unlike a regular book. Thus. graphs and etc.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it.8.3 0.0. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0. Nevertheless.0. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: Table -1. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper).0 0.1 0.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha ﬁrst chapter 0.

0. many of whom volunteered to help. such as OpenOﬃce. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality.. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. which include the actual writing of the text. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. However. and all of the examples and data (tables. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. The text processes. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). Abiword. but it has roots in the way science progresses. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. Schlichting. writing examples. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage.) are already presented. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion. and perhaps troﬀ. who passed way some years ago. A new version is created every several years. Further. Word processors. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. only LTEX. etc. especially LTEX. However. are not appropriate for these projects. advanced topics. . 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. Books under development in Potto project. These chores can be 6 Originally authored by Dr. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. a process in which books have a new version every a few years. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. (continue) Project Name Two/Multi ﬂow phases Progress NSY Remarks TelAviv’notes Version 0. and special cases. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. i.0 Availability for Public Download NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.e. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. and Microsoft Word software.xxxvi LIST OF TABLES Table -1. But more A than that. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. ﬁgures.

CREDITS

xxxvii

done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Again, because of the open nature of this project, pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books.

xxxviii

LIST OF TABLES

Prologue For This Book

**Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008
**

pages 189 size 2.6M

When this author was an undergraduate student, he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea, so much energy). The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. This author was bothered by this explanation. Now, in this version, it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students, it is very satisfying for the author. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Even in this early development stage, number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies.

**Version 0.1 April 22, 2008
**

pages 151 size 1.3M

The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, and civil engineering. In fact, it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering, and electrical engineering. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book, the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the

xxxix

xl

LIST OF TABLES

previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).

and is copyleft by him. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. Otherwise. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. So. The ﬁgures were done by gle. The structure of Hansen.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The spell checking was done by ispell. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. The approach adapted in this book is practical. In writing this book. and more hands–on approach. The chapters are not written in order. this book avoids this kind of issues. Streeter and Wylie. xli . a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. The graphics were done by TGIF. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation.” Later. Of course. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell.

xlii LIST OF TABLES .

I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. Nevertheless. if you need information about. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. of the bits moved upon said. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. statics’ equations. etc.Preface "In the beginning. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. say. Moreover. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. and there were words. the book is not well organized. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. you can read just chapter (4). increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. 9 At 8 To xliii . Let This book. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. naturally. without form.9 Reading everything will. For example. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. This book contains many worked examples. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. marked with a Mata mark. and emptiness was upon the face and files. the power and glory of the mighty God. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. which can be very useful for many. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. physics. Like all volunteer work. the present. This book is only to explain his power." 8 . However. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. And the Author there be words. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. the POTTO project was and void.

I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. literature review is always good. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. 10 Dr. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project.com”. R. graphic ability. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . I am interested in it all. If you want to be involved in the editing. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. ignore them please. Incorrect language. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. please drop me a line. There are also notes in the margin. Eckert. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. errors. whose work was the inspiration for this book. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). . LTEX knowledge. editing. directly or indirectly. more mathematics (or less mathematics). this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. isn’t it?). ideas. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. more fundamental material. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. Several people have helped me with this book. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction.com”.xliv LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. Dr. graphic design. ideas for new areas to cover. In practice. or proofreading. Naturally. G. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. However. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. E. rewritten sections. and assistance. If you have Internet e-mail access. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. This material never went through a close content review.

Nevertheless. mistakes. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. many chapters are missing. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. question. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. illustration or photo of experiment. xlv . Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. At this stage. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. These omissions. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. Material can be further illuminate.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet.

xlvi LIST OF TABLES .

Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. ﬂow in enclose bodies. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension.CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. For example. Furthermore. glass appears as a solid material. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . ﬂow stability. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. In fact. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). and statical conditions in continuous material. ﬂuid statics. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). motions.). etc. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1.

engineers in software company (EKK Inc. Or. http://ekkinc. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. air with dust particle).1. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. -1. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp.2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. For example.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . Moreover. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example.

1.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. turbulence. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. Newton. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. conﬂicts with the reality. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. and D’Alembert. When cities increased to a larger size. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. there isn’t a clear winner. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . aqueducts were constructed.1. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. etc. Torricelli. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. and continue with Empirical Analysis. Naturally. Euler. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. Yet. Bernoulli family. to be followed by stability. Before dealing with the boundaries. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. At some point.) on the principles of buoyancy. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that.2. For example. After his initial work. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. Thus. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. Later.C. For example. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . As in thermodynamics.

There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. Bossut. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. INTRODUCTION lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. there are many . Dupuit. and Poisseuille. Therefore. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. the way how it was calculated changed. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). Rose. On the theoretical side. as in thermodynamics. considerable contribution were made by Euler. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. Taylor. and Aeronautics. Weisbach. La Grange. Dubuat. after World War Two. and Kelvin. resistance by Darcy. were Brahms. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). The experimentalists. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Kirchhoﬀ. Rankine. At the end of the twenty century. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. In the middle of the nineteen century. mainly in pipes and open channels area. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. However. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. Fabre. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. for example. Stanton. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. This problem led to two consequences. Helmhoitz. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). d’Aubisson. people cannot relinquish control. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. Bhuckingham. Thus. and many others. Rayleigh. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. The Navier-Stokes equations. Hagen. Prandtl and his students Blasius. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. Coulomb. Chezy. Thus.4 CHAPTER 1. Meyer. and Manning. Ganguillet. Gas Dynamics. Fanning. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. But. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Hydraulics. On the “experimental” side. von Karman. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results.

It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example.1). It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). 1. then the change of volume is at best 5%. The pressure component in the area . any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume.3. for most practical purposes considered. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. For example. It must be remember that force is a vector. the pressure has three components. Inc). Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). which is force per area has a new meaning. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. under certain limits. e. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an addtional meaning. Hence. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. The area is measured in [m2 ]. Later. The traditional quantity. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. Thus. For example. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. In gaseous phase. In this book. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. no shear stress is applied. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. the emphasis is on the physics. For the discussion here. The unit used to measure is [N]. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. So.g it has a direction. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. This diﬀerence can be. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. the discussion on the mathematic meaning will be presented (later version). But below the critical point. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. EKK.1. Thus. The second quantity discussed here is the area. In the best scenario. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. these programs are as good as the input provided. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. and it is referred to the direction of the area. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that.

U0x F However. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. .4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. it was shown that when the force per area increases. here it will be treated as a separate issue.3). (1. the F denotes the force. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. F. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. (1. -1.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). Diﬀerent from solid. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. From solid mechanics study. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. When this assumption is broken. then. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. h) (1. -1. the density remains constant. Thus. h is the distance between the plates. isn’t it?).2) Where A is the area. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken.6 CHAPTER 1.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). that is. 1. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. In solid mechanics. INTRODUCTION direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. Figure 1.2. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. the density is deﬁned as Fig. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics.3. In this discussion. After certain sample size. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. the velocity of the plate increases also.

then it can be written for small a angel that δβ dU = δt dy (1.5) From equations (1. δt is d = U δt (1. Hence.1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.3) (1.4) (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. d = U δt = h δβ (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. In steady state.4) and (1.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).9) with equation (1.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.11) .7) From Figure 1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress.8) From equation (1.4. -1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.4.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.9) Combining equation (1.

Equation (1. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. Thus.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus.1[m] diameters with height of 0.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. water etc. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equiledistance from each other and steady state is achived instanly.069 × 0.45[N ] h 0.5 A µU ∼ = 53.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerine. the following can be written (see equation (1.8 CHAPTER 1.6)) F = 1 × 1.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transfered into the y direction. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction.1 [m]. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.5 m/sec. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. Solution . Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air. Assume steady state conditions.01 End solution Example 1. INTRODUCTION Materials which obey equation (1. Example 1.2[m] and 0. The property of viscosity. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. In fact.

The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. Thus. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases.5. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces.0078[N m] h ¡ End solution 1. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids familys. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. the Fig. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory.1 × 12/60 = 0. thus.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. ri 2 3 = A µU ro − ri µ M= 2 π 0. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. In gases.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. in gases.1).1 h 0.5. However.4 ¡ ∼ . The same way as in example (1.1.5 Viscosity 1. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. In liquids. -1. Thus. as pl do ne Ne r-P wt ic eu ct ei pe re ho ps R on ia n hi lip tic po ff di la ta n t .986 0. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus.5. while in the dU liquids. and it resists the ﬂow.

2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. From the physical point of view. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. Well above the critical point.7. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. K) in equation (1. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. both materials are only a function of the temperature. 1. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. -1. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. INTRODUCTION Fig. Figure 1. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn .5). Not all the materials obey this relationship.6. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient.13) are constant.10 CHAPTER 1. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. On the liquid side below the critical point.5. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. -1. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress.

e-05 0. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.000015 0.003 0. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second. for most practical purposes. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition.7. F. de Larrard and N. -1. For example. 1 C.0006 0.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity.0002 5.0018 0.0014 0.5. eds.8. the liquid is dilettante. When n. Mindess and J. is above one.of the temperature. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. 1.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. In the simple case. VISCOSITY 11 always positive.0026 0. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. cosity is deﬁned as 0.0012 0. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1. S.16) The gas density increases with the temperature.1.0024 0. Ferraris.0022 0.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.5). The liquids which satisfy equation (1. [m2 /sec].000025 0.0004 0.0028 0. Martys. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Skalny.0008 0. Materials Science of Concrete VI. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. However. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . When n is below one. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). This fact explains Fig.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. The kinematic vis. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.0016 0..002 0.

End solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement. Solution Appallying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0.1.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. -1.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.12 CHAPTER 1.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.555 × 524.9. For isothermal ﬂow.555 × 800 + 120 800 524. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.002 0. T T0 3 2 (1.8 and Fig. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature.9. 2008 0. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.001 0.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%. have expressions that provide an estimate.710−5 .17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.07 + 120 µ = 0. Use the data provide in Table 1.5.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature. Water viscosity as a func1. . Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. For many gases.00001827 × × 0.07 3 2 ∼ 2. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Example 1.

1.0000076 0. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.67 518.0000146 0.67 524. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.0001254 Table -1. Viscosity of selected gases.2.1.0000109 0.00001720 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.67 528.00000982 0. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.5.0001781 0.07 527.0000203 0.00001827 0.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0. .05 528.93 540.99 526.00001480 0.0002018 0.0000876 0.

Viscosity of selected liquids.14 CHAPTER 1.3.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.072 0.000647 0.001547 0. INTRODUCTION Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.084 0.001194 0.000946 0.05 0.54 1. .000245 0.15-0.986 5-20 0.200 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.6 0.098 0.01915 0.

if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. Liquid Metal viscosity 2.289945 27. Vol.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.40685 22.1.016 4. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. Figure 1.5. 19. Pr = P/Pc are drawn. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.8823 73. cation (mushy zone).8 132 304.4 or similar information. for practical purpose.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition. In Figure 1.0 0.003 20. ∼ 1[bar].256425 48. Furthermore. -1. May 1995 p. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.2 154.47 2.10.Fig. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials.3 19.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.5 1. other points can be estimated.6 26.636 58.5 151 289. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.S.0 15.01 32.00 30. if one point is well documented.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.5 2.7 647.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.54 15.3 5. The second way.07 16. The lower pressure is.9696 2. this graph also shows the trends.0 18.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications.7685 36. Tr . Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.865925 50.26 44.4 305.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. 258. then the critical .3 28.83865 46. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit.04 Tc [K] 33. Furthermore. The lines of constant relative pressure.4 49.4.97 44. Government Printing Oﬃce. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).358525 48.4 190.0 21.9 15 Table -1. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.C. Washington D. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties). VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2. In this graph.183 39.944 131.

11 (1. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. 3 Kyama.35 373. 2 1956. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.2 = 21.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. 26 No. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .16 viscosity is obtained as given CHAPTER 1. Example 1. when none is available.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.35[Bar] Tc = 154. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol.11 obtain the reduced viscosity. Rev. End solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.4 50.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. Makita. Even for homogeneous mixture.41 154.15 ∼ 2.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.18) The third way.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. . In this book.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. INTRODUCTION µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1.

xi is the mole fraction of component i. 2008 Fig. For most cases.11.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 1+ Mi Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi 2 (1.5.22) Here. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture.2 Pr=0. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. -1. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. and µi is the viscosity of component i. The subscript i should .1. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij (1.

Solution The following table summarize the known details .4 Tr=1. 2008 Fig.1 Tr=1. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.12. O2 and 80% netrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C.18 6 CHAPTER 1.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.2 Tr=1. Example 1. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. -1. INTRODUCTION 5 Tr=0. be used for the j index.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixutre (air) made of 20% oxygen.

0000182 .0024 0. µ0 = 0.996 + 0. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. µ 0.0000073 kN . This equation (1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 Component O2 N2 i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Molecular Weight.996 1.0 Mole Fraction.00001754 19 µmix ∼ 0. m2 m2 and τs = 0.8 × 1. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.0000203 0.00105 N sec .2 0. x 0.001 kN .0 + 0. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.8 × 1.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0.2 × 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0. End solution In very low pressure.157 . The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.8 µi /µj 1. m2 Figure 1. Mi /Mj 1.1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.143 0.0 1.0215 N sec .00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.5.0 1.0 1.8 × 0.2 × 0. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.875 1.0000203 0.0024 0. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.86 1. M 32.2 × 1.0 Viscosity. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture. in theory.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.0 Φij 1. An example for values for this formula. 28.24) .0000181 0.

52 26.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.60 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.2-28.3 4.80 1. INTRODUCTION n Tc and mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.03-4.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.25) n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1.5 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).5 [Bar] 172.49 0. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature. Table -1.3 [Mpa] nf 7.74 [MPa] 4.5 [Bar] nf nf .20 1.5 0.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf Pc 57. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).26) 1.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.00 [MPa] Est 78.97 2.5. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.5. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.06 1.32 1.20 CHAPTER 1.49 [MPa] 6. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.10 1.5.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.

and therefore equation (1.5.064 [MPa] In the literature.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v =− P =const v (1.62 1.34 1. Fanno Flow Standard basic Table (continue) 21 chemical component Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus N 109 m 1.5. These deﬁnitions are related to each other.34) T .15-2.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1.79 K na 647.28 2. dP = 0. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.32) On constant pressure lines. VISCOSITY Table -1.096 K Pc nf na na 4.174 Tc nf na na 591.09 1.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).5 2.109 [MPa] na 22. The thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T.33) From equation (1.1.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.

6: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.00035 End solution Example 1. R2 dℓ 1 Example 1.13.15 109 .035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.7: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.01 = 2. Surface Tension control volume analysis. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1. In contrast. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to 2dβ1 the molecules increase of the rey jecting forces between each other 2dβ2 when they are closer. -1.35) The last equation (1.22 CHAPTER 1. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and . INTRODUCTION Equation (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.6 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v ∂P v 5 ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285. Solution x Fig. dℓ2 the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are furR1 ther away.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End solution 1.

Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). surface tension. The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. Consider a small element of surface. . A soap bubble is made of two layers.37) Equation (1.40) Example 1.36) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoint phases or materials.38) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. Thus. r. When the surface tension is constant. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. inner and outer. the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry.36) For a very small area. In the vertical direction.37) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces.6. The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).1. the equation (1. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . Thus.39) R Where R is the radius of the sphere. In many (physics. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization).37) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . Furthermore. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity. SURFACE TENSION 23 bubbles.37) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. The second with two equal radii.8: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.

End solution 1. and gas can be ignored. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer.14. In Figure 1. It can be noticed that the work is negative. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. Forces in Contact angle. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. For example.41) The minimum work will be for a reversible process.42) Where. -1. The reversible process requires very slow compression. that is the work is done on the system. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1.43) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1.43) . Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines. the masses of the solid.45) (1.6. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1. INTRODUCTION The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.14. It is worth noting that for very slow process.44) (1.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle.44) into equation (1. consider the point where three phases became in contact. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . liquid. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) S L and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase.39) for reversible process. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that Fig. This contact point occurs due to free surface G reaching a solid boundary. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1.24 Solution CHAPTER 1.

It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. The contact angle for air.74 π/4. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1.2 π/4 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] . -1. however. Thus.Fig. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid.15).Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Contact Angle π/3. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting.6.43). This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries.74 to π/3.76 to π/3. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. On the other hand.1.6. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting).5 π/3. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids.83 π/4.4 π/3. chemical component Steel Steel. SURFACE TENSION 25 For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. The surface tension forces must be balanced. The surface tension is a molec. gas medium and the solid surface. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. For example. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid Wetting solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. Table -1.15. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid. a contact angle is created to balance it.83 π/3. the solid reaction force must be zero. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. thus. So.7 π/6 to π/4. This statement is correct in most cases.7 π/4.

. Eng. 6 Basu.N.46) g h(x). K. The pressure. Y.16). J. G. papes 717 -728.. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. and Rohsenow W.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. Pages 509 . No 12. (continue) chemical component Copper Copper Contanct Angle mN m π/3 π/2 Source [7] [8] 1 R. 9. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in the Figure 1. 7 Gaetner. the pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. Heat Transfer. Siegel. H.” J.6. Symp.. V. The contact angle for air. K. G. Warrier. vol 1 pp 365 . ASME. N. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. No 1. and Westwater. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. Energetika I transport. R.. E.517. and Dhir.. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. A... (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer.” Chem. V. V. Appalling equation (1. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. Ser. (1993). E.. and Ostrovsky. In Figure 1. Heat Transfer 115. 124. pages 1465-1470. INTRODUCTION Table -1. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . C. Vol.26 CHAPTER 1. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two–dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.. Vol. and Dhir. Prog.38) is applicable to it.T. 8 Wang. I.372. pp. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. on the gas side. 1975 2 Bergles A.. To solve the shape of the liquid surface.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. is the atmospheric pressure. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. 3 Tolubinsky. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii.16.I. W. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. F.I.16 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension.. R. J. 4 Arefeva E. ρ = R(x) .38) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields σ (1. Aladev O. 56.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. M. 5 Labuntsov D.

50) dh (1. Description of liquid surface. metry) and the derivative at hx An alternative presentation of equation (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.49) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (sym˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.46) yields σ (1. or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). h = h(x). x+dx.52) . The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter Fig.51) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is refered to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.47) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x.50) is ghρ = Integrating equation (1. -1.47) into equation (1.47) h P0 P ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x.50) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 − d2 h =0 dx2 (1. Substituting equation (1.51) into ¨ ˙ identys h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence. The diﬀerential dh is h.50) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1. SURFACE TENSION The radius of any continuous function.16.48) g h(x) ρ = 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x) 0 P0 ¨ h(x) Equation (1. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 27 (1. Equation (1.6.

28 After the integration equation (1.53) At inﬁnity.59) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. Shamefully. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.59) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp 4 This (1.56) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ = h= dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.54) Equation (1. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.54) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1.55) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields h = ˙2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. constant = −1 .54) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation4 . INTRODUCTION 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. Equation (1.57) = dx −1 (1.52) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp CHAPTER 1.58) Equation (1. .

0 0.2 0. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. 1.0 0. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Capilary Height contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. 2008 hmax 2σ = g ∆ρ r function of the radius. This book is introductory. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited. -1.5 1.6 0.1 Capillarity h The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). However.61) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.9 1. the small scale indicates 5 Actially.17 as blue line.8 2. -1. For large radii equation (1.18.6 0.60) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.4 2.60) R Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the Fig. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is 2 σ cos β h= g ∆ρ r 0 Theory actual working range (1. (1.1. Furthermore.6. On the other hand. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is avaible see Table 1. there are information about the contact angle.6.49) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . Furthermore. equation (1.6. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. Equation (1.3 0.49) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical shaper (small gravity eﬀect).2 1.61) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.0 { Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle5 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads.1 2.1. However. The actual height is shown in the red line.61) Figure 1.61) is shown in Figure 1. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. otherwise it will not be there.8 Height [cm] 0.18 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube.60) becomes Fig. The raising height as a 1. SURFACE TENSION 29 The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.2 1.7 Radii [cm] May 29. In that case equation (1.4 0. for extremely small radii equation (1. The raising height as a function of the radii. The height based on equation (1. .17. For a small tube radius. gas density and r is the radius of tube.

11: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0. Example 1. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.0[N/m2 ] r 0.9: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ]. INTRODUCTION that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End solution Example 1.0002 End solution Example 1. The acutal dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. h is similar to equation (1.30 CHAPTER 1. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above.02 cm. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible.10: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.0728 = ∼ 2. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.61).61) with a minus sign.7.” The depression height. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β . However. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. In conclusion.0728 ∼ ∼ 728. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates.18. Neglect the weight of the ring.39).04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.17. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.

chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Surface Tension 27.20 43. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.0598 n/a -0. End solution Table -1.60 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C - correction mN mK n/a -0.30 23.0773 -0.1085 -0.70 58.50 41.1295 -0.50 36.0890 -0.1308 -0.10 29.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.1117 n/a -0.1211 -0.6.1063 -0.1159 -0.10 32.0920 -0. However.0966 -0.1011 n/a -0.2049 -0.4 28.1291 -0.50 28.1.30 43.95 36.12 33. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.1094 -0.0 22.6 25.04 × 0.40 32. SURFACE TENSION 31 The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.1484 -0.10 22.50 24.1118 .00 45.0 0.0832 -0. Therefore.1191 -0.0728 ∼ .7. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.1120 -0.95 34.20 47.1160 -0.3 22.20 24.1160 -0.60 27.70 26.20 ∼ 21 64.1484 -0.1066 -0.0842 n/a -0.70 38.8 32.12 425-465.1037 -0.88 39.

1172 -0.90 43.00 41.32 CHAPTER 1.0777 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK 22.60 n/a 54-69 28.00 36.6 5.90 n/a n/a -0.1104 .7.0935 -0. INTRODUCTION Table -1.91 14.1189 n/a -0.0902 -0.50 23.1101 -0.0-48.0 12.1372 -0.1177 -0.15 43.85 11.067 -0.4 27 72.0972 -0.70 38.80 30.1100 n/a n/a -0.10 28.1514 -0.

that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. Work In mechanics. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented.1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. The dimensions of this material can be changed.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. In this deﬁnition. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. 33 . the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). 2. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. So. Two.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter.

For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. is the internal energy per unit mass. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property.2) The system energy is a state property. For such body force. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as mU1 2 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 (2. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. etc. A common body force is the gravity. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. chemical potential.E. .3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results.5) For the unit mass of the system equation (2. The statement describing the law is the following. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy.6) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. the conservation is applied to all systems.3) Interesting results of equation (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. and electrical energy. The “new” internal energy. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. Eu . = mU 2 2 (2. potential energy (gravity). work.5) is transformed into U2 2 U1 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2.34 CHAPTER 2. The kinetic energy is K. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration).

the integral is independent of the path.13) . the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass. Bf . Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law.8) For the case were the body force.1. choosing any point in time will make it correct. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. δQ =0 T (2. Hence.7) In the same manner.12) The last integral can go though several states. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.9) reduced to D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.10) The time derivative operator. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. the rate energy equation is D EU DU D Bf z ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU +m Dt Dt Dt (2. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form.9) (2. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2. These states are independent of the path the system goes through.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition.2. If there is no lost. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. BASIC DEFINITIONS 35 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points.

17) yields T dS = dH − V dP (2.16) into (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change.21) . the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process.17) (2.18) the (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2. isn’t correct.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. it still remail valid for all situations.15) (2. the enthalpy of the system.17) in mass unit is T ds = du + P dv = dh − dP ρ (2.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. For reversible process equation (2.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. Furthermore. The equation (2.16) (2. Thus. h.36 CHAPTER 2.19) (2. equation (2.18) For isentropic process. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property. Thus. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as.20) (2.

the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas.24) For solid. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v.3145 kj kmol K (2. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. pressure.1. k.2. k≡ Cp Cv (2. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. 37 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as ∂h ∂T Cp ≡ (2. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables.26) Thus.27) . This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2.25) Application of Avogadro’s law. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. Normally the relationship of temperature.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8.

667 1.04 20.38 CHAPTER 2.7662 1.29683 0.1156 10. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.3122 1.29680 0.6529 0.6794 1.6179 0.126 1.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R (2.29) (2.8723 0.0849 1.25983 0.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.299 1.20813 0.7445 1.01 28.30) (2.9216 1.1926 14.393 1.7354 0.6618 1.289 1.016 16.400 1.2537 1.0416 1.14304 0.18892 0.27650 0.409 1.8418 1.327 The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.07703 4.091 1.1.4909 1.183 28.667 1. From equation (2.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu (2.07279 0.7165 0.667 1.7113 0.230 31.07 28.01 30.7164 0.400 1.2091 2.044 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Table -2.054 4.999 44.29637 2.0035 0.0299 1.5482 5.28) and subsisting into equation (2.5203 1.12418 0.970 39.097 18.400 1.237 1.41195 0.1.0413 1.6385 0.28700 0.51835 0.003 2.948 58.5734 0.124 44.013 114.7448 1.48152 1.28) Utilizing equation (2.18855 0.2518 3.31) .186 1.4108 1.4897 1.

37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.38) The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.36) (2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.32) Cp = kR k−1 (2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model. the following is obtained ln T2 = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.1. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv = R k−1 39 (2.39) .667. This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z= PV RT (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.1).35) transformed into s2 − s1 k T2 P2 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio. k value ranges from unity to about 1.37) as T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = P2 P1 k−1 (2.2. of Classical thermodynamics. BASIC DEFINITIONS This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases. ∆s = 0.

40 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS .

the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction.1 Center of the Mass In many engineering problems. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). ﬁrst. 3. the body will not rotate. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. center of the mass and two. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. etc. then a moment in addtional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). Note. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. 3. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). 41 . Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitute to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. moment of inertia. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). the center of mass is required to make the calculations. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. In other words. rho) as a function of the location.1 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.1. Here.

2 Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case.2. Thus.3) Fig. The density. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. the dV element has ﬁnite dimensions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. equation (3. y or z.1. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribution in the y nor by z directions.2) where xi is the direction of either. ρ and the thickness.42 In x coordinate. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. t. the mass. Thin body center of mass/area The density. the center will be deﬁned as dm CHAPTER 3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3. the body was a three dimensional shape.1) can be transfered into x= ¯ 1 tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3.1.1.3) can be transfered into xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. -3. Also. xi ρ(xi )dV V (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS y 1 x= ¯ m x ρ(x)dV V (3. m is the total mass of the object. Thus equation (3. In same fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi = ¯ 1 m dV x Fig. Description of how the center of mass is calculated.4) . schematic. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi .1) z Here. 3. -3. are constant and can be canceled. Thus. ρ. x.2 which has density.

43 Finding the centeroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. 3.7) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = V V (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm (3. Furthermore.5) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3.3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area.2. MOMENT OF INERTIA when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume.8) (x2 + y 2 ) dm V . 3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.2. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. rk = Im m (3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.5) If the density is constant then equation (3.6) The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.2 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass.

2. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.2.2.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. -3.44 CHAPTER 3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixxm = m r2 dm = ρ t A r2 dA (3.2. equation (3. The schematic that explains the sumIyy = A x2 + z 2 dA (3.10) where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness.11) y’ C z Thus.9) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Ixx = A r2 dA = Ixx m ρt (3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.13) mation of moment of inertia. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y x= y2 + z2 (3.15) .2 3.2. Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.10) can be written as Ixx = A ∆y x y +z 2 2 dA (3. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.12) z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Fig.14) 3.

the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3. Cylinder with the element for calculation moment of inertia. -3.18) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. n 2 1 y x Ixx = i=1 Ixxi (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA equation (3. Fig.15) can be expended as Ixx =0 45 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.16) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.4.19) Fig. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.3. For example.20) Equation (3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area.17) Hence.20) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies.4 and therefore.2. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A (∆y) + (∆z) A 2 dA = (∆y) + (∆z) 2 dA = r2 A (3. If the same areas are similar thus n Ixx = i=1 Ixx i = n Ixx i (3. -3. of the h dr r .16) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.5.

5 as r0 0 dV Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 2 r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 1 1 r0 4 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End solution Example 3.6.5. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.1: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3.3: To study the assumption of zero thickness.6 around x coordinate. Solution . Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.2. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. r0 . This value will be used in later exampls. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate.12) as following Ixx = A 0 y z b dx a 0 dA a 2 2 y +z dA = z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 x Fig. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous. End solution Example 3. -3. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3.2: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. as shown in Figure 3.46 CHAPTER 3.

error. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. Ixx Ixxm February 28. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.7.9. 1 This ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. MOMENT OF INERTIA 47 The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. The ratio of the moment of inertia of two-dimensional to three–dimensional.21) dz dIx x m b a3 + z2 = ρdy 12 r2 r2 A ba A a b (3. -3. 2008 t a End solution Example 3.23) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 = 2 = t2 Ixxm t b a + b a3 1 + a2 (3.22) to write as t/2 tions of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations. -3. y = αx2 .8. x can be done as following I xx b a3 12 (3.8. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. shown in Figure 3. b has no eﬀect on the Fig. The results are present in Figure 3. A square element for the calculaThe total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3.3.4: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia of the parabola. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.2.22) Fig.24) It can be noticed right away that equation (3. .24) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. Additionally it can be noticed that the ratio a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error1 .

What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. -3.25) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center.18) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α A (∆x=xc )2 Ix x Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End solution b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = Example 3. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element 2 area is used before and therefore √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α Fig.9.5: Calculate the momenet of Inertia of strait angle traingle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right. Description of parabola for calculation of moment of inertia and center of area. Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment when a simetrical traingle is attached on left.25) 3αb 15 α − 5 The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ A=2 0 dA/2 b/α CHAPTER 3. Y h dy X a . dA (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 (b − αξ 2 )dξ = (3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.12) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. Assume that base is a and the hieght is h. The center of every 2 element is at.4). What is the moment when a simetrical traingle is attached on bottom.48 Solution For y = b the value of x = b/α. REVIEW OF MECHANICS (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 2(3 α − 1) 3 b α 3 2 The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.

The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia. Ix = A y x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.26) For example.28) expanding equation (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA Solution 49 The right adge line equaiton can be calcualted as y x = 1− h a or x y = 1− a h Now using the monent of inertia of rectangule on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.2.28) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. End solution a3 h 2 3.2)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of iniria will be sum as The rest is under construction. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed. the product of inertia is commonly used.3.27) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia.29) A .2. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem.

Solution The equation of the line is y= a x+a b ′ (3.32) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 End solution 3.50 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3. Example 3.33) System which creates equation (3. The product of inertia at the center is zero.32) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.30) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3. -3.33) referred as principle system.2. . Product of inertia for triangle.10.31) y y b x a ′ x Fig.6: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.

This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. dm. F= ρ rdV V (3.37) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3.36) The velocity. Angular. stresses). r × ω. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. Two.34) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur .3. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. Coriolis.38) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. it can be treated as the regular derivative. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3.39) . the system acceleration called the internal forces.34) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the addtional meaning which be added.3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. The same as in the dynamic class. thus.4 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. ω×(r × ω). NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 51 3. ˙ 3.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. 2 (Ur × ω).35) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. Yet.

in the same fashion.44) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. The force can be written. consider a particle moving in x–y plane. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j. 3.38) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.43) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3.40) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.52 CHAPTER 3.4. . as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries.45) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force.40) where Tτ is the torque. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.42) To understand these equations a bit better. (3.41) m It can be noticed (well.46) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.

1. yc A Ix x XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .3. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 53 Table -3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .4.

54 CHAPTER 3. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 .2. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .

This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. several assumptions must be made. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. Fig.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. 4. y. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. with acceleration. gG (x. dy. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations.g. z). the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time.1. -4. a as shown in Figure 4. that pressure can increase and later decrease. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. Later. a = 0. However. Furthermore.1. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. In these derivations.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC.1) erated system under body forces.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant 55 .

This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation the dot product results in in • gradP = ∂P ∂n (4. Even though. now. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction.7) . For example. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. P . The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.8) (4.2) In the same fashion. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. it has a direction).56 CHAPTER 4. As before.4) In general. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. where n is the steepest direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or gradP = ρ geﬀ (4.6) Hence. FLUIDS STATICS compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). If the pressure. the pressure is treated. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. the dot product of the following is ˆ • gradP = ∂P i ∂x (4.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient.

Traditionally. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .12) (4.3. pressure.11) (4. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. 4.9) and substituting it into equation (4. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.3. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. ρ.11) and therefore P (x. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 57 Some refer to equation (4. it will be used. For example. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. First. P . There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. and temperature.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. However.9) Utilizing equation (4.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated.10) and constant in equation (4. y.8) as the Fluid Static Equation. 4. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.4. .1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. z) = −ρgz + constant (4.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. y) = constant (4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.10) can be integrated to yield P (x.

15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure.14) becomes P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid.2.2.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force.2 4. Figure 4. Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.3. It is evident from equation (4.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. -4. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes.3.3.3. 4. to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. -4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4. the right hand side of the equation (4. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature). FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. .15) In the literature.58 CHAPTER 4.

U tube is L.000179264[kPa]. P valve 2 1 Example 4.4.3. The mercury density is 13545.4. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0. Pa = 13545.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example.82[m/sec]. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. The ratio of the Fig. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. -4.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. Gas The pressure. Equation (4. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. The high of the Mercury is 0. Hence.16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 59 Example 4. For smaller width.85 × 9. L. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . Locate the liquids surfaces.3. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.76 ∼ 101095.82 × 0. End solution (4.39[P a] ∼ 1. h . The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.85[kg/m3 ].

One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. This way. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End solution 4.2. . Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. -4.60 The mass conservation results in CHAPTER 4. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). FLUIDS STATICS Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube.Fig.4). Schematic of sensitive measurement device. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4.3. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. Thus. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers.5. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .

If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. Additional parameter.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument.20) −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal.22) A2 A1 (4. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .3.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. For example. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. With the equation for height (4.3. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading.4. then equation (4. ρ2 . In the previous technique. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.20) equation (4. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . engineers invented more sensitive measuring device.22) becomes h2 = (4.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement 61 For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. A2 /A1 << 1. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density.21) For the small value of the area ratio.18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4.20). In steady state.23) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. . Here. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. Thus. in writing equation (4. the volume ratio. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. Figure 4. Additionally. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.2. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications.19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.18) the gas density was neglected. This technique utilizes the opposite range. if the volumes in two containers is equal then h2 A2 (4.

1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. liquids and other.26) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4. density and location. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. Thus equation (4.26) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases.27) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. In the gas phase. As ﬁrst approximation. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).62 CHAPTER 4.25) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.29) .28) h2 + ··· 6 (4.27) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be P ρ0 g h − =1+ P0 P0 correction factor 2 (4.24) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4. 4.11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4.25) (4. Equation (4.3.3.3. FLUIDS STATICS 4.

can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.3. the value of the compressibility factor. So. These deviations have a limited practical purpose.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.30) (4. .27) and (4. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. 4. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. Fortunately.34) 3 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person.33) The integration of equation (4.39). there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.4. a numerical integration must be carried out.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1. In these cases. In general.3. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).32) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 63 Equation (4.32) The variables for equation (4. However.29) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use3 . The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. For these cases. Z. here.3. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.28).31) Without going through the mathematics. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.33) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.28).

6. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.37) has units of length.37) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4. Utilizing equation (4. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form g ρ0 z BT e −1 = z g ρ0 BT (4. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4.35) in equation (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4. The integration constant. BT /g ρ0 . Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction).35) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant.41) . with units of length.6.40) Fig. -4.35) Equation (4. The solution is presented in equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.64 CHAPTER 4.36) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure).39) March 11. Sometimes. is a typical length of the problem.38) e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4.39) and is plotted in Figure 4.36) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.34) can be represented in a more convenient form as ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.

the temperature is T0 and using it leads to T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. For h = 0.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects.42) It can be noticed that equation (4.40) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. Additionally. For example.4 4. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. Here. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric pressure BT (P − P0 ) + 2 corrections P − P0 BT 2 3 BT + 6 P − P0 BT + · · · = z g ρ 0 (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 65 An approximation of equation (4. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions.45) with (4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height.46) (4. P/BT is small (<< 1).4. For the atmosphere.45) .44) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition.43) where h here referred to height or distance. Hence.3. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.3.4. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.42) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. 4.3.).

. Equation (4. 5 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science.50) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.51) P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − −.47) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.G.R.e. negative direction). Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter5 .50) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. just ignore it.66 CHAPTER 4.51) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. FLUIDS STATICS Separating the variables in equation (4. However..46) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4. h. please.50) It can be noticed that equation (4. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 Equation (4. 4 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights. I am grateful to my adviser E. If you feel that it is too simple.47) Deﬁning a new variable4 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor (4.48) After integration of equation (4. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.49) Or in a more convenient form as P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease..

Under equilibrium.7... the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero.3.4.50) and (4.2 The Stability Analysis g Cx h Cx h ( R Cx ) 1− 1+ T0 T (4. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer.3.53) *Advance material can be skiped* It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. higher heights). h. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model.52) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient). If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.7) What could happen? There are two Fig. inﬂuences at only large values of height. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.50) is stable and if so under what conditions. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height.50) represents only the pressure ratio. to yield P P0 T0 T ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 4. Suppose that h for some reason. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. -4. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. (4. For engineering purposes. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. Clearly. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4.51) and (4. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density.45). .25). Equation (4. That is. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim 1− h Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx 67 = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .4. Thus. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable).52) are not properly represented without the characteristic height.52) Equation (4. equation (2. Cx . The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. It has to be noted that these equations (4. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces).

The process.53) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T (4. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.57) Expanding equation (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.50) but can be approximated by equation (4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.59) . The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). That is.54) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time).56) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.55) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process.54) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4.51) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.68 CHAPTER 4. The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. In reality.57) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − . However. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process.58) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4.57) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4.. FLUIDS STATICS The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest.

The varying gravity eﬀects on force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4. 4.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. it is said that situation is neutral. From a mathematical point of view. the discussion is separated into two different issues. . Thus.3. g. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. 6 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. around this value additional analysis is needed 6 . Thus. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. However. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation.60) and using the ideal gas identity. -4. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup.59) and (4. The body g ∝ r2 force was assumed until now to be constant.11) has two terms on the right hand side. rb the density.61) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. density and pressure. it transformed to (k − 1) g ρ Cx > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4.60) After rearrangement of the inequality (4.8. Equation r P b ρb (4.58) provides the conditions to determine the stability.3.will not be introduced here. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. At ﬁrst glance. Thus.4. while the gravity Fig. ρ and the body force.

it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body.3. The integration of equation (4. Z.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.3. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity CHAPTER 4.63) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. is employed.65) Equation (4. 2 ρb Pb RT 2 rb (R T ) (4. Again. numerical integration is a possible solution.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. equation (4.63) is transformed into P Pb G dP =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4. 4. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS In physics.63) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.5.70 4. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. equation (4. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force.66) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning). This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.5.65) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ G (r − rb ) P = =1− − + .64) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus G ∂P = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.. equation (4. As before.67) . It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb ..62) where here G denotes the general gravity constant.

.3.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11. 2 ρb Pb Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb 71 e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4. if applicable. As before taylor series for equation (4..73) r2 dP ρ dr + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are 1 d r2 dr Or in a vector form as • 1 P ρ + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.70) is e BT g ρ0 (4. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.70) = −ρ0 BT 2 ∂r r which the solution of equation (4. 4. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .69) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.4.68) Equation (4.65) is standard correction f actor 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ P G (r − rb ) = =1− − + . If the liquid “equation of state” (4.000 [m]. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.3.3.5.72) . P0 −P BT e = Constant − 4.35) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in P −P0 ∂P G (4.71) r Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD With the same process as before for ideal gas case.

However. The general.015[m/sec2 ] End solution .72 CHAPTER 4.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage.75) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4.3: What is the angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. 4. FLUIDS STATICS 4.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. This angle/direction can be found using the following tan−1 β = tan−1 a 5 = ∼ 27. the previous derivations can be easily extended.01◦ g 9. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity.4. Equation (4.812 = 11. for the eﬀective gravity where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i (4. Thus. body forces were considered as one-dimensional.76) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. This requires to ﬁnd the angle of the eﬀective body force.74) For example. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. As before. in a two dimensional system. Example 4.

78) . The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicular to the slope.10. Calculate the shape of the surface. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.4: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− Fnet m (4. If there is no resistance. -4.4. A cart slide on inclined plane.9. -4. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. End solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 27. Example 4.4. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.1 a 73 m 5 sec g geﬀ Fig.10. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.77) F (a ) β Fig. Thus.

4.5 is provided.80) z r unit mass ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4. -4. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure. α < β. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. -4.81) can be integrated as z − z0 = ω r 2g 2 2 Fig. Schematic to explain the angular angle. the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. (4.12.11.81) (4.79) (c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. For simpliﬁcation reasons.74 The angle of the surface. The constant pressure will be along P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + To illustrate this point. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4. So. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape.83) . FLUIDS STATICS (4.82) Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . example 4. r su ce fa th wi t ic fr n io α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4. ω2 r2 2g (4. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ CHAPTER 4.

82) represent the pressure line. Thus. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 75 pr es S ω L co xL Fig. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution nt .5.13.5: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. -4. equation (4. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. End solution Example 4.4. L from the “left” hand side.13.4. Example 4. The center of rotation is a distance. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.6: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption).

how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. Rectangular area under pressure. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. what happen the rotation approach very large value? 4.13 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. .” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ F1 F2 b[m] dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA The pressure.14.8: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4. -4. Later.7: In the U tube in example 4. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. Calculate the minimum forces. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?.5.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes.14. 4.5 is rotating with upper part height of . Initially. Example 4.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. End solution Example 4. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. These calculations are divided into two categories. At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ Fig. FLUIDS STATICS In Figure 4. This section deals with these calculations. a simple case will be examined. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?.76 CHAPTER 4.

FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The liquid total moment on the gate is b 77 M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4. Additional equation is needed.84) and also a center of area.84) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End solution The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. It is the total force. Looking at the above calculations.5. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. Symmetrical Shapes .4. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 Additionally.

15.88) ξ1 ξ1 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4.87) The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA ξ sin β (4. The integral in equation (4. -4. FLUIDS STATICS "O" β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Fig. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x.15. First. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.85) 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA In this case.86) ξdA + xc )] y ξ0 β a F1 b "O" (4. -4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. The general forces acting on submerged area.85) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.90) .89) F2 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 Fig.85) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β In a ﬁnal form as Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 0A+ 0 xc A 1 (4. h(ξ) 1 P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg (4. Ix ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4.78 Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4. Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments. the force is F = A CHAPTER 4. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated.16.

in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required. However.90) can be written in more compact form as My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.94) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4.96) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4. Equation (4.16 which has two forces that balance the body.95) In the solution. is about the axis through point “O” into the page. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.87). If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid.96) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4.91) and the total force is given by (4.93) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−.17). Ix x . Ix x ρ sin β (4.91) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. Thus.87) and (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 79 The moment of inertia. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.5.4. Equations (4.8 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate.97) . The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. the forces can be negative or positive. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4. additional equation is required. Additionally. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional.91) Example 4.92) (4.

Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided. y ξ dA y x Example 4.18) for triangle 1 and 2).99). (4.87).80 The integral in equation (4.18. FLUIDS STATICS Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. -4.100) (4. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. These equations (4.91) and (4.96) can be written as A yc CHAPTER 4.99) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 Fig.101) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.91) and (4. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. There are many combinations of problems (e. (4.102) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.17.99) The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3.98) The compact form can be written as Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix y (4. (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) .9: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.87).g.

2 a b2 1 +2 a b 2 0 +a 2 Ixy = 0 1 − 0 )x + b x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .4. The general forces acting on non b ( ( 1− 0 −a)x + b 0 0 +a symmetrical straight area.5.18. Fig. -4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and its width b and thus. 72 « « « „„ „ 2 15 12 12 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β 72 „„ « « 48 24 1 +24 + a 0 Patmos a „„ 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β + 72 End solution . moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 1 81 − 0) 3 /36. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 = − 72 « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . It can be noF1 ticed that upper line of the triangle is F2 x y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 . the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 36 + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a The product of inertia of the triangle can 2 be obtain by integration. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 2 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is − and its width b and thus.

For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar.99). Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density7 . it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4.103) In the same way.1. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned.107) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero.105) according to equation (3. 4. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue.5. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.15) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.91) and equation (4. In fact. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4.104) To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. the density was assumed to be constant. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function.106) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4.82 4.1 Pressure Center CHAPTER 4. If density can be represented by average density.” Thus. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. . the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.108) 7 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. FLUIDS STATICS In the literature.1.5. Thus.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions.

However. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. Moreover. the reasonable average can be used. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. The moment around axis y.109) (4.115) 8 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4.4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 83 In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably8 . if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. the following can be written x c 1 A1 xc 2 A2 xc n An Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn ξ dA An Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4.112) After similar separation of the total integral. but constant in segments.110) As before for single density.111) where the density.113) If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. In cases where density is non–continuous. the integral has be carried out.114) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4. .

a2 = 1. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur.19.114) and (4. and b1 = 4.5[m].19. FLUIDS STATICS To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.111). h2 = 2[m]. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . h3 = 3[m]. only two equations are h4 needed. as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ].5[m]. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero). Equation ρ4 (4. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 .75[m]. -4. The heights are: h1 = 1[m].and h4 = 4[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. Solution y "O" Since there are only two unknowns.10: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4.84 CHAPTER 4. pressure can be used as ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 β h1 a2 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xci Ai . The forces distances are a1 = 1. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces.114) can be used by modifying it. The geometries of each areas are „ h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β h2 sin β sin β sin β h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 2 2 2 xc 1 = xc 2 = xc3 = A1 = A2 = A3 = − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc3 ) A3 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. Example 4. the following equations are obtained Thus. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. which are (4.

The intermediate results in SI units ([m]. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.92[N ] End solution 4.4. So. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. At this stage.5. dA. if the y component of the force is needed.114) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 ρi+1 xci Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − F1 = P3 i=1 (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix x i Patmos ρi+1 xc i Ai F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.2 Force on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption).696 A2 = 3.535 Ix x 1 = 14.5. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A P n dA ˆ (4.535 A3 = 3.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.116) Here.5355 xc3 = 4. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4.117) The result of the integral is a vector. the pressure is treated as a scalar function. only a dot product is needed as . A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source. [m2 ]. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 85 The second equation is (4.292 Ix x 3 = 86.215 Ix x 2 = 44.2892 xc2 = 3.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.9497 A1 = 2. outward as positive.

-4. for example. FLUIDS STATICS z dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.121) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4.20.21. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body.122) and the angle in the other plane. “y z” is tan θzy Fz = Fy (4.120) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. Equation (4.123) Fig.118) dAy dAx dA From this analysis (equation (4. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. Fig. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line).120) implicitly means that the net force on the . The forces on curved area. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as x y dAz Fy = A P dAy (4. However. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4. The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value.119) The same can be said for the x direction.86 CHAPTER 4. -4.118)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.

The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ End solution The integration results in ρ g b r2 Fx = 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Another way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ.21 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m].124) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines.). Thus.4. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. The gravity is 9.23) as Ax xc δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x dirction A θ Ax Ay r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ Fig. why? Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 .11: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 87 body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. Ax (see Figure 4. 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are diﬀerent. Figure 4. -4. Example 4. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). The diﬀerential area that will be used is. Inside the slot. Solution The force in the x direction is dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4.22.22)). You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. direct and indirect. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). Dam is a part of a circular shape. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations.5. For example.

1 and 3.24.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375.0[N ] Fx = 2 CHAPTER 4. tract triangle.88 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as 1000 × 9. Area above the dam arc subthe y direction is the area times width. just a demonstration! .2. The force in Fig. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.24) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3. Fig.65174[m] 9 Well.23. -4. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. -4.23) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 θ 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1. The arc center (see Figure 4. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL9 ). FLUIDS STATICS A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.

FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.348 × 22375.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following θ0 dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is M= 0 cos θ0 dM θ 2 θ 2 or M= 0 θ0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin cos dθ .5.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx 89 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx r cosθ0 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.4.2 ∼ 7792.65174 ∼ 0.

26) in this case is P h dA y= n i=1 a i xi b dA dy dx y x dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 Fig.” g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. The element force (see Figure 4. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces.26). -4. In fact.25. The function of the dam shape is y = n i i=1 ai x and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. To demonstrate this point further. Example 4. Polynomial shape dam descrip- The size of the diﬀerential area is the square tion for the moment around point “O” and root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS O g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) M= 4 The vertical force can be obtained by θ0 θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin θ 2 Fv = 0 P dAv dF P dAv π 2 or θ0 θ/2 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ Fv = Fig. and thus. Moment on arc element around Point “O. It is much simpler now to use the second method. It force calculations.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. and the direct approach was presented second.26. -4.90 The solution of the last equation is CHAPTER 4. Solution o The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam.12: For the liquid shown in Figure 4.26 . . Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series.

From mathematics. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 Fig. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 O y dy dx ℓ dF b = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 y θ The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n x x 0= i=1 ai x i − b To evaluate the moment. In this case. -4.27. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m ]. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth.5. The derivative at x is .4. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 91 The right side can be evaluated for any given function.27). only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 5 is measured in meters. For example. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract.

FLUIDS STATICS and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. The horizontal force is b ρ g b2 Fh = b ρ g = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations. . he was able to cap.Fig. more advance mathematics will be used. However. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. -4. This omission saves considerable time. ture the essence. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals.92 CHAPTER 4. End solution 4. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding10 . because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. It was taught by people like these.28. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. In fact. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. 150 years ago and more. 0 0 10 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. Here. The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is M= 0 (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x √ 6 b (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school.

The force per area (see Figure 4. To understand this issue.29) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ (4.130) . the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume.126) The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid.127) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. any shape is made of many small rectangles. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. -4. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). The solution of equation (4. Rearranging equation (4.28.6. those will cancel each other. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. Thus.127) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4.4.129) Fig.125) to F = ρg V (4. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of.128) Rearranging equation (4. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. In illustration of this concept. on the vertical direction. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 93 The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4. the horizontal forces are canceling each other.127) 2π F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4.28.129) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things.125) represents a depth (into the page). The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. h0 as shown in Figure 4.29. For any two rectangle bodies. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. However. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). On the other hand. All the horizontal forces are canceled.

In the case where thickness is half the maximum.30 . The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. The container diameter is w. h1 t w hin h Example 4. Express the maximum wall thickness.30. Thus. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. While the horizontal force is 2π Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4. shown in Figure 4.13: A cylindrical body. Note that for the maximum thickness. h1 has to be zero. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. these examples are a must. the height. t. ﬂoating body. ρs liquid density. -4.131) Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. ρl . Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . calculate the pressure inside the container.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. as a Fig.94 CHAPTER 4. Since there are no better examples. FLUIDS STATICS The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall.

When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. it can be inserted into the above equation. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + + ··· 2 − ρl g Patmos Patmos Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 95 Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. the air. Thus.6. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected.14: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water.4. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. hin = Example 4. Extreme Cases *Advance material can be skiped* The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . so that the last solution is the only physical solution. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container.

Thus. FLUIDS STATICS 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. The thickness is known.96 If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = CHAPTER 4.

6.15: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. End solution Example 4. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ √ √ 3 5 7 2 g h α2 3 2 g h α2 5 2 g h α2 + + + ··· 2g 8g 16 g 2 hα g(1 − α) From the above equation. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . The body’s density is α ρl .16: In some situations. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus.4. h0 and left at rest. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 97 Example 4.

What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid.17: In the introduction to this section. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. The element force is CHAPTER 4. There situations where density is a function of the depth. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. Body with density between the two liquids. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section.98 sphere. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. In the same vein. FLUIDS STATICS dAx h dA dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r2 dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! π $$− ρS ) r¡ (ρL $$ 3 $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 2 £ 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Thus the height is π h = r 4 End solution Example 4.

If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and it will be ﬂoating. A is canceled on both sides. . -4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. they have to accounted for. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh 99 the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. x1 .1 Stability Empty buoyancy center Figure 4. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. End solution 4.31 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. if body is small compare the zone of variation. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body.31.6. Tilting the body with a small angle from gravity center Full a b c Fig. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained.4. However. The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical).6. Thus.

This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid. when given a tilted position. β. B’ as shown in Figure 4. The stability of the body is divided into three Fig. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential.100 CHAPTER 4.32). Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position.33. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. the body is in situation like in 4.31c .32. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. The body. A wooden cubic (made of pine.31c. In fact. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. Small amount of tilting of Fig.33 is displaced by the same . If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. for example) is inserted into water. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. -4.33. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle. That is. However. in any of these six positions. B’.33. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . B. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. move to a new buoyant center. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. should to be calculated. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position.31b). So. shown in Figure 4.31c. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. it is referred to as the neutral stable. categories. FLUIDS STATICS its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. -4. the cubic results in returning to the original position.

W referred to the weight of the body.33 as ∆F .134) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. BB is the distance between points B and point B’.4. when the body is not symmetrical. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4.6. For small angle. BB . should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4.133) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.134) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.).135) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point. β. So the perpendicular distance.135) with (4. .138) 11 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating. The distance. However.132) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). BB can be written from equation (4.136) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 101 area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change11 so the total immersed section is constant.134) The integral in the right side of equation (4. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.137) lim (4. BB W = M (4. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. and.136) And combining equations (4. M.

32) 3. -4. -4.5 α = 0.2 BG = h h ρs 1 − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− GM h ρs ρl (4.0 0.139) a To understand these principles consider the following examples. Example 4.9 0. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.18: A solid block of wood of uniform density.1 1.8 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 0.2 -0.0 α = 0.4 0. Looking at Figure 4.6 1. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.1 2.2 1. Fig. 1 GM = h 12 α a h 2 1 − (1 − α) (4.5 0. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides Fig.4 1.5 -0.6 0.3 1.1 1.0 ρs 1− ρl -0.4 α = 0. Solution Equation (4.8 1.0 0.0 0.5 α = 0.4 Ixx α = 0.8 0.33.35. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl Thus. FLUIDS STATICS h h1 L GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.5 0.141) 2 .2 0.140) 2.34. Show that the block’s length.1 and is Ixx = La .8 2.3 0. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM CHAPTER 4. the distance BG is (see Figure 4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.7 0. Where L is the length into 12 the page.3 1.1 Stability of Square Block h1 0.2 1.102 It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.139) requires that several quantities should be expressed.6 α = 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. L.0 1.0 a h April 16.0 1.7 0. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.0 -0.2 α = 0.9 1.

Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. L.0 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.4. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.142) End solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0.5 2.142) can be expressed.0 square circle And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 1. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4.36. Thus. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.5 1.5 0.5 0.140)).7 0.9 1. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated.0 2.2 0. these two shapes in Figure 4. Thus. For example.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 103 where α is the density ratio.6. For stability analysis. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.4 April 16.0 This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for Fig. . For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. With the exception of the circular shape. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio.1 0. 2008 α 0.3 0. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.0 0. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body.6 0.8 0. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal.0 0. -4.36. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 a h 3.

Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. So.37. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. but rather practical.37. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .5) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. In commercial ships. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0.104 Unstable Bodies CHAPTER 4.19: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. Example 4. -4. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for explanation in example (3. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. This is not a hypothetical question.139) have to found. FLUIDS STATICS What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). tougher. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl .

the slow reaction of the load. For practical purposes. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. here. account these shifting mass speeds. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM .6.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body.Fig. for stability analysis.4.38. furniture. The movement of the load (grains.1. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water.6. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. is enough to be ig. However. alcohol) and ship with . After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End solution 4. Sometimes. For example. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 105 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . -4.

in this analysis.143) Note that Ixx B isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface.38. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4. the general formula is g ρA Ixx A 1 Gc M = − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. X0 g $$$ ¡ g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 ¡ For more than one tank.38).145) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is IxxB g ρl¨βIxxB G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B = VB g VB ¨B ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. G Gc = GG sin β (4. G1 G1 . At the same time.106 CHAPTER 4.144) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.148) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxxB (4. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.146) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc .147) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA IxxA 1 Ixxb − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. FLUIDS STATICS low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).149) .144) Equation (4. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. This quantity. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G . Moreover.

The angle. T a distance. GM . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. 4. GM . The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank.151) Where.150) T d h G Fig. θ.2 Metacentric Height.1. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed.152) If the change in the GM can be neglected.6.154) (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 107 One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. Wtotal . of the ship. This control of the stability. Moving the weight. .152) provides the solution. equation (4.153) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight.39. -4. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by (4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. GM . The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4.153) with equation (4.4.152) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.6. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4.

3 Stability of Submerged Bodies CHAPTER 4. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers.1. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line.108 4. Thus. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. After the tilting. . 4. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). -4. There are two situations that can occur. it must be taken into account. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly.40. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. Generally. FLUIDS STATICS The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. is when b = 3 a. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.40). This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now). The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. However. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis.1. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle.40. The center of the moment is needed be found. Fig. However.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical.6. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree.6. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer.

4. the common explanation is wrong. Example 4.6. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. the body should be accelerate. In this section. Thus. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz.157) In general.6. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies.155) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies 109 This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring).158) V ρs GM Ibody (4. coating. the liquid is not in motion. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. 4. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. etc.6. However. Thus.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling.1. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. End solution . in this case.156) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4.20: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.

2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. some of heavy liquid moves down. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. However. or water over air(gas–liquid). Thus.41. Taylor. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. -4.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. For perfectly straight interface. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer.3. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place.110 CHAPTER 4. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. For example. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. In poor designs or other situations. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. I. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. This condition is determined by competing .21: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. Solution Under Construction End solution 4. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. After certain diameter. This instability deals with a dense. Example 4.3. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. For example in die casting. ρG . This situation has engineering implications in several industries. FLUIDS STATICS Fig. If the surface will disturbed. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. ρL . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning.

if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough.161) (4. -4. Thus. In that case. the surface density. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines. Thus. Thus. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. Thus. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal.160) According to equation (1.47). x.7.163) .159) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.38) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable.47) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (??) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. example of a cosine function will be examined.4. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. On the other hand. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions.42). the situation is Fig.42. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. equation (1. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. and the buoyancy forces. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa.162) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 111 forces. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity.

the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion. For the depression. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. In reality. the force is the integral around the depression. the force is ρ g h × A. At the bottom. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. they are not part of the control volume. This acts Fig. the error is not signiﬁcant. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. At the top.162) and (4. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4.43. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place.16) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere.167) . Additionally when the depression occurs.163) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4.165) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. To analyze it. -4. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down.43. Thus. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other.166) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.43.112 CHAPTER 4.164) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. At the cylinder bottom.43. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. FLUIDS STATICS Comparing equations (4.

At that case. For the cylindrical geometry.168) The maximum surface tension is when the angle.172) .” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container.171) Fig. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4.7. The cross section of the interface. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. As shown in Figure 4. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. Thus. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. -4.4.44. the speciﬁc radius is limited.169) (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 113 The force that hold this column is the surface tension. θ = π/2.170) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.43.44).

In Figure 4. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m].114 CHAPTER 4. σ r∼ 8 π 0. .02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.44.172) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees.4 2400 × 9.172.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. End solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). this angle is never obtained. However.22: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K]. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function. FLUIDS STATICS The actual radius will be much larger.45. -4.171) can be used.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient. In equation (4. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. Example 4. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4.the depression is larger for square area. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. For example.

dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible.7. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence? .S. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. You the ideal gas model. You can assume that the process is isothermal.45 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases.4. Example 4. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. The canister is rotate with circular velocity.23: A canister shown in Figure 4. ω. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 115 Open Question by April 15.

FLUIDS STATICS .116 CHAPTER 4.

Part I Integral Analysis 117 .

.

Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. L. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. 119 .motion. This method applied and used in very few cases. These differential equations will be used in Fig. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. This name is in honored J. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. Even though this system looks reasonable. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. -5. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. Ad. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables.1.

Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. momentum. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. -5. non–deformable and deformable. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit.1. . The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. In the same time. Control volume of a moving the control volume chosen is non-deformable con. Fig. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. mass.1. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility).2. trol volume. The red dotted lines are the control volume. This coordinate system system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand.piston with in and out ﬂow. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5.120 CHAPTER 5.2. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. entropy etc. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. After a certain time.1 represent the system. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. energy. the control volume is a system. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5. The green lines in Figure 5. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. 5.

The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume. -5. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. Thus. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. In this chapter. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc. CONTINUITY EQUATION 121 5.3. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.3).1) The system mass after some time.7) .v. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.v.v.v. the mass conservation will be discussed. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.3.1. according Figure 5. + ma − mc (5. The interface of the control volume can move. is made of msys = mc.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.3). (5.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.5.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.

7) are similar and can be combined. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. t) = 1− cos . The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. due to temperature variation and other reasons.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. In the same manner. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.8) and (5. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. ρ0 L t0 . X dx L Fig.10) Equation (5. Scv ρ Urn dA (5.9) applying negative value to keep the convention.4.3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. (5.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. Example 5.1.9) into equation (5. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.v. Substituting equation (5. -5.1: The density changes in a pipe.122 CHAPTER 5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.v.

11) is simpler than equation (5.10) become conservation of the volume.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time.v. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out. r and angle.3.4 length is L and its area is A.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence.v. . the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.3. Vc. Solution Here it is very convenient to chose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx. x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. 5. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c. Using equation (5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume.5. d dt ρ0 1 − c.v. the derivative in equation (5.10). dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.v.3.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. End solution 5.v. t.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5.11) Equation (5. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. (5.10). L.v. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius. CONTINUITY EQUATION 123 The conduit shown in Figure 5. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe. ρ0 c. and time.

(5.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it.3. Sc.15) The meaning of the equation (5.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. c.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.2 illustrates this point.v.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.v.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5. 5.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. Physically.2.v.3. Example 5. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h. Example 5. Find the height as a function of the other parameters.124 5.v. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.2.7 Ap .v. Ubn dA (5.5. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero. Hence. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. Ubn dA = Sc. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc.1 CHAPTER 5. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap .v. Urn dA (5. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the .v. Sc.

the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. First. Third.5. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. liquid boundary in bucket. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. -5. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5.5.3. Fourth. However. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. CONTINUITY EQUATION 125 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. the air eﬀects are negligible.2. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. In reality.v. Substituting . there are no evaporation or condensation processes. ﬂow in = c. Second.v. In this analysis. several assumptions must be made. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid.

(a) into (b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0. the side.7 Ap Ub The solution of the last equation is Ub = Ap A − 0. . It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface).g. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (b) The above two equations (a) and (b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution. e.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.v. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. Uj .7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. End solution Example 5. (Uj + Ub ) dA The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity. mi . c.v.126 the known values for Urn results in CHAPTER 5.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. When examining solution there are two limits. Substituting the ﬁrst equation. MASS CONSERVATION Urn Ub dA = c. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate.

v.v.5.v. thus the relative velocity. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. 127 Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed. The right side of equation (5. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.3.v. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). Sc. End solution .v. c.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c.v. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.

continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. MASS CONSERVATION One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. determine the height. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .16) is dh d L h dx = ρ L ρ dt 0 dt .17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5.3 CHAPTER 5. Example 5. h as function of the time.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. This assumptions leads dV d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5. What happen if the h0 = 0? Solution The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. For the ﬁrst case. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 . This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.3. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.16) When the density can be considered constant equation (5.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density). It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate.16).18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5.128 5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.2.

If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number.5. Height of the liquid for example 5. Substituting into equation equation (5. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter).3. h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b1 h0 b 1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution.4. However. -5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution + c1 homogeneous solution mi b1 e − ρ1L b t e b1 t ρL The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. CONTINUITY EQUATION 129 min h Fig.6. negative .

End solution 5. Osborne. MASS CONSERVATION number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. To make the previous derivation clearer. The ideas are the similar but extended some what.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. y) − f (x1 . c. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. y) ∂y dy dy (5. y) dα (5. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x.23) papers can be read on-line at http://www. y) = 1 These 2 This f (α.21) This theorem named after Reynolds. the governing equation (5. Essentially.v f ρ Urn dA (5. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) ∂f dx2 dx1 dx + f (x2 . For second case.archive.v. the height will increase. .22) Initially.130 CHAPTER 5. speciﬁc enthalpy. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivativations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. If the reverse case appeared.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh = b h − mi ρL dt with the general solution of √ ln hb −1 mi √ √ hb hb mi + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader.

F . This is engineering book and thus. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. For its derivative of equation (5. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential).25) The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5.24) diﬀerentiating (chain role d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral role (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz role.23) is f (x.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. it will be provided.5. y) − − (x1 . with time. F . The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. if there will be a demand for such. Nevertheless.25) are actually (the x2 is tread as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. The interesting information that is commonly is needed the change the accumulative property.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. The intensive property. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 131 Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y (5. y) dx ∂y (5. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5.4. f is investigated or the accumulative property. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be system.28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5. y) − G(x1 .27) The same can be said for the third term (3). .25) is ∂G dx2 dx2 = f (x2 . the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof.

F . F . is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in. f ρ Urn dA (5.32) When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral role. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is U (r) = Umax 1 − r R .132 CHAPTER 5.v.v Sc. the velocity became uniform. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. (5. Additionally. MASS CONSERVATION at x1 . Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. F .31) The change with time of the accumulative property. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz role and thus the same arguments are used. The same can be said for the other side. t. between the boundaries is ρ(x) f A(x) dA c. is then F2 dx2 dt (5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are are provided to illustrate the topic. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz role. Example 5.v. After magical mixing. Since the time variable. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c.33) 5. Thus. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn d dt (5. Urn = U1 − Ub .

13). For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (a) The integration of the above equation is Umax π R2 6 = Uave π R2 (b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = Umax 6 End solution (1) (2) U0 E f eo dg Bo un y dr La ye r L Fig. Solution .5.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer about it. Boundary Layer control mass. In this case. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION 133 Where R is radius and r is the working radios (for the integration). Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. -5.7. Example 5. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume.

right. the left.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. The above integrals on the right hand side can be combined as δ U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End solution Example 5. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5.7. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution . MASS CONSERVATION Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. and upper.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed.1 kg/sec.134 CHAPTER 5.

9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform.13) is used. However sometime.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. Is there combination valves of the that make the tank at steady state? Solution Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. For simplicity. End solution Example 5.01 m2 500 m/sec End solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction.5. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. Example 5. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.1 kg/sec = = 1.5. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hours. Thus. 7 hours. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours.1 ) 5. and 8 hours. The tank is 3/4 fulls. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. Thus. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. Solution . EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION 135 The mass conservation equation (5.02kg/m3 AU 0. assume that the process is isothermal.

MASS CONSERVATION boundary velocity ρ Ub dV = in or out ﬂow rate ρUrn dA Sc.v.v. Vc. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. CHAPTER 5.v. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt Ub The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius.v Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule. .136 The applicable equation is increase pressure dρ dV dt + Sc.v Vc.

Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. mi .5.5.10. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = The combining the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. Assume that the balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .v.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc. ρUrn dA Vc. The density change is Ub 12 fv π Rb dRb dρ = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV . Assume that the gas is obeys the ideal gas law.v. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.v. Sc. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T 3 G= 2 7 f π Rc 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End solution 137 Example 5.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate.

2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? .138 The second term is CHAPTER 5. Example 5.S. End solution Open Question by April 15. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 .11: Solve example 5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. MASS CONSERVATION A 4 fv π Rb 3 4 fv π R b 3 8 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 Rb 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change the boundary.

Here. Additionally. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. In fact. 6. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts.D.CHAPTER 6 Multi–Phase Flow 6. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . only the trends and simple calculations are described. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics. For many engineers. In the past. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. Thus. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. For simple models. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. As result.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. 139 . there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic.1 Introduction Traditionally. there was a Ph. is required for many engineering problems.

This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. Hence. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . However. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions.140 CHAPTER 6. 6. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. the concept of ﬂow regimes. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. will know and understand the trends. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. For example. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. and more importantly. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. and importance to real world. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. However. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). . this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship.

it is assumed that air is made of only gases. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. .” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen.4. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. For example. 6.6. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. Hence. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). In fact. or a large acceleration.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. In our calculation. Practically for many cases. nonetheless it exists.000 in about two and half years. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 141 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics.1. However. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. -6.

5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. 6. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. for an example. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. March 29. although important.. For the gas. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. The liquid–solid. However. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. 1887). Generally. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). In a four (4) miles long train. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). Jr. There are many more categories.142 CHAPTER 6. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. When the . liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. solid propellant rocket. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. spray casting. Open Channel ﬂow is. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. mud ﬂow etc. The multiphase can be found in nature. and avalanches. For example. Yet. Since there are three phases. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. in nature can be blood ﬂow. Thus. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. solid–gas. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. rain. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. and industries. they can be solid–liquid. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. For example. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. for example. and river ﬂow. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. paint spray. In almost all situations. In the past. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. ﬂuidized bed. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no.

water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. For example. For example. plug ﬂow. up or down. -6. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. 6. and what ever between them. Thus. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow.5. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow.2.5. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 143 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction.6. and annular ﬂow. 5 top as depicted in Figure 6. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. horizontal. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. Yet. In general. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow.2. Generally.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. Additionally. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. 6. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. the co-current is the more common. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow).5. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. . it is referred as counter–current.1. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid).

The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. Fig. choking occurs relatively Fig. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube.3).3. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations.4). . then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. -6. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. the friction between the phases increase. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). all the ﬂow is wavy. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. Thus. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 6. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. liquid ﬂow rate.144 CHAPTER 6. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. liquid level is higher. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). Thus. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist.4. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. -6. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 6. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. At some point. At this stage. In fact. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit.

For example. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions. However. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke.1.5.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 6. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. e. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. other parameters can aﬀect the “near. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. Hence. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 145 this category is accepted). This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. The buoyancy . -6. Besides the length. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means.g. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. as in compressible ﬂow. In engineering application. As many things in multiphase. 6. in normal gravitation. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds.5.5. Qualitatively.5. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). the return path is not move the exact same way. etc. with the gravity or against it.6. After a certain distance.

Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. -6. it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. see Figure 6. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. When many bubbles collide. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. Thus. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. For the ﬂow against gravity. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 6.6. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide.6). . there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations.6. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. Notice. Thus. Again. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig.146 CHAPTER 6. After additional increase of “super slug” . The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure.

Figure 6. and Weber numbers. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas.7. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity. Pulsing For example. After the ﬂow has settled. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 6. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow.5.Reynolds. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. Liquid Flow Rate 6. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow.6. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. In cases where the surface tension is very important. However. respectively. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. both will be united in this discussion. In the literature. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. -6.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. However. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. The liquid–liquid (also . The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . While this author is not aware of an actual model.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. As the gas ﬂow increases. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops.7). the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. Here.6. the vertical conﬁguration. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 147 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent.1. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 6. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow.

6) GG = UsG ρG (6.4) mL ˙ A (6. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (6. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (6.6.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow. over its cross section. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. Perhaps.7) . and with time. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. 6.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (6. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (6.1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.148 CHAPTER 6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (6.

Also. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. Thus.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (6. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent.8) In a similar fashion.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (6.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. .11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (6. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube.6.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (6.6. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (6. Thus. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 149 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (6. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (6. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.

the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (6.17) Equation (6. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus. Substituting equations (6.150 CHAPTER 6.18) The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (6. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (6.7) into equation (6.1) and (6.21) .16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (6.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ = X m (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (6.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = (6.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become ρaverage = 1 X ρG (1−X) ρL + (6.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx).20) = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1. thus equation (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).

this assumption has to be broken.7. Thus. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models.6.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (6.1: Under what conditions equation (6. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (6.23) Example 6.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (6. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 151 6.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (6. In fact. Now. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). Furthermore. Initially.26) .24) or modifying equation (6. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it. the simplest is to used it for approximation.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (6. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). The average velocity (see also equation (6.

152

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

6.7.1

Pressure Loss Components

In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ, the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss, acceleration, and body force(gravitation). These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. For example, the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence, acceleration must occur. However, for small distances (dx) and some situations, this dependency can be neglected. In that case, from equation (6.25), the total pressure loss can be written as

f riction acceleration gravity

dP dP = dx dx

+

f

dP dx

+

a

dP dx

g

(6.27)

Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. 6.7.1.1 Friction Pressure Loss

**The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx =
**

f

S τw A

(6.28)

**Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx =
**

f

4 τw D

(6.29)

The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (6.30)

The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. In fact, this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. Yet, since there isn’t anything better, the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm

−n

(6.31)

Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.079 and n = 0.25.

6.7. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS

153

There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. For example, Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (6.32)

Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (6.33) average viscosity as µaverage = 1

X µG (1−X) µL

+

(6.33)

Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula, the friction loss can be estimated. 6.7.1.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (6.34)

**The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙
**

a

dUm dx

(6.35)

The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. Equation (6.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙

a

d dx

m ˙ A ρm

(6.36)

Or in an explicit way equation (6.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A

−

dP dx

(6.37)

a

There are several special cases. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant, dA/ dx = 0. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero, dX/ dx = 0. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only, dρL / dx = 0. For the last point, the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.

154 6.7.1.3 Gravity Pressure Loss

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

**Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ
**

g

(6.38)

The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density. The density in equation (6.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). 6.7.1.4 Total Pressure Loss

**The total pressure between two points, (a and b) can be calculated with integration as
**

b

∆Pab =

a

dP dx dx

(6.39)

and therefore

f riction acceleration gravity

∆Pab = ∆Pab f +

∆Pab a

+ ∆Pab g

(6.40)

6.7.2

Lockhart Martinelli Model

The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase. Thus, there are two parameters as shown below. φG = dP dx dP dx (6.41)

SG f

TP

Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (6.42)

SL f

TP

**Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.
**

8 This

method was considered a military secret, private communication with Y., Taitle

6.8. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW

155

The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (6.43)

SG f

SL

**where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. dP dx =
**

SG

dP dx

(6.44)

SL

**The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx =
**

L

2 fL UL 2 ρl DL

(6.45)

**For the gas phase, the pressure loss is dP dx =
**

G

2 fG UG 2 ρl DG

(6.46)

Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. To insert the Diagram.

6.8 Solid–Liquid Flow

Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. In solid–liquid, the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. Thus, in this discussion, it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid.” Therefor,there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round, cubic, etc). The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes, distribution, and geometry. For example, analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. 2. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. 3. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles.

and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (6.48) into equation (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4.156 CHAPTER 6. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.44 (6. Re. the Newton’s Law region. 6. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.49) Equation (6. it can be approximated for several regimes. there are two sets of similar characteristics. The drag coeﬃcient.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (6.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. When the liquid velocity is very small. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (6.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. possibility. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (6.48) Inserting equating (6.8. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. All these possibilities are diﬀerent. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. However. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).52) .51) 24 Re (6. However. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. CD ∞ .1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes.

When there are more than one particle in the cross section. When the velocity is lower. For the ﬁrst region. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. -6. So far the discussion was about single particle. the particle will sink into the liquid. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. Thus. Consequently.9). Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 6. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (6.6. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow.8. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. US|avarge . the case of liquid. Thus. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. For small gas/liquid velocity. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. Thus. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. the function f (α) is not a linear function.8. Yet. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. If the velocity is larger. In that case. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 157 In most cases of solid-liquid system. For particles.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . For the case of gas. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. in many cases the middle region is applicable. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. the particle will drift with the liquid. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them.

Hence. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). -6. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow.8. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. However. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. Furthermore. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. Nevertheless. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. the length of conduit is very limited. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). The buoyancy is accelerating the particle .2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist.9. Thus. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. In the gas phase. 6. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity).158 CHAPTER 6. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. Hence.

In most cases. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. Otherwise. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. Thus. However. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. -6. 6. For example. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. Hence. for example.54) 6 8 From equation 6. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. However. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 159 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (6.54. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map.10. be ﬁnite. UL /US → 0. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. Annular Extented Flow In that case. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit.6. For example. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. But in most cases. opening a can of milk or juice. In short tube.9. Liquid Body Foreces . for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large.

For example.12). the heavy liquid is leaving the can. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. In this ﬂow regime. If there are two holes. . The container is made of two compartments. the pressure in the can increase. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 6. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. Fig. Then.160 CHAPTER 6. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. water solution.). in some cases. due to the gravity. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). -6. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow.12. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. -6. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. Figure 6. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. Initially.11. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime.

one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous).7) page 110) it can be considered stable for small diameters. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. At this point. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). no counter–current ﬂow possible. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. Flood in vertical pipe.6. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. ﬂow with gravity or against it. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). However. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 161 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow.13. When the driving (body) force is very small. -6. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. In many situations. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. The analysis is provided.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. no counter–current ﬂow is possible.9. In horizontal tubes. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow.7). 6.9. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. . Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. Probably. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence.

162

**CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
**

Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow

When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small, the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. Thus, closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. Thus, this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L, physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 6.14. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti- Fig. -6.14. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically.

Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow

6.9.2

Flooding and Reversal Flow

The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes, that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. When there is no water (in liquid phase), the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. In some situations, the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 6.13. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 6.15. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. Additionally, it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. The liquid ﬂow rate, QL , is unknown. However, the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . Fig. -6.15. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later, both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. coexist. The model can be improved by considering turbulence, mass transfer, wavy interface, etc11 .

11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily.

6.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

163

This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.). The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. Thus, the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. On the liquid side, the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (6.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (6.56) (6.55)

The integration constant, C1 , can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . Hence, τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (6.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (6.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (6.61) (6.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (6.59) (6.58) (6.57)

The liquid velocity at the wall, [U (x = 0) = 0], is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (6.62)

(6.63)

164 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) =

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL

(6.64)

The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (6.65)

The solution for equation (6.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (6.66)

The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness, h. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (6.67)

If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. Q = w

h h

Uy dx =

0 0

ρL g µL

x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL

(6.68)

Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 6.15). Integration equation (6.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (6.69)

It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero. This point can be obtained when equation (6.69) is equated to zero. There are three solutions for equation (6.69). The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. But, also, the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . This request is identical to the demand in which τi = 2 g h ρL 3

critical

(6.70)

6.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

165

This critical shear stress, for a given ﬁlm thickness, reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (6.67)). For this shear stress, the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 Ucritical |interf ace = 1 6 ρL g h 2 µL

(6.71)

The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. The wall shear stress is τi τL |@wall = µL dU dx ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL

x=0

(6.72)

x=0

Simplifying equation (6.72) the direction)

12

becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3

τL |@wall =

(6.73)

Again, the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (6.74)

The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. For simplicity, it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. Here, for simplicity reasons, the linear equation is used. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). Thus, equation (6.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (6.75)

Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship, the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L

12 Also

(6.76)

noticing that equation (6.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.

82) With the integration constants evaluated.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (6.63) when (x = h).80) (a) (b) or (6.79)(a). equation (6. in that case.84) is equal to the velocity equation (6.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (6.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (6.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.166 CHAPTER 6. . The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (6. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (6. (6. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.78) into equation (6.79) (6.83) (6. cause this assumption to be not physical.C. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.81) At the other boundary condition. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).84) The velocity in Equation (6. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (6. However. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. of the equal velocities.

79)(b).86) (6. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (6. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (6. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 167 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. Then if the interface becomes wavy.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (6.87) (6. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (6. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (6. the two conditions can co–exist.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence .6. condition (6. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. if no special eﬀects occurs.9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result.

There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.16. However.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (6. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (6. Fig.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (6. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated.96) (6. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. However.95) . The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.168 CHAPTER 6. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger. -6. the total balance is needed.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume.94) Simplifying equation (6. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (6. Figure 6.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 6.

The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. In that case. 6. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. . In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required.6. this analysis equation (6. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 169 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.10.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW .170 CHAPTER 6.

12 Arc shape. 11 Double choking phenomenon. 161 Horizontal ﬂow. 157 Multi–phase ﬂow. 142 Lockhart martinelli model. 8. 139 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 1. 64 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 140 Flow regimes in one pipe. 154 C Co–current ﬂow. 143 Hydrostatic pressure. 160 Counter–current ﬂow. 58 H horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 143 P Pendulum action. 62 K kinematic viscosity. 157 Flow regime map. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 67. 111. 143 Compressibility factor. 157 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 130 Linear acceleration. 100 I Ideal gas. 157 O Open channel ﬂow. 109 Piezometric pressure. 3. 57 Boundary Layer. 133 bulk modulus. 69 eﬀective. 112 Newtonian ﬂuids. 67–69 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 100 Neutral stable. 159 Annular ﬂow. 120 Density ratio. 89 B Bingham’s model. 88 Archimedes. 101 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 22 buoyancy. 61 Mass velocity. 143. 100. 72 Liquid phase. 20.SUBJECTS INDEX 171 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 86 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 148 Metacentric point. 161 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 69 Leibniz integral rule. 11 Body force. 3 Deformable control volume. 11. 92–94 buoyant force. 67. 156 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 7. 69. 120 F Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 58. 71 Correction factor. 103 dilettante. 142 . 161 Cut–out shapes. 58 Pneumatic conveying. 11 L Lapse rate. 62. 55. 56. 67. 144 Free expansion. 146 D D’Alembert paradox. 145 N Neutral moment Zero moment. 8 Non–deformable control volume. 66 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 55.

160 purely viscous ﬂuids. 19 Westinghouse patent. 11 Total moment. 149 . 145 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 77 Triangle shape. 62 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 149 Quality of dryness. 67 stability analysis. 11 CHAPTER 6. 162 Slip velocity. 85 shear stress. 56. 69. 155 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 90 Pressure center. 71 Stability analysis. 12 T Terminal velocity. 108 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 67 V Vapor pressure.172 Polynomial function. 143 Real gas. 142 S Scalar function. 92 cubic. 158 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 149 Void Fraction. 82 pseudoplastic. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 88. 142 Spherical coordinates. MULTI–PHASE FLOW U Unstable condition. 130 W Watson’s method. 155 Solid–solid ﬂow. 58 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 67. 160 Vertical ﬂow. 143 Superﬁcial velocity. 144 Sutherland’s equation. 149 Liquid holdup. 149 Reversal ﬂow. 110 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 161 Stable condition. 149 Wetness fraction. 6 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 143 R Rayleigh–Taylor Instability. 95 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 156 thixotropic. 100 Stability in counter–current ﬂow.

4 Westinghouse. 4.AUTHORS INDEX 173 Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 142 F Fanning. 140 Meye. 4 Duckler. 4 Blasiu. 4 H Helmholtz. 4 . 140 M Manning. Hermann von. 4 S Stanton. 4 T Taitle. 4 G Ganguillet. 130 Rose. 4 Martinelli. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. 4 L Leibniz. 153 V von Karma. 4 W Weisbach. 4 R Rayleigh. 153 D Darcy. 4 N Nikuradse. G. 140 Taylor. 110 Reynolds. 4 P Prandtl. 130 Lockhart. Osborne.I. 4 Blasius. 4 Froude. 110 C Cichilli. 140..

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Fluid Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics
- fluidMechanics
- Intro
- Fluid Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics
- Basics of Fluid Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics
- Transkription (Biologie)
- Geology of Indonesia_Sedimentary Basins_Wikibook
- Geology of Arafura Sea_Wikibook
- Junior Problem Seminar
- CcLearn Recommendations - Increase Funding Impact 05 Apr 09
- Elementary Algebra Book
- Santos-elementary Algebra Book
- Consumer Focus and NEN Exec Summary Learning the Copyright Lessons
- Cory Doctorow - Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom Booklet
- Tao Te Ching Pamphlet
- _Down_and_Out_in_the_Magic_Kingdom_-_Sony_PSR500.pdf
- Pathfinder Compatible - The Genius Guide to - The War Master
- Bison
- CC Guide for HSS Monograph Authors CC By
- Naruto d20 - Conjurer's Codex Volume I
- Data Modeler
- Iron Kingdoms - Jack of All Sides
- D20 - Modern - Future - Starship 04 - The Livingstone
- License
- 6_Application of the Fair Dealing Policy for Universities TotheProduction and Sale of Course Packs
- Bison
- Bison
- Fluid Mechanics