You are on page 1of 8

1st English Language and Literature

ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263


CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

AN ANALYSIS ON TRANSLATION QUALITY OF MEDICAL TERMS


IN AN ARTICLE ENTITLED CRITICAL ILLNESS DUE TO 2009
A/H1N1 INFLUENZA IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN:
POPULATION BASED COHORT STUDY PRODUCED BY GOOGLE
TRANSLATE

Ika Oktaria Cahyaningrum


Universitas Surakarta
Indonesia
ikaoktaria1@gmail.com

Abstract
The purposes of this research are to describe the translation technique used by Google Translate in
translating English medical terms in an article entitled Critical Illness Due To 2009 A/H1n1
Influenza in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Population Based Cohort Study and to know the
translation quality in terms of accuracy and acceptability. This research used purposive sampling
technique to select the data. Two methods were used to collect the data; content analysis was
obtained to collect the first data from source text and target text and interview and close and open
ended questionnaire was obtained to gather data of the accuracy and acceptability. The findings of
the research are as follow: there are five techniques to translate English medical terms literal
translation, borrowing includes naturalized borrowing and pure borrowing, calque, transposition,
and amplification.

Keywords: article, translation technique, quality assessment: acceptabelty and accurancy

Introduction when they try to understand the foreign text,


As machine translation, the growth of online especially English. As what (Hutchin, 1995,
translation services is faster than translation p. 431) stated that computer programs are
software. One of them is Google Translate. producing translations not perfect
Here Google tries to expand its wing to translations, for that is an ideal to which no
provide its users with its own online human translator can aspire; nor translations
translator. Through this product, Google of literary texts, for the subtleties and
attempts to accommodate the difficulties nuances of poetry are beyond computational
found by its users in understanding the analysis; but translations of technical
articles, journals, or electronic guide books manuals, scientific documents, commercial
on the internet. As a fact, prospectuses, administrative memoranda,
http://www.cnet.com/news/google-translate- medical reports. Since its emergence in the
now-serves-200-million-people-daily/ twentieth century, some experts believe that
reported that Google translate has served translation machine still has some
200 million people daily. The difficulties are difficulties such as producing an ideal
especially caused by the different languages translation for technical text (technical
written in those texts. Therefore, Google manuals, scientific documents, commercial
Translate provides the ease in use, the prospectuses, administrative memoranda,
efficient of time, and the low cost for its and medical reports). In translating such
translation services. Its ability in translating sensitive texts, for instance medical text
text involves translation in the form of word, with many medical terms, Google Translate
phrase, clause, sentence, paragraph, and can instantly provide the translation for
even text. those terms.
The role of Google Translate is very However, the translation produced
important for Indonesian academic users by Google is not thoroughly accurate. The

378
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

way Google works is bound by a system of accuracy and acceptability in translating


called statistical machine translation. The medical terms.
way it works is restricted depends on the
data which are entered into a translation Methodology
memory. This is the reason why Google This research is descriptive qualitative
Translate sometimes unable to fix some research. According to (Sutopo, 2002, p. 35)
translation problems whether they are in the the data are identified as qualitative since
form of linguistic units or specific terms. the data which are in the form of words,
Those problems are caused by the sentences, or pictures are considered to be
emergence of mistranslations on the more valuable rather than numbers.
translation product. For the reason, the This research is design as single
researcher tried to apply Google Translate to embedded-case study which means that this
translate English medical terms which were research focuses on the translation of
found in an article entitled critical illness English medical terms into Indonesian
due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in pregnant produced by Google Translate.
and postpartum women: population based The data are all English medical
cohort study. The article was taken from terms found in the medical journal entitled
www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/mar18. The critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1
examples of translation problem occurred in influenza in pregnant and postpartum
the product of Google Translate are: women: population based cohort study and
SL: Of the 22 postpartum women, 14 (64%) all translated medical terms produced by
had had an emergency caesarean Google Translate.
section and eight (36%) had The researcher also applied
spontaneous vaginal deliveries. purposive sampling technique in
TL: Dari 22 pasca melahirkan perempuan, determining the raters. The criteria for the
14 (64%) telah memiliki operasi caesar raters are:
darurat, dan delapan (36%) telah 1. Mastering English and Indonesian well.
spontan vagina pengiriman. 2. Having competency in translation
theory.
The term spontaneous vaginal 3. Having experience as a translator.
deliveries above is translated into spontan 4. Willing to be involved in this research.
vagina pengiriman. The translation for the In validating the data which are in
term is not accurate and it is not acceptable. the form of medical terms, the researcher
The reason is that the translation does not validated the data through another informant
deliver the same meaning as the SL to declare that the data are valid. The data
meaning. The other reasons, it does not were also checked through another
follow the Indonesian grammatical rules, document source to declare that data are
and it is never used in the medical science valid. The validation technique is done by
text. The term should be translated matching the English medical terms in
kelahiran secara normal. http://medical-
From those examples of translation dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ whether
problem which occurred in the translation of they are English medical terms or not. The
medical terms in the article entitled critical reason of choosing this resource of
illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in thefreedictionarys/medical dictionary is
pregnant and postpartum women: this sites refers to The American Heritage
population based cohort study translated StedmansMedical Dictionary, Second
by Google Translate, the researcher would Edition and Dorlands Medical Dictionary
propose this issue as thesis. The research for Health Care Consumers, which provide
attempts to investigate more about the level authoritative descriptions of medical

379
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

conditions, medications, anatomical terms, translating it into melahirkan. For this


noted medical personalities and more. datum, the three raters also score 3 which
mean that the translation of the term is
Findings and Discussion accurate.
1. The Analysis of Translation Quality Datum number 023
This subchapter presents the analysis of the SL : virus
accuracy and the acceptability of English TL : virus
medical term translation produced by In this example, the SL term is the
Google Translate. The level of accuracy and same as the TL term which is virus. This
the acceptability of the data are rated by means that both terms n SL and TL refer to
three raters who have filled the the same definition. The term virus is
questionnaire. The questionnaire applied defined by kbbi.web.id as mikroorganisme
close and open-ended forms. The researcher yang tidak dapat dilihatdengan mikroskop
distributed close-ended questionnaire to the biasa, hanya dapat dilihat dengan
three raters in order to assess for the scales mikroskop elektron, penyebab penularan
of accuracy and acceptability. Meanwhile, penyakit spt cacar, influenza, dan rabies.
open-ended questionnaire is functioned as Meanwhile, virus in the SL means a
the raters space to clarify their answer of minuteinfection agent which, with certain
the accuracy and acceptability. exceptions, is not resolved by the light
microscope, lack independent metabolism
2. Accuracy and is able to replicate only within a living
Table 1. Table of Accuracy host cell (the freedictionary.com).
No Parameter Total Percentage Therefore, the three raters consider the
1 Accurate 110 86,6%
translation as accurate translation since the
2 Less accurate 4 3,1%
3 Inaccurate 13 10,3% term virus in the TL conveys the same
127 100% meaning from the same term in the SL.
Data number 011 and 053
a. Accurate Translation SL : gestation
Accurate translation is defined as TL : usia kehamilan
Makna kata, istilah teknis, frasa, klausa, SL : gestation
kalimat atau teks bahasa sumber dialihkan TL : kehamilan
secara akurat ke dalam bahasa sasaran; From the examples above, the data
sama sekali tidak terjadi distorsi makna number 011 and 053 refer to the same term
(Nababan, Nuraeni, & Sumardiono, 2012). which is gestation. In fact, Google Translate
There are 110 of the 127 data which can be translate it into two different results. The
described as accurate translation. The first translation (datum number 011) is usia
example of accurate translation can be seen kehamilan and the second one (datum
below: number 053) is kehamilan. However, both
Datum number 013 translated terms are the equivalent terms in
SL : gave birth the TL and they refer to the same meaning.
TL : melahirkan The meaning of the term gestation is the
For datum number 013, it can be period of fetus development in the uterus
seen that the term gave birth is translated from conception until birth or it is also
accurately. Literally, the term above should called pregnancy. From the definition, it can
be translated as memberikan kelahiran. be concluded that the translation of the term,
However, the translated term melahirkan both usia kehamilan and kehamilan refer to
which is applied in the TL has the same the same meaning and condition. The three
meaning as the term gave birth. Therefore, raters also score 3 in this datum which mean
the meaning of the term gave birth is that the translation of the term can be
conveyed successfully into TL by classified as accurate translation.

380
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

the rater 1 and rater 2 score 3 as accurate


b. Less Accurate Translation translations for this term. Meanwhile, rater 3
Less accurate translation is defined scores 3 as less accurate translation. Based
as Sebagian besar makna kata, istilah on the explanation above, the translation of
teknis, frasa, klausa, kalimat atau teks the term n datum number 063 tends to be
bahasa sumber sudah dialihkan secara classified as less accurate translation.
akurat ke dalam bahasa sasaran. Namun,
masih terdapat distorsi makna atau c. Inaccurate Translation
terjemahan makna ganda (taksa) atau ada Inaccurate translation can be defined
makna yang dihilangkan, yang mengganggu as Makna kata, istilah teknis, frasa, klausa,
keutuhan pesan. There are 4 data which are kalimat atau teks bahasa sumber dialihkan
considered as less accurate translation. secara tidak akurat ke dalam bahasa
Datum number 057 sasaran atau dihilangkan (deleted). There
SL : infant infection are 13 data which are classified as
TL : bayi infeksi inaccurate translation.
In this example, the term infant Datum number 015
infection is translated into bayi infeksi. From SL : delivered
the SL term, infant infection can be defined TL : disampaikan
as the infection which occurs on an infant. The term above is actually in the
On the translation above, which is sentence All subsequently delivered.. This
bayi infeksi, the structure of the head and sentence refers to the previous sentence
modifier still follows the SL. Therefore, it which is (14 women (22%) gave birth
can produce more than one meanings for during their stay in intensive care and 26
example, bayi yang terinfeksi,bayi yang (41%) were discharged fro an intensive care
menginfeksi, infeksi pada bayi, and infeksi unit with ongoing pregnancy). The word all
dari bayi. Since the translation produces in the sentence refers to the women with
more than one meaning, it is classified as ongoing pregnancy.
less accurate translation. From the raters, the The word translated term
score is divided into two directions. The disampaikan cannot convey the meaning of
rater 2 and 3 score this translation as the term delivered. Referring to the previous
accurate. Meanwhile, the rater 1 scores 2 as sentence, the translation should be
less accurate datum. Based on the melahirkan. Besides, it cannot be translated
explanation above, the translation tends to into passive since there is not to be) in the
be classified as less accurate. sentence. From the raters score, the rater 1
Datum number 063 and 2 score this translation with 1 as
SL : multiple birth inaccurate translation. Meanwhile, rater 3
TL : beberapa kelahiran score 3 as accurate translation. Based on the
The term multiple birth above is explanation above, the translation of the
translated into beberapa kelahiran. Multiple term in datum number 015 tends to be
birth also means the birth of more than one classified as inaccurate translation.
baby at the same time from one single Datum number 018
mother. It can be seen that the translated SL : stillbirths
term beberapa kelahiran only conveys some TL : dilahirkan
parts of the meaning in the SL. The translate In the SL, the term stillbirths means
termd can be defined as a birth of more than the birth of a dead baby or fetus. In the TL,
one baby from one mother or a birth of more it is translated into dilahirkan which means
than one baby from more than one mother. was born. It can be seen that the translation
Since the translation produces ambiguous of the SL term as dilahirkan doesnt convey
meaning, the translated term is rated as less the meaning of the SL term. In the TL, the
accurate translation. From the raters score, term stillbirths is known as kelahiran mati.

381
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

From the raters, the rater 1 and 2 2 Less acceptable 5 3,9%


score this translation as inaccurate 3 Unacceptable 9 7,1%
translation. While rater 3 scores 2 as less 127 100%
accurate translation. Referring to the
explanation above, it can be concluded that a. Acceptable Translation
the translation of the term in datum 018 tens Acceptable translation is defined as
to be classified as inaccurate translation. Terjemahan terasa alamiah; istilah teknis
yang digunakan lazim digunakan dan akrab
Data number 039 and 122 bagi pembaca; frasa, klausa dan kalimat
SL : labour yang digunakan sudah sesuai dengan
TL : tenaga kerja kaidah-kaidah bahasa Indonesia
SL : delivery (Nababan, Nuraeni, & Sumardiono, 2012).
TL : pengiriman There are 113 data which are classified as
For data number 039 and 122, the acceptable translation.
SL terms have the certain meaning when Datum number 068
they are involved in certain scientific text. SL : ectopic pregnancy
For the terms above, Google Translate TL : kehamilan ektopik
translates those terms without considering The term ectopic pregnancy above is
the circumstances of the sentences. For translated into kehamilan ektopik. Th
example, the translated term tenaga kerja as translated term kehamilan ektopik means
the translation of the term labour and the kehamilan yang berkembang di luar rahim,
term pengiriman as the translation of the biasanya di salah satu saluran tuba falopi.
term delivery are recognized lexically. Besides that, the term kehamilan ektopik is
When they are applied in certain commonly known in the TL. from the raters,
text, in this case medical text, it appears that the three raters score 3 for this datum which
they have different meanings from the means that the translation of the term is
previous ones. In medical field of study, the acceptable. Therefore the translation of the
term labour means the undergoing of term is acceptable.
childbirth. Datum number 075
Meanwhile, the term delivery has the SL : body mass index
meaning as the event of giving birth. In this TL : indeks massa tubuh
context, both terms refer to the same The term above is body mass index
meaning which is childbirth or giving birth. which means a measurement of the relatives
Both labour and delivery are better percentages of fat and muscle mass in the
translated into kelahiran. human body, in which mass in kilograms is
From datum number 039, the raters divided by height in meters squared and the
give different score. The rater 1 and 2 score result used as an index of obesity. The
1 as inaccurate translation. While rater 3 translation for the term is indeks massa
gives score 3 as accurate translations. tubuh which is commonly known and it is
Meanwhile, for datum number 122, all raters also commonly used in the TL. from the
score 1 as inaccurate translation. Based on raters, all 3 raters give 3 for this datum
the explanation above, the translation of which means that the translation of the term
both term tends to be classified as inaccurate is acceptable. Because of the reason, the
translation. translation of the term above is rated as
acceptable translation.

3. Acceptability b. Less Acceptable Translation


Table 2. Table of Acceptability Less acceptable translation is defined
No Parameter Total Percentage as Pada umumnya terjemahan sudah
1 Acceptable 113 89% terasa alamiah; namun ada sedikit masalah

382
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

pada penggunaan istilah teknis atau terjadi caesar. Caesarean section doesnt literally
sedikit kesalahan gramatikal. There are 5 mean bagian Caesar in the TL. However, it
data which considered as less acceptable is commonly known as bedah Caesar. In
translation. other word, the translated term doesnt used
Datum number 027 in medical study because it sounds like
SL : modern obstetric translation. The term can be translated into
TL : modern kebidanan operasi caesar darurat. Based on the raters
The term modern obstetric above is score, the rater 1 and 2 give score 1 for the
translated into modern kebidanan. There is a datum. Meanwhile rater 3 give score 3 for
problem in translating this term in deciding this datum. Therefore, the translation of the
the head and the modifier. It seems that the term tends to be classified as unacceptable
translation maintains the structure of the SL. translation.
It causes the translation unfamiliar even
though it is still known as a medical term in Conclusion
the TL. The more acceptable translation for The analysis on accuracy of translation of
this term should be kebidanan modern. English medical terms in the article entitled
critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1
c. Unacceptable Translation influenza in pregnant and postpartum
Unaceptable translation occurs when women: population based cohort study
Terjemahan tidak alamiah atau terasa shows that 110 data (86.6%) are considered
seperti karya terjemahan; istilah teknis yang as accurate translation, 4 data (3.1%) are
digunakan tidak lazim digunakan dan tidak considered as less accurate translation, and
akrab bagi pembaca; frasa, klausa dan 13 (10.3%) data are considered as inaccurate
kalimat yang digunakan tidak sesuai dengan translation. From the data, it can be
kaidah-kaidah bahasa Indonesia. There concluded that the translation of English
are 9 data which are considered as medical term in the article entitled critical
unacceptable translation. illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 influenza in
Datum number 051 pregnant and postpartum women:
SL : unassisted vaginal delivery population based cohort study tends to
TL : pengiriman vagina tanpa results accurate translation. It can be seen
bantuan from the number of the accurate data which
The term unassisted vaginal delivery cover 110 data or 86,6% of all 127 data. The
is the datum number 051. The term is techniques which generate translation in
translated into pengiriman vagina tanpa high level of accuracy are pure borrowing
bantuan which is considered as and naturalized borrowing. All data which
unacceptable translation. The translation of are translated using this technique are
the term doesnt relate to the SL and it is not considered as accurate translation. Since the
used in the medical study. Besides it also terms are borrowed from the SL, this means
sounds like translation. Actually it means that the meaning can be conveyed to the TL
kelahiran normal. From the raters score, the accurately. Meanwhile, the technique which
rater 1 and 2 give 1 for this datum. affects the low level of accuracy is
Meanwhile rater 3 gives 2 for this datum. transposition. This technique tries to fit the
Based on the Because of this reason, it can SL terms into TL grammatical structure.
be concluded that the translation tends to be However, the translated terms shows the
classified as unacceptable. different meaning from the SL.
Datum number 098 The analysis on the acceptability of
SL : emergency caesarean section translation English medical terms in the
TL : bagian darurat caesar article entitled critical illness due to 2009
The term emergency caesarean A/H1N1 influenza in pregnant and
section is translated into bagian darurat postpartum women: population based

383
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

cohort study shows that 113 data (89%) are Masum, A. F. (n.d.). Akurasi Hasil
considered as acceptable translation, 5 data Terjemah Bahasa Arab ke dalam
(3.9%) are considered as less acceptable Bahasa Indonesia dengan Aplikasi
translation, and 9 data (7.1%) are considered Google Translate. Jurusan Sastra
as unacceptable translation. From the data, it Arab, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas
can be concluded that the translation of Negeri Malang .
English medical term in the article entitled Moleong, L. J. (2005). Metodologi
critical illness due to 2009 A/H1N1 Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung:
influenza in pregnant and postpartum Remaja Rosdakarya.
women: population based cohort study Molina, L., & Albir, A. H. (2002).
tends to results acceptable translation. It can Translation Techniques Revisited: A
be seen from the number of the acceptable Dynamic and Functionalist
data which cover 113 data or 89% of all 127 Approach. Meta Translators'
data. The techniques which generate Journal , pp. 498-512.
translation in high level of acceptability are Nababan, M. R. (1999). Teori Menerjemah
pure borrowing and naturalized borrowing. Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta: Pustaka
Meanwhile the technique which contributes Pelajar.
the low level of acceptability is calque Nababan, M., Nuraeni, A., & Sumardiono.
technique. (2012). Pengembangan Model
Penilaian Kualitas Terjemahan.
References Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra, Vol.
Arifatun, N. (2012). Kesalahan 24, No. 1, Juni 2012 , pp. 39-57.
Penerjemahan Teks Bahasa Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of
Indonesia ke Bahasa Arab Melalui Translation. London: Prentice Hall.
GOOGLE TRANSLATE (Studi Nida, E. A., & Taber, C. R. (1974). The
Analisis Sintaksis). Semarang: Theory and Practice of Translation.
Universitas Negeri Semarang. Leiden: EJ Brill.
Bell, R. T. (1991). Translation and Nurhayana. (2013). Teknik, Pergeseran dan
Translating: Theory and Practice. Tingkat Keterbacaan Terjemahan
New York: Longman Inc. Buku Bilingual Kumpulan Cerita
Cresswell, J. W. (1994). Qualitativ e and Kasih Ibu I Love You Mom. Medan:
Quantitative Methods. Newbury Sekolah Pasca Sarjana, Universitas
Park: Sage. Sumatera Utara.
Cresswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry Pavel, S., & Nolet, D. (2001). Handbook of
and Research Design: Choosing Terminology. Canada: Translation
among Five Tradition. London: Bureau.
Sage. Reja, U., Manfreda, K. L., Hlebec, V., &
Cresswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Vehovar, V. (2003). Open-ended vs.
Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Close-ended Questions in Web
Methods Approaches. Thousand Quesionnaires. Developments in
Oaks USA: Sage. Applied Statistics, Metodoloki
Hutchin, W. J. (1995). Machine Translation: zvezki, Ljubljana , pp. 159-177.
A Brief History. Concise history of Shuttleworth, M., & Cowie, M. (1997).
the language sciences: from the Dictionary of Translation Studies.
Sumerians to the cognitivists, pp. London: Routledge.
431-445. Sutopo, H. B. (2002). Metodologi Penelitian
Hutchin, W. J., & Somers, H. L. (1992). An Kualitatif: Dasar Teori dan
Introduction to Machine Translation. Terapannya dalam Penelitian.
London: Academic Press Limited. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University
Press.

384
1st English Language and Literature
ELECTRONIC ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549 International Conference (ELLiC)

Websites
http://kamuskesehatan.com/ July 7, 2016.
15:50
http://kbbi.web.id/ July 7, 2016. 14:15.
http://www.cnet.com/news/google-translate-
now-serves-200-million-people-daily/
September 18, 2015. 18: 25.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ July 7,
2016. 13:00

385