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avianinsight

President’s Note
hired additional staff are now fully be completed by fall of 2009.
integrated and part of the vaccine
manufacturing team in Maine. The In addition, we are adding a fermentation
majority of our production consists of suite in the manufacturing plant. This new
A L O H M A N N A N I M A L H E A LT H N E W S B R I E F
inactivated vaccines. production addition will allow increased
volumes of our bacterial products, both live
Increased demand for AviPro® vaccines and killed. Live attenuated vaccines: benefits of water stabilizers
both in the USA and internationally, in drinking water and spray administrations
Dave Zacek require we build again. We have begun Recognition of AviPro® quality is driving the
President, a large, state-of-the-art animal testing demand. We are pleased that customers We will techniques for the administra- A poor administration is still the
Lohmann Animal Health most common cause of vaccine
complex on property adjacent to our value our vaccines and keep demand- tion of live attenuated vaccines.
current manufacturing plant in Winslow. ing more year after year. We will continue continue to The stimulation of immunity in a failure in poultry. A successful
It has been nearly one year since we administration of live attenuated
Included on the site are the Animal to invest in research, development and massively vaccinated popula-
opened our newly expanded pro-
Services Administration Center, a large production to assure a steady supply of invest in tion (herd immunity) reduces the vaccines by spray or drinking
duction/testing/label, pack and ship
pen isolation unit, small test houses and high quality avian biologics for the poultry
site in Maine after having closed our
a large multiple isolation unit. Ground was industry. And we will continue to work hard research,
Vineland site and transferred vaccine
broken for phase I of this project June to be your Avian Professionals.
…the ease and low cost have made
production to Winslow, Maine. Newly
2008. The multi-million dollar facility will development By Iván R. Alvarado, DVM, MS, spray and drinking water the preferred
Ph.D., ACPV, Technical Services
Veterinarian, Lohmann Animal methods for massive administration of
and production Health International
live attenuated vaccines in the farms.
Introduction
to assure a
The increasing demand for water requires an adequate
probability of an individual bird
economical and rapidly available
steady supply sources of animal protein has
in a vaccinated fl ock to become preservation and proper delivery
infected (Marangon and Busani of the vaccine to the host. In
highly infl uenced the constant
of high quality growth of poultry operations
2006). Since under fi eld condi- this article, we describe the
tions, it is unrealistic to expect adverse effects a live vaccine
around the world. The capacity
avian biologics of poultry to adapt to diverse
a 100% protection of the birds might encounter during resus-
in a vaccinated fl ock, the goal pension and administration
geographical conditions and the in suboptimal water, and the
for the poultry fact that no large areas of land
is to develop immunity in a high
enough proportion of birds to benefi ts of using water stabilizers
are required, have also during vaccination.
industry. contributed to the expansion
prevent the transmission or
minimize the adverse effects of
and effi ciency of commercial
Dave Zacek
a disease agent. For poultry, the Massive Administration
poultry operations.
President, ease and low cost have made of Live Vaccines
Lohmann Animal Health spray and drinking water the During manufacturing, most
As a result of their size increase,
preferred methods for massive live attenuated vaccines are
it has become necessary to
administration of live attenuated subjected to a lyophilization
develop and implement massive
375 China Road vaccines in the farms. process. Lyophilization, in
Winslow, Maine 04901

avianinsight for more information:


207.873.3989 800.655.1342 www.lahinternational.com
inside Live attenuated
vaccines p.1
President’s Note
p.4
association with adequate refrigeration Periodic treatments of water wells with through the bacterial cell membrane. Water stabilizers additive. Other reducing agents are and administer the vaccines. Furthermore,
temperatures (between 4°C and 7°C high concentrations of chlorine release Once inside, the week acids dissociate Live poultry vaccines are produced in sodium metabisulfi te, sodium bisulfi te the inclusion of dyes facilitates the visual-
or 39°F and 44°F), guarantees the products (CRP), and chlorination of the and increase the acidifi cation of the specifi c pathogen free (SPF) embrion- and ammonium thiosulfate ization of vaccine in water lines and
preservation of an adequate vaccine drinking water through in-line propor- cytoplasm, affecting the bacterial ated eggs, tissue cultures or nutri- (Simpson 2001). vaccinated birds. The use of water
titer able to stimulate a satisfactory tioners, have been effectively used in survival in drinking water (Cotter and tional broths under controlled laboratory stabilizers during vaccination allows a
immune response in the bird. However, poultry operations to control microbial Hill 2003). Furthermore, a synergistic conditions. Vaccine manufacturers have • pH buffering agents: used to stabilize proper preservation of live vaccines,
once reconstituted, the limited lifespan levels. However, CRP also inactivate effect between low water pH and recognized the adverse conditions live the water pH between 6 and 7, approx- which, in association with a proper
of live attenuated vaccines should be live vaccines. Chlorinated compounds the bacteriocidal/virucidal activity of vaccines face during their administration imately. Some buffering agents include administration technique, will contribute
a major concern. (such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorine chlorine-released agents has been in the farm. For such reason, the use sodium phosphate, potassium phos- to a successful vaccination.
dioxide and sodium dichloroisocyanu- demonstrated. While low pH values of water stabilizers during vaccination is phate, sodium citrate, sodium bicarbon-
Drinking water is an appropriate method rate) are highly active oxidizing agents, (below 5) adversely affect water recommended worldwide by technical ate and potassium bicarbonate. References
of administration for live attenuated destroying the cellular activity of proteins consumption, high pH values can affect services veterinarians. Barbour, E. K., A. Abdelnour, et al. (2002).
vaccines that require an initial infection (McDonnell and Russell 1999). Sodium water palatability and form mineral • Water soluble dye: food colored dyes “Evaluation of 12 stabilizers in a developed
within the gut, such as Salmonella, hypochlorite ionizes to produce Na+ deposits which reduce the water fl ow approved by the Food and Drug attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine.”
One of the fi rst products used to
Vaccine 20 (17-18): 2249-2253.
infectious bursal disease and avian and the hypochlorite ion OCL-, which rate (Vermeulen, Backer et al. 2002). stabilize the drinking water during Administration are essential to allow
encephalomyelitis vaccines. Also, due is transformed in hypochlorous acid vaccination was skimmed milk. Dilution the detection of the water containing Cargill, P. (1999). “Vaccine administration in
to the communication of the nasal cavity (HOCL), the active moiety responsible Hardness is a measure of the quantity of skimmed milk (approximately 2 the live vaccines in the drinker systems poultry.” In Practice 323-328.
with the mouth via the choanal cleft, a for bacterial inactivation (McDonnell and of salts, mainly of divalent ions such as g/liter or 10 g/gallon) in the drinking and in vaccinated birds (tongue and
successful application of Russell 1999). The deleterious effects calcium, magnesium and/or iron, in the water at least 20 minutes before the nasal cleft after eye drop administration; Cotter, P. D. and C. Hill (2003). “Surviving the
vaccines (such as infectious bronchitis of CRP on bacteria include a disruption water. Hardness is expressed as mil- tongue, oral cavity or crop after water acid test: responses of Gram-positive bacteria
addition of the vaccine was a gen-
to low pH.” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 67(3):
and Newcastle disease virus) should of oxidative phosphorylation and other ligrams of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) eral recommendation (Cargill 1999). administration, and skin and feathers
429-453.
be expected. Coarse spray is a widely membrane-associated activity as well as per liter (ppm) and indicates the total Skimmed milk has shown to effi ciently after coarse spray vaccination).
used and effective method to vaccinate inhibition of DNA synthesis. Hypochlo- quantity of divalent salts present (Wurts overcome the detrimental effects of Marangon, S. and L. Busani (2006).
birds against respiratory viruses, not rous acid levels as low as 2.6 ppm 1993). However, high hardness in the chlorine. However, the presence of un- • Thermo-stability conferring agents: “The use of vaccination in poultry production.”
only at the hatchery but also in the completely inhibit the growth of E. coli presence of low calcium but high dissolved residues in cold water, which bovine serum albumin, sorbitol, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz 26(1): 165-274.
farm. By coarse spray, the vaccine is within 5 minutes, 96% of DNA synthesis magnesium levels can be observed. can eventually block nipple drinkers, maltose, lactose, sucrose and glycerol
McDonnell, G. and D. Russell (1999). “Antisep-
introduced through the eye, the nostrils and between 10% and 30% of protein A previous research study at Lohmann and the presence of residues inside the are some of the most common vaccine
tics and disinfectants: activity, action and resis-
and by ingestion after pecking. synthesis (McDonnell and Russell 1999). Animal Health has shown the detrimental water pipes after vaccination, serving as stabilizers (Barbour, Abdelnour tance.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews: 147-149.
The virucidal activity of CRP includes effect of hard water (20 ppm Fe and a source of nutrients for bacterial growth et al. 2002).
Adverse Conditions nucleic acid fragmentation. 4 ppm NaOCl) on Newcastle disease (build up of biofi lms),has limited its use. Simpson, G. D. (2001). The reduction of the
virus and Salmonella typhimurium live Chlorite ion. International symposium on chlorine
At the farm, a poor condition of the More effi cacious dyed water stabilizers Conclusions
dioxide., Las Vegas, Nevada.
water used during resuspension and pH is a measure of acidity or basicity of vaccines two and four hours after for the protection of live vaccines are The administration of live attenuated vac-
administration will have a detrimental a solution. pH measurements depend resuspension. Drastic reductions in viral commercially available. These are some cines by massive methods such as drink- Vermeulen, B., P. D. Backer, et al. (2002).
effect on vaccine titers. Live vaccines on the concentration of hydrogen (H+) and bacterial titers have been observed of the characteristics and components ing water and spray is a very common “Drug administration to poultry.” Adv. Drug Del.
should be resuspended in fresh water and hydroxide ions (OH-). Waters with 2 and 4 hours after resuspension in used in water stabilizers: practice in poultry operations. Massive Rev. 54: 795-803.
with a close to neutral pH, moderate neutral pH (ph = 7.0), have an equal hard water. In areas with hard water, the administration methods are not as effi cient
concentration of H+ and OH-. The constant deposit of insoluble minerals • Reducing agents: used to neutralize Wurts, W. A. (1993). “Understanding water
hardness and no chlorine or other as individual vaccination. However, they
hardness.” World Aquaculture 24(1): 18.
disinfectant residues. The undesirable resuspension of live vaccines in low pH in the nipple drinkers and water lines oxidizing sanitizers (i.e. residual offer several advantages, such as low cost
effects these factors will have on the water will cause structural damage to can also affect the homogeneous chlorine) or contaminants present and rapid administration of one or several
survival of live vaccines are briefl y cell membranes and macromolecules administration of live vaccines to the in farm water. One of the most vaccines. Since live attenuated vaccines
described in the following paragraph. such as DNA and proteins. Week acids, fl ocks. Spray vaccination using hard commonly used reducing agents is are very fragile organisms, it is important
such as some organic acids used in water can create mineral deposits, sodium thiosulfate (Simpson 2001), to neutralize the adverse chemical agents
drinking water for poultry, can pass freely clogging the spray nozzles. which is recognized as a safe food present in the water used to resuspend
association with adequate refrigeration Periodic treatments of water wells with through the bacterial cell membrane. Water stabilizers additive. Other reducing agents are and administer the vaccines. Furthermore,
temperatures (between 4°C and 7°C high concentrations of chlorine release Once inside, the week acids dissociate Live poultry vaccines are produced in sodium metabisulfi te, sodium bisulfi te the inclusion of dyes facilitates the visual-
or 39°F and 44°F), guarantees the products (CRP), and chlorination of the and increase the acidifi cation of the specifi c pathogen free (SPF) embrion- and ammonium thiosulfate ization of vaccine in water lines and
preservation of an adequate vaccine drinking water through in-line propor- cytoplasm, affecting the bacterial ated eggs, tissue cultures or nutri- (Simpson 2001). vaccinated birds. The use of water
titer able to stimulate a satisfactory tioners, have been effectively used in survival in drinking water (Cotter and tional broths under controlled laboratory stabilizers during vaccination allows a
immune response in the bird. However, poultry operations to control microbial Hill 2003). Furthermore, a synergistic conditions. Vaccine manufacturers have • pH buffering agents: used to stabilize proper preservation of live vaccines,
once reconstituted, the limited lifespan levels. However, CRP also inactivate effect between low water pH and recognized the adverse conditions live the water pH between 6 and 7, approx- which, in association with a proper
of live attenuated vaccines should be live vaccines. Chlorinated compounds the bacteriocidal/virucidal activity of vaccines face during their administration imately. Some buffering agents include administration technique, will contribute
a major concern. (such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorine chlorine-released agents has been in the farm. For such reason, the use sodium phosphate, potassium phos- to a successful vaccination.
dioxide and sodium dichloroisocyanu- demonstrated. While low pH values of water stabilizers during vaccination is phate, sodium citrate, sodium bicarbon-
Drinking water is an appropriate method rate) are highly active oxidizing agents, (below 5) adversely affect water recommended worldwide by technical ate and potassium bicarbonate. References
of administration for live attenuated destroying the cellular activity of proteins consumption, high pH values can affect services veterinarians. Barbour, E. K., A. Abdelnour, et al. (2002).
vaccines that require an initial infection (McDonnell and Russell 1999). Sodium water palatability and form mineral • Water soluble dye: food colored dyes “Evaluation of 12 stabilizers in a developed
within the gut, such as Salmonella, hypochlorite ionizes to produce Na+ deposits which reduce the water fl ow approved by the Food and Drug attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine.”
One of the fi rst products used to
Vaccine 20 (17-18): 2249-2253.
infectious bursal disease and avian and the hypochlorite ion OCL-, which rate (Vermeulen, Backer et al. 2002). stabilize the drinking water during Administration are essential to allow
encephalomyelitis vaccines. Also, due is transformed in hypochlorous acid vaccination was skimmed milk. Dilution the detection of the water containing Cargill, P. (1999). “Vaccine administration in
to the communication of the nasal cavity (HOCL), the active moiety responsible Hardness is a measure of the quantity of skimmed milk (approximately 2 the live vaccines in the drinker systems poultry.” In Practice 323-328.
with the mouth via the choanal cleft, a for bacterial inactivation (McDonnell and of salts, mainly of divalent ions such as g/liter or 10 g/gallon) in the drinking and in vaccinated birds (tongue and
successful application of respiratory virus Russell 1999). The deleterious effects calcium, magnesium and/or iron, in the water at least 20 minutes before the nasal cleft after eye drop administration; Cotter, P. D. and C. Hill (2003). “Surviving the
vaccines (such as infectious bronchitis of CRP on bacteria include a disruption water. Hardness is expressed as mil- tongue, oral cavity or crop after water acid test: responses of Gram-positive bacteria
addition of the vaccine was a gen-
to low pH.” Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 67(3):
and Newcastle disease virus) should of oxidative phosphorylation and other ligrams of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) eral recommendation (Cargill 1999). administration, and skin and feathers
429-453.
be expected. Coarse spray is a widely membrane-associated activity as well as per liter (ppm) and indicates the total Skimmed milk has shown to effi ciently after coarse spray vaccination).
used and effective method to vaccinate inhibition of DNA synthesis. Hypochlo- quantity of divalent salts present (Wurts overcome the detrimental effects of Marangon, S. and L. Busani (2006).
birds against respiratory viruses, not rous acid levels as low as 2.6 ppm 1993). However, high hardness in the chlorine. However, the presence of un- • Thermo-stability conferring agents: “The use of vaccination in poultry production.”
only at the hatchery but also in the completely inhibit the growth of E. coli presence of low calcium but high dissolved residues in cold water, which bovine serum albumin, sorbitol, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz 26(1): 165-274.
farm. By coarse spray, the vaccine is within 5 minutes, 96% of DNA synthesis magnesium levels can be observed. can eventually block nipple drinkers, maltose, lactose, sucrose and glycerol
McDonnell, G. and D. Russell (1999). “Antisep-
introduced through the eye, the nostrils and between 10% and 30% of protein A previous research study at Lohmann and the presence of residues inside the are some of the most common vaccine
tics and disinfectants: activity, action and resis-
and by ingestion after pecking. synthesis (McDonnell and Russell 1999). Animal Health has shown the detrimental water pipes after vaccination, serving as stabilizers (Barbour, Abdelnour tance.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews: 147-149.
The virucidal activity of CRP includes effect of hard water (20 ppm Fe and a source of nutrients for bacterial growth et al. 2002).
Adverse Conditions nucleic acid fragmentation. 4 ppm NaOCl) on Newcastle disease (build up of biofi lms),has limited its use. Simpson, G. D. (2001). The reduction of the
virus and Salmonella typhimurium live Chlorite ion. International symposium on chlorine
At the farm, a poor condition of the More effi cacious dyed water stabilizers Conclusions
dioxide., Las Vegas, Nevada.
water used during resuspension and pH is a measure of acidity or basicity of vaccines two and four hours after for the protection of live vaccines are The administration of live attenuated vac-
administration will have a detrimental a solution. pH measurements depend resuspension. Drastic reductions in viral commercially available. These are some cines by massive methods such as drink- Vermeulen, B., P. D. Backer, et al. (2002).
effect on vaccine titers. Live vaccines on the concentration of hydrogen (H+) and bacterial titers have been observed of the characteristics and components ing water and spray is a very common “Drug administration to poultry.” Adv. Drug Del.
should be resuspended in fresh water and hydroxide ions (OH-). Waters with 2 and 4 hours after resuspension in used in water stabilizers: practice in poultry operations. Massive Rev. 54: 795-803.
with a close to neutral pH, moderate neutral pH (ph = 7.0), have an equal hard water. In areas with hard water, the administration methods are not as effi cient
concentration of H+ and OH-. The constant deposit of insoluble minerals • Reducing agents: used to neutralize Wurts, W. A. (1993). “Understanding water
hardness and no chlorine or other as individual vaccination. However, they
hardness.” World Aquaculture 24(1): 18.
disinfectant residues. The undesirable resuspension of live vaccines in low pH in the nipple drinkers and water lines oxidizing sanitizers (i.e. residual offer several advantages, such as low cost
effects these factors will have on the water will cause structural damage to can also affect the homogeneous chlorine) or contaminants present and rapid administration of one or several
survival of live vaccines are briefl y cell membranes and macromolecules administration of live vaccines to the in farm water. One of the most vaccines. Since live attenuated vaccines
described in the following paragraph. such as DNA and proteins. Week acids, fl ocks. Spray vaccination using hard commonly used reducing agents is are very fragile organisms, it is important
such as some organic acids used in water can create mineral deposits, sodium thiosulfate (Simpson 2001), to neutralize the adverse chemical agents
drinking water for poultry, can pass freely clogging the spray nozzles. which is recognized as a safe food present in the water used to resuspend
avianinsight
President’s Note
hired additional staff are now fully be completed by fall of 2009.
integrated and part of the vaccine
manufacturing team in Maine. The In addition, we are adding a fermentation
majority of our production consists of suite in the manufacturing plant. This new
A L O H M A N N A N I M A L H E A LT H N E W S B R I E F
inactivated vaccines. production addition will allow increased
volumes of our bacterial products, both live
Increased demand for AviPro® vaccines and killed. Live attenuated vaccines: benefits of water stabilizers
both in the USA and internationally, in drinking water and spray administrations
Dave Zacek require we build again. We have begun Recognition of AviPro® quality is driving the
President, a large, state-of-the-art animal testing demand. We are pleased that customers We will techniques for the administra- A poor administration is still the
Lohmann Animal Health most common cause of vaccine
complex on property adjacent to our value our vaccines and keep demand- tion of live attenuated vaccines.
current manufacturing plant in Winslow. ing more year after year. We will continue continue to The stimulation of immunity in a failure in poultry. A successful
It has been nearly one year since we administration of live attenuated
Included on the site are the Animal to invest in research, development and massively vaccinated popula-
opened our newly expanded pro-
Services Administration Center, a large production to assure a steady supply of invest in tion (herd immunity) reduces the vaccines by spray or drinking
duction/testing/label, pack and ship
pen isolation unit, small test houses and high quality avian biologics for the poultry
site in Maine after having closed our
a large multiple isolation unit. Ground was industry. And we will continue to work hard research,
Vineland site and transferred vaccine
broken for phase I of this project June to be your Avian Professionals.
…the ease and low cost have made
production to Winslow, Maine. Newly
2008. The multi-million dollar facility will development By Iván R. Alvarado, DVM, MS, spray and drinking water the preferred
Ph.D., ACPV, Technical Services
Veterinarian, Lohmann Animal methods for massive administration of
and production Health International
live attenuated vaccines in the farms.
Introduction
to assure a
The increasing demand for water requires an adequate
probability of an individual bird
economical and rapidly available
steady supply sources of animal protein has
in a vaccinated fl ock to become preservation and proper delivery
infected (Marangon and Busani of the vaccine to the host. In
highly infl uenced the constant
of high quality growth of poultry operations
2006). Since under fi eld condi- this article, we describe the
tions, it is unrealistic to expect adverse effects a live vaccine
around the world. The capacity
avian biologics of poultry to adapt to diverse
a 100% protection of the birds might encounter during resus-
in a vaccinated fl ock, the goal pension and administration
geographical conditions and the in suboptimal water, and the
for the poultry fact that no large areas of land
is to develop immunity in a high
enough proportion of birds to benefi ts of using water stabilizers
are required, have also during vaccination.
industry. contributed to the expansion
prevent the transmission or
minimize the adverse effects of
and effi ciency of commercial
Dave Zacek
a disease agent. For poultry, the Massive Administration
poultry operations.
President, ease and low cost have made of Live Vaccines
Lohmann Animal Health spray and drinking water the During manufacturing, most
As a result of their size increase,
preferred methods for massive live attenuated vaccines are
it has become necessary to
administration of live attenuated subjected to a lyophilization
develop and implement massive
375 China Road vaccines in the farms. process. Lyophilization, in
Winslow, Maine 04901

avianinsight for more information:


207.873.3989 800.655.1342 www.lahinternational.com
inside Live attenuated
vaccines p.1
President’s Note
p.4