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SSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENNAI 603 110

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING

LAB INCHRAGES: Mrs.R.Ramaprabha (Sec-A)


Mrs.R.Deepalakshmi (Sec-B)

131353 - MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

LABORATORY

NAME OF THE STUDENT: Mr. /Ms.


REG. NO.:
YEAR/SEM: II/ 3
ACADEMIC YEAR: 2011-2012
2

SYLLABUS
131353 - Measurements and Instrumentation Laboratory
P = 45 Total = 45

AIM
The aim of this lab is to fortify the students with an adequate work experience
in the measurement of different quantities and also the expertise in handling the
instruments involved.

OBJECTIVE
To train the students in the measurement of displacement, resistance,
inductance, torque and angle etc., and to give exposure to AC, DC bridges and
transient measurement.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Study of displacement and pressure transducers


2. AC bridges.
3. DC bridges.
4. Instrumentation amplifiers.
5. A/D and D/A converters.
6. Study of transients.
7. Calibration of single-phase energy meter.
8. Calibration of current transformer.
9. Measurement of three phase power and power factor.
10. Measurement of iron loss.
3

CONTENTS

Name: ---------------------------Reg No:: --------------------------- Batch No: :--------------

S. Page Marks Signature of


Name of the Experiment
No. No (10) the Staff
Measurement of Resistance [Wheat-stones
1
Bridge& Kelvins Bridge]

2 Measurement of Capacitance [Schering Bridge]


Measurement of Inductance [Maxwells
3
Inductance-Capacitance Bridge]
Measurement of Iron Loss and Permeability of
4
Ring Specimen [ Maxwells Bridge]

5 Calibration of Single Phase Energy Meter


Measurement of Three Phase Power & Power
6
Factor

7 Study of Current Transformer

8 Design of Instrumentation Amplifier

9 Study of LVDT & Pressure transducer


Digital to Analog Converter & Analog to Digital
10
Converter

11 Study of transients

TOTAL MARKS: -------/10


4

Expt.No: MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE


Date: [USING WHEATSTONES BRIDGE]

AIM
To Measure the unknown value of resistance using Wheat stones bridge
network, and to study the sensitivity of the bridges.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Wheatstone bridge trainer
Galvanometer
Unknown resistances
Patching wires.
Multi-meter
DC power supply

FORMULAE
R1 R3
RX =
R2

Bridge Sensitivity S B =
R / R

Where, RX =Unknown value of resistance,


R1=Standard resistance
R3 &R2=Resistances of ratio arms.
= Deflection of the galvanometer
R / R = Fractional change in unknown resistance

THEORY:
A very important device used in the measurement of medium resistances is the
Wheat stones bridge. It has four resistive arms, together with 1 kHz oscillator. The
output of 1 kHz oscillator is given to the bridge circuit through an isolation
transformer. Suppose a galvanometer is connected across the points B & D, the bridge
is set to be balanced if the potential difference across the galvanometer is 0 Volts, so
that there is no current through galvanometer. This condition occurs when the voltage
from point B to point A equals the voltage from point D to point A or by referring to
the other terminal when the voltage from point B to point C equals the voltage from
Point D to point C. Hence, the bridge is balanced when
I 1 R1 = I x R x (1)
5

E
Also I 1 = I 2 = (2)
[R1 + R2 ]
E
and I x = I 3 = (3)
[Rx + R3 ]
Combining the equations1, 2 & 3 and simplifying, we obtain
R1 RX
=
[R1 + R2 ] [R X + R3 ]
From which R1 R3 = R2 R X
R1 R3
or R X = (4)
R2
PROCEDURE

1. Switch ON the trainer and check the power supply to be +15 V.


2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.
3. Connect the unknown resistance in the arm marked RX .
4. Observe the sine wave at the secondary of the isolation transformer on an
oscilloscope.
5. Select some values of R2 & R3 .
6. Adjust R1 for balance and then at balance, measure the value of R1.
7. Calculate the value of unknown resistance as per the formula.

Circuit Diagram
6

Wiring Diagram

Tabulation

S.No. Rx (Measured Rx (True Error = %Error


Value) Value) Measured-True

Model Calculation

RESULT
7

Expt.No: MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE


Date: [USING KELVINS BRIDGE]

AIM
To Measure the unknown value of resistance using Kelvins bridge network,
and to study the sensitivity of the bridges.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Kelvins bridge trainer
Galvanometer
Unknown resistances
Patching wires.
Multi-meter
DC power supply

FORMULAE

P
R= S
Q
Where, R =Unknown value of resistance,
S=Standard resistance
P &Q=Resistances of ratio arms

THEORY:
Kelvin Bridge is a modification of Wheat stones bridge and provides
increased accuracy in measurement of low resistance. Kelvin double bridge
incorporates two sets of ratio arms and the use of four terminal resistors for the low
resistance arms. Consider the circuit shown in Fig (2). The first of ratio arms is P and
Q. The second set of ratio arms, p and q is used to connect the galvanometer to a point
c at the appropriate potential between points m and n to eliminate the effect of
connecting lead of resistance r between the known resistance R and the standard
resistance S. The ratio p/q is made equal to P/Q. Under balanced condition, there is
current through the galvanometer, which means that the voltage drop between a and d,
Ead is equal to the voltage drop Eamc between a & c.
P
Now, E ad = E ab
(P + Q )
p + q
And, E ab = I R + S + r 1.1
+ +
p q r
8

p p + q
And, E amc = I R + r 1.2
p + q p + q + r

For zero galvanometer deflection, Ead = Eamc


P p+q p p+q
or I R + S + r = I R + r 1.3
P +Q p+q+r p + q p + q + r

P qr P p
or R = S + 1.4
Q p + q + r Q q
P p P
Now if = Eqn.1.3 becomes, R = S
Q q Q
Eqn. (1.4) is the usual working for the Kelvin Bridge. It indicates that the resistance of
connecting lead, r has no effect on the measurement, provided that the two sets of
ratio arms have equal ratios. Eqn. (1.3) is useful, however, as it shows the error that is
introduced in case the ratios are not exactly equal. It indicates that it is desirable to
keep r as small as possible in order to minimize the errors in case there is difference
P p
between ratios and .
Q q
PROCEDURE:
1. Study the front panel configuration given an the front panel of the trainer.
2. Energize the trainer and check the power supply to be +5V.
3. Connect externally a galvanometer Q as indicated on the trainer.
4. Connect the unknown resistance RX as marked on the trainer.
5. Select the values of P & Q such that P/Q =p/q =0.01.
6. Adjust S for balance and then at balance, measure the value of S.
7. Calculate the value of unknown resistance as per the formula.
Circuit Diagram
9

Wiring Diagram

Tabulation

S.No. Rx Rx (True Error = %Error


(Measured Value) Measured-True
Value)

Model Calculation

RESULT
10

Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE


Date: [USING SCHERING BRIDGE]

AIM
To measure the unknown value of Capacitance using Schering bridge and to
find the dissipation factor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Schering bridge kit
Unknown Capacitances
Patching wires.
Multi-meter
CRO
AC Source-1 KHz Oscillator

FORMULAE

R
C x = 1 C 3
R2

Where, CX =Unknown value of resistance,


R1=Resistance of arm 1.
R2=Resistance of arm 2
C3 =Standard capacitor.

THEORY

The balance conditions require that the sum of the phase angles of arms 1 and
4 equals the sum of the phase angles of arms 2 and 3.Since the standard capacitor is in
the arm 3, the sum of the phase angles of arm 2 and arm 3 will be 0o+90o= 90o.In
order to obtain the 90o. phase angle needed for balance, the sum of the angles of arm
1 and 4 must equal 90o.Since in general measurement work the unknown will have a
phase angle smaller than 90o.It is necessary toj give arm 1 a small capacitive angle by
connecting capacitor C1 in parallel with resistor R1.A small capacitive angle is very
easy to obtain, requiring a small capacitor across resistor R1. The balance equations
are derived in the usual manner, and by substituting the corresponding impedance and
admittance values in the equation, we obtain
Z x = Z 2 Z 3Y1 or

j 1 1
Rx = R2 + jC1
C x C3 R1
and expanding
11

j R C jR2
Rx = 2 1
C x C3 C3 R1
Equating real terms and the imaginary terms, we find that
R2 C1 C3 R1
RX = Cx =
C3 R2
As can be seen from the circuit diagram of fig. the two variables chosen for
the balance adjustment are capacitor C1 and resistor R2.There seems to be nothing
unusual about the balance equations or the choice of variables components, but
consider for a moment how the quality of a capacitor is defined.

PROCEDURE
1. Switch ON the trainer and check the power supply to be +15 V.
2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.
3. Connect the unknown capacitance in the arm marked CX .
4. Observe the sine wave at the secondary of the isolation transformer on an
oscilloscope.
5. Select some value of R2.
6. Connect the oscilloscope between the ground and the output point.
7. Vary R1 from the minimum position in a clockwise direction. If the selection
of R2 is correct the balance or null point can be observed on the oscilloscope
i.e. the amplitude of the output waveform comes to a minimum for a particular
value of R1 and then again increases by varying R1 in the same clockwise
direction. If that not the case, select another value of R2.
8. Vary the capacitor C1 for fine balance adjustment.
9. The null condition can also be observed by using loudspeaker. Connect the
output of the bridge to the input of the detector. The loudspeaker is connected
at the output of the detector. Adjust R1 and proper selection of R2 for a
minimum sound in the loudspeaker.
10. The process of manipulation of this resistance is typical of the general
balancing procedure for bridges and is said to cause convergence of the
balance point.
11. Finally calculate the value of the unknown capacitance using the equation by
substituting the measured value of R1 at the balance point.
12

Circuit Diagram

Wiring Diagram
13

Phasor Diagram

Tabulation

S.No. C3 R1 R2 CX nF CX nF % Error
F (Measured (True
Value) Value)

Model Calculation

RESULT:
14

Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE


Date: [USING MAXWELLS INDUCTANCE-CAPACITANCE
BRIDGE]

AIM

To Measure the unknown value of Inductance using Maxwells Inductance-


Capacitance bridge and to determine the Q factor of the coil

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Maxwells Inductance-Capacitance bridge kit


Unknown Inductances
Bridge Oscillator.
Patching wires.
Multi-meter
Loud Speaker.
CRO
FORMULAE
R2 R3
R1 =
R4
L1 = R2 R3C 4

L1
Q Factor = Q = = C 4 R 4
R1
L1 =Self inductance to be measured,
R1 =resistance of self inductor L1,
R2, R3,R4 =known non-inductive resistance,
and C4 =fixed standard capacitor.

THEORY
In this bridge an inductance is measured by comparison with a standard
variable capacitance.
Let L1 =Self inductance to be measured,
R1 =resistance of self inductor L1,
R2, R3,R4 =known non-inductive resistance,
and C4 =fixed standard capacitor.
Writing the balance equations,
[R1 + jL1 ][R4 + (1 + jC 4 L4 )] = R2 R3
or R1 R4 + jL1 R4 = R2 R3 + jR2 R3C 4 R4
Equating real and imaginary parts, we get
R2 R3
R1 = and L1 = R2 R3C 4
R4
15

Thus we have two variables R4 and C4 which appear in one of the balance equations
and hence the two equations are independent.

PROCEDURE
1. Lab Maxwells Inductance-Capacitance bridge consists of built-in +15 V
power supply, 1kHz oscillator & the detector.
2. Patch the circuit as shown in wiring diagram.
3. Switch on the training board and check the power supply and oscillator
output. Connect oscilloscope output to AF input of bridge circuit.
4. Vary R from the minimum position in a clockwise direction to obtain
balance condition. Output should be connected to oscilloscope to observe
convergence and to get precise balance.
5. The null condition can be observed by using loudspeaker. Connect the
output of the bridge to the input of the detector. The loudspeaker is
connected at the output of the detector. While adjusting R &C the sound in
the loudspeaker should decrease to minimum and then increase. Similarly
in the oscilloscope the output of the bridge comes to a minimum and then
increases. The point of balance is indicated by flat waveform.
6. For further fine balance vary C4 which will compensate for negative
component of the inductor because every inductor has some resistance.
7. Finally calculate the value of the self inductance of the coil in terms of
standard capacitor can be calculated using the equation
Circuit Diagram
16

Phasor diagram:

Wiring Diagram

Tabulation

S.No. R4in L1 = LX L1 = LX C4 %Error


mH mH (True
(Practical value
value)
17

Model Calculation

RESULT:
18

Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS AND


Date: PERMEABILITY [USING MAXWELLS BRIDGE]

AIM:
To measure the iron loss and permeability of the given ring specimen.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Maxwells Bridge Kit
Digital Multimeter
Microphone
Patch Chords
CRO

FORMULAE USED

Unknown inductance Ls = Std .R1 Std .R3 C


Std .R1 Std .R3
Unknown resistance Rs =
R2
R2  Standard resistance measured by using multi meter across pot 2.

Iron loss = I l2 (RS Rw )


Where Il current flow to specimen
Rs Specimen resistance
Rw Winding resistance
l RRC
Permeability = s 12 3
N As
ls Specimens winding length [coil] in meter
R1, R3 Standard Resistances
C Standard Capacitance
N Number of turns [coil]
A Area of specimen in M2

THEORY:

The Maxwells Inductance Bridge is most commonly used bridge for


measurement of inductances of Q value less than 10. A typical Maxwells bridge
consists of an inductance measured in comparison with a capacitance in laboratory
operations. The input of the bridge is given through a standard 1 KHz oscillator which
produces a 1 KHz sine wave at constant amplitude.
Let L1 be the unknown inductance
R1 be the resistance of inductor
19

R1, R3 & R4 be the known non-inductive resistances.


L4 be the variable standard capacitor
At balanced condition

(R1 + jL1 ) R4
= R2 * R3
1 + jC 4 R4
R1 R4 + jL1 R4 = R2 R3 + jR2 R3 C 4 R4
Separating into Real and Imaginary terms we have,
R2 R3
R1 = and L1 = R2 R3C 4
R4
The Maxwells bridge is limited to the measurement of medium Q coils. Hence high
Q coils are measured on Hays bridge. The main advantage of the bridge is that if we
choose R4 and C4 as variable elements and also the frequency does not appear in any
of the equations. In a ring specimen the iron loss meant for the power loss due to
magnetization loss. The power loss in the specimen includes both copper and iron
loss. Permeability of the ring specimen is dependent on the length of the winding
number of turns, area of the specimen and the arm parameters. Normally these values
are given by specimen manufacturers.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the diagram.
2. Connect the ring specimen to the bridge arm, for which measurement to be
made.
3. Keep the POT 2 in maximum position and switch on the unit.
4. The output can be detected by microphone or CRO.
5. For detecting the output by CRO, vary the POT1 from lower to higher value.
At one stage the output goes to minimum value.
6. Now note down the resistance of POT1 by using multi-meter.
7. In this condition note down the AC current through ring specimen, POT1 and
the source current by using milli-ammeter.
8. Apply these values in to an approximated formula and find out the iron loss
and permeability of the given ring specimen.
9. Repeat the same procedure for different ring specimen.
20

Wiring Diagram

TABULATION:
Inductance (Ls) mH
Sl Resistance Rs Current I1 Iron
Theoretical Practical Permeability
No Ohms mA Loss
Value Value
21

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT:
Specimen 1 Specimen 2 Specimen 3
Iron Loss
Permeability
22

Expt No: CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER


Date: (Phantom Loading)

AIM
To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power
factors and to draw the calibration curve..

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No Apparatus Name Type Range Qty

1 Single phase energy meter Induction type 1

1
2 300 V; 10A,
Standard wattmeter
UPF
3 1
Voltmeter MI (0-300) V
4 1
Ammeter MI (0-10) A
5 1
Lamp Load 230 V, 5 Kw
6 Phase Shifting transformer 1
Single phase auto
7. 1
transformer 230/(0-270 V

8 Stop watch
9 Connecting wires

FORMULAE

rev
Energy meter specification = 750
Kwh
Power Time
True energy (Pt) = Kwh
36001000
n
Measured energy = , n  Number of revolutions
750
Measured True
% Error = 100
True

THEORY

The energy meter is an integrated type of instrument where the speed of rotation of
the aluminum disc is directly proportional to power consumed and the number of
revolution per minute is proportional to the energy consumed by the load. The ratings
associated with the energy meter are
1. Voltage rating
23

2. Current rating
3. Frequency rating
4. Meter constants
The driving system of the meter provides the rotational torque for the
moving system, which in turn activates the energy registration system for reading
purposes. The energy meter is operated on induction principle, in which the eddy
current induced in the aluminum disc interacts with the main field and creates the
driving torque.
This system employs phantom loading. Here, the phase shifting transformer
to supply the voltage of varying power factor to the potential coil of energy meter.
The system phase supply is used to supply current of energy required value to the
current coil of energy meter. Thus energy meter is tested under various power factor
loads without applying any actual load. This is called phantom loading.

PROCEDURE

1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.


2. Switch on the three phase supply through phase shifting transformer. Also
switch on the single phase supply through autotransformer. The
autotransformer should be kept in minimum position before switching on.
3. Set the 5A current in ammeter with the help of auto transformer.
4. Now note down the voltage, current and power from the respective meters.
Also note the time required for the disc to rotate hundred times.
5. Repeat step 3 for various power factors The power factor is set with the help
of phase shifting transformer.
6. Tabulate the readings and do the necessary calculations.
24

Circuit Diagram

Tabulation

Wattmeter Power
Time for Measured True
Sl Observed Actual Power %
n rev Energy Energy
No Reading Reading Factor Error
Seconds KwH KwH
(Watts) (Watts)

Model Calculation

RESULT:
25

Expt No: MEASUREMENT OF THREE PHASE POWER & POWER


Date: FACTOR

AIM

To measure the three phase power and power factor using two wattmeter
method given load. Also to draw the phasor diagrams

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No Apparatus Name Type Range Qty


1 Voltmeter MI (0-600)V 1
2 Ammeter MI (0-10)A 1
3 wattmeter 600V,10A,UPF 2
4 Three phase resistive load 1
5 Three phase inductive load 1
6 Three phase capacitive load 1
7 Connecting wires

FORMULAE
P P
Power factor = cos = cos tan 1 3 1 2
P1 + P2
THEORY

Power Measurement
There are different methods to measure three-phase power. They are one wattmeter
method, two-wattmeter method, three-wattmeter method & also using three-phase
wattmeter. Reactive power can be measured by using varmeter (volt ampere reactive
meter).
PROCEDURE
1. Give the connections as per circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the three-phase supply. Also Switch on the resistive load.
3. Note down the wattmeter reading and voltmeter and ammeter reading for a
particular load.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different loads.( RL, L alone ,C alone and RC )
5. Tabulate the readings and calculate the real power and reactive power.
6. Calculate power factor also draw the phasor diagrams for all cases.
26

Circuit Diagram:

Connection Diagram :
Case:1 Normal Connection

Case:2 Connection for watt meters if one of the wattmeter reads negative
27

Phasor Diagram:

Reference Table:

S.No Load Power Power W1=3VI W2=VI Active Reactive Tan


factor factor Cos (30- Cos Power Power
angle ) (30+) (P) (Q) 3
W1+ (W1-
W2 W2)
1 R 1 0 (3/2) VI (3/2) VI 3VI 0 0
alone
2 RL 0.5 60 (3/2) VI 0 (3/2) (33/2) 3
Lag VI VI
3 L 0.5 90 (3/2) VI (-3/2) 0 3VI
alone Lag VI
4 C 0.5 -90 (-3/2) VI (3/2) 0 -3VI -
alone lead VI
5 RC 0.5 -60 0 (3/2) VI (3/2) (-33/2) -3
lead VI VI

V-Phase to neutral voltage: I- Current per phase


28

TABULATION:
M.F= M.F=
Voltage Current W1 W2
S.No Load (V) in (I) in
Observed Actual Observed Actual
Volts amps
1 R alone
2 RL
3 L alone
4 C alone
5 RC

Power Factor
Real Reactive
Power angle,
W1 W2 Power Power P P
1
S.No Load factor 3 1 2
(Watts) Watts) (P)in (Q) in = tan P1 + P2
Cos
Watts vars
(degrees)
R
1
alone
2 RL
L
3
alone
C
4
alone
5 RC

RESULT:
29

Exp No:
Date: STUDY OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER ERRORS

AIM
To study the working of current transformer and also to calculate the various
errors.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.No Apparatus Name Type Range Qty
Current 2
1 Transformer

Single Phase auto 230/(0-270)V,8 1


2
transformer A
Ammeter 1
3 MI (0-10) A

Ammeter 1
4 MI (0-5)A

Wattmeter(W1) 1
5 300V,5A,LPF

Wattmeter(W2) 1
6 300V,2.5A,LPF

7 Phase shifting Transformer 1


8 Single Phase transformer LV, HC 1
9 Burden
10 Connecting wires
FORMULA:
Ratio error:

W1P
R
X = -------------
W1P W2P
Phase Angle error:
W2Q
30

X = ------------- +
S
W1P W2P

PRECAUTIONS:
1. The Primaries of 2 CTs should be correctly connected.
2. The Secondaries of 2 CTs should be correctly connected.
3. The Secondary of CT should never be opened when primary is energized.
THEORY
The current transformer is used with its primary winding connected in series with line
carrying the current to be measured and, therefore, the secondary current is dependent
upon the load connected to the system and is not determined by the load (burden)
connected on the secondary winding of the current transformer. The primary winding
consists of very few turns, and, therefore there is no appreciable voltage drop across it.
The secondary winding of the current transformer has large number of turns, the exact
number being determined by the turns ratio. The ammeter or wattmeter current coil is
connected directly across secondary winding terminals. Thus a current transformer
operates its secondary winding nearly under short circuit conditions. One of the
secondary winding is earthed so as to protect the equipment and personnel in the vicinity
in the event of insulation breakdown in the current transformer.
The various ratios of instrument transformers are:

Transformation ratio: It is the ratio of magnitude of the primary phasor to the secondary.

Nominal ration: It is the ratio of rated primary winding current (or voltage) to the
secondary winding current (or voltage).
Turns ratio: It is the ratio of number of turns on secondary winding to the number of turns
on primary winding.
Errors in Current Transformer: The value of transformation (actual ratio) is not equal to
turns ratio. Also the value is not constant and it depends upon magnetizing and loss
components of the exciting current, the secondary winding load current and its power
factor. This means that the secondary winding current is not a constant fraction of the
primary winding current. In power measurements, owing to use of C.T two types of errors
are introduced; namely ratio error and phase angle error.
31

no min al ratio actual ratio


Ratio error is defined as 100
actual ratio

180 I m Cos I e Sin


Phase angle error is defined as
nl s

Silsbees Method:

It is a Comparison method which is used to calculate ratio error and phase angle error
by using two current transformers. The ratio error and phase angle error of test
transformer X are determined in terms of that of a standard transformer S having the same
nominal ratio. Two transformers are connected with their primaries in series. An
adjustable burden is put in the secondary circuit of transformer under test. An ammeter is
included in the secondary circuit of standard transformer so that current may be set to
desired value.
The Current coil of wattmeter W1 is connected to carry secondary current of standard
transformer. The Current coil of wattmeter W2 carries a current I which is the difference
between the secondary current of the standard and test transformers. The voltage coils of
the wattmeters are supplied in parallel from a phase shifting transformer at a constant
voltage V.
(1) Phase angle of voltage is so adjusted that wattmeter W reads zero
1
Voltage V is in quadrature with current Iss.
1
Reading of wattmeter W1, W1q=Vq Iss Cos 90 =0

Reading of wattmeter W2, W2q= Vq X Component of current I in phase with Vq.

Vq=vq Isx Sin (x-s)

x- Phase angle of CT under test.

s-Phase angle of standard CT.

(2) The Phase of voltage V is shifted through 90 so that it occupies a position Vp and

is in phase with Iss.

Reading of wattmeter W1, W1p=Vp Iss Cos =Vp Iss

Reading of wattmeter W2, W2p= Vp X Component of current I in phase with Vp.

= Vp X Ip= Vp[ Iss- Isx Cos (x-s)]


32

If V is kept same for both sets of readings.

V=Vp-Vq

W q=V Isx Sin (x-s)


2
W p=V Iss
1
W p= V [ Iss- Isx Cos (x-s)]= V I - V I Cos(x-s)
2 ss sx
+ W1p-V Isx Cos (x-s)=1p-V Isx

V Isx=W1p-W2p

Actual ratio of transformer under test, Rx= Ip/ Isx

Actual ratio of standard transformer , Rs= Ip/Iss

Rx Iss V Iss W1p


------ = ----- = ------ = ---------
Rs Isx VIsx W1p-W2p

Rx 1 W2p
----- = -------------- = 1+ ----------
Rs 1- ( W2p/W1p) W1p

Rx = Rs {1+(W2p/W1p)}
W 2q
Sin (x-s)= -------
V Isx
VIss-W2p W1p-W2p
Cos (x-s) = ----------------= ------------------
VIsx V Isx
W2q
tan (x-s) = -----------
W1p-W2p
W2q
(x-s) = ----------- + s ; radian
W1p-W2p
33

=(W2q/ W1p) + s, radian ( as W2p is very small.)

PROCEDURE:
1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply through phase shifting transformer. also switch on the
supply through single phase autotransformer( also through q single phase transformer
which provides low voltage and high current to the primaries of CTs)
3. The single phase autotransformer should be kept in minimum position before
switching on.
4. Now adjust the single phase autotransformer to set a desired primary current for
both CTs.
5. Adjust the phase shifting transformer until the wattmeter W1 reads maximum
(which corresponds to UPF). Note down this value as W1p also note down the reading of
W2 as W2p.
6. Adjust the phase shifting transformer until the wattmeter W1 reads zero( which
corresponds to ZPF). Note down this value as W1q also note down the reading of W2 as
W2q.
7. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for different values of primary current as well as for different
values of burden.
8. Tabulate the readings. And calculate ratio and phase angle errors.
9. Draw the graph between burden Vs ratio and phase angle error.
34

Circuit Diagram
35

Model Graph:
[Ratio error Vs Burden] [Phase angle error Vs
burden]

TABULATION
S.No Primary Burden UPF LPF Ratio Phase
current W1p W2p W1q=0 W2q error angle
(M.F= ) (M.F= ) (M.F= ) error
Obs Act Obs Act Obs Act
1 0.33

2 0.66

3 1

4 1.33

5 1.66

6 2

7 0.33

8 0.66

9 1

10 1.33

11 1.66

12 2

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT
36

Expt No:
Date: DESIGN & TESTING OF INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

AIM
To design and test an Instrumentation amplifier.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

1.Op-Amp IC 741
2.Resistors
3.AFO
4.C.R.O.
5.Decade Resistance Box
6. Bread board
7. Dual RPS
8.Connecting wires

FORMULA

2R Rf
Vo = 1 + 2
R R1 (V2 V1 )
DESIGN

V = ---------- V.
1
R = R = 10 K.
4 f
R = 33 K.
1
Let V = 0, A = -16
2
V 2R R f
A = 0 = 1 + 2 = 16
V1 R R1
R = ----------K.
2
37

THEORY
An Instrumentation amplifier is used for high gain accuracy, high CMRR,
high gain stability with low temperature co efficient, low dc offset & low output
impedance. A high resistance buffer is used preceding each input to avoid loading. The
Op-Amps A1 & A2 have zero differential input voltage. For V = V ,i.e. in common
1 2
mode condition, the voltage across R is zero. As no current flows through R & R , the
non-inverting amplifier A1 acts as a voltage follower. So its output V = V .Simillarly
2 2
A acts as voltage follower with output V = V . If V V , Current flows in R & R
2 1 1 1 2
,(V -V ) > (V -V ) .This circuit has differential gain & CMRR more than the single
2 1 2 1
Op-Amp circuit. The output voltage is
2R Rf
Vo = 1 + 2
R R1 (V2 V1 )

The difference gain can be varied using a variable resistance R.

PROCEDURE
1. Give the connections as per circuit diagram.
2. Set the input Voltage at a particular value.
3. Vary the frequency & note down the corresponding output on CRO.
4. Tabulate the readings & Draw the Graph.
Circuit Diagram
38

Model Graph

Tabulation
Vin = -------volts,R = ---------

S.No. Frequency (Hz) Vo (volts) Gain dB


39

f = 1 KHz

S.No. R Vo in volts

RESULT
40

Expt No:

Date: STUDY OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCER

AIM
To measure the Pressure using Pressure transducer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Power Supply
Pressure measurement trainer kit
Display unit
Connecting Chords.

THEORY
Pressure is basically a physical parameter encountered in many fields. It is defined as
the force acting per unit area measured at a given point or over a surface. Most pressure
measuring devices use elastic members for sensing pressure at the primary stage. These
elastic members are of many types and convert the pressure into mechanical displacement
which is later converted into an electrical form using a secondary transducer.
The principle of working of these devices can be explained as: the fluid or gas whose
pressure is to be measured is made to press the pressure sensitive element and since the
element is an elastic member, it deflects causing a mechanical displacement. This
displacement is proportional to the pressure applied. This displacement is then measured
with the electrical transducers. The output of the electrical transducer is proportional to
the displacement and hence to the applied pressure. The commonly used pressure
sensitive devices are Diaphragms, capsule, Bourdon tube & Bellows. The commonly used
electrical transducer is Strain gauge whose resistance is varied with the input
displacement caused by pressure sensitive elements. Four strain gauge elements are
interconnected to form a Wheat stones bridge. The imbalance of the bridge is a measure
of applied pressure on the elastic membrane.
PROCEDURE
1. Swiitch ON the instrument by rocker switch at the front panel.
2. Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 minutes for initial warm up
41

3. Adjust the potentiometer in the front panel till the display reads 000
4. Apply pressure on the sensor using the loading arrangement provided.
5. The instrument reads the pressure coming on the sensor and displays through
LED.
6. 6. The readings can be tabulated and % error of the instrument can be calculated.
Block diagram
42
43

Tabulation

S.No. Actual pressure Indicator Reading Error=Actual % Error


in kg/cm2 Kg/Cm2 pressure-
Indicator reading

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT

.
44

Expt No: STUDY OF LVDT


Date:

AIM
To measure the displacement using LVDT (Linear Variable Differential
Transformer).

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Power Supply
LVDT trainer kit
Display unit
Connecting Chords.
Multi-meter

FORMULAE

Error = Actual micrometer reading Indicated reading.


% Error = (Error / True value) * 100

THEORY
The Linear Variable Differential Transformer is the most widely used inductive
transducer. The arrangement is such that it has a primary coil, two secondary coils and a
rod shaped magnetic core at the center. The magnetic core is made of Nickel alloy and is
slotted. The displacement to be measured is applied to the arm attached to the core. When
the core is placed symmetrically with respect to the two secondary coils , equal voltage is
induced in the two coils. When these voltages are in phase opposition, the resultant
becomes zero. This is called null position of the core. When the core moves from its null
position due to the displacement of the object linked mechanically to it, the voltage
induced in the secondary coil toward with the core has moved, increases, simultaneously
reducing the voltage in the other secondary winding. The difference of the two voltages
induced in the secondary appears across the output terminals of the transducer giving a
measure of the displacement.
45

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the power supply chord at the rear panel to the 230 V, 50Hz supply.
Switch on the instrument by pressing down the toggle switch. The display glows
to indicate the instrument is ON.
2. Allow the instrument in ON position for 10 minutes for initial warm up.
3. Rotate the core of the micrometer in steps of 1 of 2 mm and tabulate the readings.
The micrometer will show the exact displacement given to the LVDT core and
display will read the displacement sensed by the LVDT. Tabulate the readings
and plot the graph as Actual Vs Indicated reading.
Basic Schematic Diagram
46

Model Graph
47

Tabulation

S.No. Actual Indicator Error %Error Output


micrometer Reading(mm) [C] [B C] (B- Voltage
reading(mm) mm C)/C*100 (in mV)
[B]

RESULT
48

Expt No:
Date:

(a)DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER

AIM
To obtain the corresponding analog output for a given digital input, to generate
different waveforms and to study the linearity of digital to analog converter.

APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Digital to Analog Converter Kit


Patching Wires
Multi-meter
CRO

FORMULA USED:

Vout=Vref[(2x-255)/256]

x=Decimal value

THEORY:

In electronics, a digital to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device which


is used for converting (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or
electric charge).
The DAC fundamentally converts finite-precision numbers (usually fixed-point
binary numbers) into a physical quantity, usually an electrical voltage. Normally the
output voltage is a linear function of the input number. Usually these numbers are
updated at uniform sampling intervals and can be thought of as numbers obtained from a
sampling process.
These numbers are written to the DAC, sometimes along with a clock signal that
causes each number to be latched in sequence, at which time the DAC output voltage
changes rapidly from the previous value to the value represented by the currently latched
number.
The effect of this is that the output voltage is held in time at the current value until
the next input number is latched resulting in a piecewise constant output. This is
equivalently a zero-order hold operation and has an effect on the frequency response of
the reconstructed signal.
49

The most common types of electronic DACs are:


Binary Weighted DAC:
It contains one resistor or current source for each bit of the DAC connected
to a summing point. These precise voltages and currents sum to the correct output value.
This is one of the fastest conversion methods but suffers from poor accuracy because of
the high precision required for each individual voltage or current. Such high precision
resistors and current sources are expensive, so this type of converter is usually limited to
8- bit resolution or less.
R-2R ladder DAC:
It is a binary weighted DAC that uses a repeating cascaded structure of resistor
values R and 2R.This improves the precision due to the relative ease of producing equal
valued matched resistors ( or current sources). However, wide converters perform slowly
due to increasingly large RC-constants for each added R-2R link.

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch on the power supply.
2. The jumpers J9 through J!6 should be in S/W (right) position.
3. The switches SW1 throughSW8 are placed appropriately to represent the
desired digital input of00h through FFh.
4. Draw the graph between digital word and analog output.
5. The Output voltage can be observed using a CRO at the terminal pin P2.
WAVEFORM GENERATION:
1. Switch on the power supply.
2. The jumpers J9 through J16 should be in E (Left) position.
3. The position of the jumpers for different waveform is selected from the table below.
Waveform Position of J4 Position of J5
Sine wave High High
Triangular wave Low High
Square wave Low Low
Saw-tooth wave High Low
4. The output voltage can be observed using a CRO at the terminal pin P2.5.The
amplitude and frequency of the output waveform can be varied by using potentiometer
PT1 and PT2 respectively.
50
51

.TABULATION:
Input Data In Input Data in Output Voltage Output Voltage Input Data In
Binary Hex (Observed) (Calculated) Decimal

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT
52

Expt No.
Date:
(b). ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER
AIM:
To obtain the digital output for the given analog input, to calculate its input
voltage and to study the linearity of the analog to digital converter.
APPRATUS REQUIRED:
Analog to digital converter kit
Patching wires
Multi-meter
CRO
FORMULA USED:
Vin=Vr(b1*2-1+b2*2-2+b3*2-3+..+bn*2-n)
Vs=4.99V
THEORY
An analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic integrated circuit,
which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. Typically, an ADC is an
electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number.
A Successive approximation ADC uses a comparator to reject ranges of voltages,
eventually settling on a final voltage range. Successive approximation works by
constantly comparing the input voltage to the output of an internal digital to analog
converter (DAC, fed by the current value of the approximation) until the best
approximation is achieved.
At each step in the progress, a binary value of the approximation is stored in a successive
approximation register (SAR).
The SAR uses a reference voltage (which is the largest signal the ADC is to convert) for
Comparisons. The analog value is rounded to the nearest binary value below, meaning
this converter type is mid-rise.
Because the approximations are successive, conversion takes one clock-cycle for each bit
of resolution is desired. The clock frequency must be equal to the sampling frequency
multiplied by the bits of resolution desired.
53

A ramp-compare ADC (also called integrating, dual-slope or multi-slope ADC) produces


a saw-tooth signal that ramps up, then quickly falls to zero. When the ramp starts, a timer
starts counting. When the ramp voltage matches the input, a comparator fires, and the
timers value is recorded. Timed ramp converters require the least number of transistors.
The ramp time is sensitive to temperature because the circuit generating the ramp is often
just some simple oscillator. There are two solutions:
*Use a clocked counter driving a DAC and then use the comparator to preserve the
counters value.
*Calibrate the timed ramp.
A very simple (non-linear) ramp converter can be implemented with a micro-controller
and one resistor and capacitor.
A/D converters are used virtually everywhere where an analog signal has to be processed,
stored, or transported in digital form. Fast video ADCs are used in TV tuner cards. Very
fast ADCs are needed in digital oscilloscopes.
PROCEDURE:
1. The power supply is switched on.
2. The variable terminal of the potentiometer is given to the analog input channel2.
3. The following table shows that the switches SW1 through SW3 position and the
corresponding channel section.
4. The start of conversion (SOC) button is pressed once to start the conversion from
analog signal to digital form. The LED L9 glows on pressing start of conversion button.
5. The Address Latch Enable (ALE) button is also pressed once, so as to enable the digital
data to be sent to the output.
SWITCHES
CHANNEL
SW1 SW2 SW3
0 0 0 CH0
0 0 1 CH1
0 1 0 CH2
0 1 1 CH3
1 0 0 CH4
1 0 1 CH5
1 1 0 CH6
1 1 1 CH7
54

LINEARITY OF DAC:
1. The power supply is switched on.
2. The channel 3 is selected.
3. The analog input voltage is fed to the channel 3 by connecting variable terminal in the
potentiometer.
4. The digital data corresponding to analog input is displayed on the LED and the digital
data value is noted.
5. Now the potentiometer is varied and the analog input is measured using CRO>
6. Now the position of the potentiometer, the corresponding digital data is noted.
7. Graph is drawn between the analog input values and the corresponding digital data
displayed on the LED.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
55

TABULATION
Input data
Output data in binary Output Output data in Hex
in Volts

RESULT:
56

Exp No:
Date:
STUDY OF TRANSIENTS
AIM

1. To study the transient response of RC circuit for Step input and to draw the
response.
2. To study the transient response of RC circuit for the following inputs using
Psim/Matlab-Simulink/Pspice.
a. Pulse excitation
b. Sinusoidal excitation v(t) = 100 sin 40 t
3. Derive the expression for part 2

APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Sl.No APPRATUS RANGE QTY


1 Regulated power supply (0-30) V 1
2 Resistor 220 ohms 1
3 Capacitor 1uF 1
4. SPST switch 1
5. Connecting wires Reqd
6. CRO 1

THEORY

Any switching operation within a network causes transient conditions in the


network. This switching operation may be a change in applied voltages or a change in
one or more elements of the network. During the transient period, the mathematical
expressions for currents and voltages contain certain terms other than the steady state
terms. These additional terms known as transient terms are damped out by certain
damping factors.
STEP RESPONSE OF R-C CIRCUIT:

The Figure shows a capacitor and a resistor connected in series. The capacitor has an
initial charge q0 . At t=0, the switch K is closed, causing a voltage E to be applied to
the circuit,
57

The KVL equation for the circuit is


t
E U (t ) = Ri (t ) + i (t )dt
1
C0

Taking Laplace transform on both sides


0
where i 1
(0) = i(t )dt = q 0

E q0 1
Then = I (s ) R +
s Cs Cs
or
q0 q
E E 0
I (s ) = C = C
1 1
s R + R s +
Cs RC

Taking inverse Laplace transform


E q
i (t ) = 0 e t / RC
R RC
The voltages across R and C are
q
v R = Ri (t ) = E 0 e t / RC
C

( q
)
v R = E V R = E 1 e t / RC + 0 e t / RC
C
If the initial charge q0 is zero
E
i (t ) = e t / RC
R
E
The above equation shows that the charging current decays from its initial value
R
to zero in RC circuit.

MODEL CALCULATION:
R = 220 ohms: C = 1uF

RESULT