# Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.1.9 December 1, 2009)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv

1 Introduction 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.5.5 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.6 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 20 22 24 33 33 41 41 41 42 43 43 44 46 49 50 51 51 52 55 55 55 57 57 58 62 65 69 71

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Center of the Mass . . . . . . 3.1.2 Center of Area . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.2.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.2.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.2.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.2.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.4 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.4.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4. . . . . . . . . . .4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . .2 Constant Density Fluids . . . .1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . . . .6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .1 Non Deformable Control Volume 5. . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 . . . . . 6. . . .5 Examples For Mass Conservation . .1 Co–Current Flow . .1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . .1 Stability . . . . . . . . . .1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .8 Solid–Liquid Flow . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Surface Tension .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . .
v .1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . .2 Force on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . .2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 76 . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 What to Expect From This Chapter . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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119 119 120 121 123 123 130 132 139 139 139 140 141 142 143 147 148 151 152 154 155 156 158 159 161 162 169
5 Mass Conservation 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . 5. . . 6. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity 6. . . . 5. . . . . . . . .3. . . . .5. . . . . .CONTENTS 4. . . . .6. . . . . . . . .2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . .1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . 109 . . .
. . . . . .1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . . 4. . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fluid in a Accelerated System . .7 Homogeneous Models . . . . .5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 6.2 Control Volume . . . .6. 6. . . . . . . . .8. . . 6. . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . .7
I
Integral Analysis
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. . . . . . . . . . . Density . . . . . . .7. . . . 4. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Multi–Phase Flow 6.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . 4. .5
4. . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 6. . . 6. . . . . . .2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
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CONTENTS
Index 171 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Authors Index . . . . . .

. .15 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . .13 1. Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . Forces in Contact angle. . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic.6 1. .
. . . . . . . . Surface Tension control volume analysis. .4 1. . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES
1. . . . . . . . . .12 1. . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii. . . . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . .
. . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . A square element for the calculations of inertia.18 3. . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. Cylinder with the element for calculation moment of inertia. . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. .4 3. .2 3. .9 1. . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . .11 1. . . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress.7 1. . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 22 24 25 27 29 29 42 42 44 45 45 46 47 47
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. .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated. . . . . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . . . . . . Description of liquid surface. .8
Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1. .17 1. . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . .

22 4. . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces. . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube. . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. . . . . . . Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density.35 4. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 4. . . . . .9 Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 4. . . . . . . . . . . .37 4. . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. . . . . Dam is a part of a circular shape. . . .36 4.15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . .31 4. . .4 4. . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 4. . . . .21 4. The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. Stability of two triangles put tougher. . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 4. . . . . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. . . . . . . .20 4. . . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body.moment of inertia and center of area.13 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O. A cart slide on inclined plane. .14 4. . . . . . . . . 48 50 55 58 58 59 60 64 67 69 73 73 74 74 75 76 78 78 80 81 84 86 86 87 88 88 90 90 91 92 93 94 99 100 100 102 102 103 104 105 107 108 110
.12 4. . . . . . . .5 4. . . . .29 4. . . . . . . . .26 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. . .39 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 4. . . . .23 4. . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. . . . .16 4. .30 4. . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle. . .7 4. . . . . . .25 4. . . . . . . . . . . .” . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . . . . . . . .33 4. . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . . . .17 4. . . . . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.27 4. . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. . . Schematic of submerged area. . . . . .28 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . .18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . .5 . Polynomial shape dam description. . . . . . . . . .viii
LIST OF FIGURES 3. . .19 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. . . . . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . The general forces acting on submerged area. . . . . . . . .32 4. . . The forces on curved area. . . . .

. Control volume and system in motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . .12 6. . . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster.2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 6. .44 4. . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . .5 6. . .10 6. . . . . . .8 6. . . .1 6. . . .4 . .6 6. Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes.11 6. . . . Piston control volume . .43 4. . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . .7 6. A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . .
.6 5.1 5. . . . . . . . . .13 6. . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . .4 5.45 5. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ix 111 112 113 114 119 120 121 122 125 129 133 141 143 144 144 145 146 147 157 158 159 160 160 161 162 162 168
Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow.16 Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . .15 6. . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes Height of the liquid for example 5. . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . . .3 5. . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . .9 6. . Description of depression to explain the instability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x
LIST OF FIGURES
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. .6 1. . . . . .1 3. . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Books Under Potto Project . . . xxxv continue . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . xxxvi Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES
1 1 1. . . 13 13 14 15 20 21 25 26 31 32 38 53 54
Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xi
. . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . .

xii
LIST OF TABLES
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6). see equation (6. see equation (4..17). see equation (4. page 34 The gravitation constant.2).9). page 70 general Body force.3). page 55 Enthalpy.26). see equation (2.117). page 12 Martinelli parameter.0).0).43). page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 33
µ µ0 Ξ A a Bf c. see equation (4. see equation (2.18). page 120 Speciﬁc pressure heat. page 35 subscribe for control volume. see equation (2. see equation (4. page 85 The acceleration of object or system. page 34 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 36
xiii
. see equation (1. see equation (2. see equation (2.17). see equation (2. page 37 Internal energy. see equation (5.62). Cp Cv EU Eu Ei G gG H
viscosity at input temperature T. page 55 Body force.22). page 37 Speciﬁc volume heat. see equation (2.1).NOMENCLATURE
¯ R
Universal gas constant. Ti0 . page 155 The area of surface. see equation (1.0).v.23). page 34 System energy at state i. page 37 Units length.

page 36 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. page 34 Speciﬁc gas constant. see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (2.40). page 120
.38).14). see equation (2. see equation (4.13). page 34 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2. see equation (1. page 57 Subscribe sys. page 78 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z
sys
Energy per unit mass. page 34 the coordinate in z direction.27).17).24). page 51
LIST OF TABLES
Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. see equation (1.4).6). page 12 velocity . page 38 Entropy of the system.0). page 12 Torque. see equation (3.85).1. page 52 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (2.17). page 34 Work per unit mass. see equation (2. see equation (2.18). see equation (3.6).xiv h k L Speciﬁc enthalpy. page 34 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2.17).2). see equation (5. see equation (2. page 37 Angular momentum. page 36 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. see equation (4. see equation (1.2).

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LIST OF TABLES

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April 23, 2008

The Thermodynamics chapter was released. The mechanics chapter was released. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).

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Notice of Copyright For This Document:

This document is published under modiﬁed FDL. The change of the license is to prevent from situations that the author has to buy his own book. The Potto Project License doesn’t long apply to this document and associated docoments.

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The modiﬁcation is that under section 3 “copying in quantity” should be add in the end. ”If you print more than 200 copies, you are required to furnish the author with two (2) copies of the printed book.” Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright ©2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
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CONTRIBUTOR LIST
How to contribute to this book
As a copylefted work. etc. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work.com
Steven from artofproblemsolving.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. Minor contributions (typo corrections.com
Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005
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. date. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). Contact at: barmeir at gmail. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. etc. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. time. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. contact info.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. and resources to make this a better book!
Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author.
Credits
All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully.

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Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting.
Eliezer Bar-Meir
Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes.
John Herbolenes
Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter.
Henry Schoumertate
Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Contact at: my email@provider.
Richard Hackbarth
Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. describing how you contributed to the book. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Olson
Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.
Dan H.net
.
Your name here
Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here.

. Gupta.CREDITS
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Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions
R. January 2008. review of statics and thermo chapters. Tousher Yang April 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues).

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.

he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. Dr. Spain. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. Now. books and software. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. Moreover. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007.G. All the models have practical applicability. For example. In his early part of his professional life. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. Currently. and Canada.About This Author
Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. in GM. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. British industry. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. In the area of compressible ﬂow. R. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. the author’s models were used in numerical works.
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.D.E. Eckert. Bar–
1 Where
the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. As the change in the view occurred. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants).

the author just know to learn quickly. The author lives with his wife and three children. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. A past project of his was building a four stories house. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. practically from scratch. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases.xxxii
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Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer.
. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. While he is known to look like he knows about many things.

As R. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. one should increase wisdom. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve
2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v.wikipedia. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. is a new idea3 . Kook. On one hand. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States).Prologue For The POTTO Project
This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system.org/wiki/Main Page).harvard. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. As individuals we have to obey the law.
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. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. There is always someone who can add to the book. Hence. The POTTO Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. like an open source. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. one of this author’s sages. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. the creation of the POTTO Project. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material.law. However.

The answer varies from individual to individual. It is not just for experts to contribute. So can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession.html)
. In a way. For others. Thus. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. In these cases. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. For some authors. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections).” American Scientist. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. Thus. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. Nigel R. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area.ac. The social function can have at least two components. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. For example.uk/bugclub/raiders. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. While one can be as creative as possible. one also begins to better understand the material. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. 77:139. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. For some contributors/authors. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes.xxxiv
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related problems. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software
4 see also in Franks. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material.ex. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. Whatever the reasons. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. 1989 (see for information http://www. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence..

) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it.1.0.
. But more than that. Nevertheless. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)).3 0. These data (tables.01
5
Data are not copyrighted.2 0. Unlike a regular book.0. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written.0.0. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book.0. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin.1 0. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. Additionally.CREDITS
xxxv
process.0. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. Books under development in Potto project.0 0. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. graphs and etc. Thus. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas:
Table -1. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book.0.0.0
Based on Eckert
Availability for Public Download
Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics
NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha
ﬁrst chapter
0. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work.1 0. while in other cases only the gate keeper. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX.
Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer
Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY
Remarks
Version 0.” In this process.4.0 0.8. Thus.0 0. some errors are possible and expected. Even if not complete.0 0. It is hoped that the books will be error-free.

other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. especially LTEX.) are already presented. and all of the examples and data (tables. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings.. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. only LTEX. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. but it has roots in the way science progresses. advanced topics. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. a process in which books have a new version every a few years. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away.0
Availability for Public Download
NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as:
The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. etc. Books under development in Potto project. and Microsoft Word software.0. creating diagrams and ﬁgures.
. which include the actual writing of the text. (continue)
Project Name Two/Multi ﬂow phases
Progress NSY
Remarks TelAviv’notes
Version 0. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. are not appropriate for these projects. These chores can be
6 Originally authored by Dr. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.xxxvi
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Table -1. However.
The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). such as OpenOﬃce. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion. But more A than that. Word processors. many of whom volunteered to help. i. Further. The text processes. A new version is created every several years. Abiword. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage. Schlichting. However. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality.e. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. who passed way some years ago. ﬁgures. writing examples. and perhaps troﬀ. and special cases.

CREDITS

xxxvii

done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Again, because of the open nature of this project, pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books.

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Prologue For This Book

**Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008
**

pages 189 size 2.6M

When this author was an undergraduate student, he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea, so much energy). The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. This author was bothered by this explanation. Now, in this version, it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students, it is very satisfying for the author. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Even in this early development stage, number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies.

**Version 0.1 April 22, 2008
**

pages 151 size 1.3M

The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, and civil engineering. In fact, it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering, and electrical engineering. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book, the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the

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previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).

In writing this book.” Later. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. Otherwise. The chapters are not written in order. The graphics were done by TGIF. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. So. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The spell checking was done by ispell. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). and is copyleft by him. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. and more hands–on approach. Streeter and Wylie.How This Book Was Written
This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. The structure of Hansen. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. The ﬁgures were done by gle. this book avoids this kind of issues.
xli
. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. Of course. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. The approach adapted in this book is practical.

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.

you can read just chapter (4). there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization.Preface
"In the beginning. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. marked with a Mata mark. the POTTO project was and void. However. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. etc. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. Like all volunteer work. physics. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. without form. if you need information about. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. For example. This book contains many worked examples.9 Reading everything will. And the Author there be words. Moreover. say. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. and emptiness was upon the face and files. the book is not well organized. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. and there were words. statics’ equations. of the bits moved upon said. the present.
the power and glory of the mighty God. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. This book is only to explain his power. Nevertheless. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. naturally. Let
This book." 8 . due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. which can be very useful for many. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task.
9 At 8 To
xliii
.

but those are solely for the author’s purposes. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. However. and assistance.
. please drop me a line. I am interested in it all. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. There are also notes in the margin. If you have Internet e-mail access. or proofreading. graphic design. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). errors. ideas. ignore them please. In practice. whose work was the inspiration for this book. This material never went through a close content review. directly or indirectly. Eckert. ideas for new areas to cover. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail.
10 Dr. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. Several people have helped me with this book. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). Dr. Naturally. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. Incorrect language. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. R. rewritten sections. isn’t it?). I would like to especially thank to my adviser.xliv
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Furthermore. more mathematics (or less mathematics). it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. G.com”. If you want to be involved in the editing. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. LTEX knowledge. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. literature review is always good. more fundamental material.com”. graphic ability. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . editing. E.

These omissions. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this
Meta
sample this part. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. Nevertheless.To Do List and Road Map
This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. illustration or photo of experiment. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. mistakes. question. many chapters are missing. Material can be further illuminate.
Open Channel Flow
The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. At this stage. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below.
Meta End
You are always welcome to add a new material: problem.
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.
Properties
The chapter isn’t in development stage yet.

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. glass appears as a solid material. For example. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics)
1
. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. In fact. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. Furthermore. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them.1 What is Fluid Mechanics?
Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. ﬂow stability. and statical conditions in continuous material. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. etc. motions.). ﬂow in enclose bodies. ﬂuid statics. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids.

For example.1.
isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. Or. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation.2
CHAPTER 1.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a
. -1. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. http://ekkinc. air with dust particle). Moreover. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. INTRODUCTION
Continuous Mechanics
Solid Mechanics
something between
Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Statics
Fluid Dynamics
Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow
Stability problems
Turbulent Flow
Fig. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp.

The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. Before dealing with the boundaries. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be-
. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. BRIEF HISTORY
3
complex turbulent ﬂow model. Euler. aqueducts were constructed. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. Bernoulli family. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . Yet. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems.2 Brief History
The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. For example.
1. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. Thus. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. to be followed by stability. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. turbulence. and continue with Empirical Analysis. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. Later. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis.1.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. For example. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. there isn’t a clear winner. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. At some point. Torricelli. conﬂicts with the reality. As in thermodynamics. When cities increased to a larger size. After his initial work.C. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis.2. Naturally. etc. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. Newton. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. and D’Alembert.) on the principles of buoyancy. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed.

and many others. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. resistance by Darcy. Fanning. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. and Poisseuille. Rankine. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. On the “experimental” side. Chezy. This problem led to two consequences. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). Coulomb.4
CHAPTER 1. Hagen. Gas Dynamics. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Therefore. Taylor. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. the way how it was calculated changed. In the middle of the nineteen century. Rayleigh. as in thermodynamics. Meyer. However. were Brahms. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. and Manning. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. Dubuat. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. mainly in pipes and open channels area. Kirchhoﬀ. people cannot relinquish control. von Karman. Fabre. INTRODUCTION
lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. At the end of the twenty century. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Bhuckingham. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. La Grange. But. and Aeronautics. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. d’Aubisson. Dupuit. Prandtl and his students Blasius. Thus. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). Weisbach. Stanton. The Navier-Stokes equations. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. for example. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. and Kelvin. Hydraulics. after World War Two. On the theoretical side. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. considerable contribution were made by Euler. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. Helmhoitz. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. Ganguillet. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. Thus. there are many
. Rose. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. Bossut. The experimentalists.

The traditional quantity. For the discussion here.3. which is force per area has a new meaning. the pressure has three components. Later. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. then the change of volume is at best 5%. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. In the best scenario. The second quantity discussed here is the area. In gaseous phase. KINDS OF FLUIDS
5
other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. Thus. the discussion on the mathematic meaning will be presented (later version).1). For example. Inc). these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area.1. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an addtional meaning.
1. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. EKK. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). Hence.3 Kinds of Fluids
Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. The pressure component in the area
. But below the critical point. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. and it is referred to the direction of the area. under certain limits. e. no shear stress is applied. these programs are as good as the input provided. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. The unit used to measure is [N]. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. It must be remember that force is a vector.g it has a direction. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. For example. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. This diﬀerence can be. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. In this book. The area is measured in [m2 ]. Thus. So. for most practical purposes considered. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. the emphasis is on the physics. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest.

2)
Where A is the area.3). The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. Diﬀerent from solid. the density remains constant. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. then.3. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim
the size of sample. it was shown that when the force per area increases. the F denotes the force. F. In this discussion.
(1. -1. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface.4 Shear Stress
∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. -1. Figure 1. Thus. When this assumption is broken. After certain sample size. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig.2.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. h is the distance between the plates. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. (1. the density is deﬁned as Fig.1)
It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. From solid mechanics study. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). the velocity of the plate increases also. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. that is. isn’t it?). U0x F However.6
CHAPTER 1. h)
(1.
. here it will be treated as a separate issue. In solid mechanics. INTRODUCTION
direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. The upper plate velocity generally will be
U = f (A. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics.
1.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density).

-1. then it can be written for small a angel that δβ dU = δt dy (1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear.9)
Combining equation (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A
7
(1.4)
(1.5)
From equations (1.3)
(1.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.10)
If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.7)
From Figure 1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.8)
From equation (1. Hence.4) and (1.9) with equation (1. δt is d = U δt (1.6)
Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear
geometry
stress as progression of time. the regular approximation provides Fig.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.4. In steady state. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1.4.1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress.11)
.
d = U δt =
h δβ
(1.

These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.5 m/sec. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow.8
CHAPTER 1.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. In fact.45[N ] h 0. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. The property of viscosity. water etc. Thus.1[m] diameters with height of 0.069 × 0. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equiledistance from each other and steady state is achived instanly. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ].1 [m].01
End solution
Example 1. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. Equation (1. Assume steady state conditions. Example 1. INTRODUCTION
Materials which obey equation (1.6)) F = 1 × 1.12)
Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transfered into the y direction. Solution
. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2
Thus. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.5 A µU ∼ = 53.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerine.2[m] and 0. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules. the following can be written (see equation (1.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0.

Thus. However. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature.1).5. In gases.5. the Fig. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases.1 × 12/60 = 0.4 ¡ ∼ . the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate.1 h 0. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. In liquids.1. and it resists the ﬂow.986 0. -1.
as pl do
ne
Ne
r-P
wt
ic
eu
ct
ei
pe
re
ho
ps
R
on
ia
n
hi lip
tic
po
ff
di
la
ta n
t
. in gases.5.1 General
S Bi imp ng le ha m
Viscosity varies widely with temperature. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. VISCOSITY The velocity is
rps
9
˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. Thus. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids familys.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second.0078[N m] h ¡
End solution
1. The same way as in example (1.5 Viscosity
1. while in the dU liquids. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as
ri 2 π ri h
M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. thus.
ri 2 3
=
A µU ro − ri
µ
M=
2 π 0.

5). the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity.13)
The new coeﬃcients (n.7. On the liquid side below the critical point. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear.
1. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems.6. -1.2
Non–Newtonian Fluids
In equation (1. Not all the materials obey this relationship. -1. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes.5. The viscosity coeﬃcient is
. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. K) in equation (1. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines.
viscosity
τ =K
dU dx
n−1
dU dx
(1. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. From the physical point of view. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. Well above the critical point. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. both materials are only a function of the temperature.13) are constant. INTRODUCTION
Fig. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid.10
CHAPTER 1.
Figure 1. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate.

The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.0016 0. de Larrard and N.0026 0. Martys. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.5.002 0. VISCOSITY
11
always positive. is above one.0022 0. for most practical purposes.5. eds. 2008
ν=
µ ρ
(1. -1. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. When n. 215-241 (2001)
m ν[ sec ]
2
.15)
There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. When n is below one. However.0006 0.
1. Materials Science of Concrete VI.3
Kinematic Viscosity
Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure
0. This fact explains Fig.0004 0.of the temperature.e-06
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature [◦ C ]
May 1. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity.0028 0.14)
dUx =0 dy
if |τyx | < τ0
(1.000025 0. Skalny.000015 0. F.
1 C.0014 0. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.00002
The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. [m2 /sec]. cosity is deﬁned as
0.16)
The gas density increases with the temperature.7. Mindess and J. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.0002
5. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid.003 0. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.001
sec µ[ Nm2 ]
1. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials.e-05
0. The kinematic vis. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid. S.1. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. For example. In the simple case. Ferraris. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. the liquid is dilettante.8.0018 0.0024 0.5).0012 0.0008 0.

07 + 120 µ = 0.8 and Fig.002
0. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. For many gases. Water viscosity as a func1.4
Estimation of The Viscosity
Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure
0.555 × 524. have expressions that provide an estimate.9. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1. Solution Appallying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.
T T0
3 2
(1. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.710−5 .0015
The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.00001827 × × 0. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.17)
viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.001
0. Use the data provide in Table 1.51 10−5
N sec m2
The viscosity increases almost by 40%. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.1
Example 1.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. -1. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C
m ν[ sec ]
2
µ[ N sec ] m2
0.9.12
CHAPTER 1.07
3 2
∼ 2.1. INTRODUCTION
1. For isothermal ﬂow.0005
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Temperature [◦ C ]
May 1.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth .
End solution
Liquid Metals
2 This
author is ambivalent about statement.
.5. 2008
0.

05 528.67 524.0000203 0.00000982 0. Viscosity of selected gases.00001720 0.
Substance
formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg
Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380
Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.67 518.00001827 0.0000109 0.99 526. VISCOSITY
13
coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3
Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416
TiO [K] 527.00001480 0.93 540. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.
.5.0000876 0.1.2.0002018 0.0000146 0.0001781 0.67 528.57
µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.07 527.0001254
Table -1.0000654
oxygen mercury vapor
Table -1.0000076 0.1.

001194 0.15-0.000946 0.54 1. Viscosity of selected liquids.084 0.072 0.069
Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol
Table -1.000647 0.6 0.001547 0. INTRODUCTION
Substance
formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4
Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20
Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.3.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.14
CHAPTER 1.000245 0.986 5-20 0.05 0.200 0.01915 0.
.098 0.

289945 27. In this graph. 258. Washington D.6 26.54 15. Figure 1. ∼ 1[bar]. then the critical
.3 28.3 5. Furthermore.5
1. 2008
The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.Fig. if one point is well documented.8 132 304.256425 48.40685 22.4.04 Tc [K] 33. Tr .4 or similar information. The lower pressure is.5
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Temperature [◦ C ]
May 1.01 32.)
sec µ[ Nm2 ]
1.5 151 289.636 58.07 16.183 39.00 30.944 131.
Liquid Metal viscosity
2.10.2 154. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.47 2.26 44. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U. this graph also shows the trends.865925 50. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. -1.9
15
Table -1.003 20.5.0
Li Na K Hg Pb
Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. The lines of constant relative pressure. other points can be estimated. for practical purpose. 19.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.3 19. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).016 4. May 1995 p.5
2. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.83865 46.S. In Figure 1.9696 2. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials.1.C.7685 36.0 21. Vol.7 647.0 18. The second way.4 305.0
0.97 44.8823 73. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2. Furthermore.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart. Government Printing Oﬃce. cation (mushy zone).4 49.0 15.4 190.358525 48. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).

Even for homogeneous mixture. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.15 ∼ 2. In this book.
End solution
Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.2 and the predicted viscosity is
T able
µ = µc
µ µc
= 18 × 1. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. 2 1956.
Makita.19)
Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.
.20)
Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar]. INTRODUCTION
µc =
µ µr
ﬁgure 1.11
(1.41 154.6[N sec/m2 ]
The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .4 50.4
N sec m2
The
From Figure 1.2 = 21.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. when none is available.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.16 viscosity is obtained as
given
CHAPTER 1.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. Example 1.35[Bar] Tc = 154. Rev. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6
(1.35 373.18)
The third way.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.
3 Kyama. 26 No.

xi is the mole fraction of component i. VISCOSITY
17
Reduced Viscosity
2
10
liquid
5
dense gas
Reduced Viscosity
µ µc
2
two-phase region
1
critical point
Pr=LD Pr=0.11. -1. The subscript i should
. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.2 Pr=0.
only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.21)
where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 1+ Mi Mj 1+ µi µj
4
Mj Mi
2
(1.22)
Here.5. 2008
Fig. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture.
n
µmix =
i=1
xi µi n j=1 xi Φij
(1. For most cases.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0
5
2 2 3
T Tc
4
5
6
7
8
9 10
1
Reduced Temperature
May 27.1. and µi is the viscosity of component i. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range.

INTRODUCTION
5
Tr=0. -1. Solution The following table summarize the known details
. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.6 Tr=2 Tr=3
µ µ0
4
Reduced viscosity
3
2
1 -1 10
2
5
1
2
5
10
2
P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ]
June 2. Example 1.
be used for the j index.12. 2008
Fig.4 Tr=1.2 Tr=1.1 Tr=1. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixutre (air) made of 20% oxygen.8 Tr=1 Tr=1. O2 and 80% netrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C.18
6
CHAPTER 1.

0024 0. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.1.0000073 kN .2 0.157 .0 Mole Fraction.86 1. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.2 × 0.996 + 0.0 Viscosity. 28.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.0 Φij 1.0 1. x 0. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied. µ 0. Mi /Mj 1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 Component O2 N2 i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Molecular Weight.0 m2
N sec m2
The observed value is ∼ 0.2 × 0.0 1.00105 N sec .12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.5.0 + 0.2 × 1.875 1. m2 Figure 1. An example for values for this formula.
End solution
In very low pressure. It this method the following is deﬁned as
n
Pc
mix
=
i=1
xi Pc
i
(1.0215 N sec . the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.0000182
.8 × 1.143 0.0000203 0. M 32.24)
.8 × 0.001 kN .8 µi /µj 1. in theory.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.996 1. This equation (1. µ0 = 0.0000181 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.0000203 0. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.00001754
19
µmix ∼
0. m2 m2 and τs = 0.0024 0.8 × 1. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.0 1. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.

32 1.49 0.52 26.10 1.5.80 1.5 0.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf
Pc 57.27)
T
Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.97 2. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.25)
n
µc
mix
=
i=1
xi µc
i
(1.06 1.
chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil
Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.28)
T
The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.3 [Mpa] nf 7. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).5
Bulk Modulus
Similar to solids (hook’s law).5 [Bar] nf nf
.5 [Bar] 172.20 1.60
Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.03-4.20
CHAPTER 1.
Table -1.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.5.3 4. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.49 [MPa] 6.00 [MPa] Est 78. INTRODUCTION
n
Tc and
mix
=
i=1
xi Tc
i
(1.2-28.74 [MPa] 4. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.5.26)
1.

28 2. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.15-2.62 1.30)
v
This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).79 K na 647.5 2.064 [MPa]
In the literature.34)
T
.29)
P
This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant.33)
From equation (1.32)
On constant pressure lines.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v
=−
P =const
v
(1. These deﬁnitions are related to each other. dP = 0. and therefore equation (1.174
Tc nf na na 591. VISCOSITY
Table -1. The thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.096 K
Pc nf na na 4. Fanno Flow Standard basic Table (continue)
21
chemical component Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water
Bulk Modulus N 109 m 1.5.1.34 1. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T.109 [MPa] na 22. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT +
v
∂P ∂v
dv
T
(1.31)
∂P ∂v
dv
T
(1.09 1. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT +
v
(1.5.

13. R2 dℓ
1
Example 1. -1. In contrast.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.00035
End solution
Example 1.01 = 2.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v
End solution
1. Surface Tension control volume analysis.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.35)
The last equation (1.7: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent.
Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v ∂P v 5 ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.6: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0. Solution
x
Fig.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar]. INTRODUCTION
Equation (1.6 Surface Tension
The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and
.15 109 . dℓ2 the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are furR1 ther away. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to 2dβ1 the molecules increase of the rey jecting forces between each other 2dβ2 when they are closer.22
CHAPTER 1.

This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found.36) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.37) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. inner and outer.1. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d
1
d
2
= ∆Pd
1
d
2
= 2 σd
1
sin β1 + 2 σd
2
sin β2
(1. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces.37) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1. Furthermore. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). the equation (1. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. Thus. When the surface tension is constant. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. r.8: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. In the vertical direction. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoint phases or materials. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . In many (physics. The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry. which contains n bubbles with equal radii.36)
For a very small area. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . A soap bubble is made of two layers.37)
Equation (1. surface tension.38)
Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.6. SURFACE TENSION
23
bubbles.40)
Example 1. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size.
.39) R Where R is the radius of the sphere.37) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. Consider a small element of surface. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . Thus. The second with two equal radii.

End solution
1. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) S L and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase. For example.45) (1. The work is
rf
w=
r0
∆P (v)dv
(1. It can be noticed that the work is negative.44) into equation (1. In Figure 1.43) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1.44) (1.14.1
Wetting of Surfaces
To explain the source of the contact angle. INTRODUCTION
The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that Fig.6. consider the point where three phases became in contact.24 Solution
CHAPTER 1. liquid. Forces in Contact angle. The reversible process requires very slow compression. the masses of the solid. -1.41)
The minimum work will be for a reversible process.39) for reversible process. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.43)
. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. It is worth noting that for very slow process. and gas can be ignored. Hence the work is
∆P rf dv
w=
r0
2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r
rf r0
rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2
(1. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1.14. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . This contact point occurs due to free surface G reaching a solid boundary. that is the work is done on the system.42)
Where.

4 π/3. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.6. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface.74 to π/3.7 π/4.
Table -1. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon.1.2 π/4
Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4]
. The contact angle for air.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper
Contact Angle π/3. So. thus.83 π/4. This statement is correct in most cases. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight.7 π/6 to π/4. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. however. the solid reaction force must be zero. Thus. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid Wetting solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. a contact angle is created to balance it.76 to π/3.74 π/4.15). distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting.
chemical component Steel Steel. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid.Fig. -1.43). when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. gas medium and the solid surface.6.15. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. For example. On the other hand. SURFACE TENSION
25
For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well.83 π/3. The surface tension forces must be balanced. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids.5 π/3. The surface tension is a molec.

38) is applicable to it.46) g h(x). F. G. and Ostrovsky. The contact angle for air. (1993).. W. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. 5 Labuntsov D. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. Pages 509 . ASME. V. E. V.16 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. (continue)
chemical component Copper Copper
Contanct Angle mN m π/3 π/2
Source [7] [8]
1 R. pages 1465-1470. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). No 12. and Dhir. Vol. 124. Energetika I transport.” J. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. Eng. J.6.26
CHAPTER 1. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Aladev O..16. and Dhir. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR .. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer.. Heat Transfer. A. 9. R. J. Warrier. vol 1 pp 365 ... Vol. E.I. papes 717 -728. 6 Basu. Siegel.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal..38) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields σ (1. 1975 2 Bergles A. 7 Gaetner. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. 8 Wang.” Chem.16).N. Ser. Y. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. INTRODUCTION
Table -1. K. In Figure 1.T. G. No 1. R. Heat Transfer 115.. The pressure. V. Appalling equation (1. N. ρ = R(x)
. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in the Figure 1. pp. Prog. 4 Arefeva E. H. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer.372. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water.. is the atmospheric pressure.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. and Westwater. the pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension.. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two–dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.I. K. on the gas side.. M. Symp.517. I. 3 Tolubinsky. C. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. 56. and Rohsenow W.

16. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.47) into equation (1.52)
.50)
dh
(1. x+dx. Equation (1.51) into ¨ ˙ identys h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 )
3/2
(1.50) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2
3/2
¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2
3/2
(1.1. Description of liquid surface. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x)
2 3/2
27
(1. h = h(x). or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). The diﬀerential dh is h.49)
˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (sym˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations. -1.48) g h(x) ρ = 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x)
0
P0
¨ h(x) Equation (1. metry) and the derivative at hx An alternative presentation of equation (1. SURFACE TENSION The radius of any continuous function.50) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as ghρ σ dh 1+ dx
2 3/2
−
d2 h =0 dx2
(1.46) yields σ (1.47) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter Fig.6. Substituting equation (1.50) is ghρ = Integrating equation (1.47)
h
P0
P ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x.51)
The constant Lp σ/ρ g is refered to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.

constant = −1 .
.59) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp 4 This
(1. INTRODUCTION
1 ˙ 1 + h2
1/2
(1.55)
Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields h = ˙2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp
2
−1
(1.28 After the integration equation (1.54) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation4 .53)
At inﬁnity.58)
Equation (1. Shamefully.54) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2
1/2
=
1 2 1 − 2h Lp
(1. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. Equation (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2
1/2
(1.52) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp
CHAPTER 1.54)
Equation (1.59)
p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant.56)
The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ = h= dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp
2
1 2 1 − 2h Lp
2
−1
(1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.57)
= dx −1
(1.

The actual height is shown in the red line. However.6.3
0.0
0. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is 2 σ cos β h= g ∆ρ r
0
Theory
actual
working range
(1. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.18 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube.4
0.1
2.6
0.2 1. On the other hand. For a small tube radius.2
0. equation (1.6
0.17 as blue line.1. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.0
0. This book is introductory.61) is shown in Figure 1.17.8
2. Furthermore. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Capilary Height contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.2
1. In that case equation (1.7
Radii [cm]
May 29. The raising height as a function of the radii. there are information about the contact angle.49) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical shaper (small gravity eﬀect).
(1. The height based on equation (1. Equation (1.5
1.6. For large radii equation (1.18. -1. gas density and r is the radius of tube.60) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. otherwise it will not be there.1 Capillarity
h
The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. the small scale indicates
5 Actially. 2008
hmax
2σ = g ∆ρ r
function of the radius. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . 1. for extremely small radii equation (1. Furthermore.8
Height [cm]
0.4
2.1.61) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.9
1.6. -1. SURFACE TENSION
29
The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed.61) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure.60)
R
Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the Fig. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle5 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is avaible see Table 1.
. However.60) becomes Fig. The raising height as a
1. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.0
{
Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation
0.49) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect.61)
Figure 1.

Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0. Example 1.9: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ].39). You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C.61) with a minus sign. In conclusion.0728 = ∼ 2.0002
End solution
Example 1.0728 ∼ ∼ 728. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.02 cm. The acutal dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above.7. Neglect the weight of the ring.0[N/m2 ] r 0. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β
. However.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000
End solution
Example 1.” The depression height.17.18. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle. INTRODUCTION
that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed.30
CHAPTER 1. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.11: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. h is similar to equation (1.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.10: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.61).

20 24.60
mN m
T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C -
correction
mN mK
n/a -0. Therefore.1160 -0.0598 n/a -0.1159 -0. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.1211 -0.70 26.95 36.1295 -0.2049 -0.70 38.1118
.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.1191 -0.1037 -0.50 24.00 45.20 ∼ 21 64.0890 -0.50 36.6 25.0920 -0. However.1308 -0.30 23.1120 -0.20 43. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.1094 -0.12 425-465.88 39.0 22.
chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene
Surface Tension 27.20 47.1.4 28.10 22.1484 -0.0773 -0.1085 -0.
End solution
Table -1.1291 -0.95 34.04 × 0.1160 -0.40 32.8 32.0842 n/a -0.0728 ∼ . SURFACE TENSION
31
The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.30 43.10 32.10 29.60 27.3 22.1011 n/a -0.6.1066 -0.70 58.12 33.0832 -0.1117 n/a -0.50 41.0 0.50 28.0966 -0.7.1063 -0.1484 -0.

50 23.15 43.1177 -0.32
CHAPTER 1.1514 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue)
chemical component Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene
Surface Tension
mN m
T −247◦ C 25◦ C -
correction
mN mK
22.00 41.1104
.0972 -0.91 14.90
n/a n/a -0.6 5.80 30.0935 -0.067 -0.1101 -0.0-48.0 12.1372 -0.7.00 36.10 28.0777 -0.60 n/a 54-69 28.1100 n/a n/a -0.85 11. INTRODUCTION
Table -1.1189 n/a -0.90 43.70 38.4 27 72.0902 -0.1172 -0.

that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. The dimensions of this material can be changed. In this deﬁnition.1 Basic Deﬁnitions
The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book.
33
. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t.1)
This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. So. Work In mechanics. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. Two. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics
In this chapter. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter.
2.

Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. A common body force is the gravity. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration). The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force.2)
The system energy is a state property. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. = mU 2 2 (2. etc.4)
Thus the energy equation can be written as mU1 2 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2
(2. chemical potential. is the internal energy per unit mass. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. and electrical energy. The statement describing the law is the following. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum.6)
where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass.5) is transformed into U2 2 U1 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2
(2. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure.
.3)
Interesting results of equation (2.34
CHAPTER 2. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. work. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. The “new” internal energy. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Our system can receive energy.E.5)
For the unit mass of the system equation (2. For such body force. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. the conservation is applied to all systems. potential energy (gravity). Eu . The kinetic energy is K.

Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. Hence. δQ =0 T (2. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.10)
The time derivative operator. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. the integral is independent of the path. choosing any point in time will make it correct. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.8)
For the case were the body force. BASIC DEFINITIONS
35
Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points.9) (2. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law.11)
The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition.1.13)
.2. If there is no lost. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.9) reduced to D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt
(2. Bf . These states are independent of the path the system goes through.7)
In the same manner. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2. the rate energy equation is D EU DU D Bf z ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU +m Dt Dt Dt (2.12)
The last integral can go though several states.

H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as.36
CHAPTER 2.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property.15) (2. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties.17) (2. Thus. h.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process. equation (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change.18)
For isentropic process.20) (2. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. The equation (2. isn’t correct. Furthermore.17) yields T dS = dH − V dP (2. the enthalpy of the system.16) (2. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Performing integration between two states results in
2
S2 − S1 =
1
δQ = T rev
2
dS
1
(2. For reversible process equation (2.19) (2.16) into (2.15)
Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy.18) the (2.14)
One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. it still remail valid for all situations.17) in mass unit is T ds = du + P dv = dh − dP ρ (2.21)
.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . Thus.

and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2. k.25)
Application of Avogadro’s law. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations.3145 kj kmol K (2.2.1. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero.22)
And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as ∂h ∂T
Cp ≡
(2.27)
. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. Normally the relationship of temperature. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.23)
The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8.26)
Thus. pressure. k≡ Cp Cv (2. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases.
37
Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.24)
For solid. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T
(2. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas.

948 58.27650 0.29683 0.07279 0.970 39. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Table -2.1156 10.1926 14.2518 3.0413 1.41195 0.51835 0.01 30.31)
.400 1.4909 1.999 44. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K]
Gas
Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O
Molecular Weight 28.126 1.7164 0.4897 1.400 1.409 1.183 28.7448 1.0849 1.230 31.28)
Utilizing equation (2.667 1.48152
1.29680 0.9216 1.0299 1.6385 0.667 1.7165 0. From equation (2.1.400 1.2091 2.29) (2.097 18.7445 1.38
CHAPTER 2.8723
0.8418 1.289 1.299 1.2537 1.5482 5.0035 0.091 1.28) and subsisting into equation (2.013 114.4108
1.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R (2.237 1.18855 0.186 1.0416 1.20813 0.07703 4.6618 1.015
R
kj KgK
CP
kj KgK
Cv
kj KgK
k
Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam
0.14304 0.30) (2.12418 0.016 16.7662 1.6529 0.7354 0.01 28.054 4.28700 0.327
The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.003 2.7113 0.29637 2.25983 0.18892 0.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu (2.667 1.5203 1.6179 0.5734 0.393 1.044 1.124 44.04 20.6794 1.07 28.3122 1.1.

1.37) as T2 = T1 P2 P1
k−1 k
=
P2 P1
k−1
(2. k value ranges from unity to about 1. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv = R k−1
39
(2.39)
. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following
2
s2 − s1 =
1
dh dP − T ρT
(2.667. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.1).35) transformed into s2 − s1 k T2 P2 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.34)
Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that
2
s2 − s1 =
1
Cp
dT − T
2 1
R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1
(2. This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z= PV RT (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.35)
Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2. ∆s = 0.2. BASIC DEFINITIONS This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.33)
The speciﬁc heat ratio.32)
Cp =
kR k−1
(2.37)
There are several famous identities that results from equation (2. of Classical thermodynamics. the following is obtained ln T2 = ln T1 P2 P1
k−1 k
(2.38)
The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.36)
(2.

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS
.40
CHAPTER 2.

the center of mass is required to make the calculations.
3.
This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics).
3. then a moment in addtional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating).CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics
This author would like to express his gratitute to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. In other words. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.
41
. Note. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept.1 Center of Mass
The center of mass is divided into two sections. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. center of the mass and two. ﬁrst. the body will not rotate.1. etc. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction.1
Center of the Mass
In many engineering problems. moment of inertia. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. rho) as a function of the location. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. Here.

equation (3.1. y or z.2
Center of Area
t dA Y
In the previous case. ρ and the thickness. REVIEW OF MECHANICS
y
1 x= ¯ m
x ρ(x)dV
V
(3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribution in the y nor by z directions.1.3)
Fig. the body was a three dimensional shape.3) can be transfered into xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA
A
(3. are constant and can be canceled. the dV element has ﬁnite dimensions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. the mass. -3.4)
.1) can be transfered into x= ¯ 1 tA ρ
V dm
z x
x ρ t dA
V
(3. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . The density.1)
z
Here.1. -3. Thus equation (3.
3. ρ. m is the total mass of the object. Thus. Also.2. x. t.
Thin body center of mass/area
The density. Thus. schematic.2 which has density. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. In same fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi = ¯ 1 m
dV
x
Fig.
xi ρ(xi )dV
V
(3. Description of how the center of mass is calculated.42 In x coordinate.2)
where xi is the direction of either. the center will be deﬁned as
dm
CHAPTER 3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density.

2.2 Moment of Inertia
As it was divided for the body center of mass. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as
Irr m =
ρr2 dm
m
(3.3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. MOMENT OF INERTIA when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume.
43
Finding the centeroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.6)
The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.8)
(x2 + y 2 ) dm V
.5)
If the density is constant then equation (3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.1
Moment of Inertia for Mass
The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies. Furthermore.5) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV
V
(3.2.7)
The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz =
V V V
rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm =
V V
(y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm (3.
3. rk = Im m (3.
3.

2.9)
The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Ixx =
A
r2 dA =
Ixx m ρt
(3. The schematic that explains the sumIyy =
A
x2 + z 2 dA
(3. equation (3.10)
where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness.11)
y’ C
z
Thus. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis. REVIEW OF MECHANICS
3.
Izz =
A
x2 + y 2 dA
(3.3.44
CHAPTER 3. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as
y
x=
y2 + z2
(3.2. -3.12)
z’
∆x
x’
In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Fig.14)
3.13)
mation of moment of inertia.1
Moment of Inertia for Area
General Discussion
For body with thickness.2. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix
x
=
A
r dA =
A
2
y
2
+z
2
dA =
A
(y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z)
2
2
dA
(3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixxm =
m
r2 dm = ρ t
A
r2 dA
(3.10) can be written as Ixx =
A
∆y x
y +z
2
2
dA
(3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.2
The Parallel Axis Theorem
The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.15)
.2.2
3.2.

The third term is a new term and can be written as
constant r2 2 A 2 A
(∆y) + (∆z)
A
2
dA = (∆y) + (∆z)
2
dA = r2 A
(3. -3.3.20) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies.
n
2 1 y
x
Ixx =
i=1
Ixxi
(3.5. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. of the
h dr r
.17)
Hence.20)
Equation (3.2. MOMENT OF INERTIA equation (3.19)
Fig.15) can be expended as
Ixx =0
45
Ix
x
=
A
y 2 + z 2 dA + 2
A
(y ∆y + z ∆z) dA +
A
(∆y) + (∆z)
2
2
dA (3. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is
Ix
x
= Ixx + r2 A
z
(3. For example.18)
The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.4.16) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.
If the same areas are similar thus
n
Ixx =
i=1
Ixx i = n Ixx i
(3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero. -3. Cylinder with the element for calculation moment of inertia.16)
The ﬁrst term in equation (3. Fig.4 and therefore.

consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.5.3: To study the assumption of zero thickness. Solution
. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness.
This value will be used in later exampls. REVIEW OF MECHANICS
3. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.46
CHAPTER 3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.3
Examples of Moment of Inertia
Example 3. as shown in Figure 3. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. r0 .1: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius.2.6.
End solution
Example 3.12) as following Ixx =
A 0
y
z
b dx
a 0
dA
a
2 2 y +z dA =
z 2 bdz =
a b 3
3
x
Fig. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate.2: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness.5 as
r0 0 dV
Irr = ρ
V
r dm = ρ
2
r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π
2
1 1 r0 4 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2
The radius of gyration is rk =
1 2
mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2
End solution
Example 3. -3.6 around x coordinate. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.

Ixx m (t → 0) → 1. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number.2.22) to write as
t/2
tions of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations. Additionally it can be noticed that the ratio a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error1 .8. b has no eﬀect on the Fig.
Ixx Ixxm
February 28.8.23)
Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 = 2 = t2 Ixxm t b a + b a3 1 + a2 (3.7.21)
dz
dIx
x m
b a3 + z2 = ρdy 12
r2
r2 A
ba
A
a b
(3. -3.3.9. The ratio of the moment of inertia of two-dimensional to three–dimensional. A square element for the calculaThe total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. -3.
. MOMENT OF INERTIA
47
The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is
Ixx t
dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. shown in Figure 3. The results are present in Figure 3.24)
It can be noticed right away that equation (3.24) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. error.4: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia of the parabola. x can be done as following I
xx
b a3 12
(3.
Ixx m = ρ
−t/2
b a3 a b t2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12
(3.22) Fig. y = αx2 . I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.
1 This ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. 2008
t a
End solution
Example 3.

What is the moment when a simetrical traingle is attached on bottom. -3. What is the moment when a simetrical traingle is attached on left.5: Calculate the momenet of Inertia of strait angle traingle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.
Y
h dy X a
. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.9. Description of parabola for calculation of moment of inertia and center of area. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ A=2
0 dA/2 b/α
CHAPTER 3.25) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. The center of every 2 element is at.
dA
(b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2
2
(b − αξ 2 )dξ = (3.4).48 Solution For y = b the value of x = b/α. Utilizing equation (3.18)
x
=4
0
ξ2
ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α
A (∆x=xc )2
Ix
x
Ixx = Ix
x
− A ∆x2 =
4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α
End solution
b α
3 2
3αb 15 α − 5
2
or after working the details results in Ixx =
Example 3.12) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides
dA b
Ix Utilizing equation (3. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element 2 area is used before and therefore √ 1 xc = A
0 xc b/α
Fig. REVIEW OF MECHANICS
(b − αξ 2 )dξ =
2(3 α − 1) 3
b α
3 2
The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. Assume that base is a and the hieght is h.25)
3αb 15 α − 5
The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3.

MOMENT OF INERTIA Solution
49
The right adge line equaiton can be calcualted as y x = 1− h a or x y = 1− a h Now using the monent of inertia of rectangule on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.28) results in
0 0
Ixy
∆y A
x dA x ∆ydA +
∆x A
y dA ∆x ydA +
∆x ∆y A
Ix
y
=
A
x ydA +
A
∆x ∆ydA
A
(3.2. the product of inertia is commonly used. Ix =
A
y
x y dA =
A
(x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA
(3.3.29)
A
. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.27)
Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy =
A
x ydA
(3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA
A
(3.28)
expanding equation (3.26)
For example. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.
End solution
a3 h 2
3.2.4
Product of Inertia
In addition to the moment of inertia.2)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of iniria will be sum as The rest is under construction.

Product of inertia for triangle.6: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.
The product of inertia at the center is zero.32) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz
z
(3. -3.50 The ﬁnal form is Ix
y
CHAPTER 3.
.10.5
Principal Axes of Inertia
The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.30)
There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia. Example 3.2.32)
In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS
= Ixy + ∆x ∆y A
(3.33) referred as principle system.31)
y y
b
x
a
′
x
Fig. The total product of inertia is
∆x ∆y A
Ix
y
=0+
a 3
b 3
ab 2
=
a2 b2 18
End solution
3. Solution The equation of the line is y= a x+a b
′
(3.33)
System which creates equation (3.

35) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other.38)
The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls =
m
r × U dm
(3.34) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the addtional meaning which be added. 2 (Ur × ω). NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
51
3. Two. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. F= ρ rdV
V
(3. The same as in the dynamic class. it can be treated as the regular derivative. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. Yet.3. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion
These laws can be summarized in two statements one. dm. the system acceleration called the internal forces. r × ω. Angular. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. thus. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume.39)
.3. ˙
3. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV
V
(3.4 Angular Momentum and Torque
The angular momentum of body. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. stresses).37)
where r is the location of the particles from the origin. ω×(r × ω).34) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3.36)
The velocity. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. Coriolis.

consider a particle moving in x–y plane. in the same fashion. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS
The change with time of angular momentum is called torque.42)
To understand these equations a bit better.40) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0
(3.1
Tables of geometries
Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries.43) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3.46)
In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.
.
3.40)
where Tτ is the torque. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force.38) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm)
m
(3. (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.52
CHAPTER 3.45)
The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt
r × U dm
m
(3.44)
Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.4. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.41)
m
It can be noticed (well. The force can be written.

1.4. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes)
Shape Name
Picture description
xc .3. 2 2
ab
ab3 12
XX
Triangle
b b/3 a
a 3
ab 3
ab3 36
XX
Circle
a=b
b b/2
b 2
π b2 4
πb4 64
a
Ellipse
XX
a>b
b b/2
b b 2 2
π ab 4
Ab2 64
a
y = αx2 Parabola
a XX b
xc
3αb 15 α−5
6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α
√
b
(20 b3 −14 b2 ) √
35 α
. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE
53
Table -3. yc
A
Ix x
XX
Rectangle
b b/2 a
b a .

REVIEW OF MECHANICS
Table -3. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity
Shape Name
Picture description
r
xc . yc
A
Ixx
Quadrant of Circle
XX
4r 3π
4r 3π
π r2 4
4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π )
r
Ellipsoidal Quadrant
XX
b
4b 3π
4b 3π
πab 4
π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π )
a
Half of Elliptic
XX
b
4b 3π
4b 3π
πab 4
π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π )
a
Circular Sector
XX
α α
0
2α r2
r4 4
(α− 1 sin 2α) 2
r
XX
Circular Sector
α α
2 r sin α 3 α
2 r sin α 3 α
Ix 2α r2
r4 4
x
=
r
(α+ 1 sin 2α) 2
.54
CHAPTER 3.2.

Furthermore. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. gG (x.
4. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. z).1. Later. with acceleration. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. several assumptions must be made. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel-
Equation (4. The system is in a body force ﬁeld.1 Introduction
The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. -4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation
A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics
4. that pressure can increase and later decrease. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant
55
. However. a as shown in Figure 4. a = 0.1) erated system under body forces.g.
Fig. In these derivations. y. dy. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time.1. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ
y P
P+
∂P dy dxdz ∂y
P+ dy
∂P dz dxdy ∂z
P+
∂P dx dydz ∂x
dz dx z P
x
(4.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration.

the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system.8) (4. where n is the steepest direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient.2)
In the same fashion.6)
Hence. the pressure is treated. As before. the dot product of the following is ˆ • gradP = ∂P i ∂x (4. it has a direction). This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation.4)
In general. If the pressure. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation the dot product results in in • gradP = ∂P ∂n (4. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =−
surface
∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y
(4. For example. FLUIDS STATICS
compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ).7)
. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). Even though. P . the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or gradP = ρ geﬀ (4. now.5)
where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction.3)
The term in the parentheses in equation (4. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F=
total surface
F+
body
F
(4.56
CHAPTER 4. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.

13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.9) and substituting it into equation (4. For example. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4. it will be used. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here.14)
1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated.9)
Utilizing equation (4.
.11) (4. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 . and temperature.3. There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction.10)
and constant in equation (4.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.1
Constant Density in Gravitational Field
The simplest case is when the density. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
57
Some refer to equation (4. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. P . ρ.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field
In this section.8) as the Fluid Static Equation. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. First. However. y.
4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.11) and therefore P (x. Traditionally. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. y) = constant (4.13)
The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.4.12) (4. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.3.
4. pressure.

Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. Figure 4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4. the right hand side of the equation (4. to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y.1
Pressure Measurement
Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure
One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.3.14) becomes P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.2. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid.2.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).3.58
CHAPTER 4. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state. -4. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.
It is evident from equation (4. -4.3.
.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force.15)
In the literature. FLUIDS STATICS
Constant Pressure Lines
Fig.3. A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure.
4. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density.2
4.

PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
59
Example 4.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. For smaller width.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube.16)
The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.39[P a] ∼ 1. The mercury density is 13545. The ratio of the Fig.4. Equation (4. U tube is L.76 ∼ 101095.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. Pa = 13545.000179264[kPa].2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube.82 × 0.85[kg/m3 ].1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. P valve
2
1
Example 4. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. -4. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.82[m/sec]. Hence. L.85 × 9.
Gas The pressure. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1
2 This
example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. Locate the liquids surfaces. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.3.3. The high of the Mercury is 0.
End solution
(4.
h
.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other.4.

60 The mass conservation results in
CHAPTER 4.3.5.2. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. -4.4).2
Pressure Measurement
The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers. Thus. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. This way. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa
End solution
4. FLUIDS STATICS
Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α
When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. Schematic of sensitive measurement device. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .
.Fig. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side.17)
Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured.

18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4.20) −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. Additionally. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4.20) equation (4. then equation (4.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. In the previous technique. in writing equation (4.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides.3. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. Thus. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications.3. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal.4. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. Figure 4.21)
For the small value of the area ratio.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement
61
For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. This technique utilizes the opposite range. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large. Additional parameter. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . With the equation for height (4.18) the gas density was neglected.23)
Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. In steady state. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid). the volume ratio. ρ2 .23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4.20).19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.22) A2 A1 (4. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4.2. For example.22) becomes h2 = (4. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. A2 /A1 << 1. if the volumes in two containers is equal then h2 A2 (4. Here.
. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.

These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure. 4.27)
Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially.26)
It is convenient to rearrange equation (4. Equation (4.62
CHAPTER 4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure
Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.24)
Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4.28)
h2 + ··· 6
(4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. liquids and other. In the gas phase.11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4.25)
(4.3.27) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as
−
h ρ0 g P0
P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be P ρ0 g h − =1+ P0 P0
correction factor
2
(4.29)
.25) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT
„ «
(4. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).3.26) to the following P = P0
e
−
g(z−zo ) RT
(4. FLUIDS STATICS
4.3.3
Varying Density in a Gravity Field
There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. Thus equation (4. As ﬁrst approximation. density and location.

The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2.33)
The integration of equation (4.3.29) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use3 . For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved. Z. here. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. the value of the compressibility factor. For these cases. In these cases. a numerical integration must be carried out. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
63
Equation (4.4. These deviations have a limited practical purpose. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. In general.39). Fortunately. However.3.32) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as
P ρ
dP =
P0 ρ0
BT
dρ ρ
(4.
. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.27) and (4.34)
3 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person.33) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure
The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.3. 4. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.30)
(4.28).32)
The variables for equation (4. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). So. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 Z RT 6Z RT
2
e
„
−
g (z−zo ) Z RT
«
(4.31)
Without going through the mathematics.28).

39)
March 11. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.35) in equation (4.40)
Fig. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. The integration constant.37) has units of length. is a typical length of the problem.38)
e
P −P0 BT
P −P0 BT
−1
=z
(4.39) and is plotted in Figure 4.6.37)
It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.34) can be represented in a more convenient form as ρ = ρ0
e
P −P0 BT
(4. FLUIDS STATICS
Equation (4.6.
The solution is presented in equation (4. with units of length. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant. -4.64
CHAPTER 4. Sometimes. 2008
P −P0 BT
Or in a dimensionless form
g ρ0 z BT
e
−1
=
z g ρ0 BT
(4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.35)
Equation (4. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.36) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0
e
P −P0 BT
(4. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). Utilizing equation (4.36)
e
P −P0 BT
= z + Constant
(4.41)
. BT /g ρ0 .35) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.

the temperature is T0 and using it leads to T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4.).4. Hence. P/BT is small (<< 1). the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example.3. Here.3.
4.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.43)
where h here referred to height or distance. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.3. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. Additionally. For example.40) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption.4
4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
65
An approximation of equation (4.46) (4. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.4. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric pressure BT (P − P0 ) + 2 corrections P − P0 BT
2
3
BT + 6
P − P0 BT
+ · · · = z g ρ 0
(4. For h = 0.45)
.1
The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations
The Basic Analysis
There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.42)
It can be noticed that equation (4.44)
where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. For the atmosphere.45) with (4.42) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.

FLUIDS STATICS
Separating the variables in equation (4. 5 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science.G.46) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4. negative direction). It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4.50) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.51) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i.50) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas.e.51)
P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0
g R Cx
=1−
R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − −. h. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient. It can be recalled that the following expansions are
g h ρ0 P0
correction factor (4.
4 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.
.. I am grateful to my adviser E. Equation (4. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. If you feel that it is too simple. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights. please.66
CHAPTER 4.48)
After integration of equation (4. just ignore it. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2
Equation (4. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter5 .47) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.50)
It can be noticed that equation (4.R.49)
Or in a more convenient form as P = P0
g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0
(4. However.47)
Deﬁning a new variable4 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.

50) is stable and if so under what conditions.25). The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.3.52)
Equation (4.. -4.52) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient).50) and (4.7) What could happen? There are two Fig. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.53)
*Advance material can be skiped*
It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. to yield
P P0 T0 T
ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 4.7. Suppose that h for some reason. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. It has to be noted that these equations (4.4.3. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition.
(4. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. equation (2.4. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. Equation (4.50) represents only the pressure ratio.45). inﬂuences at only large values of height.2 The Stability Analysis
g Cx h Cx h ( R Cx ) 1− 1+ T0 T
(4. Clearly. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis.51) and (4. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. Cx .. That is. h.52) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim 1− h Cx −>0 P0 T0
g R Cx
67
=
e
gh −RT
0
−
g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R
e
gh −RT
0
− . For engineering purposes. Thus. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. higher heights). Under equilibrium.
.

under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.59)
. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.51) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R
1/k
(4. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).54) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) 1−
g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T
∼1−
g ρ Cx − P T
dh + · · · (4. The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. That is.. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound).55)
When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.57) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P
1/k
(4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h)
1/k
(4. The process. In reality.58)
The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. Pk 2 P 2 k2
(4. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time)..54)
The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process. FLUIDS STATICS
The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest.56)
Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.53) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T
g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T
(4.57)
Expanding equation (4. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec].57) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P
1/k
=1−
g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .50) but can be approximated by equation (4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process.68
CHAPTER 4. However.

rb the density. At ﬁrst glance. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
69
The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation.61)
The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. Thus. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4.58) provides the conditions to determine the stability.4. it is said that situation is neutral. g.5
Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density
Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid. it transformed to (k − 1) g ρ Cx > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R
(4. the unstable situation is continuously unstable.59) and (4.3. The varying gravity eﬀects on force source in liquid can be the liquid itself.3.11) has two terms on the right hand side. while the gravity Fig. Thus.
4. However. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid.60) and using the ideal gas identity. Thus. around this value additional analysis is needed 6 . -4. density and pressure. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. The body g ∝ r2 force was assumed until now to be constant.
6 The
same issue of the ﬂoating ice. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged.
.60)
After rearrangement of the inequality (4. From a mathematical point of view.will not be introduced here. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. Equation r P b ρb (4.8. ρ and the body force. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. the discussion is separated into two different issues. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body.

Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . Again. numerical integration is a possible solution. Thus. is employed. equation (4.62)
where here G denotes the general gravity constant. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain
P Pb
dP G =− P RT
r rb
dr r2
(4.5.63) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.5. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough.66)
Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning). The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. The integration of equation (4. As before.65)
Equation (4.. equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS
In physics.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity
The regular assumption of constant compressibility.64)
e
G r−r − RT r r b b
(4.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity
CHAPTER 4. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. Z. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 .63)
where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. 4.63) is transformed into
P Pb
G dP =− P Z RT
r rb
dr r2
(4.3. equation (4.67)
.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus G ∂P = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.70 4. 2 ρb Pb RT 2 rb (R T )
(4..65) can be expanded in taylor series as
standard correction f actor 2
2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ G (r − rb ) P = =1− − + . it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body.3.

35) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in P −P0 ∂P G (4. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .71) r Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.73) r2 dP ρ dr + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb
71
e
G r−r −Z RT r r b b
(4.5.3.65) is
standard correction f actor 2
2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ P G (r − rb ) = =1− − + . This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.
P0 −P BT
e
= Constant −
4.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity
For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.68)
Equation (4.3.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. 4. As before taylor series for equation (4.70) = −ρ0 BT 2 ∂r r which the solution of equation (4. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.3.000 [m].. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD With the same process as before for ideal gas case. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.. if applicable.72)
.69)
It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are 1 d r2 dr Or in a vector form as • 1 P ρ + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.70) is
e
BT g ρ0 (4.6
Liquid Phase
While for most practical purposes.4. 2 ρb Pb Z RT 2 rb (Z R T )
(4.

74)
For example.4. FLUIDS STATICS
4. in a two dimensional system. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.3: What is the angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. Equation (4. However. This requires to ﬁnd the angle of the eﬀective body force. the previous derivations can be easily extended. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. for the eﬀective gravity
where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4. As before.75)
and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. Example 4.81
The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. Thus.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System
Up to this stage.
4. The general.01◦ g 9.72
CHAPTER 4. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.015[m/sec2 ]
End solution
.76)
Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. This angle/direction can be found using the following tan−1 β = tan−1 a 5 = ∼ 27. body forces were considered as one-dimensional.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity.1
Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System
ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i (4.812 = 11.

9.77)
F (a )
β
Fig. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.4: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4.1 a
73
m 5 sec
g
geﬀ
Fig.10. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.
End solution
(b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM
27. A cart slide on inclined plane. -4. Calculate the shape of the surface.
Example 4. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. If there is no resistance. Thus. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.78)
.4. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.10. -4. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− Fnet m (4.4.
The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicular to the slope.

α < β. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.
For simpliﬁcation reasons.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density
Fig. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.
(4.81) can be integrated as z − z0 = ω r 2g
2 2
Fig.82)
Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . ω2 r2 2g (4.79)
(c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero.11. So.83)
. Schematic to explain the angular angle. -4. The constant pressure will be along P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + To illustrate this point.80)
z r
unit mass
ω2 r g
geﬀ
center of circulation
Equation (4.12. -4.81) (4.4. is now tan α =
net g − Fm g cosβ
CHAPTER 4. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.74 The angle of the surface. example 4.
r su ce fa th wi
t ic fr
n io
α
a
β g sin β − Fnet m
β g
geﬀ
4.5 is provided. FLUIDS STATICS
(4.

Thus. The center of rotation is a distance.
End solution
Example 4. -4. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g
Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g
It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.5: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω.5.13.4. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.
Example 4.82) represent the pressure line.4.6: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . equation (4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. L from the “left” hand side.13. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM
Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center
ns ta su re lin e
75
pr
es
S
ω
L
co
xL
Fig. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution
nt
.

The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. Calculate the minimum forces.7: In the U tube in example 4.76
CHAPTER 4. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ
Fig.13 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. Initially.
.14.8: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. This section deals with these calculations. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces
The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes.1
Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces
A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown.14.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is
dF
"0"
β = 50◦
h
A-A
ξ
ℓ = 5[m]
ξ
A-A
a[m]
dξ
F1 F2
b[m]
dM = P a dξ ( + ξ)
dA
The pressure. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other.
4. Example 4. what happen the rotation approach very large value?
4.5. Rectangular area under pressure. These calculations are divided into two categories.5 is rotating with upper part height of . F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. Later. FLUIDS STATICS
In Figure 4. a simple case will be examined. -4. straight surfaces and curved surfaces.
End solution
Example 4.

Looking at the above calculations. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The liquid total moment on the gate is
b
77
M=
0
g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ)
The integral can be simpliﬁed as
b
M = g a ρ sin β
0
( + ξ)2 dξ
(4.4.5. Additional equation is needed. which is
b
Ftotal =
0
g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ
The total force integration provides
b
Ftotal = g ρ a sin β
0
( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β
2 b + b2 2
The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3
Additionally. It is the total force. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6
End solution
The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3.84) and also a center of area. Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3.84)
The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3
This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. Symmetrical Shapes
. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems.

89)
F2
Or separating the parts as
xc A ξ1
Fig.87)
The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is
ξ1
My =
ξ0
P (ξ)ξdA
ξ sin β
(4. The integral in equation (4.
Ix ξ1
x
My = Patmos
ξ0
ξdA +g ρ sin β
ξ0
ξ 2 dA
(4. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero.85) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β In a ﬁnal form as Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β (
0 0A+
0
xc A
1
(4. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.78 Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4. the force is F =
A
CHAPTER 4. -4. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x.85) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.15.90)
.86)
ξdA
+ xc )]
y ξ0 β a F1 b
"O"
(4.15.88)
ξ1
ξ1
My =
ξ0
(Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA
(4. Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated.85)
0
(ξ +
0 ) sin β
dA
In this case.16. FLUIDS STATICS
"O"
β ξ
ξ
ℓ0 dξ ℓ1
ξ
Fig.
h(ξ)
1
P dA =
(Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg (4. The general forces acting on submerged area. -4. First.

and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. Equations (4.87).96)
Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.5. additional equation is required.17). Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4. is about the axis through point “O” into the page. Equation (4.91) and the total force is given by (4.96) into Mx =
A
y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA
(4.91)
Example 4. the forces can be negative or positive.8 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES
79
The moment of inertia. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. Ix
x
ρ sin β
(4.94)
ρ sin β −
ρ sin β −
Patmos ga
xc +
0
ρ sin β +
Patmos g
aA
g (b − a)
(4. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx =
A
y P dA
(4. Thus. in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required.87) and (4. Ix x . If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix
x x 0
+ xc )]
(4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional.97)
. However.93)
ρ sin β −
Patmos gb
xc +
0
ρ sin β + g (b − a)
Patmos g
b A−. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.16 which has two forces that balance the body.90) can be written in more compact form as My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx
x
(4.92)
(4.4.95)
In the solution.91) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. Additionally.

9: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.
(4.17.96) can be written as
A yc
CHAPTER 4. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. -4.80 The integral in equation (4. Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided.98)
The compact form can be written as Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix
y
(4.102)
The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4. (4. FLUIDS STATICS
Ix
y
Mx = Patmos
A
y dA +ρ g sin β
A
ξ y dA
(4.91) and (4.99)
The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3.91) and (4.100)
(4. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.101)
+ F2 (a +
0)
+ F3
0
= Mx
(4.18) for triangle 1 and 2). There are many combinations of problems (e. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 )
.99) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density.87). Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1
1
Fig.18.99). (4.g. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.87). These equations (4.
y
ξ
dA
y
x
Example 4.

FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and its width b and thus.
F2
ab 3
=−
F3
ab 3
=
− 72 « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . Fig. -4. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a.
2 a b2
1 +2 a b 2 0 +a 2
Ixy =
0
1 − 0 )x + b
x y dx dy =
b2
24
The solution of this set equations is
A
F1 =
a b (g (6 3
„ (3
1
+ 3 a) + 6 g
„ 12 a
0)
ρ sin β + 8 Patmos
24
1
. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is
A1 ∆x1 2 0 1
81 −
0) 3
/36. the moment of
∆x2 2 1
A2
Ixx 2 =
b[a−(
1 − 0 )]
3
36
+
b[a−(
1 − 0 )]
3
+
[a−(
1 − 0 )]
2
3
and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2
ℓ1
y
b
1
ℓ0 F3 a
The product of inertia of the triangle can 2 be obtain by integration.4.18. 72 « « « „„ „ 2 15 12 12 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β 72 „„ « « 48 24 1 +24 + a 0 Patmos a
„„
1 −14 a)− 0
« « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β
+
72
End solution
.5.
Ixx 1 =
b(
3 1− 0)
36
+
1
b(
1− 0)
3 0)
+
2(
1− 0)
2
3
The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is
−
and its width b and thus. The general forces acting on non
b ( (
1− 0 −a)x + b 0
0 +a
symmetrical straight area. It can be noF1 ticed that upper line of the triangle is F2 x y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .

It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function.15) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4.108)
7 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. Thus.1 Pressure Center
CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS
In the literature.99). In fact.91) and equation (4. If density can be represented by average density. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA
A
(4.103)
In the same way. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions.1.” Thus. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix
x
g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc
(4.
.104)
To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties.2 Multiply Layers
In the previous sections. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned. the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal =
A
g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯
A
g h dA
(4. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density7 . 4.5. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4.1. the density was assumed to be constant.82 4.106)
and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.5. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O.107)
It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA
A
(4.105)
according to equation (3.

110)
As before for single density. The moment around axis y. However. but constant in segments.5. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. the reasonable average can be used. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer.114)
In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as
n
Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β
i=1
ρi I x
y i
(4.
. My under the same considerations as before is My =
A
g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA
(4. In cases where density is non–continuous. the integral has be carried out. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES
83
In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably8 .112)
After similar separation of the total integral. one can ﬁnd that
n
My = g sin β
i=1
ρi I x
x i
(4. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. the following can be written
x c 1 A1 xc 2 A2
xc n An
Ftotal = g sin β ρ1
ξ dA +ρ2
A1 A2
ξ dA + · · · + ρn
ξ dA An
Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as
n
Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β
i=1
ρi xc i Ai (4.4.115)
8 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. the following can be said Ftotal =
A
g ρ h dA =
A1
g ρ1 h dA +
A2
g ρ2 h dA + · · · +
An
g ρn h dA (4. Moreover. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal.109) (4.111)
where the density.113)
If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that
n
My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β
i=1
ρi I x
x i
(4.

as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. h2 = 2[m]. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . Solution
y
"O"
Since there are only two unknowns. Equation ρ4 (4.114) and (4.10: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces. The geometries of each areas are
„ h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β h2 sin β sin β sin β h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 2 2 2
xc 1 = xc 2 = xc3 =
A1 = A2 = A3 =
− a2
Ix
x 1
=
x 2 x 3
+ (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc3 ) A3
(h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 )
Ix Ix
= =
(h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β
After inserting the values.84
CHAPTER 4. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. the ﬁrst equation is
Atotal 3
F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β
i=1
ρi+1 xci Ai
. The forces distances are a1 = 1. which are (4. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero).19.5[m]. a2 = 1.5[m]. FLUIDS STATICS To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.75[m].19. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ].114) can be used by modifying it.111). The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. and b1 = 4. -4.and h4 = 4[m]. only two equations are h4 needed. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. pressure can be used as
ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4
β h1 a2
h3
h2 b2 b1 F2 F1
a1
ℓ
The eﬀects of multi layers density on static
Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. the following equations are obtained Thus.
Example 4. h3 = 3[m].

292 Ix x 3 = 86.696 A2 = 3.117)
The result of the integral is a vector. [m2 ]. if the y component of the force is needed.79[N ] and F2 = 958923. dA.2
Force on Curved Surfaces
The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES
85
The second equation is (4. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2. outward as positive. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=−
A
P n dA ˆ
(4. At this stage.4. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.535 Ix x 1 = 14.535 A3 = 3.114) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as
xc Atotal
F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos
(b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1
ρi+1 xci Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3
i=1
3
x i
The solution for the above equation is
2 b1 g sin β P3
i=1
ρi+1 Ix
x i
−
F1 =
P3
i=1
(b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 )
2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix
x i
Patmos ρi+1 xc i Ai
F2 =
−2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1
P3
i=1
+
(b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 )
2 b1 −2 a1
Patmos
The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. only a dot product is needed as
. It is simpler to compute the terms separately.2892 xc2 = 3.116)
Here.5. So. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].215 Ix x 2 = 44.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809. the pressure is treated as a scalar function. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.9497 A1 = 2.92[N ]
End solution
4.5.5355 xc3 = 4.

Fig. The forces on curved area. However.120) implicitly means that the net force on the
.119)
The same can be said for the x direction. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous.120)
The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure.118)
dAy dAx dA
From this analysis (equation (4. “y z” is tan θzy Fz = Fy (4. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as
x
y
dAz
Fy =
A
P dAy
(4. for example. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. Equation (4.20.123)
Fig. -4.121)
only the liquid above the body affecting the body
And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). -4. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries.21.86
CHAPTER 4.
The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. FLUIDS STATICS
z
dFy = dF • ˆ j
(4.122)
and the angle in the other plane.118)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y. The force in the z direction is Fz =
A
h g ρdAz
(4. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4.

124)
Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density).). Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. The net force will be
θ0 P dAx
Fx =
0
ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ
End solution
The integration results in ρ g b r2 Fx = 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Another way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area.22. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES
87
body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. why? Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0
. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. Ax (see Figure 4. Thus. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. For example. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. direct and indirect. The diﬀerential area that will be used is.4. 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are diﬀerent. The gravity is 9. Example 4.23) as
Ax xc
δθ θ θ0 θ
Y
4[m] x dirction
A θ Ax Ay
r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ Fig.22)).21 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . -4.11: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m]. Solution The force in the x direction is
dAx
Fx =
A
P r cos θ dθ
(4. Inside the slot. Figure 4. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page).5. Dam is a part of a circular shape.

Area above the dam arc subthe y direction is the area times width. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. -4. tract triangle.24) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ
θ 2
All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.2.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600. -4.88 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as 1000 × 9. The force in Fig. and substituting the proper values results in
Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle
4 r sin
θ 2
cos
θ 2
3θ
4 r sin
yc r =
2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos
Aarc Atriangle
θ 2
θ 2
θ
4 r sin 3θ
θ 2
This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4.
Fig. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL9 ).23) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A
The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes.65174[m]
9 Well.
V
A
θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375.
just a demonstration!
.0[N ] Fx = 2
CHAPTER 4.1 and 3. FLUIDS STATICS
A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc =
r
θ r2 2
Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).23.24. The arc center (see Figure 4.

2 ∼ 7792.4.5.21[N × m] 9
The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.348 × 22375.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is
Ixx
89
b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx r cosθ0 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2
xc
3
The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following
θ0
dF = P dA =
0
ρ g sin θ b r dθ
and element moment is θ 2 θ 2
dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is M=
0
cos
θ0
dM θ 2 θ 2
or M=
0
θ0
ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin
cos
dθ
.65174 ∼ 0.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.

26) in this case is
P h dA
y=
n i=1
a i xi
b
dA dy dx
y x
dF = (b − y) g ρ
dx2 + dy 2
Fig.26.90 The solution of the last equation is
CHAPTER 4.26).calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. FLUIDS STATICS
O
g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) M= 4 The vertical force can be obtained by
θ0
θ
θ/2 θ/2
π−θ 2
ℓ = 2 r sin
θ 2
Fv =
0
P dAv
dF
P dAv
π 2
or
θ0
θ/2
Fv =
0
ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ Fv =
Fig. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. and the direct approach was presented second. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. Polynomial shape dam descrip-
The size of the diﬀerential area is the square tion for the moment around point “O” and root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. The element force (see Figure 4.12: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. Example 4.26 .”
g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. To demonstrate this point further. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces.
. -4. The function of the dam shape is y = n i i=1 ai x and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). -4. In fact. Moment on arc element around Point “O. It force calculations. It is much simpler now to use the second method. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. Solution
o
The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. and thus.25.

consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx
units of [1/m ]. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth.4.27. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2
Fig. The derivative at x is
. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that
6 6
b 2
b 2 5
is measured in meters. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx
2 n 2
O y
dy dx ℓ dF
b
=
1+
i=1
i a (i) x (i)
i−1
y
θ
The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of
n
x
x
0=
i=1
ai x i − b
To evaluate the moment. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. From mathematics. For example.27).5.
The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x
The element moment in this case is
dF 2
dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ
1+
dy dx
cos θ(x) dx
To make this example less abstract. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. -4. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx
2
91
The right side can be evaluated for any given function. In this case.

the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. Here. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. The horizontal force is b ρ g b2 Fh = b ρ g = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as
√ 6 b
Fv =
0
b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g
5 b6 7
7
In going over these calculations. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. It was taught by people like these. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding10 .Fig. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work.6 Buoyancy and Stability
h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes.92
CHAPTER 4.
0 0
10 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is M=
0
(b −
2 2 x6 )
+
6
b −x 2
2
b − 2 x6 −1
6
b 2
−x
√ 6 b
(x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ
1 + 12 x5 dx
This integral doesn’t have analytical solution. However. This omission saves considerable time. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder.28. he was able to cap. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. FLUIDS STATICS
and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). ture the essence. In fact. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. 150 years ago and more.
. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. more advance mathematics will be used. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. -4.
End solution
4.

28. any shape is made of many small rectangles. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.
The solution of equation (4. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. All the horizontal forces are canceled.29.28. To understand this issue. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.130)
. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. h0 as shown in Figure 4.127)
2π
F =
0
ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ
(4.125)
represents a depth (into the page). In illustration of this concept.4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
93
The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of. For any two rectangle bodies.125) to F = ρg V
(4.129) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4.128)
Rearranging equation (4.127)
r θ
The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. Another way to look at this point is by approximation.127) transforms it to
2π
F = rgρ
0
(h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ
(4. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Rearranging equation (4.29) is
P dAvertical
h0
dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ
(4. on the vertical direction. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. The force per area (see Figure 4. On the other hand.129)
Fig.6. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. However. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other.126)
The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. those will cancel each other. Thus. -4. the horizontal forces are canceling each other.

is ﬂoating in liquid with density. Thus. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. Express the maximum wall thickness. h1 has to be zero. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand.30. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. FLUIDS STATICS
The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. Since there are no better examples. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. While the horizontal force is
2π
Fv =
0
(h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0
(4. shown in Figure 4.131)
Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. these examples are a must. t.
h1
t
w
hin
h
Example 4. the height. The container diameter is w. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2
V
. ρl .30 .94
CHAPTER 4. Note that for the maximum thickness. -4. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. calculate the pressure inside the container. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. Solution The air mass in the container is
V ρair
mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is
Patmos RT
A
mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). In the case where thickness is half the maximum. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). as a Fig.13: A cylindrical body. ρs liquid density. ﬂoating body.

Thus. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + + ··· 2 − ρl g Patmos Patmos Patmos 3
This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g
. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
95
Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known.14: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. so that the last solution is the only physical solution.6.
ρ
π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos +
Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2
h Patmos hin
4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl
4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl
End advance material
which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. the air. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. Extreme Cases *Advance material can be skiped* The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. hin = Example 4. it can be inserted into the above equation.
Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container.4.

but the liquid displacement is still unknown. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS
2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs
The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = −
“ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1
4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2
In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. The thickness is known. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h
End solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1
(hin + h1 ) π w2
Patmos R T1
g
.96 If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax =
CHAPTER 4. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf
The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi
The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented.

Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight
F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is
m
F = m a = V αρl a Thus. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1).16: In some situations. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the
.6. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface.15: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance.4. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α
If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ √ √ 3 5 7 2 g h α2 3 2 g h α2 5 2 g h α2 + + + ··· 2g 8g 16 g 2 hα g(1 − α)
From the above equation. h0 and left at rest.
End solution
Example 4. The body’s density is α ρl . Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
97
Example 4.

In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. FLUIDS STATICS
dAx h dA
dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r2 dθ dφ The total force is then
π π 0
Fx =
0
(ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ
The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! π $$− ρS ) r¡ (ρL $$ 3 $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4
2 £
1
π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4
Thus the height is
π h = r 4
End solution
Example 4.17: In the introduction to this section.98 sphere. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. Body with density between the two liquids. the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. In the same vein. There situations where density is a function of the depth. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨
. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. The element force is
CHAPTER 4. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density.

6. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and it will be ﬂoating. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h
2
(ρh − ρl )
Thus the equilibration will be achieved. -4.
End solution
4. The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. when
x1 +h
ρc h =
x1
ρh −
x h
2
(ρh − ρl ) dx
After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h
And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical).31 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod.31. if body is small compare the zone of variation. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. x1 .6. A is canceled on both sides. Tilting the body with a small angle from
gravity center Full
a
b
c
Fig.
. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. they have to accounted for. However.1
Stability
Empty buoyancy center
Figure 4. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh
In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. Thus. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh
99
the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically.4. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies.

33 is displaced by the same
.32. B’.33. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. move to a new buoyant center. FLUIDS STATICS
its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. when given a tilted position. for example) is inserted into water.100
CHAPTER 4.33. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. -4. -4. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid.31b).33. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. the cubic results in returning to the original position. shown in Figure 4. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . So.31c. A wooden cubic (made of pine. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. B’ as shown in Figure 4. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle. The body.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. However.32). B. That is. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. β. categories. it is referred to as the neutral stable. in any of these six positions.31c.31c . This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. The stability of the body is divided into three Fig. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. should to be calculated. the body is in situation like in 4. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. Small amount of tilting of Fig. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location. In fact.

134)
The integral in the right side of equation (4. BB can be written from equation (4. So the perpendicular distance.).134) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3.136)
And combining equations (4. and.4. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as
δF
M W
(4.135) with (4. BB is the distance between points B and point B’.33 as ∆F .
.135)
The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point. The distance.6.132)
Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). BB . The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.138)
11 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical.137)
lim
(4. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. However. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating.136) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0)
β→0
g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β
(4. β. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
101
area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change11 so the total immersed section is constant.133)
M=
A
g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β
dV A
x2 dA
(4. when the body is not symmetrical. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. M. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. W referred to the weight of the body. For small angle.134) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. BB W = M (4.

6
1.2
1.34.5 0.2
BG =
h h ρs 1 − h = 2 ρl 2 2
1−
GM h
ρs ρl (4.
Fig.139)
a
To understand these principles consider the following examples.5
α = 0.0
0. 2008
Simplifying the above equation provides
Fig. -4.140)
2. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.8
1.0
-0. -4.33.6 α = 0.3
1. Where L is the length into 12 the page.9 0. L.139) requires that several quantities should be expressed.4 α = 0.4
1. Solution Equation (4.5
0.
1 GM = h 12 α
a h
2
1 − (1 − α) (4.0
1.4
0.141) 2
.3
0.2
1. FLUIDS STATICS
h
h1
L
GM =
ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody
(4.9
1.3
1. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.7
0.18: A solid block of wood of uniform density.2
-0.8
L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡
V
3
0.6
0.1
1.35.
Example 4.8
0.5 α = 0.2
0. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.5
-0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. Show that the block’s length. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.0
ρs 1− ρl
-0.2
α = 0.1 and is Ixx = La .0
0.1
1.0
α = 0.7 0. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3. the distance BG is (see Figure 4. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl Thus.102 It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle. Looking at Figure 4. the geometrical quantities can be related as
BM
CHAPTER 4.0
1.8
2.1
Stability of Square Block
h1
0.4
Ixx
α = 0.0
a h
April 16.0
0.1
2.32)
3.

1
0.3
0.36.0
0. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
103
where α is the density ratio. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4.4
April 16.0 2. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated.5
0.6
0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4. Thus. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia.142) can be expressed. Thus. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia. For stability analysis. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4.0 0.7
0.
.9
1. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body.5 1.36. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio.5 2.0
square circle
And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α
1. -4.5 0. L.8
0. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.4.142)
End solution
One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more. With the exception of the circular shape.6. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.0
This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for Fig. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis.0 0. For example.07 a4
Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. the equation is
Stability of Solid Blocks
g GM = h 64 α
b h
2
−
1 (1 − α) 2
a h
3. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth. these two shapes in Figure 4. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is
I diagonal axis
√ ∆Ixx =
2a
√
3a 2
3
“normal axis
6
−
a4 12
∼ 0.2
0.140)). 2008
α
0.

What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl
.139) have to found. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. tougher. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height.37. This is not a hypothetical question. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs . FLUIDS STATICS
What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). In commercial ships.37.5) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 −
a h3 2
a2 = a2 h 4
1−
1 a2 4 h2
The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. -4. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage.
a
a
Stability of two triangles put
The moment of inertia is triage (see for explanation in example (3. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h
Fig. Example 4. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port.19: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. but rather practical.104 Unstable Bodies
CHAPTER 4. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. ¯ Solution
h
The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. So.

These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. alcohol) and ship with
. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. The movement of the load (grains.1. -4. After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x<
64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯
+
2
√
1 ρ ¯
−1
2ρ ¯
End solution
4. here.38.6. furniture. is enough to be ig. for stability analysis. For example.6. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis.Fig. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship.4. account these shifting mass speeds. the slow reaction of the load. Sometimes. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2
2
105
=
a 2
1−
ρs ρl
After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4
2
=
1−
1 ρ ¯
The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .1
Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid
Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . However. For practical purposes. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored.

144) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.149)
. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxxB (4. Moreover. At the same time.106
CHAPTER 4. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is IxxB g ρl¨βIxxB G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B = VB g VB ¨B ρl¨ ¡
Inside liquid weight
(4.38). The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. the general formula is g ρA Ixx A 1 Gc M = − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal
n i=1
Ixx bi Vb i
(4. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside.147)
The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA IxxA 1 Ixxb − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. G1 G1 .38. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body. This quantity. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G . it can be written as GG = g Wtotal
n
(4.148)
If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. FLUIDS STATICS
low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).144)
Equation (4.146)
A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid.143)
Note that Ixx B isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface.145)
Gi Gi ρl i Vi =
i=1
g Wtotal
n i=1
Ixx bi Vb i
(4. in this analysis. G Gc = GG sin β (4. X0 g $$$ ¡ g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 ¡ For more than one tank.

The angle. GM . The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4.151) Where.152)
If the change in the GM can be neglected.154) (4. This control of the stability. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. 4. T a distance.6. Moving the weight. Measurement
The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. equation (4. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body.
.153) with equation (4. GM .153)
The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body.152) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.
Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. GM . Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. -4.150)
T
d h G
Fig.4.39. θ. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by (4. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed.1. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY
107
One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia.152) provides the solution. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight.6.2 Metacentric Height. Wtotal . of the ship.

it must be taken into account. Fig.6. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer.1. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. The center of the moment is needed be found. FLUIDS STATICS
The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now).1.
. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers.40. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly.108 4.6. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. Thus. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. Generally. is when b = 3 a. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). 4. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles.40. However.40). After the tilting. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies
While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. -4. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies
CHAPTER 4. However. There are two situations that can occur. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid.

Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. etc. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase.20: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.4.158) V ρs GM Ibody (4.157)
In general.155)
Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point.6.
End solution
. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. However. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is
rotation rotating moment
¨ Iβ
− V ρs GM β
=0
(4. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body.2
Surface Tension
The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling.1. coating.6. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. In this section. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. Thus. the liquid is not in motion. the body should be accelerate.6. the common explanation is wrong. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is.
4. Example 4.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies
109
This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). Thus.156)
In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. in this case.

the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer.3. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations.110
CHAPTER 4. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. After certain diameter. FLUIDS STATICS
Fig. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. I. some of heavy liquid moves down.3. In poor designs or other situations. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. If the surface will disturbed. ρL . Solution Under Construction
End solution
4. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. For example. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. Thus. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. or water over air(gas–liquid).
Example 4. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. For example in die casting. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability.41. Taylor. For perfectly straight interface.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability
RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. ρG .21: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. This condition is determined by competing
. However. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. This instability deals with a dense. -4.

42. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY
111
forces. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. Thus. Thus. In that case.47) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (??) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal.159)
where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.42). The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough.4. equation (1. Thus. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. x. the situation is Fig.162)
The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4.160)
According to equation (1. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa.163)
. Thus. example of a cosine function will be examined. and the buoyancy forces. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. the surface density. -4.7.47).38) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. On the other hand. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines.161) (4.

In reality.16) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. Additionally when the depression occurs.43. FLUIDS STATICS
Comparing equations (4. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. At the bottom. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability.167)
. the force is the integral around the depression.163) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4.165)
An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here. At the top. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. the force at the bottom is
σ
σ
Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then
πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4
(4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place. To analyze it. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other.43. the error is not signiﬁcant.166)
Fbottom ∼ π r2
(ρL − ρG ) g
(4. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. they are not part of the control volume.43.164)
It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.112
CHAPTER 4.43. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. This acts Fig. For the depression. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. the force is ρ g h × A. At the cylinder bottom. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. -4. Thus.162) and (4. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion.

44. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area.170) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.44). Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. The cross section of the interface. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone.172)
.4. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4.7. -4. As shown in Figure 4. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY
113
The force that hold this column is the surface tension.169) (4. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. the speciﬁc radius is limited. For the cylindrical geometry. Thus.43. At that case.”
The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.168)
The maximum surface tension is when the angle. θ = π/2.171)
Fig.

The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate.22: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].the depression is larger for square area.4 2400 × 9. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). this angle is never obtained.172. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density.172) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees.171) can be used.45. For example. However.44.81
The minimum radius is r ∼ 0.
.
σ
r∼
8 π 0. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter.114
CHAPTER 4. Example 4. FLUIDS STATICS
The actual radius will be much larger. -4. In equation (4.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient. In Figure 4. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.
End solution
Z
L3
L2
L1
Fig. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4.

4. for known geometries of the ﬂuids.7. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. ω. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. You the ideal gas model. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY
115
Open Question by April 15. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence?
. You can assume that the process is isothermal.S. Example 4.23: A canister shown in Figure 4.45 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix.

FLUIDS STATICS
.116
CHAPTER 4.

Part I
Integral Analysis
117
.

.

The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. This name is in honored J. This method applied and used in very few cases. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system.1.
119
. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. L.motion. Even though this system looks reasonable.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation
5. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. These differential equations will be used in Fig. Ad. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. -5.

some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5. MASS CONSERVATION
ditionally. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. energy. trol volume.
.
5. The red dotted lines are the control volume. non–deformable and deformable.120
CHAPTER 5.2. Control volume of a moving the control volume chosen is non-deformable con. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. After a certain time. In the same time. Fig. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5.2 Control Volume
The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one).2.1 represent the system. -5. the control volume is a system. momentum. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. mass. entropy etc.piston with in and out ﬂow. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. The green lines in Figure 5. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations.1. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries.1. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. This coordinate system system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit.

+ ma − mc (5.3. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. The interface of the control volume can move. -5. CONTINUITY EQUATION
121
5.4)
Control Volume
and is a function of the time. the mass conservation will be discussed.5)
Ub
n ˆ θ
Uf −Ub Uf − Ub
Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. Thus. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. In this chapter. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume.1. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5.v.1)
The system mass after some time.3. according Figure 5.
(5.3 Continuity Equation
In this chapter and the next three chapters. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV
Vc. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.5.v.v.v.3).2)
The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.3)
The ﬁrst term in equation (5.7)
. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5. is made of msys = mc. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA
Scv
(5.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0
Vsys
(5.3).6)
Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.

v.7) are similar and can be combined. -5. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume.9) into equation (5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA
Scv
(5. due to temperature variation and other reasons. Example 5.1: The density changes in a pipe.
The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. In the same manner.4. t) = 1− cos .122
CHAPTER 5.v. Scv
ρ Urn dA
(5.1.9)
applying negative value to keep the convention. ρ0 L t0
. MASS CONSERVATION
It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5.8) and (5.
(5. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA
Sc.
X
dx
L
Fig. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.8)
It can be noticed that the two equations (5.3) results in d dt ρs dV = −
c.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. Substituting equation (5.10)
Equation (5.

x L
2
cos
t t0
dx
Flow Out = π R2
d dt
L
ρ0 1 −
0
x L
2
cos
t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0
t t0
The ﬂow out is a function of length. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA
Sc.
5. Using equation (5.v. the derivative in equation (5.5.
ρ0
c. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in
A
ρdV = π R2
c. CONTINUITY EQUATION
123
The conduit shown in Figure 5.
x 1− L
2
cos
t t0
π R2 dx
The density is not a function of radius.v. and time.10).10).10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. r and angle.v.
.
(5.v.
Vc. t.4 length is L and its area is A.
d dt
ρ0 1 −
c. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe. Solution Here it is very convenient to chose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.11) is simpler than equation (5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. the ﬂow out (or in) is
ρ(t) dV
d dt
d ρdV = dt c.
End solution
5.1
Non Deformable Control Volume
When the control volume is ﬁxed with time.3.10) become conservation of the volume.v.3.v. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. L.11)
Equation (5.2
Constant Density Fluids
Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5.3.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5.

dρ dV +ρ dt
n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ
Sc. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it.v.15)
The meaning of the equation (5.124 5. c. Hence. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal. This condition can be written mathematically as
=0
d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as
Vrn dA = 0
Sc.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the
. =0
=0
d dt
ρ dV =
c.v.2.2.13)
Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.3.
(5. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume
For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.2 Deformable Control Volume
The left hand side of question (5.12)
Vrn dA =
Sin Sout
Vrn dA = 0 (5. Sc.7 Ap . Find the height as a function of the other parameters.v. Example 5.14)
where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.
Ubn dA
(5. Ubn dA =
Sc. 5. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.5.v.
Urn dA (5. Physically. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.1
CHAPTER 5. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap .v.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.2 illustrates this point. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. Sc.3. Example 5.v.v.

The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface.v. the air eﬀects are negligible. First. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA
c.
liquid boundary in bucket. several assumptions must be made. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes.2. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. CONTINUITY EQUATION
125
Up Ap
Ub Aj
h
Uj
A
Fig. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. However.v.
ﬂow in =
c. Second. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air.
Urn dA
where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. Fourth. Third. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. Substituting
.3.5. -5. In this analysis. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. In reality.5.

mi .
. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.
(Uj + Ub ) dA
The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (a)
To ﬁnd the jet velocity. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface). the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity. MASS CONSERVATION
Urn
Ub dA =
c. (a) into (b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.7 Ap Ub The solution of the last equation is Ub = Ap A − 0. Uj . Substituting the ﬁrst equation.g.
End solution
Example 5.7 Ap
It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. e.v. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following
ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change
Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub
(b)
The above two equations (a) and (b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket. When examining solution there are two limits. c.v. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. the side.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.126 the known values for Urn results in
CHAPTER 5.

v. thus the relative velocity.v. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA =
c. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction.5. c.
(Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ
The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student).v.
Substituting into the general equation yields
A
ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ
Sc. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2
It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else
Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.
End solution
.
127
Urn dA
The entrance is ﬁxed. The right side of equation (5. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2
The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ
Sc.3.
(Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ
Sc. Sc.v.v.v.

determine the height. For the ﬁrst case.17)
For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA =
A2 A1
ρ1 U1 dA
(5. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate.18)
For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. MASS CONSERVATION One–Dimensional Control Volume
Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.128 5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.3
CHAPTER 5.2. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters. Example 5. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .16) is reduced to U2 dA −
A2 A1
U1 dA =
d dt
A(x)dx
(5.20)
The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.3.16).19)
For incompressible ﬂow (constant density).16) is dh d L h dx = ρ L ρ dt 0 dt
.16)
When the density can be considered constant equation (5. h as function of the time.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a. This assumptions leads
dV
d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1
ρ(x) A(x) dx
V (x)
(5. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. What happen if the h0 = 0? Solution The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height.

CONTINUITY EQUATION
129
min
h
Fig.6. Height of the liquid for example 5.4. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number.3. However. -5. h b1 = m1
e
− ρ1L
b
t
+c
e
b1 t ρL
With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b1 h0 b 1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1
e
− ρ1L
b
t
+ 1−
h0 b1 mi
e
b1 t ρL
0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. negative
.
Substituting into equation equation (5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution + c1
homogeneous solution mi b1
e
− ρ1L
b
t
e
b1 t ρL
The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter).5.

v
f ρ Urn dA
(5. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 .4 Reynolds Transport Theorem
It can be noticed that the same derivativations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. y) dx =
x1 (y) x1 (y)
∂f dx2 dx1 dx + f (x2 . the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. MASS CONSERVATION
number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero.
End solution
5. c. For second case.archive. y) − f (x1 . the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh = b h − mi ρL dt with the general solution of √ ln hb −1 mi √ √ hb hb mi + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL
The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. speciﬁc enthalpy. y) dα
(5.23)
papers can be read on-line at http://www. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following
x
G(x. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV =
sys
d dt
f ρdV +
c. the height will increase.
. y) =
1 These 2 This
f (α. the governing equation (5. y) ∂y dy dy
(5. Osborne.22)
Initially. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy
x2 (y) x2 (y)
f (x.130
CHAPTER 5.v. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. Essentially. The ideas are the similar but extended some what.21)
This theorem named after Reynolds. If the reverse case appeared. To make the previous derivation clearer.

it will be provided. The interesting information that is commonly is needed the change the accumulative property. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.28)
For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx
sys
(5. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV
sys
(5. F . with time. y) = ∂G ∂x (5.23) is f (x. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential).25) is ∂G dx2 dx2 = f (x2 . the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary
3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof.25)
The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz role. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided.24)
diﬀerentiating (chain role d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral role (it can be shown which are identical) is
1 2 3 4
d [G(x2 .27)
The same can be said for the third term (3).5. For its derivative of equation (5. The intensive property.26)
The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5.
. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y
(5. This is engineering book and thus. f is investigated or the accumulative property. y) − − (x1 . the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. F . y) dx ∂y
(5. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be system. Nevertheless. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter.25) are actually (the x2 is tread as a diﬀerent variable)
x2 (y) x1 (y)
∂ f (x.29)
If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. y) − G(x1 .4. if there will be a demand for such. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM
131
Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 .

Thus.31)
The change with time of the accumulative property.v.33)
5. Example 5.v Sc. is then
F1
dx1 dt
Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out.30)
Fout = f2 ρ Urn d dt
(5. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. t.132
CHAPTER 5. D DT d dt
f ρdV =
sys
f ρ dV +
c. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. The same can be said for the other side. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. After magical mixing. Since the time variable. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is U (r) = Umax 1 − r R
. Urn = U1 − Ub .v. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. between the boundaries is ρ(x) f A(x) dA
c. F .32)
When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral role. Additionally. MASS CONSERVATION
at x1 . It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. F .
f ρ Urn dA
(5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation
Several examples are are provided to illustrate the topic. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. is then
F2
dx2 dt
(5.
(5. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz role. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz role and thus the same arguments are used. the velocity became uniform. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in. F .5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition.

Solution
.5. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ
2
and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume.
Example 5.5. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. Boundary Layer control mass.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer.13). A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. -5. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer about it.7. In this case. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION
133
Where R is radius and r is the working radios (for the integration). The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. For which
R
Umax 1 −
0
r R
2 π r dr = Uave π R2
(a)
The integration of the above equation is Umax π
R2 6
= Uave π R2
(b)
The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = Umax 6
End solution
(1)
(2)
U0
E
f eo dg
Bo
un
y dr
La
ye
r
L
Fig.

right.134
CHAPTER 5.1 kg/sec. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. the left.13) results in x direction y direction out in
δ δ
U0 dy −
0 0
U0 y dy = δ
L
U xdx
0
It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross.7. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution
. The above integrals on the right hand side can be combined as
δ
U0 1 −
0
y δ
L
dy =
0
U xdx
the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle
δ δ L
U xdx
0
U0 dy −
0 0 δ
U0
y y + δ δ y y − δ δ
L
2
L
dy =
0
U xdx
or
0
U0 1 − the integration results in
2
dy = U0
U0 δ = 2
U xdx
0
End solution
Example 5.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. MASS CONSERVATION
Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. and upper. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary).1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.

End solution
Example 5.1 ) 5. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hours. assume that the process is isothermal. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION
135
The mass conservation equation (5. Thus. The tank is 3/4 fulls. Solution
. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. Thus. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. However sometime. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280
Thus. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. Is there combination valves of the that make the tank at steady state? Solution Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow.01 m2 500 m/sec
End solution
The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. 7 hours. and 8 hours. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec].5. Example 5.5.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume.13) is used. For simplicity.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours.02kg/m3 AU 0. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity.1 kg/sec = = 1.

MASS CONSERVATION
boundary velocity ρ Ub dV =
in or out ﬂow rate ρUrn dA
Sc. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.
.
Vc.
A
f π 3 Rc 2 RT
Ub
substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT
4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule.
CHAPTER 5.v
Vc. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0.136 The applicable equation is increase pressure dρ dV dt +
Sc.v
2 f π Rc Ub RT
2 π Rc dRc
dV
=
4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT
The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is
ρ
f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc.v
Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.v.v. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt
Ub
The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt
2 π Rc
f π Rc RT
2
=
2 f π Rc dRc RT dt
Vc.v. ρ= P RT
and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius.

Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. mi . Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5.v.
ρUrn dA
Vc.5.
The density change is
Ub
12 fv π Rb dRb dρ = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is
=f (r) Rb 0
2
12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT
dV
.5. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate.10. Sc.v
The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi
Sc.v. Assume that the gas is obeys the ideal gas law.v. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 4 fv π Rb 3 3
The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V =
The combining the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ
Sc. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T 3 G= 2 7 f π Rc 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT
End solution
137
Example 5. Assume that the balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .

Example 5.
End solution
Open Question by April 15. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 .138 The second term is
CHAPTER 5. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.11: Solve example 5. What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem?
.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic.S. MASS CONSERVATION
A
4 fv π Rb 3 4 fv π R b 3 8 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT
A
Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 Rb 5
Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change the boundary. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book.

It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). only the trends and simple calculations are described. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air.
139
. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . Here.CHAPTER 6 Multi–Phase Flow
6. Thus. Additionally. For simple models. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. is required for many engineering problems. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. As result. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. In fact. For many engineers.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem
1 An example. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world.D. In the past. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate.1 Introduction
Traditionally. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations.
6.2 History
The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. there was a Ph. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW
to ﬁnd the viscosity). It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material.140
CHAPTER 6. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. However. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). and more importantly. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. will know and understand the trends. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. and importance to real world. the concept of ﬂow regimes.
Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases.
.
6. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. Hence.3 What to Expect From This Chapter
As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. However. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models.
This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. For example. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases.

many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. or a large acceleration. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. The creation
3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. In fact. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. In our calculation. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. Hence.000 in about two and half years. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. However.
6.4. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. For example.1.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW
Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid
141
Gas Solid
soid Liquid Solid Solid
Soid
Fig. Practically for many cases. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow
All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. nonetheless it exists. -6.6.
. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant.

March 29. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. Open Channel ﬂow is. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. for example. In almost all situations. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. they can be solid–liquid. and avalanches. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. The multiphase can be found in nature. However. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. The liquid–solid. For example. For the gas. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes
The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case.. When the
. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. for an example. 1887). Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure.142
CHAPTER 6. spray casting. In a four (4) miles long train. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). Generally. For example. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. and industries. ﬂuidized bed. mud ﬂow etc. Thus. Since there are three phases. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. in nature can be blood ﬂow. Jr. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. although important. solid–gas. and river ﬂow. rain. solid propellant rocket. Yet. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction.
6. In the past. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. There are many more categories. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. paint spray.

For example.2. the co-current is the more common. In general. it is referred as counter–current. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow.1
Co–Current Flow
In Co–Current ﬂow. horizontal. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. -6. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES
143
materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. up or down. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. 6. Generally. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid).5.2. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. For example. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter.5. and what ever between them. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. Yet. plug ﬂow. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density.6. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids.5.
5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue.1. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). 5 top as depicted in Figure 6. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow.
. and annular ﬂow. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. Additionally.
6.1 Horizontal Flow
The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. Thus.

the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point.4. liquid ﬂow rate. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. Thus. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. Thus. choking occurs relatively Fig.3.
. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 6. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). At this stage. the friction between the phases increase. Fig. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). -6. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery.144
CHAPTER 6. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. -6. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. all the ﬂow is wavy. In fact. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate.4). At some point. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if
6 The 7 Well. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube.
liquid level is higher. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 6. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension.3). The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later.

There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. with the gravity or against it.g. 6. as in compressible ﬂow. Besides the length.1.”
Dispersed Bubble
Liquid Superficial Velocity
Elongated Bubble
Slug Flow Annular Flow
Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity
Fig. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. However.2 Vertical Flow
The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. etc. The buoyancy
.5. After a certain distance. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES
145
this category is accepted). Hence. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. As many things in multiphase. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. in normal gravitation. other parameters can aﬀect the “near. Qualitatively. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon.5. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing.
The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 6. -6.5. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow.5. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. In engineering application. e. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions.6. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. the return path is not move the exact same way. For example.

Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Again. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. Thus. After additional increase of “super slug” . the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity.6. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Bubble Flow
Slug or Plug Flow
Churn Flow
Annular Flow
Dispersed Flow
Fig. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide.146
CHAPTER 6. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. -6. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. see Figure 6. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity.
is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. For the ﬂow against gravity.
. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow.6. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. Notice. When many bubbles collide. Thus. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow.6).

the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. The liquid–liquid (also
. While this author is not aware of an actual model. Figure 6. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig.Reynolds. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 6. both will be united in this discussion. After the ﬂow has settled.7). this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity.
Liquid Flow Rate
6. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. the vertical conﬁguration. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. As the gas ﬂow increases. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 6. Pulsing For example. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. However. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas.5. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. and Weber numbers.1.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions
Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. -6. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. However. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid.7. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. respectively. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity
147
The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. In cases where the surface tension is very important.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates.6. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. Here. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall.6. In the literature. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity.

4) mL ˙ A (6. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (6. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (6. over its cross section. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow. Perhaps.7)
.1
Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions
The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (6. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters.3)
It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (6. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. and with time. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length.5)
For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density).6.148
CHAPTER 6.2)
Where A is the entire area of the tube.
6.6) GG = UsG ρG (6.1)
It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (6. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow.

The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS
149
Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (6.9)
This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube.8)
In a similar fashion. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (6.14)
Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (6. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (6. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube.13)
Where Um is the averaged velocity.
.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.6. Thus.11)
Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (6.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (6.6.10)
It must be noted that Liquid holdup. Thus. Also. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (6.

for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (6.1) and (6. thus equation (6.19)
The relationship between X and α is
AG
X=
mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = (6.16)
Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate.150
CHAPTER 6. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).17)
Equation (6.16) results in
mG ˙ mL ˙
ρaverage =
X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ = X m (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL
QG QL
(6.15)
This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx).20) = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α
AL
If the slip is one SLP = 1. Substituting equations (6.7) into equation (6.18)
The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (6.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (6.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become ρaverage = 1
X ρG (1−X) ρL
+
(6. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (6.21)
.

Initially.7.26)
. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow.25)
The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (6. Now.24)
or modifying equation (6. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments).24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (6.23) is correct? Solution Under construction
End solution
The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (6. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). this assumption has to be broken. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS
151
6. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. Furthermore. the simplest is to used it for approximation. In fact. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations.1: Under what conditions equation (6.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (6. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.22)
It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (6. The average velocity (see also equation (6. Thus. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow.7 Homogeneous Models
Before discussing the homogeneous models.6.23)
Example 6.

152

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

6.7.1

Pressure Loss Components

In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ, the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss, acceleration, and body force(gravitation). These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. For example, the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence, acceleration must occur. However, for small distances (dx) and some situations, this dependency can be neglected. In that case, from equation (6.25), the total pressure loss can be written as

f riction acceleration gravity

dP dP = dx dx

+

f

dP dx

+

a

dP dx

g

(6.27)

Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. 6.7.1.1 Friction Pressure Loss

**The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx =
**

f

S τw A

(6.28)

**Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx =
**

f

4 τw D

(6.29)

The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (6.30)

The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. In fact, this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. Yet, since there isn’t anything better, the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm

−n

(6.31)

Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.079 and n = 0.25.

6.7. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS

153

There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. For example, Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (6.32)

Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (6.33) average viscosity as µaverage = 1

X µG (1−X) µL

+

(6.33)

Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula, the friction loss can be estimated. 6.7.1.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (6.34)

**The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙
**

a

dUm dx

(6.35)

The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. Equation (6.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙

a

d dx

m ˙ A ρm

(6.36)

Or in an explicit way equation (6.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A

−

dP dx

(6.37)

a

There are several special cases. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant, dA/ dx = 0. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero, dX/ dx = 0. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only, dρL / dx = 0. For the last point, the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.

154 6.7.1.3 Gravity Pressure Loss

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

**Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ
**

g

(6.38)

The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density. The density in equation (6.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). 6.7.1.4 Total Pressure Loss

**The total pressure between two points, (a and b) can be calculated with integration as
**

b

∆Pab =

a

dP dx dx

(6.39)

and therefore

f riction acceleration gravity

∆Pab = ∆Pab f +

∆Pab a

+ ∆Pab g

(6.40)

6.7.2

Lockhart Martinelli Model

The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase. Thus, there are two parameters as shown below. φG = dP dx dP dx (6.41)

SG f

TP

Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (6.42)

SL f

TP

**Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.
**

8 This

method was considered a military secret, private communication with Y., Taitle

6.8. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW

155

The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (6.43)

SG f

SL

**where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. dP dx =
**

SG

dP dx

(6.44)

SL

**The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx =
**

L

2 fL UL 2 ρl DL

(6.45)

**For the gas phase, the pressure loss is dP dx =
**

G

2 fG UG 2 ρl DG

(6.46)

Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. To insert the Diagram.

6.8 Solid–Liquid Flow

Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. In solid–liquid, the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. Thus, in this discussion, it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid.” Therefor,there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round, cubic, etc). The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes, distribution, and geometry. For example, analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. 2. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. 3. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles.

the Newton’s Law region.51) 24 Re (6. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3.48) into equation (6. When the liquid velocity is very small.8. All these possibilities are diﬀerent.47) become
CD ∞ (UL )
f (Re) UL 2 =
4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL
(6.48)
Inserting equating (6. CD ∞ . However. it can be approximated for several regimes. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid). A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles.44 (6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
4. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. However. possibility.47)
Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. there are two sets of similar characteristics. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (6. The drag coeﬃcient.156
CHAPTER 6. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (6. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6
3
drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (6.
6.49)
Equation (6. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties.50)
For larger Reynolds numbers.52)
.1
Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL
Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. Re.

SOLID–LIQUID FLOW
157
In most cases of solid-liquid system. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. For small gas/liquid velocity. For particles. Thus. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. If the velocity is larger. Consequently. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig.
US|avarge
. Thus. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (6. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. When the velocity is lower. in many cases the middle region is applicable. For the ﬁrst region. the particle will sink into the liquid. Thus. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating.53)
When the subscript α is indicating the void. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed.9).8. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. In that case. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. the particle will drift with the liquid.
9 It
be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 6. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. the function f (α) is not a linear function. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. Yet.8. So far the discussion was about single particle. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed.6. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. For the case of gas. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. the case of liquid. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . -6.

the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. In the gas phase. Furthermore.
6. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). The buoyancy is accelerating the particle
. Hence. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Fixed Bed
Mixed Bed
Slug or Plug Flow
Turbulent Regimes
Fast Fluidization
Pneumatic Conveying
Fig. Hence.8. -6. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of.
One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. the length of conduit is very limited. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. However. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density.9. Nevertheless. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). Thus.2
Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity
This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow.158
CHAPTER 6. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed.

Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. Hence. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. In most cases. For example. UL /US → 0. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit.6. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large.54) 6 8 From equation 6. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as
2
159
π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (6. For example. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. Thus.
6. In short tube. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. However.
Liquid Body Foreces
. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L.54. be ﬁnite. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. Annular Extented Flow In that case. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. -6.10. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount.9 Counter–Current Flow
This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). opening a can of milk or juice. However. for example. But in most cases. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. Otherwise. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1.9. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent.

it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned.
. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. Initially. -6. in some cases. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency.). Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured.
10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. If there are two holes. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Fig.
There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. the pressure in the can increase.11. Then. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored.
Fig. The container is made of two compartments. water solution. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 6. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations.160
CHAPTER 6.
Figure 6. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow.12). There are more things to be examined and to be studied. In this ﬂow regime. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed.12. For example. due to the gravity. -6.

9. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow.
6. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. -6. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4.1
Horizontal Counter–Current Flow
Up to this point. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. Probably. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. The analysis is provided. ﬂow with gravity or against it.13. When the driving (body) force is very small. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW
161
and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. no counter–current ﬂow possible. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. In horizontal tubes. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. However. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). In many situations. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. Flood in vertical pipe. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4.9.7). Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues.
. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). At this point. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases.6. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow.7) page 110) it can be considered stable for small diameters. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes.

162

**CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
**

Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow

When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small, the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. Thus, closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. Thus, this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L, physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 6.14. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti- Fig. -6.14. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically.

Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow

6.9.2

Flooding and Reversal Flow

The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes, that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. When there is no water (in liquid phase), the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. In some situations, the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 6.13. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 6.15. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. Additionally, it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. The liquid ﬂow rate, QL , is unknown. However, the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . Fig. -6.15. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later, both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. coexist. The model can be improved by considering turbulence, mass transfer, wavy interface, etc11 .

11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily.

6.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

163

This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.). The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. Thus, the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. On the liquid side, the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (6.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (6.56) (6.55)

The integration constant, C1 , can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . Hence, τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (6.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (6.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (6.61) (6.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (6.59) (6.58) (6.57)

The liquid velocity at the wall, [U (x = 0) = 0], is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (6.62)

(6.63)

164 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) =

CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW

τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL

(6.64)

The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (6.65)

The solution for equation (6.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (6.66)

The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness, h. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (6.67)

If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. Q = w

h h

Uy dx =

0 0

ρL g µL

x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL

(6.68)

Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 6.15). Integration equation (6.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (6.69)

It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero. This point can be obtained when equation (6.69) is equated to zero. There are three solutions for equation (6.69). The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. But, also, the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . This request is identical to the demand in which τi = 2 g h ρL 3

critical

(6.70)

6.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW

165

This critical shear stress, for a given ﬁlm thickness, reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (6.67)). For this shear stress, the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 Ucritical |interf ace = 1 6 ρL g h 2 µL

(6.71)

The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. The wall shear stress is τi τL |@wall = µL dU dx ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL

x=0

(6.72)

x=0

Simplifying equation (6.72) the direction)

12

becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3

τL |@wall =

(6.73)

Again, the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (6.74)

The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. For simplicity, it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. Here, for simplicity reasons, the linear equation is used. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). Thus, equation (6.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (6.75)

Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship, the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L

12 Also

(6.76)

noticing that equation (6.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.

Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.79)(a).79) (6.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (6.81)
At the other boundary condition. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (6.78)
Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (6.78) into equation (6. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. cause this assumption to be not physical. equation (6.
.84) is equal to the velocity equation (6.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (6. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.63) when (x = h). in that case. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (6.80) (a) (b) or (6.166
CHAPTER 6. (6. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).83) (6.77)
This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. of the equal velocities.C. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Equation (6.84)
The velocity in Equation (6. However.82)
With the integration constants evaluated.

6.85)
The expressions for the derivatives are
gas side liquid side
2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result.89)
This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. Then if the interface becomes wavy. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.87)
(6. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG
x=D
∆P 2 x + µG L
2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L
(6.9.79)(b). the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L
(6. the two conditions can co–exist. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible.90)
x=D
or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (6.88)
The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (6.86)
(6. condition (6. if no special eﬀects occurs. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.91)
The Required Pressure Diﬀerence
. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (6. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW
167
The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface.

General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. However. However.95)
. Figure 6. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (6. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.16.168
CHAPTER 6. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as
V olme/w
FgL = ρ g
hL
(6. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. the total balance is needed. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity. Fig.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3
D ∆P
(6. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.94)
Simplifying equation (6.92)
The total momentum balance is (see Figure 6.16)
A/w
G
A/w
L
f orce due to pressure
FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (6.93)
=L
g h ρL + D ∆P 3
(6. -6.96) (6.

10. In that case.6. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion
For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION
169
This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.
6. this analysis equation (6. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter.
.

170
CHAPTER 6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
.

58 Pneumatic conveying. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 7. 120
F
Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 157
G
Gas–gas ﬂow. 57 Boundary Layer. 112 Newtonian ﬂuids. 11 Double choking phenomenon. 139 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 67. 145
N
Neutral moment Zero moment. 8 Non–deformable control volume. 109 Piezometric pressure. 161 Cut–out shapes. 143 Compressibility factor. 72 Liquid phase. 61 Mass velocity. 69 Leibniz integral rule. 157
O
Open channel ﬂow. 55. 142
. 55. 62
K
kinematic viscosity. 157 Multi–phase ﬂow. 66 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 20. 92–94 buoyant force. 154
C
Co–current ﬂow. 11. 142 Lockhart martinelli model. 161 Horizontal ﬂow. 143. 56. 100
I
Ideal gas. 12 Arc shape. 103 dilettante. 140 Flow regimes in one pipe. 157 Flow regime map. 58. 11 Body force. 143
P
Pendulum action. 100. 3. 144 Free expansion. 88 Archimedes. 133 bulk modulus. 58
H
horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 67. 71 Correction factor. 22 buoyancy. 64 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 69. 3 Deformable control volume.SUBJECTS INDEX
171
Subjects Index
A
absolute viscosity. 69 eﬀective. 11
L
Lapse rate. 156 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 143 Hydrostatic pressure. 100 Neutral stable. 160 Counter–current ﬂow. 86
M
“Magniﬁcation factor”. 67–69 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 89
B
Bingham’s model. 67. 8. 159 Annular ﬂow. 146
D
D’Alembert paradox. 1. 148 Metacentric point. 130 Linear acceleration. 101 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 62. 161 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 120 Density ratio. 111.

144 Sutherland’s equation. 67 stability analysis. 71 Stability analysis. 158 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 82 pseudoplastic. 77 Triangle shape. 56. 143
R
Rayleigh–Taylor Instability. 149 Void Fraction. 143 Superﬁcial velocity.172 Polynomial function. 108 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 58 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 155 Solid–solid ﬂow. 149 Wetness fraction. 88. 67
V
Vapor pressure. 160 purely viscous ﬂuids. 156 thixotropic. 67. 143 Real gas. 162 Slip velocity. 11 Total moment. 69. 130
W
Watson’s method. 149 Reversal ﬂow. 19 Westinghouse patent. 12
T
Terminal velocity. 149 Liquid holdup. 142 Spherical coordinates. 92 cubic. 95 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 90 Pressure center. 85 shear stress. 149
. 62 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 161 Stable condition. 145 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 160 Vertical ﬂow. 149 Quality of dryness. 110 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
U
Unstable condition. 6 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 100 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 11
CHAPTER 6. 142
S
Scalar function. 155 Solid–liquid ﬂow.

153
V
von Karma. 4
H
Helmholtz. 110
C
Cichilli. 4
K
Kutta-Joukowski. 4 Duckler. 4. 140 Meye. 4
G
Ganguillet. G. 110 Reynolds. 4
S
Stanton. 140. 130 Rose. 4 Westinghouse. 153
D
Darcy. 4 Martinelli. 142
F
Fanning.I. 4
W
Weisbach.AUTHORS INDEX
173
Authors Index
B
Bhuckingham. 4 Blasiu. 4
. Hermann von. 140
M
Manning. Osborne. 130 Lockhart. 4
N
Nikuradse.. 4 Froude. 4
P
Prandtl. 140 Taylor. 4
L
Leibniz. 4
T
Taitle. 4 Blasius. 4
R
Rayleigh.