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EET1156

Chris Oh
Teaching Staff

Coordinator: Christopher Oh (Chap 1 & 2)

Lecturer: Mdm. Pang SY (Chap 3, 4 & 7)
Dr. Amin (Chap 5 & 6)
Electric Elements & Circuit Laws
Chapter 1
Chapter 1: Contents
Electrical system
Charge & Current
Electric force
Voltage
Energy & Power
Circuit elements
Ohms Law
KVL & KCL
Electrical System
A basic electrical system consists of these 4 parts:
1. Source
3. Transmission system
4. Control apparatus
(Transmission system)
(Control appratus)
Switch

Charge & Current
Electric charge an electrical property of the atomic particles
of which matter consists, measured in C.
Unit coulomb, C
1 coulomb = total charge possessed by 6.241018 electrons.
The flow of electric charges creates electric current.
Electric current
time rate of change
of charge, measured
in amperes (A)
Quantity of electric charge, Q
Example 1

If a current of 30 A flows for 1 hr, find the

quantity of electric charge transferred.

Solution:
Example 2

In what time would a current of 10 A transfers a

charge of 100 C?

Solution:
Electric Force
The electric force, F between 2 charges (Q1 &
Q2) separated by a distance r is defined as:

Unit newton (N)

r center to center distance (m)
k proportionality constant (9109 N.m2/C2)
Example 4
Determine the force exerted by a charge Q = 2C
on a charge q = -3C when the charges are
separated by a distance of 2m in free space.

Solution:
Voltage
Voltage (V or E)
Difference of potential energy between 2
points in a circuit.
Also known as potential difference.
wab
vab
q
Unit volt (V)
w is in joules (J) q is in coulombs (C)
Energy (W)
Fundamental ability to perform work/action.
Unit joule, J
1 W = Amount of power when 1 J of energy is
consumed in 1 s.
1 kWh = 1,000 60 60 = 3106 J
Power (P)
A measure of how fast energy is being used.

Unit watt (W)

W energy in joules (J) t time in second (s)
Example 5
An e.m.f. source of 10V supplies a current of 3A for
10 hours. How much energy is provided in this
period of time?

Solution:
Circuit Elements
Voltage source
Current source
Resistor opposes electricity flow
Capacitor store electrical charge
Inductor store energy in em field
3 basic circuit laws
Ohms Law
Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)
(1) Ohms Law
Voltage (V) across a resistor (R) is directly
proportional to the current (I) flowing through
the resistor.
Example 7
A 100 W electric bulb is connected to a 250 V
supply. Determine the current flowing in the bulb
& the resistance of the bulb.

Solution:
(2) Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
The algebraic summation of all potential rises &
drops around a closed loop/path is always zero.

V 0
*bear in mind that current only flows in closed path
(2) Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

Apply KVL
In this V1 + + V2
example,
voltage drops
are considered For loop 1,
positive KVL gives
1 V3 V1 + V2
Va
+ V3 V4 + + V4 Va = 0

+

+
+
Vb
2 V5 3
+
Vc
For loop 2, KVL For loop 3, KVL
gives
gives + V6 Va V4 Vc V6
Vb + V3 + V5 = 0
V5 = 0

4
Vd V7 +
+

For loop 4, KVL gives

Vd + V6 + V7 = 0
Example 8
Apply KVL to the circuit below & determine the
current flowing in the circuit given:
V = 100V, R1 = 1, R2 = 3, R3 = 10 and R4 = 6

Solution:
V=
Example
Determine the voltages V1, V2 and V3.
+ V1

1
+
+ V2 +
24V + V3 3

10V
2

+

12V

Applying KVL on the three loops yields the following equations:

Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)
The algebraic summation of the currents entering
or leaving a node/junction is always zero.

I entering I leaving
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)

Apply KCL
Example 9
With the reference network shown below,
determine the relationship between the currents
I1, I2, I4 and I5.
Solution:
For junction a:
Hence,
For junction b:
Hence,
Therefore:
Example 10
For the network shown below, if I1 = 2.5A and
I2 = -1.5A, calculate I3.

Solution:
By KCL:
Therefore,