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# Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.1.9 December 1, 2009)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv

1 Introduction 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.5.5 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.6 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 20 22 24 33 33 41 41 41 42 43 43 44 46 49 50 51 51 52 55 55 55 57 57 58 62 65 69 71

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Center of the Mass . . . . . . 3.1.2 Center of Area . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.2.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.2.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.2.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.2.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.4 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.4.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8. .7. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 76 . . . . . . .1 Pressure Loss Components . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . 6 Multi–Phase Flow 6.7 I Integral Analysis . 6. . . . . .2 Surface Tension . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity 6. . . . .4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . 110 4. . . . . . . . .6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . 4. .2 Force on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . Buoyancy and Stability . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 5. .6. . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . .2 Control Volume . 5. . . .1 Non Deformable Control Volume 5. . . .2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . . .2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . .2 History . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . 72 . . . . . . 99 . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . .5 Examples For Mass Conservation .5. .10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Fluid Forces on Surfaces . .CONTENTS 4. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . .5. . . . . .8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . 92 . . . . . . . . .1 Stability . . . . . 6. . 5. . . . . .2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . .7. . . . . . . 85 . .4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . .5. . . .6. . . .6. .1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .4. . . . . . . 76 . . . .1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. .9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . 117 119 119 120 121 123 123 130 132 139 139 139 140 141 142 143 147 148 151 152 154 155 156 158 159 161 162 169 5 Mass Conservation 5. . . . . . .9. 6. . . . . 4. . . .3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 171 Authors Index . 173 . .vi CONTENTS Index 171 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Forces in Contact angle. . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1. . The raising height as a function of the radii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of liquid surface.4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.18 3. . . . . .4 3. . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. Cylinder with the element for calculation moment of inertia. The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.1 3. . . . . . .3 3. . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.7 3. . . . .15 1. . .9 1. .2 3. . . . . . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . .14 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. .6 3. . . .11 1.12 1. . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius. Density as a function of the size of sample. . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated. Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics. . . . .8 Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 22 24 25 27 29 29 42 42 44 45 45 46 47 47 vii . . . . . . . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tension control volume analysis. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress. . . .3 1. .17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1.5 1.

. . .5 . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle. . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 4. . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . . 4. . . . . .9 4. . . . .33 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4. . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. . . . . . . . . . . .34 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . . 3. Dam is a part of a circular shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 4. . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . A cart slide on inclined plane. . . . . . . . . .37 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. . .9 Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . . . .17 4. . The forces on curved area. . . .5 4. . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. . . . . .38 4. . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. . . .24 4. . . . . Schematic of submerged area. . . . . . .16 4. . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . .31 4. . . . . 48 50 55 58 58 59 60 64 67 69 73 73 74 74 75 76 78 78 80 81 84 86 86 87 88 88 90 90 91 92 93 94 99 100 100 102 102 103 104 105 107 108 110 . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body. . .22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .” . . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. .4 4.27 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . .moment of inertia and center of area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. .10 Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O. .20 4. . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4. . .39 4.35 4. . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. . . . . . .3 4. . . . .41 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . Stability of two triangles put tougher. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . .14 4. . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. .36 4.viii LIST OF FIGURES 3. . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces. . . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 4. . . .29 4. . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . .15 4. . . . . . . . . . . .28 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 4. . . . .40 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube. . . . . .6 4. . . . . .32 4. . .8 4. . . . . . . .11 4. . . . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .10 6. . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. . . . . . . . .15 6. . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . .6 6.3 6. . . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . Description of depression to explain the instability. . .2 6. . . . . .2 5.LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 6. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 4. . . . . .12 6. . . . . .43 4. . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . . . .4 5.13 6. ix 111 112 113 114 119 120 121 122 125 129 133 141 143 144 144 145 146 147 157 158 159 160 160 161 162 162 168 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. .11 6. . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . .3 5. . . . .45 5.14 6. . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. .42 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. Piston control volume . . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes Height of the liquid for example 5. . . . .

x LIST OF FIGURES .

. . . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 14 15 20 21 25 26 31 32 38 53 54 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . xxxvi Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1 1.5 1. . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . Continue . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . xi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . xxxv continue . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . Moments of Inertia full shape. .5 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xii LIST OF TABLES .

page 34 System energy at state i. page 55 Enthalpy.. see equation (2. Cp Cv EU Eu Ei G gG H viscosity at input temperature T.9). see equation (1. see equation (4. see equation (2.0).18).26). page 36 xiii .NOMENCLATURE ¯ R Universal gas constant.62). page 120 Speciﬁc pressure heat. see equation (2. see equation (4.23).0). see equation (6. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. Ti0 .0).117). see equation (5. page 155 The area of surface. see equation (1. page 12 Martinelli parameter. page 85 The acceleration of object or system. page 34 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 33 µ µ0 Ξ A a Bf c. page 35 subscribe for control volume. see equation (4. see equation (2.43). see equation (2.6). see equation (2. see equation (4. page 37 Speciﬁc volume heat. page 37 Internal energy. see equation (2. page 55 Body force.3). page 34 The gravitation constant.17). see equation (2.v. see equation (2. page 37 Units length. page 70 general Body force.22).17).2).1).

page 34 Work per unit mass.24).17).6).0). see equation (2. page 120 . page 12 Torque.1. see equation (3. page 34 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2.2).38). see equation (2.17). page 34 Speciﬁc gas constant.27). see equation (3.xiv h k L Speciﬁc enthalpy. page 51 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. page 34 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. page 36 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.2). page 57 Subscribe sys.18). see equation (2.17). see equation (4. page 52 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2. see equation (4. see equation (2. see equation (1. page 38 Entropy of the system. page 12 velocity . see equation (1.13).40). page 34 the coordinate in z direction. see equation (1. see equation (2.6).85). page 36 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. page 37 Angular momentum.4). see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (5. page 78 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z sys Energy per unit mass. see equation (2. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin.14).

Add the open question concept. xv . 2009 (2.8.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation.The Book Change Log Version 0. 2009 (2.1 Sep 17.1. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Thermo chapter.1.1. 2009 (2. Version 0. Add example on angular rotation.5 Nov 01. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation.9 Dec 01. Two open questions were released.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released.8. English corrections Version 0. Improve the twoFig macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title. Add some examples to static chapter.

xvi

Add an example to mechanics chapter.

LIST OF TABLES

Version 0.1.8a

July 5, 2009 (2.6 M 183 pages)

Fixing some long titles issues. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.

Version 0.1.8

Aug 6, 2008 (2.4 M 189 pages)

Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.

Version 0.1.6

Jun 30, 2008 (1.3 M 151 pages)

Fix the English in the introduction chapter, (thanks to Tousher). Improve the Index (thanks to Irene). Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).

Version 0.1.5a

Jun 11, 2008 (1.4 M 155 pages)

Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.

Version 0.1.5

Jun 5, 2008 (1.4 M 149 pages)

Add the introduction, viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.

LIST OF TABLES

xvii

Version 0.1.1

May 8, 2008 (1.1 M 111 pages)

Major English corrections for the three chapters. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. Minor corrections for all three chapters.

Version 0.1a April 23, 2008

Version 0.1a

April 23, 2008

The Thermodynamics chapter was released. The mechanics chapter was released. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).

xviii

LIST OF TABLES

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Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. etc.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005 xxvii . Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). etc. contact info. time. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. date. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. Minor contributions (typo corrections. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work.

help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. describing how you contributed to the book. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.net . Dan H.xxviii LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Contact at: my email@provider. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here.

Tousher Yang April 2008.CREDITS xxix Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. review of statics and thermo chapters. Gupta. January 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). .

xxx LIST OF TABLES .

D. Dr. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. As the change in the view occurred. British industry.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. Spain. In the area of compressible ﬂow. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. Currently. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. books and software. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. R.E. xxxi . in GM.G. All the models have practical applicability. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. Moreover. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. For example. Eckert. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. the author’s models were used in numerical works. and Canada. In his early part of his professional life. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). Now. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue).

The author lives with his wife and three children. A past project of his was building a four stories house.xxxii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. . The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. practically from scratch. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. the author just know to learn quickly. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry.

As R. Kook. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals.wikipedia. There is always someone who can add to the book. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. one of this author’s sages. like an open source. On one hand. is a new idea3 .org/wiki/Main Page). Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped.law. However. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. As individuals we have to obey the law. the creation of the POTTO Project. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm.harvard. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. Hence. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. one should increase wisdom. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. xxxiii . but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. The POTTO Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness.

While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey.. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections).ex. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections.ac. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. one also begins to better understand the material. The social function can have at least two components. For example. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. It is not just for experts to contribute. 1989 (see for information http://www. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books.uk/bugclub/raiders. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. Whatever the reasons. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. In these cases. For others. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. For some contributors/authors. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. For some authors. The answer varies from individual to individual. but also students who happened to be doing their homework.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES related problems. So can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics.html) . ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. Thus. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. Thus. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight.” American Scientist. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. In a way. Nigel R. While one can be as creative as possible. 77:139. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area.

graphs and etc.1. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)).1 0.4.0 0.1 0. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. . these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. Thus.0 0.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. These data (tables. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. some errors are possible and expected.2 0. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: Table -1. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin.0 0.0.0. Thus.CREDITS xxxv process.0 0. Unlike a regular book. Additionally.” In this process. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. Books under development in Potto project. Nevertheless.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha ﬁrst chapter 0. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper).8. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. Even if not complete. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts.3 0.0. Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0.0.0.0.01 5 Data are not copyrighted. while in other cases only the gate keeper.0. But more than that. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. It is hoped that the books will be error-free.

These chores can be 6 Originally authored by Dr. Further. A new version is created every several years. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. Abiword. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings.0. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. and Microsoft Word software. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. The text processes. such as OpenOﬃce. many of whom volunteered to help. which include the actual writing of the text. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. but it has roots in the way science progresses. Books under development in Potto project. i. But more A than that. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion. advanced topics. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.) are already presented. a process in which books have a new version every a few years. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. However. and perhaps troﬀ. and special cases.xxxvi LIST OF TABLES Table -1. writing examples. are not appropriate for these projects.e. However. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. ﬁgures. only LTEX. especially LTEX. and all of the examples and data (tables. Schlichting.. who passed way some years ago. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. (continue) Project Name Two/Multi ﬂow phases Progress NSY Remarks TelAviv’notes Version 0. etc. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage. . Word processors.0 Availability for Public Download NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away.

CREDITS

xxxvii

done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Again, because of the open nature of this project, pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books.

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Prologue For This Book

**Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008
**

pages 189 size 2.6M

When this author was an undergraduate student, he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea, so much energy). The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. This author was bothered by this explanation. Now, in this version, it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students, it is very satisfying for the author. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Even in this early development stage, number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies.

**Version 0.1 April 22, 2008
**

pages 151 size 1.3M

The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, and civil engineering. In fact, it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering, and electrical engineering. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book, the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the

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previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).

So. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks.” Later. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. this book avoids this kind of issues. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. The ﬁgures were done by gle. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. and more hands–on approach. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. Streeter and Wylie. Otherwise. In writing this book. The approach adapted in this book is practical. The structure of Hansen. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. The graphics were done by TGIF. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. The chapters are not written in order. Of course.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. The spell checking was done by ispell. and is copyleft by him. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. xli . a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems.

xlii LIST OF TABLES .

Nevertheless. the power and glory of the mighty God. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. and emptiness was upon the face and files. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them.Preface "In the beginning. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. the POTTO project was and void. physics. For example. marked with a Mata mark. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. and there were words. naturally. statics’ equations. the present. However. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. of the bits moved upon said. Let This book." 8 . Basics of Fluid Mechanics. say. the book is not well organized. Like all volunteer work. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. This book contains many worked examples. This book is only to explain his power. which can be very useful for many. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. you can read just chapter (4). And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. Moreover.9 Reading everything will. And the Author there be words. without form. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. if you need information about. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. etc. 9 At 8 To xliii .

10 Dr. rewritten sections. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. If you want to be involved in the editing. errors. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. please drop me a line. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. R. There are also notes in the margin. literature review is always good. G. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. Naturally. whose work was the inspiration for this book. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. isn’t it?). ideas. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). If you have Internet e-mail access. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . but those are solely for the author’s purposes. LTEX knowledge. and assistance. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. . ignore them please. Dr.xliv LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. graphic design.com”. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. This material never went through a close content review. However. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. Eckert. Incorrect language. or proofreading. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. more fundamental material. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). Several people have helped me with this book. directly or indirectly. editing. I am interested in it all.com”. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. E. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. more mathematics (or less mathematics). In practice. ideas for new areas to cover. graphic ability. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock.

Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. These omissions. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. illustration or photo of experiment. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. Material can be further illuminate. question. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. xlv . At this stage.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. mistakes. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. many chapters are missing. Nevertheless.

xlvi LIST OF TABLES .

Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter.CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. etc. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. In fact. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. ﬂuid statics.). Furthermore. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. and statical conditions in continuous material. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . ﬂow stability. glass appears as a solid material. motions. For example. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. ﬂow in enclose bodies. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time.

2 CHAPTER 1.1. -1. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. http://ekkinc. air with dust particle). It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. Or.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. Moreover. For example. INTRODUCTION Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds.

Later. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces.C. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . etc. Newton. At some point. Torricelli. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. When cities increased to a larger size. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. 1. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. Yet. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. turbulence. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . For example. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. For example.1. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. After his initial work. there isn’t a clear winner. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. As in thermodynamics. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. aqueducts were constructed. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. Naturally. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. Bernoulli family. to be followed by stability. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. Thus. Before dealing with the boundaries. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. Euler. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. and continue with Empirical Analysis. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. and D’Alembert. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model.) on the principles of buoyancy.2. conﬂicts with the reality.

These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. resistance by Darcy. Rayleigh. people cannot relinquish control. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. Coulomb. Thus. Rankine. Rose. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. Prandtl and his students Blasius. Meyer. and Poisseuille. Ganguillet. von Karman. Stanton. In the middle of the nineteen century. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Helmhoitz. At the end of the twenty century. Hagen. and many others. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. La Grange. This problem led to two consequences. Taylor. Therefore. mainly in pipes and open channels area. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. Weisbach. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. Bhuckingham. Bossut. Thus. The experimentalists. Fanning. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. after World War Two. as in thermodynamics. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. d’Aubisson. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. and Aeronautics. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. Dubuat. However. Gas Dynamics. Chezy. for example. The Navier-Stokes equations. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. On the “experimental” side. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Hydraulics. there are many . Kirchhoﬀ. Dupuit. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. were Brahms. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. INTRODUCTION lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. Fabre. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. On the theoretical side. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. But. and Kelvin. the way how it was calculated changed.4 CHAPTER 1. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). and Manning.

For example. For example. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. The pressure component in the area . KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. the emphasis is on the physics. 1. and it is referred to the direction of the area. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. It must be remember that force is a vector. In the best scenario. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure.3. the pressure has three components. The second quantity discussed here is the area. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an addtional meaning. For the discussion here. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). Hence. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent.1. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. then the change of volume is at best 5%. So. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. This diﬀerence can be. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. the discussion on the mathematic meaning will be presented (later version). In this book. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. under certain limits. In gaseous phase. The area is measured in [m2 ]. Thus. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. EKK. no shear stress is applied. Later. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. for most practical purposes considered. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. which is force per area has a new meaning. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. Inc). There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. But below the critical point. e. Thus. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor.g it has a direction. The traditional quantity. these programs are as good as the input provided. The unit used to measure is [N].1).

2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. After certain sample size. From solid mechanics study.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. F. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. h is the distance between the plates. the density remains constant. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size.3. In this discussion. In solid mechanics. the velocity of the plate increases also. Figure 1. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses.3). Thus. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. then.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. isn’t it?). (1. INTRODUCTION direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. . the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. -1. When this assumption is broken. (1. -1. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force).2. the F denotes the force. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. here it will be treated as a separate issue.6 CHAPTER 1. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig.2) Where A is the area. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. that is. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. Diﬀerent from solid. it was shown that when the force per area increases. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. 1. the density is deﬁned as Fig.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). U0x F However. h) (1.

8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.5) From equations (1. δt is d = U δt (1.4.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.9) with equation (1.7) From Figure 1. d = U δt = h δβ (1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.11) .4) and (1. In steady state.4.3) (1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. -1. then it can be written for small a angel that δβ dU = δt dy (1.1.8) From equation (1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).4) (1. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear.9) Combining equation (1. Hence.

1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerine. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm.6)) F = 1 × 1. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transfered into the y direction.45[N ] h 0. INTRODUCTION Materials which obey equation (1.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0.1[m] diameters with height of 0. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges.069 × 0.8 CHAPTER 1.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. when the outer cylinder remains stationary.5 A µU ∼ = 53. Equation (1. In fact. Assume steady state conditions. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. The property of viscosity. Thus.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant.1 [m].5 m/sec. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equiledistance from each other and steady state is achived instanly.2[m] and 0. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. the following can be written (see equation (1. Solution . The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ].01 End solution Example 1. Example 1. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. water etc.

ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. while in the dU liquids.986 0. -1. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. the Fig. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. thus. Thus.5.1. However. In gases. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. as pl do ne Ne r-P wt ic eu ct ei pe re ho ps R on ia n hi lip tic po ff di la ta n t . the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. and it resists the ﬂow.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second.5. The same way as in example (1. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. In liquids. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. in gases. Thus.5 Viscosity 1. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate.0078[N m] h ¡ End solution 1.1). the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus.5.4 ¡ ∼ .1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature.1 h 0.1 × 12/60 = 0. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids familys. ri 2 3 = A µU ro − ri µ M= 2 π 0. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature.

10 CHAPTER 1. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. K) in equation (1. On the liquid side below the critical point.5. Well above the critical point. -1. Not all the materials obey this relationship. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . INTRODUCTION Fig.6. From the physical point of view. -1. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1.5). This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. both materials are only a function of the temperature. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity.13) The new coeﬃcients (n.13) are constant.7. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. Figure 1. 1. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ.

002 0.0022 0. [m2 /sec].5. For example. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation.0004 0.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1. 1. 1 C.0008 0. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. Ferraris. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). Skalny.0024 0. This fact explains Fig. In the simple case.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. de Larrard and N.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required.000015 0. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. is above one.0016 0.0026 0.000025 0. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second. the liquid is dilettante.1. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1. However. Materials Science of Concrete VI. cosity is deﬁned as 0. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic.16) The gas density increases with the temperature.0012 0. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.5). the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. Martys. eds.003 0.5. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.0014 0. for most practical purposes..3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.7.0002 5.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . VISCOSITY 11 always positive. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. When n.0006 0.e-05 0. -1.0028 0. When n is below one.of the temperature. F. The kinematic vis. S.8. Mindess and J.0018 0. The liquids which satisfy equation (1. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition.

710−5 .001 0.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.12 CHAPTER 1.9. 2008 0.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature. For many gases.1 Example 1.9. Water viscosity as a func1. Solution Appallying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. -1.5.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth .0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. End solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement. . The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. have expressions that provide an estimate.555 × 524. For isothermal ﬂow. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%. Use the data provide in Table 1. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.8 and Fig.07 3 2 ∼ 2. INTRODUCTION 1. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.002 0. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.00001827 × × 0.1. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1. T T0 3 2 (1.07 + 120 µ = 0.

0002018 0.1. . The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.00001480 0.67 524.0001781 0. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527. Viscosity of selected gases.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.07 527.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.00001720 0.67 518.00000982 0.2.0000203 0.5.0000876 0.1.00001827 0.99 526.93 540.0000076 0.0000146 0. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.05 528.67 528.0001254 Table -1.0000109 0.

000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.000647 0.001194 0.072 0.000946 0.200 0.098 0.986 5-20 0.000245 0.05 0. Viscosity of selected liquids.3.084 0.6 0.14 CHAPTER 1.54 1.01915 0. INTRODUCTION Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0. .15-0.001547 0.

other points can be estimated. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.4 305.3 19. Furthermore.003 20.7685 36.5 151 289. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.3 28. Figure 1. this graph also shows the trends.2 154.47 2.26 44.183 39. for practical purpose.4. Government Printing Oﬃce.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.0 15.6 26. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit. Tr .5. if one point is well documented. -1.8 132 304.0 0. In Figure 1.40685 22.9696 2.865925 50. The lower pressure is.10.0 18. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart. The lines of constant relative pressure. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.5 2. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U. Furthermore. ∼ 1[bar]. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials.016 4. Washington D. The second way.8823 73. then the critical .4 or similar information.3 5.7 647.83865 46. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.5 1.97 44.944 131.01 32.358525 48.Fig.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications. May 1995 p.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.C.1. 19. Vol. In this graph.4 49. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.00 30.0 21. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”). Liquid Metal viscosity 2.289945 27.4 190.636 58.S.256425 48.07 16. cation (mushy zone).096 K Pc [Bar] 12.04 Tc [K] 33.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.54 15. 258.9 15 Table -1.

Example 1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1. .41 154. Even for homogeneous mixture. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.2 = 21.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .35 373.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight. Rev. 26 No. End solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally. In this book.11 (1.18) The third way.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. 2 1956.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. INTRODUCTION µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1. 3 Kyama. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. when none is available.15 ∼ 2.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.35[Bar] Tc = 154.4 50.16 viscosity is obtained as given CHAPTER 1. Makita.

n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. -1.5.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 1+ Mi Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi 2 (1.22) Here.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27.11. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.1.2 Pr=0. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression. For most cases. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij (1. xi is the mole fraction of component i. and µi is the viscosity of component i. 2008 Fig. The subscript i should .

The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. O2 and 80% netrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C.12. be used for the j index.8 Tr=1 Tr=1. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixutre (air) made of 20% oxygen. Example 1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.4 Tr=1. -1. INTRODUCTION 5 Tr=0.2 Tr=1. 2008 Fig. Solution The following table summarize the known details .18 6 CHAPTER 1.1 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.

An example for values for this formula. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1. M 32. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress.996 1.00105 N sec .5.2 0.0000203 0. 28.0 Viscosity.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0.0000182 .8 × 1. m2 m2 and τs = 0.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.0215 N sec .875 1.0000073 kN . To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.001 kN .0 1.2 × 0. µ0 = 0. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.2 × 1.24) . For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.0 1. End solution In very low pressure.996 + 0.0 Φij 1.0 1. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.0 Mole Fraction.2 × 0. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.0 + 0. x 0. µ 0. This equation (1. Mi /Mj 1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 Component O2 N2 i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Molecular Weight.8 × 1. m2 Figure 1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.0024 0.157 .0000203 0.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.86 1.1.0024 0.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.143 0.8 µi /µj 1.0000181 0.00001754 19 µmix ∼ 0.8 × 0. in theory.

2-28.60 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.3 4.5.49 [MPa] 6. INTRODUCTION n Tc and mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.52 26.26) 1.74 [MPa] 4.25) n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.10 1.5 [Bar] 172.5 [Bar] nf nf .27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.00 [MPa] Est 78. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.20 CHAPTER 1.32 1.97 2.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf Pc 57.49 0.5 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).5. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature). It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.3 [Mpa] nf 7.03-4.06 1.80 1.5. Table -1.5 0.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.20 1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.

Fanno Flow Standard basic Table (continue) 21 chemical component Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus N 109 m 1.174 Tc nf na na 591.33) From equation (1.79 K na 647.32) On constant pressure lines.1.109 [MPa] na 22.15-2.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v =− P =const v (1.5.5.096 K Pc nf na na 4.28 2. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.09 1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant). and therefore equation (1.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1. VISCOSITY Table -1. The thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.34 1.34) T . These deﬁnitions are related to each other. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. dP = 0. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.5 2.62 1.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.064 [MPa] In the literature.

6: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0. Solution x Fig. dℓ2 the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are furR1 ther away.15 109 . In contrast. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and .15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End solution 1. R2 dℓ 1 Example 1.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].00035 End solution Example 1.22 CHAPTER 1.6 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. -1.35) The last equation (1.13.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. INTRODUCTION Equation (1.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.01 = 2.7: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to 2dβ1 the molecules increase of the rey jecting forces between each other 2dβ2 when they are closer. Surface Tension control volume analysis. Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v ∂P v 5 ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.

r. Thus. inner and outer. Furthermore. Consider a small element of surface.6. The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface.37) Equation (1. In many (physics.36) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.38) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. When the surface tension is constant. In the vertical direction. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). A soap bubble is made of two layers. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. . The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. SURFACE TENSION 23 bubbles. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size.37) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius.40) Example 1.37) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoint phases or materials. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. Thus. The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. the equation (1. which contains n bubbles with equal radii.37) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1.36) For a very small area. surface tension. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi .1. The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry. the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry.8: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity.39) R Where R is the radius of the sphere. The second with two equal radii.

that is the work is done on the system.42) Where. The reversible process requires very slow compression.43) . the masses of the solid. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1. liquid. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer.45) (1.6. Forces in Contact angle. For example. It can be noticed that the work is negative.39) for reversible process. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1.41) The minimum work will be for a reversible process. -1. INTRODUCTION The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.14.24 Solution CHAPTER 1. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines. and gas can be ignored. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that Fig. It is worth noting that for very slow process. In Figure 1. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) S L and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase.44) into equation (1. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . End solution 1.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. consider the point where three phases became in contact. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. This contact point occurs due to free surface G reaching a solid boundary.14.44) (1. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage.43) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1.

In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1.7 π/4. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids. a contact angle is created to balance it. -1.43).6.83 π/3. The contact angle for air. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. thus. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. So.15).76 to π/3. Table -1.6.74 to π/3. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. This statement is correct in most cases. the solid reaction force must be zero. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting).83 π/4. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. chemical component Steel Steel. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid Wetting solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. gas medium and the solid surface.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Contact Angle π/3.4 π/3. The surface tension forces must be balanced.2 π/4 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] . Description of wetting and ular phenomenon. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting.15. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. For example. The surface tension is a molec. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. On the other hand.7 π/6 to π/4. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures.1. however. SURFACE TENSION 25 For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞.74 π/4.Fig.5 π/3. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. Thus.

5 Labuntsov D. R.. 7 Gaetner. Heat Transfer. 1975 2 Bergles A. To solve the shape of the liquid surface..517. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. A. F. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two–dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1. In Figure 1.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. No 1. ASME. INTRODUCTION Table -1. and Ostrovsky.N. Prog. Aladev O.I.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal.T.372. vol 1 pp 365 .16 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. H. is the atmospheric pressure. (continue) chemical component Copper Copper Contanct Angle mN m π/3 π/2 Source [7] [8] 1 R. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. papes 717 -728. and Dhir. J. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4).. G.” J. pages 1465-1470.6. pp..” Chem. No 12. Symp.. 6 Basu.. E. Vol.16). the pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. 3 Tolubinsky. ρ = R(x) . and Westwater. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. 8 Wang. E. Siegel. Pages 509 . M.16. and Dhir. K.I.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. G. Warrier. 56. Y. W. V. V. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. on the gas side.26 CHAPTER 1. Energetika I transport. R. V. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. (1993). J.38) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields σ (1. 4 Arefeva E.. The pressure. Eng. C. Heat Transfer 115. K. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in the Figure 1. I. 124.. and Rohsenow W. N. Appalling equation (1. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. Vol. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR ..38) is applicable to it. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. Ser. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer..46) g h(x). The contact angle for air. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. 9..

metry) and the derivative at hx An alternative presentation of equation (1. x+dx.51) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is refered to as Laplace’s capillarity constant. Description of liquid surface. Equation (1. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared. The diﬀerential dh is h. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.52) .50) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 − d2 h =0 dx2 (1.47) h P0 P ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x.46) yields σ (1.16.47) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter Fig.6.47) into equation (1. h = h(x). or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). Substituting equation (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence.48) g h(x) ρ = 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x) 0 P0 ¨ h(x) Equation (1.1.50) is ghρ = Integrating equation (1.50) dh (1. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 27 (1. SURFACE TENSION The radius of any continuous function.49) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (sym˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations. -1.51) into ¨ ˙ identys h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.50) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1.

Equation (1.56) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ = h= dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.28 After the integration equation (1.54) Equation (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.57) = dx −1 (1. INTRODUCTION 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. Shamefully.54) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1.58) Equation (1.54) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation4 . the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.52) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp CHAPTER 1.59) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp 4 This (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations. constant = −1 .59) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant.53) At inﬁnity. .55) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields h = ˙2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.

6. gas density and r is the radius of tube. In that case equation (1.4 0. For a small tube radius. (1.8 Height [cm] 0. The height based on equation (1.5 1. otherwise it will not be there.60) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.49) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. the small scale indicates 5 Actially.6 0.2 1.0 0.6. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle5 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads.2 1. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Capilary Height contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. However. SURFACE TENSION 29 The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.61) Figure 1.0 0.9 1.6.49) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical shaper (small gravity eﬀect).7 Radii [cm] May 29. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. This book is introductory.18 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is avaible see Table 1. -1.17 as blue line.17. The actual height is shown in the red line.61) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.1. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.4 2. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . -1. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface. However. .1 2. The raising height as a function of the radii.61) is shown in Figure 1.2 0.1 Capillarity h The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume).61) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure. Furthermore. The raising height as a 1. Equation (1. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. Furthermore. 2008 hmax 2σ = g ∆ρ r function of the radius.3 0.8 2.1. for extremely small radii equation (1. On the other hand.60) R Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the Fig.6 0. there are information about the contact angle. 1. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.18.60) becomes Fig. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.0 { Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is 2 σ cos β h= g ∆ρ r 0 Theory actual working range (1. For large radii equation (1. equation (1.

18. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. Neglect the weight of the ring.61).0002 End solution Example 1.” The depression height.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End solution Example 1. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β . D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. INTRODUCTION that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed.10: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.7.9: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ].0728 = ∼ 2. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. Example 1.17. The acutal dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. However.11: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.0[N/m2 ] r 0. In conclusion. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above.39).02 cm.30 CHAPTER 1. h is similar to equation (1.61) with a minus sign.

70 38.30 23. SURFACE TENSION 31 The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.0773 -0.10 22.0832 -0.0 22.0966 -0.2049 -0.1117 n/a -0.6 25. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Surface Tension 27.00 45.1484 -0.1094 -0.1295 -0.4 28.50 36.1308 -0.12 425-465.1118 .60 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C - correction mN mK n/a -0.0890 -0. End solution Table -1.70 58.20 43.95 34. However.50 24.3 22.04 × 0.1.20 24.50 41.95 36.1160 -0.1085 -0.20 ∼ 21 64.0842 n/a -0.1037 -0. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.1191 -0.0920 -0.50 28.1063 -0. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.10 32.40 32.6.88 39.1066 -0.0 0.1160 -0. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.10 29.8 32.30 43.60 27.1011 n/a -0.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.0598 n/a -0.1291 -0.0728 ∼ . Therefore.1211 -0.1159 -0.1484 -0.20 47.1120 -0.70 26.7.12 33.

85 11.90 43.10 28. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK 22.32 CHAPTER 1.15 43.7.1101 -0.0 12.60 n/a 54-69 28.0972 -0.0902 -0.00 36.70 38.0935 -0.00 41.1189 n/a -0.1172 -0.1372 -0.1100 n/a n/a -0.1514 -0.6 5.1177 -0.067 -0.0-48.4 27 72.91 14.1104 . INTRODUCTION Table -1.0777 -0.50 23.80 30.90 n/a n/a -0.

1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. In this deﬁnition. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). The dimensions of this material can be changed. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. So. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. 2. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Work In mechanics. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. Two. 33 .

the conservation is applied to all systems. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration). potential energy (gravity).6) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force.5) For the unit mass of the system equation (2. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system.E. is the internal energy per unit mass. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. etc. For such body force. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as mU1 2 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 (2.34 CHAPTER 2. . Eu .3) Interesting results of equation (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results.2) The system energy is a state property. A common body force is the gravity. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. chemical potential. work. The kinetic energy is K. The statement describing the law is the following. The “new” internal energy.5) is transformed into U2 2 U1 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. = mU 2 2 (2. and electrical energy.

it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality.13) .12) The last integral can go though several states.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. If there is no lost. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative.1.10) The time derivative operator. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law.9) (2. choosing any point in time will make it correct. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. the integral is independent of the path. Hence. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.7) In the same manner.9) reduced to D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. the rate energy equation is D EU DU D Bf z ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU +m Dt Dt Dt (2. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. δQ =0 T (2. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.2. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. Bf .8) For the case were the body force. BASIC DEFINITIONS 35 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass.

equation (2.18) For isentropic process. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. Thus.18) the (2.17) is reduced to dH = V dP .16) into (2.21) . Thus.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.17) yields T dS = dH − V dP (2. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.16) (2.19) (2. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. The equation (2.17) in mass unit is T ds = du + P dv = dh − dP ρ (2.15) (2. Furthermore. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2. isn’t correct.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2.20) (2. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process.36 CHAPTER 2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. it still remail valid for all situations.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy.17) (2. h. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties. For reversible process equation (2. the enthalpy of the system.

and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. k. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.3145 kj kmol K (2. 37 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as ∂h ∂T Cp ≡ (2. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one.24) For solid. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2. Normally the relationship of temperature. pressure.27) .” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.2.1.26) Thus.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. k≡ Cp Cv (2.25) Application of Avogadro’s law. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas.

07279 0.0299 1.5482 5.4909 1.29) (2.6618 1.51835 0.29637 2.400 1.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu (2.31) .6385 0.2518 3.327 The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.7354 0.054 4.01 30.409 1.124 44.5734 0.013 114.1.097 18.0035 0.003 2.948 58.183 28.7448 1.667 1.14304 0.7662 1.01 28.5203 1.30) (2.186 1.20813 0.25983 0.1926 14.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.9216 1.4897 1.12418 0.29683 0.0849 1.48152 1.18855 0.1156 10.299 1.07 28.016 16. From equation (2.091 1.393 1.18892 0.6179 0.07703 4.7164 0.400 1.04 20.667 1.126 1.7445 1.400 1. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.38 CHAPTER 2.4108 1.7113 0.6794 1.7165 0.1.044 1.0416 1.230 31.6529 0.999 44.237 1.27650 0.8723 0.2537 1.28700 0.667 1.0413 1.8418 1.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R (2.29680 0.970 39.41195 0.289 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Table -2.3122 1.28) and subsisting into equation (2.28) Utilizing equation (2.2091 2.

This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z= PV RT (2.38) The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas. k value ranges from unity to about 1.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.667.32) Cp = kR k−1 (2. of Classical thermodynamics.35) transformed into s2 − s1 k T2 P2 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process. BASIC DEFINITIONS This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio. ∆s = 0.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.1).2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv = R k−1 39 (2.36) (2.37) as T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = P2 P1 k−1 (2.1. the following is obtained ln T2 = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.39) .

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS .40 CHAPTER 2.

center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. Here. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitute to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass.1 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. center of the mass and two. rho) as a function of the location. ﬁrst. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics).1. moment of inertia. 3. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction.1 Center of the Mass In many engineering problems. the body will not rotate. In other words. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. then a moment in addtional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). Note. 3. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. etc. 41 .

even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry.1) can be transfered into x= ¯ 1 tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. equation (3. m is the total mass of the object. The density. x. Thin body center of mass/area The density. -3.3) Fig. Also.1) z Here. Thus. 3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density.42 In x coordinate. xi ρ(xi )dV V (3.2 which has density. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi .1. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribution in the y nor by z directions. are constant and can be canceled.2 Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. the dV element has ﬁnite dimensions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS y 1 x= ¯ m x ρ(x)dV V (3. ρ. the body was a three dimensional shape. In same fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi = ¯ 1 m dV x Fig. y or z. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.2) where xi is the direction of either. -3.2.3) can be transfered into xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. Thus equation (3.1. the center will be deﬁned as dm CHAPTER 3.1. Description of how the center of mass is calculated. schematic. ρ and the thickness.4) . the mass. Thus. t.

6) The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation. 3.2 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. 43 Finding the centeroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.5) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3.2.3.2. Furthermore. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability. MOMENT OF INERTIA when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.7) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = V V (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm (3. 3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.8) (x2 + y 2 ) dm V .5) If the density is constant then equation (3. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. rk = Im m (3.

2. The schematic that explains the sumIyy = A x2 + z 2 dA (3.44 CHAPTER 3.9) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Ixx = A r2 dA = Ixx m ρt (3. -3. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y x= y2 + z2 (3.13) mation of moment of inertia.10) where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness.14) 3. Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.2 3.15) .11) y’ C z Thus.12) z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Fig. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.2.3.2.2. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.2. equation (3.10) can be written as Ixx = A ∆y x y +z 2 2 dA (3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixxm = m r2 dm = ρ t A r2 dA (3.

-3.4 and therefore.18) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3.3. If the same areas are similar thus n Ixx = i=1 Ixx i = n Ixx i (3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.19) Fig. Cylinder with the element for calculation moment of inertia. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.2.16) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.20) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. Fig. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle.20) Equation (3.4.5.15) can be expended as Ixx =0 45 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.16) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero. -3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A (∆y) + (∆z) A 2 dA = (∆y) + (∆z) 2 dA = r2 A (3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero. MOMENT OF INERTIA equation (3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. For example. of the h dr r .17) Hence. n 2 1 y x Ixx = i=1 Ixxi (3.

2.12) as following Ixx = A 0 y z b dx a 0 dA a 2 2 y +z dA = z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 x Fig. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous. -3.6 around x coordinate.5 as r0 0 dV Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 2 r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 1 1 r0 4 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End solution Example 3.5.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.6. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. This value will be used in later exampls. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. Solution . Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.3: To study the assumption of zero thickness. as shown in Figure 3.1: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia. r0 . REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.46 CHAPTER 3.2: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. End solution Example 3.

4: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia of the parabola.7. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.3. Ixx Ixxm February 28.21) dz dIx x m b a3 + z2 = ρdy 12 r2 r2 A ba A a b (3. The ratio of the moment of inertia of two-dimensional to three–dimensional. y = αx2 . b has no eﬀect on the Fig. shown in Figure 3.24) It can be noticed right away that equation (3. 2008 t a End solution Example 3.22) Fig. -3. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3.9.22) to write as t/2 tions of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations. -3.23) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 = 2 = t2 Ixxm t b a + b a3 1 + a2 (3. x can be done as following I xx b a3 12 (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 47 The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number.24) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero.2. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1. A square element for the calculaThe total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3.8. 1 This ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name.8. The results are present in Figure 3. Additionally it can be noticed that the ratio a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error1 . error. .

18) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α A (∆x=xc )2 Ix x Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End solution b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = Example 3. Y h dy X a . First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ A=2 0 dA/2 b/α CHAPTER 3. Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment when a simetrical traingle is attached on left. REVIEW OF MECHANICS (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 2(3 α − 1) 3 b α 3 2 The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. The center of every 2 element is at. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element 2 area is used before and therefore √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α Fig. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.48 Solution For y = b the value of x = b/α.25) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. Assume that base is a and the hieght is h. dA (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 (b − αξ 2 )dξ = (3.5: Calculate the momenet of Inertia of strait angle traingle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.4). -3.9. What is the moment when a simetrical traingle is attached on bottom.12) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3.25) 3αb 15 α − 5 The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. Description of parabola for calculation of moment of inertia and center of area.

28) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia. Ix = A y x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.2.26) For example.27) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. MOMENT OF INERTIA Solution 49 The right adge line equaiton can be calcualted as y x = 1− h a or x y = 1− a h Now using the monent of inertia of rectangule on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3.28) expanding equation (3. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.2)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of iniria will be sum as The rest is under construction.29) A . the product of inertia is commonly used. End solution a3 h 2 3. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.3.2.

10.31) y y b x a ′ x Fig.30) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 End solution 3.2.32) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. The product of inertia at the center is zero.33) System which creates equation (3.6: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.50 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3. Solution The equation of the line is y= a x+a b ′ (3. -3.33) referred as principle system. .32) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. Product of inertia for triangle. Example 3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.

The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . thus. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A.34) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3.34) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the addtional meaning which be added. 2 (Ur × ω).38) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time.36) The velocity. the system acceleration called the internal forces. The same as in the dynamic class.35) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other.39) . which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. Two. ˙ 3. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. ω×(r × ω). it can be treated as the regular derivative.3. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.37) where r is the location of the particles from the origin.4 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. dm. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 51 3. Angular. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. stresses). The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. Coriolis. F= ρ rdV V (3. Yet.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. r × ω.3. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other.

45) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.46) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.38) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. consider a particle moving in x–y plane. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.41) m It can be noticed (well.40) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3. (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.44) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.4.40) where Tτ is the torque. 3. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j. .1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force.52 CHAPTER 3. in the same fashion. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. The force can be written.42) To understand these equations a bit better.43) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3.

3.4. yc A Ix x XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 53 Table -3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α . Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .1.

REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.54 CHAPTER 3. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc . yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 .2.

with acceleration.g.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. -4. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. y. Later. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. Furthermore. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. However.1) erated system under body forces. Fig. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. that pressure can increase and later decrease.1. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant 55 . a as shown in Figure 4. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. gG (x. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. a = 0.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. In these derivations.1. several assumptions must be made. z). the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. 4. dy.

For example. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. now. it has a direction).5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. FLUIDS STATICS compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). the dot product of the following is ˆ • gradP = ∂P i ∂x (4. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4.4) In general. Even though. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. the pressure is treated.2) In the same fashion. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation the dot product results in in • gradP = ∂P ∂n (4. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.8) (4. As before. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or gradP = ρ geﬀ (4. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. If the pressure.56 CHAPTER 4. where n is the steepest direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. P .6) Hence.7) .3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4.

8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations. 4. pressure. it will be used.3. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. P .12) (4. First. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4. and temperature. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 . There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.9) and substituting it into equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 57 Some refer to equation (4. 4. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. ρ.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.3. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.9) Utilizing equation (4.8) as the Fluid Static Equation.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.4. For example.10) and constant in equation (4. z) = −ρgz + constant (4.11) (4. y. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4.11) and therefore P (x. . However. Traditionally.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. y) = constant (4.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4.

Figure 4. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.3.2 4.3.14) becomes P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.2.3. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. .2.3. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. 4. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. It is evident from equation (4. -4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.15) In the literature. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. the right hand side of the equation (4.58 CHAPTER 4. -4. Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4.

85[kg/m3 ]. The ratio of the Fig.16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.82 × 0. h . -4.000179264[kPa].76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. P valve 2 1 Example 4. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. For smaller width. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . Pa = 13545.82[m/sec].76 ∼ 101095. Equation (4. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.4. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part.3.4. U tube is L. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. End solution (4. Hence. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 59 Example 4.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. The mercury density is 13545.3. L. The high of the Mercury is 0. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. Locate the liquids surfaces.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.85 × 9. Gas The pressure.39[P a] ∼ 1.

Thus.4). imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). -4. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End solution 4. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.2. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured.60 The mass conservation results in CHAPTER 4. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4.Fig. This way. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected.3. . One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. FLUIDS STATICS Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube.5.

the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .20) −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. the volume ratio.20) equation (4.21) For the small value of the area ratio. A2 /A1 << 1.18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. if the volumes in two containers is equal then h2 A2 (4.18) the gas density was neglected.2. .22) becomes h2 = (4.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. In steady state. in writing equation (4. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. Additionally. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications. This technique utilizes the opposite range. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 .4. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. then equation (4. Figure 4. ρ2 .19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.22) A2 A1 (4. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence. Additional parameter.23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density.3. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. For example.20). h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid). will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. Here. With the equation for height (4. Thus.3.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement 61 For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large. In the previous technique.23) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height.

FLUIDS STATICS 4. Equation (4.24) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4. As ﬁrst approximation.26) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.3. density and location.25) (4.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.3.25) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.3. In the gas phase.27) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be P ρ0 g h − =1+ P0 P0 correction factor 2 (4.29) . the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas). The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. 4.28) h2 + ··· 6 (4.27) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. Thus equation (4.62 CHAPTER 4.26) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure. liquids and other.

Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.34) 3 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. For these cases. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 63 Equation (4.33) The integration of equation (4. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.4. In general. Fortunately.3.28).28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. here. However.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).39). The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst.3.31) Without going through the mathematics. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue.33) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. . For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . 4. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.30) (4.28).3. These deviations have a limited practical purpose.27) and (4.29) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use3 . In these cases. the value of the compressibility factor.32) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4.32) The variables for equation (4. Z. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. a numerical integration must be carried out. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). So.

6.38) e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4.35) in equation (4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). The solution is presented in equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4.39) and is plotted in Figure 4. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction).11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form g ρ0 z BT e −1 = z g ρ0 BT (4.35) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.6. is a typical length of the problem. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant.64 CHAPTER 4.40) Fig.36) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.37) has units of length.39) March 11. BT /g ρ0 .41) . Sometimes. -4.34) can be represented in a more convenient form as ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.36) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.37) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.35) Equation (4. with units of length. Utilizing equation (4. The integration constant.

45) with (4. Additionally.3.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.42) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions.40) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 65 An approximation of equation (4.4 4. For h = 0.3. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4. For example. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.42) It can be noticed that equation (4.3. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. Hence. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height.4.45) . P/BT is small (<< 1).4.44) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition.46) (4. 4. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric pressure BT (P − P0 ) + 2 corrections P − P0 BT 2 3 BT + 6 P − P0 BT + · · · = z g ρ 0 (4. Here.).43) where h here referred to height or distance. For the atmosphere. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects.

51) P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − −. negative direction). I am grateful to my adviser E. FLUIDS STATICS Separating the variables in equation (4. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.50) It can be noticed that equation (4.51) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i.47) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. . just ignore it.46) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4. Equation (4. 5 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4.50) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.. However. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease.47) Deﬁning a new variable4 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. If you feel that it is too simple.66 CHAPTER 4.49) Or in a more convenient form as P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. please.50) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas.48) After integration of equation (4. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 Equation (4. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. 4 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.R. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor (4.e.. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.G. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter5 . h.

The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. h. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis.25).. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces.52) Equation (4.4. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim 1− h Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx 67 = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − . Equation (4. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.45). It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab.50) represents only the pressure ratio. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition.3.2 The Stability Analysis g Cx h Cx h ( R Cx ) 1− 1+ T0 T (4. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. Suppose that h for some reason. Clearly. For engineering purposes. -4. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further.7) What could happen? There are two Fig. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. equation (2. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. to yield P P0 T0 T ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 4.7. That is. (4. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. Under equilibrium.4. . The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. Cx .3. inﬂuences at only large values of height.51) and (4. It has to be noted that these equations (4.53) *Advance material can be skiped* It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. Thus.50) is stable and if so under what conditions. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model.52) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). higher heights).52) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient).50) and (4.

58) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4.57) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .50) but can be approximated by equation (4.56) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.59) .57) Expanding equation (4.51) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.54) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. FLUIDS STATICS The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4. The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). In reality. The process. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations..53) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T (4.57) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2. However. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process.55) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.54) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh.68 CHAPTER 4.. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). That is. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).

From a mathematical point of view.4. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. Thus. Equation r P b ρb (4. -4.58) provides the conditions to determine the stability. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. the discussion is separated into two different issues. At ﬁrst glance. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. while the gravity Fig. the unstable situation is continuously unstable.60) and using the ideal gas identity.59) and (4. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore.60) After rearrangement of the inequality (4. density and pressure. Thus. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. it transformed to (k − 1) g ρ Cx > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. However.3. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. .11) has two terms on the right hand side.will not be introduced here. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. rb the density. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. it is said that situation is neutral. The body g ∝ r2 force was assumed until now to be constant. ρ and the body force.61) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. around this value additional analysis is needed 6 .5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. Thus. The varying gravity eﬀects on force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. 6 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice.8. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. g. 4. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation.3.

Thus.5. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. 2 ρb Pb RT 2 rb (R T ) (4.3. 4.5.. equation (4. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. As before.67) . The integration of equation (4. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity..63) is transformed into P Pb G dP =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus G ∂P = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4. equation (4.65) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ G (r − rb ) P = =1− − + . is employed.64) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4.70 4. equation (4.65) Equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS In physics. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . numerical integration is a possible solution.3. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body.63) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.66) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.63) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. Z.62) where here G denotes the general gravity constant. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. Again.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity CHAPTER 4.

Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are 1 d r2 dr Or in a vector form as • 1 P ρ + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.35) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in P −P0 ∂P G (4.68) Equation (4.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.72) .73) r2 dP ρ dr + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.69) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD With the same process as before for ideal gas case.3.65) is standard correction f actor 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ P G (r − rb ) = =1− − + .3.3. If the liquid “equation of state” (4..6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11. P0 −P BT e = Constant − 4.5.. 4. if applicable.000 [m]. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.4. As before taylor series for equation (4. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb 71 e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4. 2 ρb Pb Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4.70) = −ρ0 BT 2 ∂r r which the solution of equation (4.71) r Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.70) is e BT g ρ0 (4. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .

body forces were considered as one-dimensional. This angle/direction can be found using the following tan−1 β = tan−1 a 5 = ∼ 27. for the eﬀective gravity where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4. in a two dimensional system. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. The general.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations.812 = 11. Thus.3: What is the angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. However.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.01◦ g 9.72 CHAPTER 4.4. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage.76) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. 4. As before. Equation (4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i (4. Example 4. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order.015[m/sec2 ] End solution .75) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. the previous derivations can be easily extended. This requires to ﬁnd the angle of the eﬀective body force.74) For example. FLUIDS STATICS 4.

-4. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. End solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart.4: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.77) F (a ) β Fig. If there is no resistance. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.4. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− Fnet m (4.10. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 27.1 a 73 m 5 sec g geﬀ Fig. Example 4.9.4. A cart slide on inclined plane. -4. The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicular to the slope. Calculate the shape of the surface.78) . Thus.10.

Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.4. -4. The constant pressure will be along P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + To illustrate this point.81) (4.83) . (4. FLUIDS STATICS (4. For simpliﬁcation reasons.11. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig.82) Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 .74 The angle of the surface.5 is provided. α < β.81) can be integrated as z − z0 = ω r 2g 2 2 Fig.80) z r unit mass ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. example 4.79) (c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. So. -4. Schematic to explain the angular angle. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4. ω2 r2 2g (4. r su ce fa th wi t ic fr n io α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4.12. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ CHAPTER 4.

Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution nt .4. equation (4. The center of rotation is a distance.6: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . -4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 75 pr es S ω L co xL Fig. End solution Example 4. Example 4.13. L from the “left” hand side.5: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.13.82) represent the pressure line. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Thus.4. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.5. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account.

5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes.5 is rotating with upper part height of .7: In the U tube in example 4. At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored.76 CHAPTER 4. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. 4.14.8: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ Fig.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. Calculate the minimum forces.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ F1 F2 b[m] dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA The pressure. This section deals with these calculations. Example 4.5.13 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. -4. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. Rectangular area under pressure. Later.14. These calculations are divided into two categories. End solution Example 4. a simple case will be examined. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. FLUIDS STATICS In Figure 4. . what happen the rotation approach very large value? 4. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. Initially.

5. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 Additionally. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End solution The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler.84) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract.84) and also a center of area. Additional equation is needed. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3.4. Symmetrical Shapes . Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. Looking at the above calculations. It is the total force. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The liquid total moment on the gate is b 77 M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.

The boundaries of the integral of equation (4. The integral in equation (4. -4. The general forces acting on submerged area. h(ξ) 1 P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg (4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. the force is F = A CHAPTER 4.89) F2 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 Fig. Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments.85) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.88) ξ1 ξ1 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4. FLUIDS STATICS "O" β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Fig.87) The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA ξ sin β (4.78 Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.16.15.90) .86) ξdA + xc )] y ξ0 β a F1 b "O" (4.15. First. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. Ix ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4.85) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β In a ﬁnal form as Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 0A+ 0 xc A 1 (4. -4.85) 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA In this case.

5. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4. Additionally.91) and the total force is given by (4.93) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. is about the axis through point “O” into the page. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. additional equation is required. Thus. Equation (4.91) Example 4. in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required.97) .91) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. the forces can be negative or positive.96) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4. However.87).94) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4.92) (4.87) and (4.90) can be written in more compact form as My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 79 The moment of inertia. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. Ix x ρ sin β (4.95) In the solution. Ix x .16 which has two forces that balance the body.17). the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero.96) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.8 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Equations (4.

The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.g. (4.80 The integral in equation (4.99).100) (4. FLUIDS STATICS Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.99) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density. (4. These equations (4.91) and (4.91) and (4.98) The compact form can be written as Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix y (4.18) for triangle 1 and 2).87). -4. There are many combinations of problems (e.17.102) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.9: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.96) can be written as A yc CHAPTER 4.99) The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3. y ξ dA y x Example 4.87). Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 Fig.101) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided. (4.18.

F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 = − 72 « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and its width b and thus.4. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 36 + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a The product of inertia of the triangle can 2 be obtain by integration. It can be noF1 ticed that upper line of the triangle is F2 x y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 . Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 2 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is − and its width b and thus. Fig. 72 « « « „„ „ 2 15 12 12 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β 72 „„ « « 48 24 1 +24 + a 0 Patmos a „„ 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β + 72 End solution . moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 1 81 − 0) 3 /36. The general forces acting on non b ( ( 1− 0 −a)x + b 0 0 +a symmetrical straight area. 2 a b2 1 +2 a b 2 0 +a 2 Ixy = 0 1 − 0 )x + b x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .18. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. -4.5.

The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned.5. . it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. the density was assumed to be constant. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.103) In the same way.1.105) according to equation (3.15) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4.107) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. FLUIDS STATICS In the literature. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. Thus. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.108) 7 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function.106) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4.82 4.1 Pressure Center CHAPTER 4. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O.99).104) To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. 4.91) and equation (4.1.” Thus. In fact. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. If density can be represented by average density. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density7 . the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4. the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.5.

112) After similar separation of the total integral.4.109) (4. However. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. Moreover.115) 8 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here.111) where the density.5. the reasonable average can be used. the integral has be carried out. the following can be written x c 1 A1 xc 2 A2 xc n An Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn ξ dA An Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 83 In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably8 . .114) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. In cases where density is non–continuous.113) If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. The moment around axis y.110) As before for single density. but constant in segments.

Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . a2 = 1. Solution y "O" Since there are only two unknowns.114) can be used by modifying it. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. FLUIDS STATICS To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.111). only two equations are h4 needed.84 CHAPTER 4. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xci Ai . Example 4.5[m]. h3 = 3[m]. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero).19. h2 = 2[m]. and b1 = 4. as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig. the following equations are obtained Thus.5[m]. pressure can be used as ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 β h1 a2 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ].114) and (4. The forces distances are a1 = 1. The geometries of each areas are „ h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β h2 sin β sin β sin β h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 2 2 2 xc 1 = xc 2 = xc3 = A1 = A2 = A3 = − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc3 ) A3 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values.19. Equation ρ4 (4. The heights are: h1 = 1[m].and h4 = 4[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. -4. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur.75[m]. which are (4.10: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4.

The intermediate results in SI units ([m].215 Ix x 2 = 44. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A P n dA ˆ (4.696 A2 = 3. dA.535 A3 = 3. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.535 Ix x 1 = 14.292 Ix x 3 = 86. only a dot product is needed as . outward as positive.92[N ] End solution 4.4. So. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 85 The second equation is (4. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4.2 Force on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption).116) Here.117) The result of the integral is a vector.5355 xc3 = 4. if the y component of the force is needed.9497 A1 = 2. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source. [m2 ].114) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 ρi+1 xci Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − F1 = P3 i=1 (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix x i Patmos ρi+1 xc i Ai F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy. the pressure is treated as a scalar function.2892 xc2 = 3. At this stage. It is simpler to compute the terms separately.5.5.

118)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.120) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. for example.86 CHAPTER 4. -4. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as x y dAz Fy = A P dAy (4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. FLUIDS STATICS z dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.118) dAy dAx dA From this analysis (equation (4. Equation (4. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. The forces on curved area. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.20.21. However. Fig.121) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4.122) and the angle in the other plane. The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. “y z” is tan θzy Fz = Fy (4. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4.123) Fig. -4.119) The same can be said for the x direction.120) implicitly means that the net force on the .

21 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page).22. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. Thus.11: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. For example. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. Example 4.124) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). The gravity is 9. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ].22)). 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are diﬀerent. The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . -4.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m]. Inside the slot. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. Figure 4. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ End solution The integration results in ρ g b r2 Fx = 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Another way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. direct and indirect. Ax (see Figure 4. why? Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 . The diﬀerential area that will be used is.23) as Ax xc δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x dirction A θ Ax Ay r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ Fig. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. Solution The force in the x direction is dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 87 body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.5.4.). Dam is a part of a circular shape. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body.

24) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4.1 and 3. FLUIDS STATICS A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).24. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375.23. -4. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL9 ). just a demonstration! .88 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as 1000 × 9.0[N ] Fx = 2 CHAPTER 4. -4. Area above the dam arc subthe y direction is the area times width.2. tract triangle. Fig. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 θ 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1. The force in Fig.23) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. The arc center (see Figure 4.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.65174[m] 9 Well.

31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx 89 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx r cosθ0 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.348 × 22375.4.2 ∼ 7792.5.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.65174 ∼ 0.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following θ0 dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is M= 0 cos θ0 dM θ 2 θ 2 or M= 0 θ0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin cos dθ .21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.

It is much simpler now to use the second method.25. It force calculations. -4. Moment on arc element around Point “O. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst.26) in this case is P h dA y= n i=1 a i xi b dA dy dx y x dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 Fig. Example 4. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. Solution o The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. In fact. To demonstrate this point further. -4.” g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. The function of the dam shape is y = n i i=1 ai x and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat).26. FLUIDS STATICS O g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) M= 4 The vertical force can be obtained by θ0 θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin θ 2 Fv = 0 P dAv dF P dAv π 2 or θ0 θ/2 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ Fv = Fig. .26).12: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces.90 The solution of the last equation is CHAPTER 4. Polynomial shape dam descrip- The size of the diﬀerential area is the square tion for the moment around point “O” and root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. and thus. and the direct approach was presented second.26 . The element force (see Figure 4.

5. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m ]. The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth.27. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 O y dy dx ℓ dF b = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 y θ The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n x x 0= i=1 ai x i − b To evaluate the moment. From mathematics. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 Fig.27). The derivative at x is . -4. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. For example. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 91 The right side can be evaluated for any given function.4. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 5 is measured in meters. In this case.

150 years ago and more. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder.92 CHAPTER 4. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding10 . If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes.28. . This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. FLUIDS STATICS and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). End solution 4. 0 0 10 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. he was able to cap. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. It was taught by people like these. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. Here. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. This omission saves considerable time. -4. ture the essence. The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is M= 0 (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x √ 6 b (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution.Fig. However. more advance mathematics will be used. In fact. The horizontal force is b ρ g b2 Fh = b ρ g = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations.

28. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume.29) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ (4. To understand this issue. All the horizontal forces are canceled. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. on the vertical direction. The solution of equation (4.129) Fig. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other.127) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4.125) represents a depth (into the page). Rearranging equation (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 93 The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue.130) .126) The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid.128) Rearranging equation (4.125) to F = ρg V (4. h0 as shown in Figure 4. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of.4. However. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.127) 2π F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. any shape is made of many small rectangles. For any two rectangle bodies. The force per area (see Figure 4.28. On the other hand. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things.127) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. In illustration of this concept.29. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4. Thus. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides.6.129) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4. -4. those will cancel each other. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2).

Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). While the horizontal force is 2π Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. ﬂoating body. T1 for the body to ﬂoat.13: A cylindrical body. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. ρs liquid density. ρl and the surroundings air temperature.94 CHAPTER 4.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. Note that for the maximum thickness. ρl . as a Fig. Since there are no better examples. The container diameter is w. shown in Figure 4. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity).30. these examples are a must. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. t. -4.131) Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. Express the maximum wall thickness.30 . the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. the height. h1 has to be zero. calculate the pressure inside the container. h1 t w hin h Example 4. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it.

hin = Example 4. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 95 Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. Extreme Cases *Advance material can be skiped* The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. it can be inserted into the above equation. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. Thus.14: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water.6. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. the air. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + + ··· 2 − ρl g Patmos Patmos Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g .4. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container.

but the liquid displacement is still unknown. The thickness is known. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented.96 If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = CHAPTER 4. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. FLUIDS STATICS 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. Thus. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously.

it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 97 Example 4. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important.4. The body’s density is α ρl . Consider the force that acts on a half sphere.16: In some situations. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface.15: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. End solution Example 4.6. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ √ √ 3 5 7 2 g h α2 3 2 g h α2 5 2 g h α2 + + + ··· 2g 8g 16 g 2 hα g(1 − α) From the above equation. h0 and left at rest. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the .

There situations where density is a function of the depth. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. The element force is CHAPTER 4. What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. In the same vein. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . FLUIDS STATICS dAx h dA dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r2 dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! π $$− ρS ) r¡ (ρL $$ 3 $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 2 £ 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Thus the height is π h = r 4 End solution Example 4. Body with density between the two liquids. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical.17: In the introduction to this section.98 sphere. the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density.

if body is small compare the zone of variation. End solution 4. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body.6. -4. The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. they have to accounted for.6. A is canceled on both sides. . However. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. x1 .31 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh 99 the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. Thus. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and it will be ﬂoating.31. Tilting the body with a small angle from gravity center Full a b c Fig.1 Stability Empty buoyancy center Figure 4.4.

the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity.33.32).31c. -4. In fact. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. B’ as shown in Figure 4. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). move to a new buoyant center. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. categories.33 is displaced by the same . the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. Small amount of tilting of Fig. β. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid. for example) is inserted into water. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. So. FLUIDS STATICS its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. in any of these six positions. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics.31c . B. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic.31c.33. when given a tilted position. the body is in situation like in 4. it is referred to as the neutral stable. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. should to be calculated.100 CHAPTER 4. shown in Figure 4. However. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. -4. A wooden cubic (made of pine. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. B’. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment.32. The body. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle. the cubic results in returning to the original position. The stability of the body is divided into three Fig. That is.33. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 .31b). This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location.

.135) with (4.136) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. β. For small angle. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. BB W = M (4.134) The integral in the right side of equation (4. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. W referred to the weight of the body.134) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. when the body is not symmetrical. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. M.135) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.33 as ∆F .137) lim (4.). However.134) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.133) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4.136) And combining equations (4.6. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. BB . should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. So the perpendicular distance.4.138) 11 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. BB can be written from equation (4. and. The distance. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 101 area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change11 so the total immersed section is constant.132) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). BB is the distance between points B and point B’.

the geometrical quantities can be related as BM CHAPTER 4. Fig. the distance BG is (see Figure 4. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.8 2.5 α = 0.9 1.33.5 α = 0.34.139) requires that several quantities should be expressed.141) 2 .6 α = 0.4 0. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl Thus.35. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. Looking at Figure 4. Example 4.6 1.5 0.0 1.7 0. 1 GM = h 12 α a h 2 1 − (1 − α) (4.0 0.4 α = 0.140) 2.6 0.5 0.8 1.9 0.2 BG = h h ρs 1 − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− GM h ρs ρl (4.1 1. Where L is the length into 12 the page.4 1.0 1.3 1.4 Ixx α = 0.1 1. FLUIDS STATICS h h1 L GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.102 It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.8 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 0. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.2 1.3 0.32) 3. Solution Equation (4.5 -0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.18: A solid block of wood of uniform density.0 0.0 ρs 1− ρl -0. -4.0 α = 0.3 1. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.1 Stability of Square Block h1 0. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides Fig.1 2.2 α = 0.2 1.7 0. Show that the block’s length.8 0. -4.0 -0. L.1 and is Ixx = La .0 0.0 a h April 16.139) a To understand these principles consider the following examples.2 -0.2 0.

In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4.0 0. Thus. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 103 where α is the density ratio.0 0. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0. Thus.36. For stability analysis.3 0.5 0.0 0.6.5 2.5 0.2 0. -4. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. these two shapes in Figure 4. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4. With the exception of the circular shape. 2008 α 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.140)).4 April 16. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. For example. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio.142) End solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more.0 2.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.142) can be expressed.1 0. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.7 0. For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. L. .5 1.0 square circle And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 1.0 This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for Fig.4. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.8 0.6 0. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 a h 3.36. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal.9 1.

a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for explanation in example (3.19: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. tougher. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water).37. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl . but rather practical. Example 4. So. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig.104 Unstable Bodies CHAPTER 4. -4.139) have to found. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. In commercial ships.5) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid.37. This is not a hypothetical question. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. FLUIDS STATICS What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .

-4. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. For practical purposes. alcohol) and ship with . a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship. For example. However.6. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . is enough to be ig. furniture. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme.6.Fig. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 105 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. the slow reaction of the load. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined.4. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis.1.38.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End solution 4. here. account these shifting mass speeds. The movement of the load (grains. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. Sometimes. for stability analysis.

38.144) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is IxxB g ρl¨βIxxB G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B = VB g VB ¨B ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside.146) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid.38).147) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA IxxA 1 Ixxb − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4.149) .106 CHAPTER 4. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4.143) Note that Ixx B isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. This quantity. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.145) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4. the general formula is g ρA Ixx A 1 Gc M = − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4. in this analysis. FLUIDS STATICS low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). At the same time. Moreover. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G .148) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. X0 g $$$ ¡ g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 ¡ For more than one tank. G Gc = GG sin β (4. G1 G1 . The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxxB (4.144) Equation (4. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations.

can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body.153) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth.6. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by (4. GM .153) with equation (4.2 Metacentric Height.151) Where. The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. This control of the stability. -4. θ. GM . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. equation (4.4. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body.154) (4.152) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.1. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia.152) provides the solution. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. Moving the weight.6.39. of the ship.152) If the change in the GM can be neglected. The angle. Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. 4. . GM . is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4.150) T d h G Fig. T a distance. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 107 One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. Wtotal .

the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. Generally.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies CHAPTER 4. After the tilting. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now).6. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated.40). The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons).40. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. 4. However. There are two situations that can occur.108 4. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. is when b = 3 a. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid.1. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). However. . Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles.6. -4. Fig.1. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. FLUIDS STATICS The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. it must be taken into account. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs.40. The center of the moment is needed be found. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. Thus.

6. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. End solution . coating. etc. However.155) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. the body should be accelerate. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. the liquid is not in motion. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies 109 This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. 4. Thus. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. In this section. Example 4.1.6.156) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4.157) In general. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. Thus.6. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. in this case. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4.20: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. the common explanation is wrong. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase.4.158) V ρs GM Ibody (4.

This instability deals with a dense. Thus. For example. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning.3. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. some of heavy liquid moves down. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. However.21: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. For perfectly straight interface.3. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities.41. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. If the surface will disturbed.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. Solution Under Construction End solution 4.110 CHAPTER 4. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. Taylor. Example 4. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. ρG . ρL . For example in die casting. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. FLUIDS STATICS Fig. This condition is determined by competing . In poor designs or other situations. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). -4. After certain diameter. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. or water over air(gas–liquid). I. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order.

this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable.160) According to equation (1.4. Thus. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1.38) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient.7. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. equation (1.42.162) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4. example of a cosine function will be examined. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. Thus. and the buoyancy forces. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 111 forces.47). the surface density.42). Thus. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. In that case. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. Thus. x. -4.47) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (??) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression.161) (4. On the other hand. the situation is Fig. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4.159) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.163) . The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4.

It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. To analyze it.164) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. the error is not signiﬁcant.167) . the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.163) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4.162) and (4. This acts Fig.43. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place. At the bottom. FLUIDS STATICS Comparing equations (4. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. At the top. they are not part of the control volume. Thus. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. Additionally when the depression occurs. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4.43. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. the force is the integral around the depression. -4.165) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here. At the cylinder bottom.112 CHAPTER 4. In reality.166) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.43.16) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion.43. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. the force is ρ g h × A. For the depression.

the speciﬁc radius is limited. -4. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.44.171) Fig.4. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.43. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. Thus.168) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. For the cylindrical geometry.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container.170) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. As shown in Figure 4.172) . The cross section of the interface. At that case. θ = π/2.7. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area.44).169) (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 113 The force that hold this column is the surface tension. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.

114 CHAPTER 4.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.171) can be used. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics).45. Example 4.172) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. However. In Figure 4.22: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K]. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . .168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient.4 2400 × 9. this angle is never obtained. End solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. In equation (4. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. FLUIDS STATICS The actual radius will be much larger.the depression is larger for square area. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same.172. -4. For example. σ r∼ 8 π 0.44.

Example 4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 115 Open Question by April 15.S.23: A canister shown in Figure 4. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. You the ideal gas model. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence? . dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. ω. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point).4.7. for known geometries of the ﬂuids.45 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. You can assume that the process is isothermal.

FLUIDS STATICS .116 CHAPTER 4.

Part I Integral Analysis 117 .

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one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. -5. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. This method applied and used in very few cases. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used.motion. These differential equations will be used in Fig. L. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. 119 . This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis.1. This name is in honored J.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. Even though this system looks reasonable. Ad.

2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. non–deformable and deformable. After a certain time. trol volume. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally.1. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5.2. energy. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. In the same time. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. mass. The green lines in Figure 5. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5. This coordinate system system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system.1. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit.120 CHAPTER 5. the control volume is a system. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. Control volume of a moving the control volume chosen is non-deformable con. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. 5. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. entropy etc. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5.1 represent the system. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. Fig. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume.piston with in and out ﬂow. .2. -5. momentum. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. The red dotted lines are the control volume.

5. (5.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume. The velocity component that velocities at the interface.v. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.7) . + ma − mc (5. the mass conservation will be discussed. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.3). is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface. In this chapter. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. -5.1) The system mass after some time.3.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.3). CONTINUITY EQUATION 121 5.v. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time. The interface of the control volume can move.v.1. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. is made of msys = mc. according Figure 5.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.v. Thus.3.

1. t) = 1− cos .8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. X dx L Fig.v. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.122 CHAPTER 5.9) into equation (5.1: The density changes in a pipe. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x.4. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. Example 5. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral. Substituting equation (5. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. (5. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept.3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. due to temperature variation and other reasons.7) are similar and can be combined.10) Equation (5.10) is essentially accounting of the mass.v.9) applying negative value to keep the convention.8) and (5. In the same manner. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. ρ0 L t0 . MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. -5.

L.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. End solution 5. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c.3.11) is simpler than equation (5.10) become conservation of the volume.10).4 length is L and its area is A.v. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc. CONTINUITY EQUATION 123 The conduit shown in Figure 5. and time.3. x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. 5. Using equation (5.v. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. d dt ρ0 1 − c. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe. ρ0 c.v. Vc. Solution Here it is very convenient to chose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.v.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. t. the derivative in equation (5.11) Equation (5. (5. r and angle.v.3. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius. .10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.v. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.5.10).

Example 5. Urn dA (5.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.7 Ap . The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.v.v.2.5.2 illustrates this point. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . Ubn dA = Sc.v. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc.1 CHAPTER 5.3.v. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.3.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. Ubn dA (5.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.v.124 5.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. Find the height as a function of the other parameters. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the . Physically. 5. Sc.v.v. Example 5. Sc.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. (5. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero.15) The meaning of the equation (5.2. c. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. Hence. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.

Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. In this analysis. the air eﬀects are negligible. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. Substituting . the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface.5. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time.2. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. Third. ﬂow in = c. Fourth. However. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket.v. -5.v. In reality.5. liquid boundary in bucket. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. Second. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. First. CONTINUITY EQUATION 125 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. several assumptions must be made.3. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c.

The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0.126 the known values for Urn results in CHAPTER 5. Uj . (Uj + Ub ) dA The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.7 Ap Ub The solution of the last equation is Ub = Ap A − 0. e. MASS CONSERVATION Urn Ub dA = c. mi .v. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (b) The above two equations (a) and (b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket. c. the side. .v. When examining solution there are two limits. (a) into (b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.g.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. End solution Example 5. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface).7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. Substituting the ﬁrst equation.

End solution .v. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c. The right side of equation (5. Sc.3.5.v.v.v. c.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving. 127 Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). thus the relative velocity. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr .v. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.v. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction.

4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a.16) is dh d L h dx = ρ L ρ dt 0 dt .18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. This assumptions leads dV d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.3. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate . For the ﬁrst case. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density).16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5. h as function of the time. What happen if the h0 = 0? Solution The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. MASS CONSERVATION One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. Example 5.128 5. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters.16). continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5.2.16) When the density can be considered constant equation (5. determine the height.3 CHAPTER 5. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 . First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.

CONTINUITY EQUATION 129 min h Fig.5.4. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution + c1 homogeneous solution mi b1 e − ρ1L b t e b1 t ρL The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. -5.6. negative .3. h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b1 h0 b 1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. However. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). Height of the liquid for example 5. Substituting into equation equation (5.

y) = 1 These 2 This f (α.130 CHAPTER 5. the governing equation (5. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. y) dα (5. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. Osborne.archive.23) papers can be read on-line at http://www. c. End solution 5. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. .v. speciﬁc enthalpy. To make the previous derivation clearer. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) ∂f dx2 dx1 dx + f (x2 .16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh = b h − mi ρL dt with the general solution of √ ln hb −1 mi √ √ hb hb mi + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. y) − f (x1 .22) Initially. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. the height will increase. For second case.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. Essentially. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness.v f ρ Urn dA (5.21) This theorem named after Reynolds.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivativations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. y) ∂y dy dy (5. MASS CONSERVATION number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. If the reverse case appeared. the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height.

y) dx ∂y (5.28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5.5.25) is ∂G dx2 dx2 = f (x2 . y) − − (x1 . . F . This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. f is investigated or the accumulative property. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. y) − G(x1 .24) diﬀerentiating (chain role d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral role (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y (5.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. if there will be a demand for such. F . The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5.23) is f (x.25) are actually (the x2 is tread as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x. with time. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided.4. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz role. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be system.25) The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. For its derivative of equation (5. Nevertheless. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. The intensive property. The interesting information that is commonly is needed the change the accumulative property.27) The same can be said for the third term (3). it will be provided. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential).29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. This is engineering book and thus. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 131 Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 .

is then F2 dx2 dt (5. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. f ρ Urn dA (5. Thus. t. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. MASS CONSERVATION at x1 .v Sc.32) When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral role.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . (5. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. Additionally. F . Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz role and thus the same arguments are used. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. The same can be said for the other side. Since the time variable. Example 5.132 CHAPTER 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are are provided to illustrate the topic. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is U (r) = Umax 1 − r R . The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz role. F . D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c. between the boundaries is ρ(x) f A(x) dA c. F . Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. the velocity became uniform.v.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn d dt (5.33) 5.31) The change with time of the accumulative property. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. Urn = U1 − Ub .v. After magical mixing. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in.

In this case. Solution .5. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. -5. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid.13). calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (a) The integration of the above equation is Umax π R2 6 = Uave π R2 (b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = Umax 6 End solution (1) (2) U0 E f eo dg Bo un y dr La ye r L Fig. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION 133 Where R is radius and r is the working radios (for the integration). A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. Example 5.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer about it. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. Boundary Layer control mass. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5.7.5.

” The integral simply multiply by negative one.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. and upper. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. right. The above integrals on the right hand side can be combined as δ U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End solution Example 5.1 kg/sec. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). MASS CONSERVATION Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus.7.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.134 CHAPTER 5.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0. the left. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution . The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5.

Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. End solution Example 5. Thus. For simplicity. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. Example 5. assume that the process is isothermal. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow.13) is used. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled.1 ) 5. The tank is 3/4 fulls. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hours.5. Solution .01 m2 500 m/sec End solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours.02kg/m3 AU 0. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. and 8 hours. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. Is there combination valves of the that make the tank at steady state? Solution Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate.5. Thus. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0.1 kg/sec = = 1. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION 135 The mass conservation equation (5. However sometime. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. 7 hours.

v Vc. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0.v.v. CHAPTER 5. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt Ub The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc.136 The applicable equation is increase pressure dρ dV dt + Sc. . Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc.v Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided. Vc. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule. MASS CONSERVATION boundary velocity ρ Ub dV = in or out ﬂow rate ρUrn dA Sc.v.

Assume that the gas is obeys the ideal gas law. The density change is Ub 12 fv π Rb dRb dρ = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV .10.v. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. Assume that the balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc.v.5. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = The combining the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.v. ρUrn dA Vc.5.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T 3 G= 2 7 f π Rc 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End solution 137 Example 5. Sc. Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. mi .

What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? . Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 .11: Solve example 5. MASS CONSERVATION A 4 fv π Rb 3 4 fv π R b 3 8 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 Rb 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change the boundary. Example 5.S.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.138 The second term is CHAPTER 5. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. End solution Open Question by April 15.

in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. Thus. Here. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. only the trends and simple calculations are described.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving.CHAPTER 6 Multi–Phase Flow 6. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 .2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. In fact. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. For many engineers. 6. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. In the past. 139 . there was a Ph. As result. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. is required for many engineering problems. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . For simple models. Additionally.D.1 Introduction Traditionally.

They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. the concept of ﬂow regimes. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. and more importantly. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. . 6. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes.140 CHAPTER 6. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. However. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). and importance to real world. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 .3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. will know and understand the trends. However. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. Hence. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. For example. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made.

The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus.4. . KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 141 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. In fact. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). nonetheless it exists.000 in about two and half years. 6. it is assumed that air is made of only gases.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. Practically for many cases. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. For example. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee.6. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. However.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. -6. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. In our calculation. or a large acceleration. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books.1. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. Hence.

. Open Channel ﬂow is. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. The multiphase can be found in nature. spray casting. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. rain. solid–gas. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. When the . Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. for an example. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. Since there are three phases. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. and industries. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. solid propellant rocket. mud ﬂow etc. 6. and river ﬂow. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. In almost all situations. Jr. ﬂuidized bed. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. For example. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). The multiphase is an important part of many processes. In the past. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. paint spray. In a four (4) miles long train. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). March 29. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). This category should include any distinction of phase/material. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. Generally. they can be solid–liquid. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. although important. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. Thus. in nature can be blood ﬂow. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. 1887). MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. However. For example. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. The liquid–solid. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. Yet. For the gas. There are many more categories. and avalanches.142 CHAPTER 6. for example.

This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). 5 top as depicted in Figure 6. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical.5.5. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow).5.2.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. the co-current is the more common. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. 6. Generally. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. Thus. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. For example. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 143 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. Yet. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. -6. In general. horizontal. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. Additionally. it is referred as counter–current. and what ever between them. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. up or down.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). 6.1.6. plug ﬂow. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow.2. For example. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. and annular ﬂow. .

These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. Thus. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. -6. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 6. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. choking occurs relatively Fig. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller.4. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). liquid ﬂow rate. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. liquid level is higher. the friction between the phases increase. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. In fact. . and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). At this stage. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow.4). The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself.3). Thus. -6. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. Fig. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 6. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree.3. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. At some point. all the ﬂow is wavy.144 CHAPTER 6.

with the gravity or against it. After a certain distance. Hence. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 145 this category is accepted). Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes.5. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 6.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. Qualitatively.g. However. In engineering application. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid.1. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds. For example. As many things in multiphase. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. e. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. as in compressible ﬂow. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke.5. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. the return path is not move the exact same way. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). 6. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. etc. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. -6. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions.5. Besides the length.5. in normal gravitation. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. The buoyancy . liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). other parameters can aﬀect the “near.6.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe.

Thus.6. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. When many bubbles collide. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide.6.6). Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. see Figure 6. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. Again. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. -6. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 6. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical.146 CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. For the ﬂow against gravity. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. After additional increase of “super slug” . Notice. . it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. Thus.

The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. However. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 147 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. both will be united in this discussion. After the ﬂow has settled.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 6. Pulsing For example. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas. Figure 6. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube.Reynolds. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. -6. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid.7). In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. The liquid–liquid (also . The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. respectively. In the literature. In cases where the surface tension is very important. the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow.6. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 6. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. As the gas ﬂow increases.1. Liquid Flow Rate 6. Here. and Weber numbers.5. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. However.6. While this author is not aware of an actual model. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . the vertical conﬁguration. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig.7.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses.

3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (6.6) GG = UsG ρG (6. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (6.4) mL ˙ A (6. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (6.7) .148 CHAPTER 6. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (6.6. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (6. Perhaps. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). over its cross section. and with time.1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow.

” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (6.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (6. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (6. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (6.8) In a similar fashion. Also. Thus. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (6.6. Thus. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 149 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (6.6. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. .

The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (6.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ = X m (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (6.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = (6.16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. Substituting equations (6.17) Equation (6.20) = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become ρaverage = 1 X ρG (1−X) ρL + (6.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1). for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (6. thus equation (6. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.18) The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (6.150 CHAPTER 6.21) .20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (6.1) and (6.7) into equation (6.

and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous.6.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (6.1: Under what conditions equation (6.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. Thus.23) Example 6. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. the simplest is to used it for approximation. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). Furthermore. Initially. In fact.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (6.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (6.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (6.7. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 151 6.26) . the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. Now. The average velocity (see also equation (6. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (6.24) or modifying equation (6. this assumption has to be broken. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.

152

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

6.7.1

Pressure Loss Components

In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ, the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss, acceleration, and body force(gravitation). These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. For example, the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence, acceleration must occur. However, for small distances (dx) and some situations, this dependency can be neglected. In that case, from equation (6.25), the total pressure loss can be written as

f riction acceleration gravity

dP dP = dx dx

+

f

dP dx

+

a

dP dx

g

(6.27)

Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. 6.7.1.1 Friction Pressure Loss

**The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx =
**

f

S τw A

(6.28)

**Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx =
**

f

4 τw D

(6.29)

The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (6.30)

The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. In fact, this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. Yet, since there isn’t anything better, the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm

−n

(6.31)

Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.079 and n = 0.25.

6.7. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS

153

There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. For example, Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (6.32)

Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (6.33) average viscosity as µaverage = 1

X µG (1−X) µL

+

(6.33)

Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula, the friction loss can be estimated. 6.7.1.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (6.34)

**The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙
**

a

dUm dx

(6.35)

The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. Equation (6.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙

a

d dx

m ˙ A ρm

(6.36)

Or in an explicit way equation (6.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A

−

dP dx

(6.37)

a

There are several special cases. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant, dA/ dx = 0. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero, dX/ dx = 0. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only, dρL / dx = 0. For the last point, the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.

154 6.7.1.3 Gravity Pressure Loss

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

**Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ
**

g

(6.38)

The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density. The density in equation (6.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). 6.7.1.4 Total Pressure Loss

**The total pressure between two points, (a and b) can be calculated with integration as
**

b

∆Pab =

a

dP dx dx

(6.39)

and therefore

f riction acceleration gravity

∆Pab = ∆Pab f +

∆Pab a

+ ∆Pab g

(6.40)

6.7.2

Lockhart Martinelli Model

The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase. Thus, there are two parameters as shown below. φG = dP dx dP dx (6.41)

SG f

TP

Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (6.42)

SL f

TP

**Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.
**

8 This

method was considered a military secret, private communication with Y., Taitle

6.8. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW

155

The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (6.43)

SG f

SL

**where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. dP dx =
**

SG

dP dx

(6.44)

SL

**The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx =
**

L

2 fL UL 2 ρl DL

(6.45)

**For the gas phase, the pressure loss is dP dx =
**

G

2 fG UG 2 ρl DG

(6.46)

Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. To insert the Diagram.

6.8 Solid–Liquid Flow

Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. In solid–liquid, the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. Thus, in this discussion, it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid.” Therefor,there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round, cubic, etc). The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes, distribution, and geometry. For example, analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. 2. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. 3. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles.

52) . and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. 6. The drag coeﬃcient. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (6.48) into equation (6.44 (6. All these possibilities are diﬀerent. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles.49) Equation (6.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.8. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (6. possibility.156 CHAPTER 6.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid). The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (6. However. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.51) 24 Re (6. However. CD ∞ .47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. Re. the Newton’s Law region.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties.48) Inserting equating (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. When the liquid velocity is very small. there are two sets of similar characteristics. it can be approximated for several regimes. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (6.

additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 157 In most cases of solid-liquid system. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle.8. For particles. When the velocity is lower.6. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (6. the function f (α) is not a linear function. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 6. the case of liquid. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. the particle will sink into the liquid. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void.8. -6. If the velocity is larger.9). It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. in many cases the middle region is applicable. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. Consequently. For the case of gas. In that case. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. Thus. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. Yet. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). For the ﬁrst region. the particle will drift with the liquid. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. Thus. US|avarge . Thus. For small gas/liquid velocity. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. So far the discussion was about single particle.

Furthermore. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle .158 CHAPTER 6. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). Hence. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity).2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. 6. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow.9. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. In the gas phase. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. Thus. However. Nevertheless. the length of conduit is very limited.8. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. Hence. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. -6.

Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. opening a can of milk or juice. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. Otherwise. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. Hence. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. But in most cases. However.9. Liquid Body Foreces . the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. -6. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. For example. However. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. be ﬁnite. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow.54.6.54) 6 8 From equation 6. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. Annular Extented Flow In that case.10. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. In most cases. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. In short tube. for example. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 159 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (6. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. UL /US → 0. For example. Thus.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). 6. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount.

-6. For example. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. Figure 6. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed.11. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. water solution. If there are two holes. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime.160 CHAPTER 6. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. Initially. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. Then. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. the pressure in the can increase. -6.12. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. Fig. The container is made of two compartments. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 6. In this ﬂow regime.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube.). it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. due to the gravity. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. in some cases. .12). or small wood particles) by rotating the container. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”.

7).6.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point.13. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 161 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. At this point. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . As opposed to the co–current ﬂow.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. . Flood in vertical pipe. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. no counter–current ﬂow possible. However. 6. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature.9. The analysis is provided. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. -6. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow.7) page 110) it can be considered stable for small diameters. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. In horizontal tubes. Probably. In many situations. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. ﬂow with gravity or against it. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig.9. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). When the driving (body) force is very small.

162

**CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
**

Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow

When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small, the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. Thus, closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. Thus, this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L, physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 6.14. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti- Fig. -6.14. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically.

Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow

6.9.2

Flooding and Reversal Flow

The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes, that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. When there is no water (in liquid phase), the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. In some situations, the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 6.13. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 6.15. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. Additionally, it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. The liquid ﬂow rate, QL , is unknown. However, the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . Fig. -6.15. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later, both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. coexist. The model can be improved by considering turbulence, mass transfer, wavy interface, etc11 .

11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily.

6.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

163

This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.). The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. Thus, the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. On the liquid side, the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (6.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (6.56) (6.55)

The integration constant, C1 , can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . Hence, τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (6.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (6.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (6.61) (6.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (6.59) (6.58) (6.57)

The liquid velocity at the wall, [U (x = 0) = 0], is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (6.62)

(6.63)

164 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) =

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL

(6.64)

The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (6.65)

The solution for equation (6.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (6.66)

The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness, h. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (6.67)

If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. Q = w

h h

Uy dx =

0 0

ρL g µL

x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL

(6.68)

Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 6.15). Integration equation (6.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (6.69)

It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero. This point can be obtained when equation (6.69) is equated to zero. There are three solutions for equation (6.69). The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. But, also, the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . This request is identical to the demand in which τi = 2 g h ρL 3

critical

(6.70)

6.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

165

This critical shear stress, for a given ﬁlm thickness, reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (6.67)). For this shear stress, the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 Ucritical |interf ace = 1 6 ρL g h 2 µL

(6.71)

The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. The wall shear stress is τi τL |@wall = µL dU dx ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL

x=0

(6.72)

x=0

Simplifying equation (6.72) the direction)

12

becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3

τL |@wall =

(6.73)

Again, the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (6.74)

The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. For simplicity, it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. Here, for simplicity reasons, the linear equation is used. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). Thus, equation (6.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (6.75)

Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship, the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L

12 Also

(6.76)

noticing that equation (6.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.

78) into equation (6. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.63) when (x = h).77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). However. (6.80) (a) (b) or (6. of the equal velocities.82) With the integration constants evaluated. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (6.79) (6. cause this assumption to be not physical. .166 CHAPTER 6. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. equation (6.81) At the other boundary condition.79)(a).83) (6.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (6.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (6. in that case.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (6.84) is equal to the velocity equation (6. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (6. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption.C.84) The velocity in Equation (6.

Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (6. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (6. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. Then if the interface becomes wavy. if no special eﬀects occurs.6.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (6.9. condition (6.79)(b). diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.87) (6. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (6.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result.86) (6. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 167 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (6.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence . the two conditions can co–exist.

Fig. the total balance is needed. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.94) Simplifying equation (6.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (6. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. However. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them.95) .94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (6. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.168 CHAPTER 6.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (6. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (6. However.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 6. -6. Figure 6. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (6.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry.16.96) (6.

The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 169 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.6. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing.10. In that case.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). this analysis equation (6. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. . The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. 6. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding.

170 CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW .

112 Newtonian ﬂuids. 154 C Co–current ﬂow. 161 Cut–out shapes. 161 Horizontal ﬂow. 20. 8 Non–deformable control volume. 161 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 3 Deformable control volume. 157 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 92–94 buoyant force. 143 Compressibility factor. 72 Liquid phase. 11. 57 Boundary Layer. 157 Flow regime map. 100 Neutral stable. 140 Flow regimes in one pipe. 159 Annular ﬂow. 67–69 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 22 buoyancy. 143. 67. 12 Arc shape. 156 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 69 Leibniz integral rule. 11 L Lapse rate. 61 Mass velocity. 71 Correction factor. 67. 58. 1. 111. 86 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 100.SUBJECTS INDEX 171 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 55. 143 Hydrostatic pressure. 67. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 144 Free expansion. 133 bulk modulus. 11 Body force. 143 P Pendulum action. 62 K kinematic viscosity. 146 D D’Alembert paradox. 8. 148 Metacentric point. 88 Archimedes. 120 Density ratio. 160 Counter–current ﬂow. 157 O Open channel ﬂow. 109 Piezometric pressure. 100 I Ideal gas. 7. 3. 130 Linear acceleration. 103 dilettante. 89 B Bingham’s model. 139 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 11 Double choking phenomenon. 120 F Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 142 . 55. 58 Pneumatic conveying. 101 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 56. 69 eﬀective. 145 N Neutral moment Zero moment. 66 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 157 Multi–phase ﬂow. 64 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 142 Lockhart martinelli model. 58 H horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 62. 69.

62 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 71 Stability analysis. 142 Spherical coordinates. 67 V Vapor pressure. 100 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 144 Sutherland’s equation. 69. 156 thixotropic. 143 Real gas. 12 T Terminal velocity. 77 Triangle shape. 85 shear stress. 149 Liquid holdup. 149 . 158 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 82 pseudoplastic. 110 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 90 Pressure center. 95 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 92 cubic. MULTI–PHASE FLOW U Unstable condition. 143 R Rayleigh–Taylor Instability. 155 Solid–solid ﬂow. 149 Quality of dryness. 6 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 149 Void Fraction. 130 W Watson’s method. 155 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 58 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 161 Stable condition. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 162 Slip velocity. 108 stratiﬁed ﬂow.172 Polynomial function. 149 Reversal ﬂow. 142 S Scalar function. 11 Total moment. 67. 88. 143 Superﬁcial velocity. 145 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 149 Wetness fraction. 160 purely viscous ﬂuids. 56. 11 CHAPTER 6. 19 Westinghouse patent. 67 stability analysis. 160 Vertical ﬂow.

130 Lockhart. 4 Blasiu. 140. Hermann von. 153 D Darcy. 4 T Taitle. 4 N Nikuradse. 140 Meye. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. 4 Westinghouse. 4 Martinelli. 110 Reynolds.AUTHORS INDEX 173 Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 110 C Cichilli. 4 P Prandtl. 4 G Ganguillet. 4 Blasius. 142 F Fanning. Osborne. 140 Taylor. 4 S Stanton. 4 W Weisbach. 4 . 153 V von Karma.. 4 H Helmholtz. G. 130 Rose.I. 4 R Rayleigh. 4 Duckler. 4 Froude. 4 L Leibniz. 4. 140 M Manning.