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Betty Maye T.

Eugenio 8- Leeuwenheok Bio-Technology

Give 10 examples of each. From Bio-Technology

a. FOOD

When it was first introduced, biotechnology was predominantly used in medicine to research
and produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products that help in preventing and curing diseases.
However, over the last few decades, this technology has found a place in the agricultural industry
like never before. Years of research indicate that agricultural biotechnology is a safe and beneficial
technology that plays a big role in promoting economic and environmental sustainability.
Genetically modified crops and food have been the main areas of focus for this technology.
However, agro-biotechnology is still producing a variety of other products that offer innumerable
benefits to the global population. For example, explore the following 10 products of agricultural
biotechnology.

1. VACCINES

New vaccines employing biotechnology innovations are changing the processes of


preventing illnesses, particularly in developing countries. Genetically modified
crops have had a significant contribution in the development of vaccines. Foods such
as fruits, grains, and vegetables are engineered to carry antigenic proteins which are
extracted from pathogens. When injected into the body, these antigens trigger an
immune response and boost the resistance of the body against the pathogens.
An example is the anti-lymphoma vaccine thats obtained from tobacco. Tobacco
plants are engineered to carry RNA from malignant B-cells. The extracted protein is
injected into the body, an immune response is triggered which destroys the
cancerous cells.

2. PLANT AND ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

The use of traditional techniques such as cross-pollination, grafting, and cross-


breeding to enhance the behavioral patterns of plants and animals is time-
consuming. Agro-biotech has made it possible to enhance plant and animal traits on
a molecular level through over-expression or gene removal, or the introduction of
foreign genes.
Artificial insemination, embryo transfer, and other associated technologies are used
in managing the reproductive functions of an animal and influencing the traits of the
resultant offspring. These improvements have increased agricultural productivity in
developing countries and enhanced their capabilities to sustain the growing
population.

3. ANTIBIOTICS

Agricultural biotechnology is applied in the production of antibiotics for both


humans and animals. Animal antibiotics produced through this technology are low
cost but equally as efficient as traditionally manufactured antibiotics. Since these
antibiotics are obtained from plants, a large quantity of the product can be obtained
at a time. Additionally, there is ease of purification and the risk of contamination is
minimized as compared to the use of mammalian cells and culture media in
antibiotics production.

4. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

In a bid to promote better human health globallys, scientists have come up with
ways to create genetically modified foods with nutrients that can help fight disease
and starvation. A great example of such foods is the golden rice which contains beta
carotene, a major source of Vitamin A in the body.
The name of the rice comes from the color of the transgenic grain made from three
genes: two from daffodils and one from bacterium. The genes are cloned to make the
rice golden. People who eat this rice supplement their diet with the vitamin and
other nutrients that they may not be getting from other foods.

5. PESTICIDE RESISTANCE CROPS

In the past, farmers have incurred significant losses due to the use of pesticides that
affect both crops and weeds. Biotechnology has led to the engineering of plants that
are resistant to pesticides. This allows farmers to selectively kill weeds without
harming their crop. A famous example is the Roundup-Ready tech introduced by
Monsato.
The tech was first introduced in genetically modified soy beans, making them
resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. The herbicide can be applied in copious
amounts to eliminate other plants on a field other than the Roundup-Ready plants.
Selective elimination of weeds saves farmers valuable time as compared to
traditional methods of weeding.

b. ANIMAL

Animal Biotechnology introduces applications of animal biotechnology and implications for


human health and welfare. It begins with an introduction to animal cell cultures and genome
sequencing analysis and provides readers with a review of available cell and molecular tools. Topics
here include the use of transgenic animal models, tissue engineering, nanobiotechnology, and
proteomics. The book then delivers in-depth examples of applications in human health and
prospects for the future, including cytogenetics and molecular genetics, xenografts, and treatment
of HIV and cancers. All this is complemented by a discussion of the ethical and safety considerations
in the field.

Animal biotechnology is a broad field encompassing the polarities of fundamental and


applied research, including molecular modeling, gene manipulation, development of diagnostics
and vaccines, and manipulation of tissue. Given the tools that are currently available and the
translational potential for these studies, animal biotechnology has become one of the most essential
subjects for those studying life sciences.

1. TRANSGENICS
Transgenics (also known as recombinant DNA) is the transferal of a specific
gene from one organism to another. Gene splicing is used to introduce one or
more genes of an organism into a second organism. A transgenic animal is
created once the second organism incorporates the new DNA into its own
genetic material.
2. CLONING
Scientists use reproductive cloning techniques to produce multiple copies of
mammals that are nearly identical copies of other animals, including transgenic
animals, genetically superior animals and animals that produce high quantities
of milk or have some other desirable trait. To date, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats,
horses, mules, cats, rats and mice have been cloned, beginning with the first
cloned animal, a sheep named Dolly, in 1996.
3. OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

In addition to the use of transgenics and cloning, scientists can use gene knock
out technology to inactivate, or knock out, a specific gene. It is this technology
that creates a possible source of replacement organs for humans. The process of
transplanting cells, tissues or organs from one species to another is referred to
as xenotransplantation. Currently, the pig is the major animal being considered
as a viable organ donor to humans. Unfortunately, pig cells and human cells are
not immunologically compatible. Pigs, like almost all mammals, have markers on
their cells that enable the human immune system to recognize them as foreign
and reject them. Genetic engineering is used to knock out the pig gene
responsible for the protein that forms the marker to the pig cells.

c. FISH

1. TRANSGENIC FISH

By definition, transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those


that have had foreign DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) artificially inserted into their
own genomes (Chen and others 1996; FAO 2000). The first successful case of
transgenic fish was reported in 1985, when Zhu and colleagues microinjected
the human GH gene into the fertilized eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.
1758) (Zhu and others 1985). This was followed by successful introduction of
human GH gene into the genome of the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) with
resulting transgenic fish that grew 3 to 4.6 times faster than the control within
the first 135 d (Zhu and others 1986). Since 1985, the field of transgenics has
experienced a number of technological advances. Many genetically modified fish
species have been established along with various methods for foreign gene
insertion (such as microinjection, electroporation, infection with pantropic
defective retroviral vectors, particle gun bombardment, and sperm- and testis-
mediated gene transfer methods) and detection (such as polymerase chain
reaction [PCR]-based assay and Southern blot analysis) (Chen and others
1996; Lu and others 2002; Sarmasik 2003; Collares and others
2005; Pandian and Venugopal 2005; Smith and Spadafora 2005).

2. CATFISH

Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse


group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble
a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest
species, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels
catfish of Eurasia and the piraba of South America, to detritivores (species that
eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly
called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there
are also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish
have prominent barbel.

3. CRAWFISH

Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, mountain


lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling
small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of
the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.

4. TROUT

Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging
to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of
the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is also used
as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus,
the spotted seatrout or speckled trout.
Trout are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species termed salmon
and char occur in the same genera as do trout (Oncorhynchus - Pacific salmon
and trout, Salmo - Atlantic salmon and various trout, Salvelinus - char and trout).
5. SALMON
Salmon /smn/ is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in
the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family
include trout, char, grayling and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the
North Atlantic (genus Salmo) and Pacific Ocean (genus Oncorhynchus). Many species
of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great
Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are
intensively farmed in many parts of the world.
d. PLANT

1. PEST RESISTANCE CROPS

For many years, a microbe known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used to
dust crops by producing toxic proteins against pests. One of such toxic proteins used
for dusting crops is the European corn borer. Scientists have come up with a way to
eliminate the use of Bt by introducing pest resistant crops. These are known as Bt
crops as the gene thats introduced in the crop was originally identified in Bacillus
thuringiensis. Examples if pest resistant crops today are Bt maize, potato, and corn.
This toxic protein is only harmful to pests, but is safe for humans. It has saved
farmers from dealing with expensive pest infestations in crops.

2. FLOWERS
Agricultural biotechnology is not just about developing drugs and genetically
modified foods and crops it has some aesthetic applications as well. Scientists are
using gene recognition and transfer techniques to improve the color, size, smell, and
other properties of flowers. The technology has also been used to improve other
ornamental plants such as shrubs and trees. Some of the techniques applied are
similar to those used on crops. For instance, tropical plants color confrontation can
be enhanced to make it possible for the tree to thrive in gardens in the northern
regions.

3. BIO-FUELS

The agricultural industry plays a major role in the production of bio-fuels to the
extent that feedstock is used for fermentation and purification of bio-oil, bio-
ethanol, and bio-diesel. Genetic engineering and enzyme optimization techniques
are used to produce good-quality feed stocks for more efficient conversions and
higher BTU outputs of the resultant bio-fuels. High-energy and high-yielding feed
stocks can reduce the relative costs of harvesting and transportation. The result is
high-quality bio-fuel products.

4. A BIOTIC STRAIN CONFRONTATION

A very small proportion of the earth, approximately 20 percent, is arable land.


However, scientists have come up with ways to modify crops that can endure
conditions such as salinity, cold, and drought. For instance, the detection of genes in
plants that are tasked with the uptake of sodium has led to the introduction of
plants that can thrive in high-salinity environments.
A technique known as up- or down-regulation of record is used to influence
drought-resistance in plants. These technologies have increased food production as
plants are able to adapt to hostile climates and non-arable lands.

5. MANUFACTURE OF MICROFIBERS

The strongest fiber known to man today is spider silk. It is stronger than kevlar,
which is used to make bullet-proof vests and has a higher tensile strength than
strength. In August 2000, a Canadian company, Nexia, announced that they had
engineered transgenic goats that could produce spider silk proteins in their milk.
For a while, the technology seemed like it would solve the problem. However, it was
shelved when the scientists couldnt come up with a way to spin the protein into
fibers. Although the technology has been put on hold, it is bound to appear again in
the future because of high demand for similar products.

e. MEDICINE

1. CANCER SPIT TEST

Forget biopsiesa device designed by researchers at the University of


California-Los Angeles detects oral cancer from a single drop of saliva. Proteins
that are associated with cancer cells react with dyes on the sensor, emitting
fluorescent light that can be detected with a microscope. Engineer Chih-Ming Ho
notes that the same principle could be applied to make saliva-based diagnostic
tests for many diseases.

2. PROSTETIC FEEDBACK

One challenge of prosthetic limbs is that they're difficult to monitor. "You an d I


sense where our limbs are spatially without having to look at them, whereas
amputees don't," says Stanford University graduate student Karlin Bark. Skin is
sensitive to being stretchedit can detect even small changes in direction and
intensityso Bark is developing a device that stretches an amputee's skin near
the prosthesis in ways that provide feedback about the limb's position and
movement.

3. SMART CONTACT LENSES

Glaucoma, the second-leading cause of blindness, develops when pressure


builds inside the eye and damages retinal cells. Contact lenses developed at the
University of California-Davis contain conductive wires that continuously
monitor pressure and fluid flow within the eyes of at-risk people. The lenses
then relay information to a small device worn by the patient; the device
wirelessly transmits it to a computer. This constant data flow will help doctors
better understand the causes of the disease. Future lenses may also
automatically dispense drugs in response to pressure changes.

4. SPEECH RESTORER

For people who have lost the ability to talk, a new "phonetic speech engine"
from Illinois-based Ambient Corporation provides an audible voice. Developed
in conjunction with Texas Instruments, the Audeo uses electrodes to detect
neuronal signals traveling from the brain to the vocal cords. Patients imagine
slowly sounding out words; then the quarter-size device (located in a neck
brace) wirelessly transmits those impulses to a computer or cellphone, which
produces speech.

5. ABSORBABLE HEART STENT

Stents open arteries that have become narrowed or blocked because of


coronary artery disease. Drug-eluting stents release medication that keeps the
artery from narrowing again. The bio-absorbable version made by Abbott
Laboratories in Illinois goes one step further: Unlike metal stents, it does its job
and disappears. After six months the stent begins to dissolve, and after two
years it's completely gone, leaving behind a healthy artery.

6. MUSCLE STIMULATOR

In the time it takes for broken bones to heal, nearby muscles often atrophy from
lack of use. Israeli company StimuHeal solves that problem with the MyoSpare,
a battery-operated device that uses electrical stimulatorssmall enough to be
worn underneath caststo exercise muscles and keep them strong during
recovery.

7. NERVE REGENERATOR

Nerve fibers can't grow along injured spinal cords because scar tissue gets in
the way. A nanogel developed at Northwestern University eliminates that
impediment. Injected as a liquid, the nanogel self-assembles into a scaffold of
nanofibers. Peptides expressed in the fibers instruct stem cells that would
normally form scar tissue to produce cells that encourage nerve development.
The scaffold, meanwhile, supports the growth of new axons up and down the
spinal cord.

8. SMART PILL

California-based Proteus Biomedical has engineered sensors that track


medication use by recording the exact time drugs are ingested. Sand-grain-size
microchips emit high-frequency electrical currents that are logged by Band-Aid-
like receivers on the skin. The receivers also monitor heart rate and respiration
and wirelessly transmit the data to a computer. "To really improve
pharmaceuticals, we need to do what is now common in every other industry
embed digital technology into existing products and network them," says David
O'Reilly, senior vice president of corporate development.

9. PORTABLE DIALYSIS

More than 15 million adult Americans suffer from diseases of the kidneys,
which often impair the ability of the organs to remove toxins from the blood.
Standard dialysis involves three long sessions at a hospital per week. But an
artificial kidney developed by Los Angeles-based Xcorporeal can clean blood
around the clock. The machine is fully automated, battery-operated, waterproof
and, at less than 5 pounds, portable.

10. WALKING SIMULATOR

Stroke victims are being tricked into recovering more quickly with a virtual -
reality rehabilitation program developed at the University of Portsmouth in
Britain. As patients walk on a treadmill, they see moving images that fool their
brains into thinking they are walking slower than they are. As a result, patients
not only walk faster and farther, but experience less pain while doing so.
Mareya Kyla C. Paulo 8- Leeuwenheok Bio-Technology

Give 10 examples of each. From Bio-Technology

a. FOOD

When it was first introduced, biotechnology was predominantly used in medicine to research and
produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products that help in preventing and curing diseases. However,
over the last few decades, this technology has found a place in the agricultural industry like never
before. Years of research indicate that agricultural biotechnology is a safe and beneficial technology that
plays a big role in promoting economic and environmental sustainability. Genetically modified crops and
food have been the main areas of focus for this technology. However, agro-biotechnology is still
producing a variety of other products that offer innumerable benefits to the global population. For
example, explore the following 10 products of agricultural biotechnology.

1. VACCINES

New vaccines employing biotechnology innovations are changing the processes of


preventing illnesses, particularly in developing countries. Genetically modified crops
have had a significant contribution in the development of vaccines. Foods such as fruits,
grains, and vegetables are engineered to carry antigenic proteins which are extracted
from pathogens. When injected into the body, these antigens trigger an immune
response and boost the resistance of the body against the pathogens.
An example is the anti-lymphoma vaccine thats obtained from tobacco. Tobacco plants
are engineered to carry RNA from malignant B-cells. The extracted protein is injected
into the body, an immune response is triggered which destroys the cancerous cells.

2. PLANT AND ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

The use of traditional techniques such as cross-pollination, grafting, and cross-breeding


to enhance the behavioral patterns of plants and animals is time-consuming. Agro-
biotech has made it possible to enhance plant and animal traits on a molecular level
through over-expression or gene removal, or the introduction of foreign genes.
Artificial insemination, embryo transfer, and other associated technologies are used in
managing the reproductive functions of an animal and influencing the traits of the
resultant offspring. These improvements have increased agricultural productivity in
developing countries and enhanced their capabilities to sustain the growing population.

3. ANTIBIOTICS

Agricultural biotechnology is applied in the production of antibiotics for both humans


and animals. Animal antibiotics produced through this technology are low cost but
equally as efficient as traditionally manufactured antibiotics. Since these antibiotics are
obtained from plants, a large quantity of the product can be obtained at a time.
Additionally, there is ease of purification and the risk of contamination is minimized as
compared to the use of mammalian cells and culture media in antibiotics production.
4. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

In a bid to promote better human health globallys, scientists have come up with ways to
create genetically modified foods with nutrients that can help fight disease and
starvation. A great example of such foods is the golden rice which contains beta
carotene, a major source of Vitamin A in the body.
The name of the rice comes from the color of the transgenic grain made from three
genes: two from daffodils and one from bacterium. The genes are cloned to make the
rice golden. People who eat this rice supplement their diet with the vitamin and other
nutrients that they may not be getting from other foods.

5. PESTICIDE RESISTANCE CROPS

In the past, farmers have incurred significant losses due to the use of pesticides that
affect both crops and weeds. Biotechnology has led to the engineering of plants that are
resistant to pesticides. This allows farmers to selectively kill weeds without harming
their crop. A famous example is the Roundup-Ready tech introduced by Monsato.
The tech was first introduced in genetically modified soy beans, making them resistant
to the herbicide glyphosate. The herbicide can be applied in copious amounts to
eliminate other plants on a field other than the Roundup-Ready plants. Selective
elimination of weeds saves farmers valuable time as compared to traditional methods
of weeding.

b. ANIMAL

Animal Biotechnology introduces applications of animal biotechnology and implications for


human health and welfare. It begins with an introduction to animal cell cultures and genome sequencing
analysis and provides readers with a review of available cell and molecular tools. Topics here include the
use of transgenic animal models, tissue engineering, nanobiotechnology, and proteomics. The book then
delivers in-depth examples of applications in human health and prospects for the future, including
cytogenetics and molecular genetics, xenografts, and treatment of HIV and cancers. All this is
complemented by a discussion of the ethical and safety considerations in the field.

Animal biotechnology is a broad field encompassing the polarities of fundamental and applied
research, including molecular modeling, gene manipulation, development of diagnostics and vaccines,
and manipulation of tissue. Given the tools that are currently available and the translational potential
for these studies, animal biotechnology has become one of the most essential subjects for those
studying life sciences.

1. TRANSGENICS
Transgenics (also known as recombinant DNA) is the transferal of a specific gene
from one organism to another. Gene splicing is used to introduce one or more genes
of an organism into a second organism. A transgenic animal is created once the
second organism incorporates the new DNA into its own genetic material.
2. CLONING
Scientists use reproductive cloning techniques to produce multiple copies of
mammals that are nearly identical copies of other animals, including transgenic
animals, genetically superior animals and animals that produce high quantities of
milk or have some other desirable trait. To date, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses,
mules, cats, rats and mice have been cloned, beginning with the first cloned animal,
a sheep named Dolly, in 1996.
3. OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

In addition to the use of transgenics and cloning, scientists can use gene knock out
technology to inactivate, or knock out, a specific gene. It is this technology that
creates a possible source of replacement organs for humans. The process of
transplanting cells, tissues or organs from one species to another is referred to as
xenotransplantation. Currently, the pig is the major animal being considered as a
viable organ donor to humans. Unfortunately, pig cells and human cells are not
immunologically compatible. Pigs, like almost all mammals, have markers on their
cells that enable the human immune system to recognize them as foreign and reject
them. Genetic engineering is used to knock out the pig gene responsible for the
protein that forms the marker to the pig cells.

c. FISH

6. TRANSGENIC FISH

By definition, transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are those that


have had foreign DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) artificially inserted into their own
genomes (Chen and others 1996; FAO 2000). The first successful case of transgenic
fish was reported in 1985, when Zhu and colleagues microinjected the human GH
gene into the fertilized eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. 1758) (Zhu and others
1985). This was followed by successful introduction of human GH gene into the
genome of the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) with resulting transgenic fish that
grew 3 to 4.6 times faster than the control within the first 135 d (Zhu and others
1986). Since 1985, the field of transgenics has experienced a number of
technological advances. Many genetically modified fish species have been
established along with various methods for foreign gene insertion (such as
microinjection, electroporation, infection with pantropic defective retroviral
vectors, particle gun bombardment, and sperm- and testis-mediated gene transfer
methods) and detection (such as polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-based assay and
Southern blot analysis) (Chen and others 1996; Lu and others 2002; Sarmasik
2003; Collares and others 2005; Pandian and Venugopal 2005; Smith and
Spadafora 2005).

7. CATFISH

Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group


of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble
a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species,
the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and
the piraba of South America, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the
bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia
cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither
having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel.

8. CRAWFISH

Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, mountain


lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling
small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of
the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.

9. TROUT

Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to
the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of
the family Salmonidae. The word trout is also used as part of the name of some non-
salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout.
Trout are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species termed salmon and
char occur in the same genera as do trout (Oncorhynchus - Pacific salmon and
trout, Salmo - Atlantic salmon and various trout, Salvelinus - char and trout).
10. SALMON
Salmon /smn/ is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in
the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family
include trout, char, grayling and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North
Atlantic (genus Salmo) and Pacific Ocean (genus Oncorhynchus). Many species of salmon
have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North
America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts
of the world.
d. PLANT

6. PEST RESISTANCE CROPS

For many years, a microbe known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used to dust
crops by producing toxic proteins against pests. One of such toxic proteins used for
dusting crops is the European corn borer. Scientists have come up with a way to
eliminate the use of Bt by introducing pest resistant crops. These are known as Bt crops
as the gene thats introduced in the crop was originally identified in Bacillus
thuringiensis. Examples if pest resistant crops today are Bt maize, potato, and corn. This
toxic protein is only harmful to pests, but is safe for humans. It has saved farmers from
dealing with expensive pest infestations in crops.

7. FLOWERS

Agricultural biotechnology is not just about developing drugs and genetically modified
foods and crops it has some aesthetic applications as well. Scientists are using gene
recognition and transfer techniques to improve the color, size, smell, and other
properties of flowers. The technology has also been used to improve other ornamental
plants such as shrubs and trees. Some of the techniques applied are similar to those
used on crops. For instance, tropical plants color confrontation can be enhanced to
make it possible for the tree to thrive in gardens in the northern regions.

8. BIO-FUELS

The agricultural industry plays a major role in the production of bio-fuels to the extent
that feedstock is used for fermentation and purification of bio-oil, bio-ethanol, and bio-
diesel. Genetic engineering and enzyme optimization techniques are used to produce
good-quality feed stocks for more efficient conversions and higher BTU outputs of the
resultant bio-fuels. High-energy and high-yielding feed stocks can reduce the relative
costs of harvesting and transportation. The result is high-quality bio-fuel products.

9. A BIOTIC STRAIN CONFRONTATION

A very small proportion of the earth, approximately 20 percent, is arable land. However,
scientists have come up with ways to modify crops that can endure conditions such as
salinity, cold, and drought. For instance, the detection of genes in plants that are tasked
with the uptake of sodium has led to the introduction of plants that can thrive in high-
salinity environments.
A technique known as up- or down-regulation of record is used to influence drought-
resistance in plants. These technologies have increased food production as plants are
able to adapt to hostile climates and non-arable lands.

10. MANUFACTURE OF MICROFIBERS

The strongest fiber known to man today is spider silk. It is stronger than kevlar, which is
used to make bullet-proof vests and has a higher tensile strength than strength. In
August 2000, a Canadian company, Nexia, announced that they had engineered
transgenic goats that could produce spider silk proteins in their milk.
For a while, the technology seemed like it would solve the problem. However, it was
shelved when the scientists couldnt come up with a way to spin the protein into fibers.
Although the technology has been put on hold, it is bound to appear again in the future
because of high demand for similar products.

e. MEDICINE

1. CANCER SPIT TEST

Forget biopsiesa device designed by researchers at the University of California-


Los Angeles detects oral cancer from a single drop of saliva. Proteins that are
associated with cancer cells react with dyes on the sensor, emitting fluorescent
light that can be detected with a microscope. Engineer Chih-Ming Ho notes that the
same principle could be applied to make saliva-based diagnostic tests for many
diseases.
2. PROSTETIC FEEDBACK

One challenge of prosthetic limbs is that they're difficult to monitor. "You and I
sense where our limbs are spatially without having to look at them, whereas
amputees don't," says Stanford University graduate student Karlin Bark. Skin is
sensitive to being stretchedit can detect even small changes in direction and
intensityso Bark is developing a device that stretches an amputee's skin near the
prosthesis in ways that provide feedback about the limb's position and movement.

3. SMART CONTACT LENSES

Glaucoma, the second-leading cause of blindness, develops when pressure builds


inside the eye and damages retinal cells. Contact lenses developed at the University
of California-Davis contain conductive wires that continuously monitor pressure
and fluid flow within the eyes of at-risk people. The lenses then relay information
to a small device worn by the patient; the device wirelessly transmits it to a
computer. This constant data flow will help doctors better understand the causes of
the disease. Future lenses may also automatically dispense drugs in response to
pressure changes.

4. SPEECH RESTORER

For people who have lost the ability to talk, a new "phonetic speech engine" from
Illinois-based Ambient Corporation provides an audible voice. Developed in
conjunction with Texas Instruments, the Audeo uses electrodes to detect neuronal
signals traveling from the brain to the vocal cords. Patients imagine slowly sounding
out words; then the quarter-size device (located in a neck brace) wirelessly
transmits those impulses to a computer or cellphone, which produces speech.

5. ABSORBABLE HEART STENT

Stents open arteries that have become narrowed or blocked because of coronary
artery disease. Drug-eluting stents release medication that keeps the artery from
narrowing again. The bio-absorbable version made by Abbott Laboratories in Illinois
goes one step further: Unlike metal stents, it does its job and disappears. After six
months the stent begins to dissolve, and after two years it's completely gone,
leaving behind a healthy artery.

6. MUSCLE STIMULATOR

In the time it takes for broken bones to heal, nearby muscles often atrophy from
lack of use. Israeli company StimuHeal solves that problem with the MyoSpare, a
battery-operated device that uses electrical stimulatorssmall enough to be worn
underneath caststo exercise muscles and keep them strong during recovery.

7. NERVE REGENERATOR
Nerve fibers can't grow along injured spinal cords because scar tissue gets in the
way. A nanogel developed at Northwestern University eliminates that impedi ment.
Injected as a liquid, the nanogel self-assembles into a scaffold of nanofibers.
Peptides expressed in the fibers instruct stem cells that would normally form scar
tissue to produce cells that encourage nerve development. The scaffold,
meanwhile, supports the growth of new axons up and down the spinal cord.

8. SMART PILL

California-based Proteus Biomedical has engineered sensors that track medication


use by recording the exact time drugs are ingested. Sand-grain-size microchips emit
high-frequency electrical currents that are logged by Band-Aid-like receivers on the
skin. The receivers also monitor heart rate and respiration and wirelessly transmit
the data to a computer. "To really improve pharmaceuticals, we need to do what is
now common in every other industryembed digital technology into existing
products and network them," says David O'Reilly, senior vice president of corporate
development.

9. PORTABLE DIALYSIS

More than 15 million adult Americans suffer from diseases of the kidneys, which
often impair the ability of the organs to remove toxins from the blood. Standard
dialysis involves three long sessions at a hospital per week. But an artificial kidney
developed by Los Angeles-based Xcorporeal can clean blood around the clock. The
machine is fully automated, battery-operated, waterproof and, at less than 5
pounds, portable.

10. WALKING SIMULATOR

Stroke victims are being tricked into recovering more quickly with a virtual -reality
rehabilitation program developed at the University of Portsmouth in Britain. As
patients walk on a treadmill, they see moving images that fool their brains into
thinking they are walking slower than they are. As a result, patients not only walk
faster and farther, but experience less pain while doing so.
Lorraine Quinanahan 8- Leeuwenheok Bio-Technology

Give 10 examples of each. From Bio-Technology

a. FOOD

When it was first introduced, biotechnology was predominantly used in medicine to


research and produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products that help in preventing and
curing diseases. However, over the last few decades, this technology has found a place in
the agricultural industry like never before. Years of research indicate that agricultural
biotechnology is a safe and beneficial technology that plays a big role in promoting economic
and environmental sustainability. Genetically modified crops and food have been the main
areas of focus for this technology. However, agro-biotechnology is still producing a variety of
other products that offer innumerable benefits to the global population. For example,
explore the following 10 products of agricultural biotechnology.

1. VACCINES

New vaccines employing biotechnology innovations are changing the


processes of preventing illnesses, particularly in developing countries.
Genetically modified crops have had a significant contribution in the
development of vaccines. Foods such as fruits, grains, and vegetables are
engineered to carry antigenic proteins which are extracted from pathogens.
When injected into the body, these antigens trigger an immune response and
boost the resistance of the body against the pathogens.
An example is the anti-lymphoma vaccine thats obtained from tobacco.
Tobacco plants are engineered to carry RNA from malignant B-cells. The
extracted protein is injected into the body, an immune response is triggered
which destroys the cancerous cells.

2. PLANT AND ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

The use of traditional techniques such as cross-pollination, grafting, and


cross-breeding to enhance the behavioral patterns of plants and animals is
time-consuming. Agro-biotech has made it possible to enhance plant and
animal traits on a molecular level through over-expression or gene removal,
or the introduction of foreign genes.
Artificial insemination, embryo transfer, and other associated technologies
are used in managing the reproductive functions of an animal and
influencing the traits of the resultant offspring. These improvements have
increased agricultural productivity in developing countries and enhanced
their capabilities to sustain the growing population.

3. ANTIBIOTICS

Agricultural biotechnology is applied in the production of antibiotics for both


humans and animals. Animal antibiotics produced through this technology
are low cost but equally as efficient as traditionally manufactured antibiotics.
Since these antibiotics are obtained from plants, a large quantity of the
product can be obtained at a time. Additionally, there is ease of purification
and the risk of contamination is minimized as compared to the use of
mammalian cells and culture media in antibiotics production.

4. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

In a bid to promote better human health globallys, scientists have come up


with ways to create genetically modified foods with nutrients that can help
fight disease and starvation. A great example of such foods is the golden rice
which contains beta carotene, a major source of Vitamin A in the body.
The name of the rice comes from the color of the transgenic grain made from
three genes: two from daffodils and one from bacterium. The genes are cloned
to make the rice golden. People who eat this rice supplement their diet with
the vitamin and other nutrients that they may not be getting from other
foods.

5. PESTICIDE RESISTANCE CROPS

In the past, farmers have incurred significant losses due to the use of
pesticides that affect both crops and weeds. Biotechnology has led to the
engineering of plants that are resistant to pesticides. This allows farmers to
selectively kill weeds without harming their crop. A famous example is the
Roundup-Ready tech introduced by Monsato.
The tech was first introduced in genetically modified soy beans, making them
resistant to the herbicide glyphosate. The herbicide can be applied in copious
amounts to eliminate other plants on a field other than the Roundup-Ready
plants. Selective elimination of weeds saves farmers valuable time as
compared to traditional methods of weeding.

b. ANIMAL

Animal Biotechnology introduces applications of animal biotechnology and


implications for human health and welfare. It begins with an introduction to animal cell
cultures and genome sequencing analysis and provides readers with a review of available
cell and molecular tools. Topics here include the use of transgenic animal models, tissue
engineering, nanobiotechnology, and proteomics. The book then delivers in-depth examples
of applications in human health and prospects for the future, including cytogenetics and
molecular genetics, xenografts, and treatment of HIV and cancers. All this is complemented
by a discussion of the ethical and safety considerations in the field.

Animal biotechnology is a broad field encompassing the polarities of fundamental


and applied research, including molecular modeling, gene manipulation, development of
diagnostics and vaccines, and manipulation of tissue. Given the tools that are currently
available and the translational potential for these studies, animal biotechnology has
become one of the most essential subjects for those studying life sciences.
1. TRANSGENICS
Transgenics (also known as recombinant DNA) is the transferal of a
specific gene from one organism to another. Gene splicing is used to
introduce one or more genes of an organism into a second organism. A
transgenic animal is created once the second organism incorporates the
new DNA into its own genetic material.
2. CLONING
Scientists use reproductive cloning techniques to produce multiple copies
of mammals that are nearly identical copies of other animals, including
transgenic animals, genetically superior animals and animals that
produce high quantities of milk or have some other desirable trait. To
date, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, mules, cats, rats and mice have
been cloned, beginning with the first cloned animal, a sheep named Dolly,
in 1996.
3. OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

In addition to the use of transgenics and cloning, scientists can use gene
knock out technology to inactivate, or knock out, a specific gene. It is
this technology that creates a possible source of replacement organs for
humans. The process of transplanting cells, tissues or organs from one
species to another is referred to as xenotransplantation. Currently, the
pig is the major animal being considered as a viable organ donor to
humans. Unfortunately, pig cells and human cells are not
immunologically compatible. Pigs, like almost all mammals, have
markers on their cells that enable the human immune system to
recognize them as foreign and reject them. Genetic engineering is used to
knock out the pig gene responsible for the protein that forms the marker
to the pig cells.

c. FISH

1. TRANSGENIC FISH

By definition, transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are


those that have had foreign DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) artificially
inserted into their own genomes (Chen and others 1996; FAO 2000). The
first successful case of transgenic fish was reported in 1985, when Zhu
and colleagues microinjected the human GH gene into the fertilized eggs
of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. 1758) (Zhu and others 1985). This was
followed by successful introduction of human GH gene into the genome of
the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) with resulting transgenic fish
that grew 3 to 4.6 times faster than the control within the first 135 d (Zhu
and others 1986). Since 1985, the field of transgenics has experienced a
number of technological advances. Many genetically modified fish species
have been established along with various methods for foreign gene
insertion (such as microinjection, electroporation, infection with pantropic
defective retroviral vectors, particle gun bombardment, and sperm- and
testis-mediated gene transfer methods) and detection (such as polymerase
chain reaction [PCR]-based assay and Southern blot analysis) (Chen and
others 1996; Lu and others 2002; Sarmasik 2003; Collares and others
2005; Pandian and Venugopal 2005; Smith and Spadafora 2005).

2. CATFISH

Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse


group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which
resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the
three largest species, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia,
the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraba of South America,
to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to
a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa.
There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither
having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel.

3. CRAWFISH

Crayfish, also known


as crawfish, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, mountain
lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling
small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are
members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.

4. TROUT

Trout is the common name for a number


of species of freshwater fish belonging to the
genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of
the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is
also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such
as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout.
Trout are closely related to salmon and char (or charr): species termed
salmon and char occur in the same genera as do trout (Oncorhynchus -
Pacific salmon and trout, Salmo - Atlantic salmon and various
trout, Salvelinus - char and trout).
5. SALMON
Salmon /smn/ is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in
the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family
include trout, char, grayling and whitefish. Salmon are native
to tributaries of the North Atlantic (genus Salmo) and Pacific Ocean
(genus Oncorhynchus). Many species of salmon have been introduced into
non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America
and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many
parts of the world.
d. PLANT
1. PEST RESISTANCE CROPS

For many years, a microbe known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been
used to dust crops by producing toxic proteins against pests. One of such toxic
proteins used for dusting crops is the European corn borer. Scientists have
come up with a way to eliminate the use of Bt by introducing pest resistant
crops. These are known as Bt crops as the gene thats introduced in the crop
was originally identified in Bacillus thuringiensis. Examples if pest resistant
crops today are Bt maize, potato, and corn. This toxic protein is only harmful
to pests, but is safe for humans. It has saved farmers from dealing with
expensive pest infestations in crops.

2. FLOWERS

Agricultural biotechnology is not just about developing drugs and genetically


modified foods and crops it has some aesthetic applications as well.
Scientists are using gene recognition and transfer techniques to improve the
color, size, smell, and other properties of flowers. The technology has also
been used to improve other ornamental plants such as shrubs and trees.
Some of the techniques applied are similar to those used on crops. For
instance, tropical plants color confrontation can be enhanced to make it
possible for the tree to thrive in gardens in the northern regions.

3. BIO-FUELS

The agricultural industry plays a major role in the production of bio-fuels to


the extent that feedstock is used for fermentation and purification of bio-oil,
bio-ethanol, and bio-diesel. Genetic engineering and enzyme optimization
techniques are used to produce good-quality feed stocks for more efficient
conversions and higher BTU outputs of the resultant bio-fuels. High-energy
and high-yielding feed stocks can reduce the relative costs of harvesting and
transportation. The result is high-quality bio-fuel products.

4. A BIOTIC STRAIN CONFRONTATION

A very small proportion of the earth, approximately 20 percent, is arable


land. However, scientists have come up with ways to modify crops that can
endure conditions such as salinity, cold, and drought. For instance, the
detection of genes in plants that are tasked with the uptake of sodium has led
to the introduction of plants that can thrive in high-salinity environments.
A technique known as up- or down-regulation of record is used to influence
drought-resistance in plants. These technologies have increased food
production as plants are able to adapt to hostile climates and non-arable
lands.

5. MANUFACTURE OF MICROFIBERS
The strongest fiber known to man today is spider silk. It is stronger than
kevlar, which is used to make bullet-proof vests and has a higher tensile
strength than strength. In August 2000, a Canadian company, Nexia,
announced that they had engineered transgenic goats that could produce
spider silk proteins in their milk.
For a while, the technology seemed like it would solve the problem. However,
it was shelved when the scientists couldnt come up with a way to spin the
protein into fibers. Although the technology has been put on hold, it is bound
to appear again in the future because of high demand for similar products.

e. MEDICINE

1. CANCER SPIT TEST

Forget biopsiesa device designed by researchers at the University of


California-Los Angeles detects oral cancer from a single drop of saliva.
Proteins that are associated with cancer cells react with dyes on the
sensor, emitting fluorescent light that can be detected with a microscope.
Engineer Chih-Ming Ho notes that the same principle could be applied to
make saliva-based diagnostic tests for many diseases.

2. PROSTETIC FEEDBACK

One challenge of prosthetic limbs is that they're difficult to monitor. "You


and I sense where our limbs are spatially without having to look at them,
whereas amputees don't," says Stanford University graduate student
Karlin Bark. Skin is sensitive to being stretchedit can detect even small
changes in direction and intensityso Bark is developing a device that
stretches an amputee's skin near the prosthesis in ways that provide
feedback about the limb's position and movement.

3. SMART CONTACT LENSES

Glaucoma, the second-leading cause of blindness, develops when pressure


builds inside the eye and damages retinal cells. Contact lenses developed
at the University of California-Davis contain conductive wires that
continuously monitor pressure and fluid flow within the eyes of at-risk
people. The lenses then relay information to a small device worn by the
patient; the device wirelessly transmits it to a computer. This constant
data flow will help doctors better understand the causes of the disease.
Future lenses may also automatically dispense drugs in response to
pressure changes.

4. SPEECH RESTORER

For people who have lost the ability to talk, a new "phonetic speech
engine" from Illinois-based Ambient Corporation provides an audible
voice. Developed in conjunction with Texas Instruments, the Audeo uses
electrodes to detect neuronal signals traveling from the brain to the vocal
cords. Patients imagine slowly sounding out words; then the quarter -size
device (located in a neck brace) wirelessly transmits those impulses to a
computer or cellphone, which produces speech.

5. ABSORBABLE HEART STENT

Stents open arteries that have become narrowed or blocked because of


coronary artery disease. Drug-eluting stents release medication that
keeps the artery from narrowing again. The bio-absorbable version made
by Abbott Laboratories in Illinois goes one step further: Unlike metal
stents, it does its job and disappears. After six months the stent begins to
dissolve, and after two years it's completely gone, leaving behind a
healthy artery.

6. MUSCLE STIMULATOR

In the time it takes for broken bones to heal, nearby muscles often
atrophy from lack of use. Israeli company StimuHeal solves that problem
with the MyoSpare, a battery-operated device that uses electrical
stimulatorssmall enough to be worn underneath caststo exercise
muscles and keep them strong during recovery.

7. NERVE REGENERATOR

Nerve fibers can't grow along injured spinal cords because scar tissue gets
in the way. A nanogel developed at Northwestern University eliminates
that impediment. Injected as a liquid, the nanogel self-assembles into a
scaffold of nanofibers. Peptides expressed in the fibers instruct stem cells
that would normally form scar tissue to produce cells that encourage
nerve development. The scaffold, meanwhile, supports the growth of new
axons up and down the spinal cord.

8. SMART PILL

California-based Proteus Biomedical has engineered sensors that track


medication use by recording the exact time drugs are ingested. Sand-
grain-size microchips emit high-frequency electrical currents that are
logged by Band-Aid-like receivers on the skin. The receivers also monitor
heart rate and respiration and wirelessly transmit the data to a
computer. "To really improve pharmaceuticals, we need to do what is now
common in every other industryembed digital technology into existing
products and network them," says David O'Reilly, senior vice president of
corporate development.

9. PORTABLE DIALYSIS
More than 15 million adult Americans suffer from diseases of the kidneys,
which often impair the ability of the organs to remove toxins from the
blood. Standard dialysis involves three long sessions at a hospital per
week. But an artificial kidney developed by Los Angeles-based Xcorporeal
can clean blood around the clock. The machine is fully automated,
battery-operated, waterproof and, at less than 5 pounds, portable.

10. WALKING SIMULATOR

Stroke victims are being tricked into recovering more quickly with a
virtual-reality rehabilitation program developed at the University of
Portsmouth in Britain. As patients walk on a treadmill, they see moving
images that fool their brains into thinking they are walking slower than
they are. As a result, patients not only walk faster and farther, but
experience less pain while doing so.