Recent citations
 Emergence of stationary entanglement in
a dissipative kicked linear chain of three
qubits
P C Lpez Vzquez et al
Email: pabocarloslopez@itesm.mx
Abstract
An approximation to the description of the dynamics of a quantum planar rotor coupled to a
nite temperature bath is derived by considering a microscopic model of interaction based on an
angular momentum exchange with two different environments coupled independently to the
positive and negative angular momentum spectrum. A nonLindblad master equation is derived
for this microscopic model by using the BornMarkov approximation in the weak coupling limit.
We show that under this approximation the rotor dynamics presents the correct damping
behavior of the motion and the thermal state reached by the rotor is in the form of Boltzmann
distribution. The case of the quantum rotor in an external uniform eld and the quantum kicked
rotor are briey discussed as exemplication.
Keywords: quantum planar rotor, quantum master equation, nite temperature bath, quantum
pendulum, quantum kicked rotor
(Some gures may appear in colour only in the online journal)
1. Introduction devices (NEMS), have also been explored, e.g. [9, 10]. In [9],
a prototype of a nanomotor was made using a metal plate
There are many systems whose dynamical behavior corre mounted on a multi walled carbon nanotube which serves as
sponds to the dynamics of the planar rotor, for example, the the shaft of the rotatory motion of the plate. In [10], a nano
quantum kicked rotor which has been extensively studied in electromechanical rotor is conceptualized as a rigid nanorod
part because of the different regimes that can be achieved free to rotate around a xed axis with two conducting islands
depending on the kick parameters, such as quantum reso located at the extremities of the rod. In this case electron
nances [1] or Anderson localization [2, 3] and also because of tunneling and an external xed bias are the source of the
the experimental feasibility [4, 5]. Another important example driving. Even when the dynamics of these devices can be
are the synthetic molecular motors, see e.g. [68] and the mostly described by classical physics, the inclusion to a much
references therein. These systems are molecular machines smaller scale is expected. In fact quantum motors based on
capable of rotation around a xed axis generated by sources ultracold atoms placed in a ringshaped optical lattice subject
of unidirectional driving. For them, the control of the direc to a acdriven by applying a pulsating magnetic eld have
tion of motion is one of the major challenges due to the been explored in [11, 12].
unavoidable random Brownian inuence of the environment A fundamental requirement for the study of the quantum
that produces a signicant thermally driven motion. The rotor dynamics is the inclusion of damping and temperature
problem has been partially diminished by resting the mole due to the interaction with a thermal reservoir. Although there
cules over surfaces where the thermal uctuations are less has been many studies in the quantum planar rotor, only very
signicant but not completely neglected. In the ratchettype few cases have aboard the open quantum planar dynamics e.g.
motors, the thermal uctuations are precisely the source of the [1317], and there is no a unied consensus on how to
motion. Nanomotors based on nanoelectromechanical introduce the environmental effects to the dynamics. The
canonical pair used to describes the dynamics of the quantum steady state distribution for the system in the long time limit.
planar rotor are the angleangular momentum which we As exemplications of the applications of our model, in
denote here by, {f, L}. The angular momentum, has an sections 5 and 6 we briey address the quantum pendulum
unbounded spectrum that includes positive and negative and the quantum kicked rotor, both in contact with a thermal
integers while the angle is a periodic variable. This periodicity bath, and nally in the appendix, we show some details of the
makes the angle variable to be a multivalued or discontinuous calculation of the master equation.
variable, see e.g. [1820], therefore, quantization of the
conjugate angle variable has been in debate for many years.
This makes the description of the interaction to an external 2. The quantum planar rotor
environment to be a quite subtle topic since many models of
interaction are based in the coupling of the conjugate position The quantum planar rotor is a quantum particle that is con
variable. In [13], it was proposed to couple the rotor to two strained to move freely along a ring. The Hamiltonian of this
different thermal baths through the Cartesian position vari system is
ables of the rotor. The baths were coupled independently to 2
the x and y coordinates respectively and the position variables L
Hrot = (1 )
of the rotor were transformed into the polar representation. 2I
Afterwards, the two different baths are considered to be
where I is the moment of inertia and the angular momentum
identical. For this type of model, the particle moving along
here denoted by L , generates the planar rotations by an angle
the ring experiences a nonhomogeneous environment in
f, and it is directed along the perpendicular axis to the
different parts of the ring and only in the high temperature
rotation plane. Due to the periodic condition of the angle f,
limit, the steady state of the system converges to the expected
the angular momentum possess a discrete and unbounded
homogeneous mixture in the energy eigenstates. In [14], the
spectrum that includes positive and negative integers. By
interaction with the environment happens through angular
denoting as l the basis of the angular momentum eigenstates,
momentum exchange by dening angular momentum ladder
the angular momentum is represented in its eigenbasis as:
operators. A master equation is derived for the zero temper
L = l = ll l. The positive and negative integers of the
ature case and certain constrains on the coupling are imposed
angular momentum, identify the direction of the rotations. For
to ensure that only single quanta is absorbed by the
this system, the conjugate variables are the angle f, which is a
environment and not to correlate positive and negative parts
continuous and periodic variable with period 2p , and the
of the angular momentum spectrum. Nevertheless, it becomes
angular momentum, which can only take integer multiples of
unclear how to apply the interaction model to the case of a
, and therefore the associated phase space is the discrete
nonzero temperature environment. Additional approxima
cylinder 1 , see e.g. [2325]. The periodicity of the
tions to quantum master equations can be derived in the hight
angle becomes a problem when trying to identify an angle
temperature limit, by considering a microscopic model of
operator because of the multivalued or discontinuous
interaction based on the scattering of background gas particles
condition of the angle. One way to avoid these difculties
as proposed in [21] and more general classes of thermal baths
is to adopt any description of the angle dependence through
can be studied by means of the quantum state diffusion
periodic functions of it, such as the cosine, the sine and the
methods, e.g. [22], although no model has been derived for
complex exponential of the angle operator which we denote
the nite temperature limit.
here by cos f , sin f , eif respectively. These operators have a
In the present paper we want to explore an approximation
known representation in the angular momentum basis, e.g.
based on a microscopic model of interaction of angular
[26, 27]. A plane wave of the free particle dened along the
momentum exchange with the environment as in [14] but
circle for a certain angular momentum state L = l is a
with the positive and negative parts of the spectrum of the
periodic function of the angle: yl (f ) = eilf 2p . The states
angular momentum coupled independently to two different
1
baths. The two baths are dened to have equivalent spectral
densities and the coupling rates are taken the same for both
f =
2p
eilfl , (2 )
l
couplings, similar to [13]. So far, no approximation has been constitute a complete basis satisfying: ff = d2p (f  f),
carried out for studying the dynamics of the quantum planar where d2p represents the 2p periodic delta function.
rotor in the regime of the nite temperatures. The model of Due to the symmetric nature of the spectrum of the
interaction we propose, successfully provides the tools for angular momentum, one can dene a new set of operators
developing a master equation for the quantum planar rotor
coupled to a nite temperature bath.
This paper is organized as follows: In section 2 we dis
L + = l ll, L =  l  l l , (3 )
l=0 l=0
cuss the quantum planar rotor model. In section 3 we present
the microscopic model of interaction between the planar rotor such that the angular momentum can be represented as the
and the nite temperature environment. In section 4 the nite sum of these two operators: L = L + + L. The Hamiltonian
temperature master equation obtained from the weak coupling of the quantum planar rotor written in terms of the L+ and L
2 2
limit and the BornMarkov approximation is presented and in operators, Hrot = L+ 2I + L  2I , describes separately the
4.1 we show that this master equation describes a Boltzmann two directions of rotation. By dening the creation and
2
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca
annihilation operators for the positive and negative parts of where aj (aj), bj (bj) are creation and annihilation operators of
the angular momentum as: the two baths, the gj+() are the coupling strengths to the two
d+ = eif L + ,
d = eif L (4 ) different baths and the operators d+ and d are dened in (4).
The operator d+ acts only on states with positive angular
where eif is the complex exponential of the angle whose momentum and d only on states with negative angular
action on the angular momentum eigenbasis is to decrease a momentum. In this model of interaction it is also assumed that
single angular momentum state, eifl = l  1, then the the environments are composed of particles interacting
operators L+ and L can be written in terms of (4) as: through a general potential which has an absolute minimum.
L+ = d d+ and L = d d. Then for a weak coupling between the system and the
+ 
environments this potential is not disturbed and can be
approximated as harmonic. The total Hamiltonian of the rotor
3. Microscopic model plus environments system is written as:
The microscopic model of interaction we consider in the H = Hrot + He1 + He2 + Hint (6 )
present paper is through angular momentum exchange
between the system and the environment. This type of inter where Hint is the interaction Hamiltonian given in (5), Hrot is
action has been already used by Dittrich and Graham in [14], the Hamiltonian of the free rotor given in (1), and
where the interaction Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of
angular momentum ladder operators such as: Gk = He1 = w+j a j a j , He2 = wj bj bj (7 )
l ck, ll  k l. The action of the Gk operators in the angular j j
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Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca
which has the same form as the one obtained by Graham and In the following we show that the form of the steady state for
Dittrich in [14] for the pure dissipative case. In equation (8) the model of coupling proposed in (5), along with the master
we have also omitted a term in the von Neumann dynamics equation derived in section 4, is in a Boltzmann distribution
part, which is responsible of small shifts in the energy form. For the steady state it is required that d s dt = 0 . In the
spectrum (see the appendix), since we want to focus only in long time limit, when the stationary condition is reached, all
the non unitary inuence of the baths to the rotor. Figure 1 non diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix s
shows the time evolution of the average of the absolute value become zero due to the decoherence produced by the inter
of the angular momentum, and the purity of the system for action with the environment. In this limit, the von Neumann
different temperatures, for an initial angular momentum state: dynamics have disappeared and the form of the steady state
y = 7. The average of the absolute value of the angular depends only on the dissipative part of the master
momentum for the zero temperature case has the exact equation (8). In gure 2 at the left, the density matrix in the
damping behavior L = Loegt , where Lo = 7 is the angular momentum basis at the steady state is depicted. The
initial angular momentum. As the temperature increases, the system was initially in a superposition conguration of
averages rises up due to thermalization. In the case of the angular momentum states: y = 1 (7 + 7). In the
2
purity, one can notice the characteristic recovery of the purity gure one can see that all non diagonal elements become zero
for the zero temperature case, since the system is damped to at the steady state, therefore we must look at the form of the
the ground state which is a pure state. As the temperature is distribution of the diagonal terms. By inserting the steady
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Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca
0= k (T ) , dk s] + [ s dk , O
([O k (T )]
k =+, 
+ [O k (T )
+ dk , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T ) + dk ]) . (13)
Since only diagonal elements contribute to the form of the
steady state, we look for the probabilities fullling last
relation. By computing the diagonal elements of (13), one
sees that the probabilities must satisfy:
Figure 3. The Wigner function of the system is presented for
0 = l (Pl + Nl  1(Pl  Pl  1)) q (l  1) temperature T = 5 [2 IkB], g = 0.1 [ I] and strength of the
+ (l + 1)(Pl + 1 + Nl (Pl + 1  Pl)) q (l) external eld in units of [2 I]: a) h = 0 , b) h = 2 , c) h = 4,
 l(Pl + N l 1(Pl  Pl + 1)) q (  l  1) d) h = 10 , e) h = 40 , f) h = 80 .
+ (l + 1)(Pl  1 + N l (Pl  1  Pl)) q (  l) , (14)
where Pl = l, l and q (x ) is the step function dened as of the Wigner function of the system given by the following
transformation [23]:
q (x ) = 1 if x 0 . One can assume that the four different
rows in (14) are independently equal to zero, therefore the 1 p
following relations for the probabilities holds: W (f , l) =
2p p df f  f 2 f + f 2 ei l f .
(2l  1) 2 (2l + 1) 2 (19)
 
Pl = e 2IkB T Pl  1, Pl + 1 = e 2IkB T Pl , (15)
for the positive part of the spectrum (l > 0 ) and gure 3 shows the phase space distribution function for the
(2 l 1) 2 (2 l +1) 2
steady state of the system with increasing values of the
Pl = e

2IkB T Pl + 1, Pl  1 = e

2IkB T Pl (16) strength of the external eld, at a temperature T = 5 [2 IkB]
and damping rate g = 0.1 [ I]. There, one can see that for
for the negative part of the spectrum, (l < 0). Equations (15) the case of no force which corresponds to the free rotor [case
and (16) are simply the detailed balance conditions of the (a) in the gure], the phase space representation of the
stationary state. These conditions are fullled if stationary state of the system is fully delocalized in position
 l
2 2
states and Boltzmann distributed in the angular momentum
Pl = Ae 2IkB T . (17)
(the energy basis), along the positive and negative states. As
where A = (2p IkB T 2)1 2
is a normalization constant. the strength of the external eld increases, localization in
With the conditions established for the probabilities, the angular momentum and position appears as the result of the
density matrix at the stationary regime, s (t ) = external cosine potential. Now the bath damps the system to
l = Pl l l, with Pl given in (17), takes the form of a the minimum of the potential while the temperature widens
Boltzmann distribution. We also obtain this results from the the distribution around it. For angular momentum states lying
numerical simulations. In gure 2 at the right, the transition of close to the location of the minimum of the potential but far
some diagonal elements to the steady state are depicted. In the from the angular momentum ground state, the probability of
dashed lines the correspondent Boltzmann factors are also these states vanishes rapidly as one moves away from the
plotted to show the that the stationary state is indeed a minimum into the turning points and jumps into lower
Boltzmann distribution. angular momentum states in order to preserve the probability.
This situation repeats for angular momentum states closer to
the ground state. This features resembles the closed
5. Quantum rotor in a uniform external eld trajectories in the classical phase space related to oscillatory
motion. In this context, thermal uctuations make higher
As a demonstrative exercise we show the effects of a nite angular momentum states to oscillate around the minimum
temperature thermal bath to the rotor under the action of a while lower angular momentum states are more likely to be
constant force. For this system the Hamiltonian is given by: damped in to the minimum of the potential. For large enough
L
2 angular momentum states, there is a certain probability to
Hrot = + h cos f (18) cross to the next minimum of the potential through the
2I
separatrix.
where is the strength of the external eld and
1
cos f = 2 l (l + 1l + l  1l) is the cosine operator
in the angular momentum basis representation [26]. An 6. Quantum kicked rotor
intuitive way to look at the dynamics of the system and
particularly to the steady state of the system is through the The problem of the quantum kicked rotor has been exten
quasi probability distribution function of the density matrix in sively studied and tackling the case where the kicked rotor is
the phase space representation. For this purpose we make use additionally coupled to a thermal bath could in principal be
5
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca
6
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca
Hamiltonian of the free rotor, He1 and He2 are the Hamilto Now one can exchange the order of integration in (A.5) and
nians of the two different baths described by (7) and Hint is the evaluate these integrals by introducing a full eigenbasis of the
interaction Hamiltonian between the system and the two baths system, = l =l l, next to the exponentials of L . For
given by (5). By considering an initially separable density each element evaluated in the integration one can separate
matrix of the composite system: = s e1 e2 , the the real and the imaginary parts by using the relation
solution of the von Neummann equation in the interaction 0 dt eit = pd ( ) iP/ , with P being the Cauchys
picture of the composite system and in the BornMarkov limit principal value. For the real part, integration over will yield
[28], has the general form: delta functions of the form d (w k  Wkl ) where
1
d s(t ) 1
=  2 dt Tre [H int (t ) , [H int (t  t ) , s (t ) e]] ( )
Wkl = kl + 2 I . Consequently, integration over w k will
dt 0 set the frequencies for the Planck functions into the frequency
(A.1) differences of the rotor:  dw kd (w k  Wkl )
The operators d+, d in the interaction picture can be written N (w ) = N (Wkl ). On the other hand the imaginary part of
k
as: the integral will yield a term that can be incorporated to the
von Neumann dynamics, by using the secular approximation
dk (t ) = ei (k L+ l) t dk = dk ei (k L l) t , (A.2) and by neglecting non physical contributions. This term
for k = +, , and l = 2I , L = L I . Since the baths are commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system and contributes
supposed to be in a stationary Boltzmann states: with a certain shift to the eigenenergies of the system.
1 Typically this term is related to a Lamb shift effect and
e = k nk eEnk kB T nk nk , any perturbation therma
sometimes is simply neglected. This will be our case since we
lizes immediately and also the self correlation functions of the want to focus only on the non unitary dynamics effects of the
baths are null: aj (s ) ai (t ) = aj (s ) ai (t ) =bj (s ) bi (t ) = bath. By recovering the identity from the full eigenbasis and
bj (s ) bi (t ) = 0. By introducing the continuous limit of the dening the operators:
distribution over the baths frequencies and considering (2l + 1) 2 1
identical coupling strengths and homogeneous and at N k (T ) = e 2IkB T  1 klkl (A.9)
distributed frequencies of the baths: gj2 = g D (w ) p , l=0
where is a scale factor and D(w ) is the density of states
of the two different baths, then one can write for baths The master equation can be written into its nal form,
correlation functions the following:
d
i s = [Hrot + HLS , s] + i [ s] (A.10)
gi gj ij (t ) g
 w t
d w e N (w )
i (A.3) dt
i, j
where
gigj *ij (t ) g dw eiw t (N (w ) + 1)
(A.4)
i, j g k (T ) , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T )]
where + j (t ) ai and *ij +(t ) = aj (t ) ai are the
[ s ] =  ([O
ij (t ) = a 2k =+, 
bath correlation functions correspondent to the bath coupled
+ k (T )
[O
+ dk , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T ) + dk ])
to the positive part of the angular momentum spectrum and

ij (t ) = bj (t ) bi, *

ij (t ) = bj (t ) bi are the bath correla
(A.11)
tion functions correspondent to the bath coupled to the
negative part of the spectrum. The functions N(w ) = where the operators O k (T ) dk contain the temper
k (T ) = N
(ew kB T  1)1 are the Planck distribution functions. By ature dependence and is the damping rate. The term HLS
going back into the Schrdingers picture, the master equation appears from the imaginary part of the integrals in (A.5) and it
takes the form: is responsible of small shifts on the energy spectrum since it
d s ig commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system. This term has
i
dt
= [Hrot , s] 
k=+,  0 dt dw k k (w k, t )[ s] the form:
(1) (2)
(A.5) HLS = G k dk dk  dk G k dk (A.12)
k =+, 
where the super operator k (w k , t ) is dened as
k where
k (w k , t )[ s] = eiw t (N (w k ) + 1) D
k
2 [ s ]
1k [ s] + h.c.
+ eiw t N (w k ) D
k
(A.6) gP N (w k )
dw k w k  W ll,
(1)
G k = (A.13)
and l =  kl
l) t
1k [ s] = ei (k L+
D dk dk s  dk ei (k L+ l) t s dk (A.7) gP N (w k ) + 1
 dw k
(2)
G k = ll . (A.14)
2k [ s] = dk ei (k L+
D
l) t
dk s  ei (k L+ l) t dk s dk . (A.8) l = w k  Wkl
7
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca
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