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| Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Physica Scripta

Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 (8pp) doi:10.1088/0031-8949/91/5/055101

Approximation to the quantum planar rotor


coupled to a nite temperature bath
P C Lpez Vzquez1 and A Garca2
1
Departamento de Ciencias Bsicas, Tecnolgico de Monterrey, Campus Guadalajara, Av. General Ramn
Corona No. 2514, C P 45201, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
2
Departamento de Matemticas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino Garca Barragan y Calzada
Olmpica, C P 44840, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

E-mail: pabocarloslopez@itesm.mx

Received 2 November 2015, revised 13 March 2016


Accepted for publication 4 April 2016
Published 22 April 2016

Abstract
An approximation to the description of the dynamics of a quantum planar rotor coupled to a
nite temperature bath is derived by considering a microscopic model of interaction based on an
angular momentum exchange with two different environments coupled independently to the
positive and negative angular momentum spectrum. A non-Lindblad master equation is derived
for this microscopic model by using the BornMarkov approximation in the weak coupling limit.
We show that under this approximation the rotor dynamics presents the correct damping
behavior of the motion and the thermal state reached by the rotor is in the form of Boltzmann
distribution. The case of the quantum rotor in an external uniform eld and the quantum kicked
rotor are briey discussed as exemplication.
Keywords: quantum planar rotor, quantum master equation, nite temperature bath, quantum
pendulum, quantum kicked rotor
(Some gures may appear in colour only in the online journal)

1. Introduction devices (NEMS), have also been explored, e.g. [9, 10]. In [9],
a prototype of a nanomotor was made using a metal plate
There are many systems whose dynamical behavior corre- mounted on a multi walled carbon nanotube which serves as
sponds to the dynamics of the planar rotor, for example, the the shaft of the rotatory motion of the plate. In [10], a nano
quantum kicked rotor which has been extensively studied in electromechanical rotor is conceptualized as a rigid nanorod
part because of the different regimes that can be achieved free to rotate around a xed axis with two conducting islands
depending on the kick parameters, such as quantum reso- located at the extremities of the rod. In this case electron
nances [1] or Anderson localization [2, 3] and also because of tunneling and an external xed bias are the source of the
the experimental feasibility [4, 5]. Another important example driving. Even when the dynamics of these devices can be
are the synthetic molecular motors, see e.g. [68] and the mostly described by classical physics, the inclusion to a much
references therein. These systems are molecular machines smaller scale is expected. In fact quantum motors based on
capable of rotation around a xed axis generated by sources ultracold atoms placed in a ring-shaped optical lattice subject
of unidirectional driving. For them, the control of the direc- to a ac-driven by applying a pulsating magnetic eld have
tion of motion is one of the major challenges due to the been explored in [11, 12].
unavoidable random Brownian inuence of the environment A fundamental requirement for the study of the quantum
that produces a signicant thermally driven motion. The rotor dynamics is the inclusion of damping and temperature
problem has been partially diminished by resting the mole- due to the interaction with a thermal reservoir. Although there
cules over surfaces where the thermal uctuations are less has been many studies in the quantum planar rotor, only very
signicant but not completely neglected. In the ratchet-type few cases have aboard the open quantum planar dynamics e.g.
motors, the thermal uctuations are precisely the source of the [1317], and there is no a unied consensus on how to
motion. Nanomotors based on nano-electromechanical introduce the environmental effects to the dynamics. The

0031-8949/16/055101+08$33.00 1 2016 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Printed in the UK


Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

canonical pair used to describes the dynamics of the quantum steady state distribution for the system in the long time limit.
planar rotor are the angle-angular momentum which we As exemplications of the applications of our model, in
denote here by, {f, L}. The angular momentum, has an sections 5 and 6 we briey address the quantum pendulum
unbounded spectrum that includes positive and negative and the quantum kicked rotor, both in contact with a thermal
integers while the angle is a periodic variable. This periodicity bath, and nally in the appendix, we show some details of the
makes the angle variable to be a multivalued or discontinuous calculation of the master equation.
variable, see e.g. [1820], therefore, quantization of the
conjugate angle variable has been in debate for many years.
This makes the description of the interaction to an external 2. The quantum planar rotor
environment to be a quite subtle topic since many models of
interaction are based in the coupling of the conjugate position The quantum planar rotor is a quantum particle that is con-
variable. In [13], it was proposed to couple the rotor to two strained to move freely along a ring. The Hamiltonian of this
different thermal baths through the Cartesian position vari- system is
ables of the rotor. The baths were coupled independently to 2
the x and y coordinates respectively and the position variables L
Hrot = (1 )
of the rotor were transformed into the polar representation. 2I
Afterwards, the two different baths are considered to be
where I is the moment of inertia and the angular momentum
identical. For this type of model, the particle moving along
here denoted by L , generates the planar rotations by an angle
the ring experiences a non-homogeneous environment in
f, and it is directed along the perpendicular axis to the
different parts of the ring and only in the high temperature
rotation plane. Due to the periodic condition of the angle f,
limit, the steady state of the system converges to the expected
the angular momentum possess a discrete and unbounded
homogeneous mixture in the energy eigenstates. In [14], the
spectrum that includes positive and negative integers. By
interaction with the environment happens through angular
denoting as l the basis of the angular momentum eigenstates,
momentum exchange by dening angular momentum ladder
the angular momentum is represented in its eigenbasis as:
operators. A master equation is derived for the zero temper-
L = l =- ll l. The positive and negative integers of the
ature case and certain constrains on the coupling are imposed
angular momentum, identify the direction of the rotations. For
to ensure that only single quanta is absorbed by the
this system, the conjugate variables are the angle f, which is a
environment and not to correlate positive and negative parts
continuous and periodic variable with period 2p , and the
of the angular momentum spectrum. Nevertheless, it becomes
angular momentum, which can only take integer multiples of
unclear how to apply the interaction model to the case of a
, and therefore the associated phase space is the discrete
non-zero temperature environment. Additional approxima-
cylinder 1 , see e.g. [2325]. The periodicity of the
tions to quantum master equations can be derived in the hight
angle becomes a problem when trying to identify an angle
temperature limit, by considering a microscopic model of
operator because of the multivalued or discontinuous
interaction based on the scattering of background gas particles
condition of the angle. One way to avoid these difculties
as proposed in [21] and more general classes of thermal baths
is to adopt any description of the angle dependence through
can be studied by means of the quantum state diffusion
periodic functions of it, such as the cosine, the sine and the
methods, e.g. [22], although no model has been derived for
complex exponential of the angle operator which we denote
the nite temperature limit.
here by cos f , sin f , eif respectively. These operators have a
In the present paper we want to explore an approximation
known representation in the angular momentum basis, e.g.
based on a microscopic model of interaction of angular
[26, 27]. A plane wave of the free particle dened along the
momentum exchange with the environment as in [14] but
circle for a certain angular momentum state L = l is a
with the positive and negative parts of the spectrum of the
periodic function of the angle: yl (f ) = eilf 2p . The states
angular momentum coupled independently to two different
1
baths. The two baths are dened to have equivalent spectral
densities and the coupling rates are taken the same for both
f =
2p
e-ilfl , (2 )
l
couplings, similar to [13]. So far, no approximation has been constitute a complete basis satisfying: ff = d2p (f - f),
carried out for studying the dynamics of the quantum planar where d2p represents the 2p periodic delta function.
rotor in the regime of the nite temperatures. The model of Due to the symmetric nature of the spectrum of the
interaction we propose, successfully provides the tools for angular momentum, one can dene a new set of operators
developing a master equation for the quantum planar rotor

coupled to a nite temperature bath.
This paper is organized as follows: In section 2 we dis-
L + = l ll, L- = - l - l- l , (3 )
l=0 l=0
cuss the quantum planar rotor model. In section 3 we present
the microscopic model of interaction between the planar rotor such that the angular momentum can be represented as the
and the nite temperature environment. In section 4 the nite sum of these two operators: L = L + + L-. The Hamiltonian
temperature master equation obtained from the weak coupling of the quantum planar rotor written in terms of the L+ and L-
2 2
limit and the BornMarkov approximation is presented and in operators, Hrot = L+ 2I + L - 2I , describes separately the
4.1 we show that this master equation describes a Boltzmann two directions of rotation. By dening the creation and

2
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

annihilation operators for the positive and negative parts of where aj (aj), bj (bj) are creation and annihilation operators of
the angular momentum as: the two baths, the gj+(-) are the coupling strengths to the two

d+ = eif L + ,

d- = e-if L- (4 ) different baths and the operators d+ and d- are dened in (4).
The operator d+ acts only on states with positive angular

where eif is the complex exponential of the angle whose momentum and d- only on states with negative angular
action on the angular momentum eigenbasis is to decrease a momentum. In this model of interaction it is also assumed that

single angular momentum state, eifl = l - 1, then the the environments are composed of particles interacting
operators L+ and L- can be written in terms of (4) as: through a general potential which has an absolute minimum.

L+ = d d+ and L- = d d-. Then for a weak coupling between the system and the
+ -
environments this potential is not disturbed and can be
approximated as harmonic. The total Hamiltonian of the rotor
3. Microscopic model plus environments system is written as:

The microscopic model of interaction we consider in the H = Hrot + He1 + He2 + Hint (6 )
present paper is through angular momentum exchange
between the system and the environment. This type of inter- where Hint is the interaction Hamiltonian given in (5), Hrot is
action has been already used by Dittrich and Graham in [14], the Hamiltonian of the free rotor given in (1), and
where the interaction Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of

angular momentum ladder operators such as: Gk = He1 = w+j a j a j , He2 = w-j bj bj (7 )
l ck, ll - k l. The action of the Gk operators in the angular j j

momentum eigenbasis, is to decrease the value of l by a factor


of k quantum units. In this model, the coefcients ck, l are are the Hamiltonians of the two environments constituted by a
determined a posteriori of the derivation of a master equation. set of harmonic oscillators where aj(aj), bj(bj) are the creation
They are chosen in such a way that the environment acts (annihilation) operators of the jth oscillator of the two
oppositely on states with positive and negative l. Also, the different baths interacting with the positive and negative
temperature effects were considered negligible in the sense angular momentum states respectively.
that the environment could only absorb angular momentum
quanta. This model offers a good description for the dynamics
of a quantum planar rotor subject to a pure dissipative med-
4. Finite temperature master equation approach
ium however, thermal effects are not considered and it is not
clear if from the assumptions taken for the ck, l coefcients
Once the model of interaction has been established, one can
alone, one could consider the thermal effects. The conditions
proceed to derive a master equation for the system. We want
established over the ck, l factors used in the DittrichGraham
to point out that the approach we are using for deriving the
model are equivalent to consider the coupling to the
master equation is mostly based on the same type of
environment through the operators dened in (4), coupled
approaches used in the optical master equations derivations,
independently to two different baths as done in [13].
however, different assumptions on how the thermal bath is
The model of interaction we want to consider is based
constituted can derive in other types of master equations. In
precisely on these considerations, where the rotor is inde-
our case we have considered a medium which is dense
pendently coupled to two different baths through the opera-
enough so the inner potentials between the environmental
tors d+ and d-. The interaction based on angular momentum particles can be assumed as harmonic. Other approximations
exchange can be understood as the scattering of the particles such as the high temperature limit will imply a low density of
that constitute the environment due to the rotations of the particles and these inner potentials should vanish.
rotor. Since the rotor is constrained to move along the ring, We derive our master equation based on the weak cou-
only linear momentum in the tangential direction with respect pling limit an the BornMarkov approximation (see the
to the ring, can be transfered between the scattered particle of appendix for details of the derivation). The derivation is
the environment and the rotor. This in turn is directly related carried out by considering the density matrix of the composite
to a change on the angular momentum of the rotor. In a system as = s e1 e2 with the environments taken to
natural way, one can distinguish between the scattering of be at stationary equilibrium in a Boltzmann like states:
particles when rotating into one or the other direction and 1
therefore separate these two type of events. Furthermore, one e = k nk e-Enk kB T nk nk . The master equation is now

cannot expect that the interaction with the environment will obtained by writing the solution of the von Neumann equation
generate correlations between the to directions of rotation. in the interaction picture with respect to Ho = Hrot +
The interaction Hamiltonian we consider in our model is in He1 + He2 and tracing out the baths. Also the coupling rates
the form: to the two baths are taken to be equal and the distribution of
frequencies of both baths are assumed to be dense so the
Hint = gj+ (d+a j + d+ a j) + gj- (d-bj + d - bj ) (5 ) continuum limit can be done. Furthermore, we assume at
j j
spectral densities. Under this assumption, one can write down

3
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

a non-Lindblad master equation in the Schdinger picture as:


d s
i = [Hrot , s] + i [ s] (8 )
dt
where
g k (T ) , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T )]
[ s ] = - ([O
2 k=+, -
k (T ) + dk, dk s] + [ s dk, O
+ [O k (T ) + dk ]) ,
(9 )
Figure 1. In the left, the time evolution of the average of the absolute
where g = g2 p D (w ) is the damping rate and D(w ) is the value of the angular momentum is depicted for different rates of
density of states of the baths which are taken to be identical. temperature taken in units of [2 IkB] and damping rate
The temperature dependence of the system is contained in the g = 0.1 [ I]. The gure in the right presents the time evolution of
operators O k (T ) dk where
k (T ) = N the purity of the system for the same rates of temperature.

k (T ) =
N Nlklkl, (10)
l=0

for k = +,- and


(2 l + 1 ) 2 -1
Nl = exp - 1 . (11)
2IkB T
is the Planck distribution function evaluated at the transition
energies, El + 1 - El of the planar rotor. The dissipative term
of the master equation (9) describes spontaneous and
thermally induced process which occur at a rate that depends
on the angular momentum states of the rotor. The transition
Figure 2. The gure in the left shows the density matrix at the steady
probabilities of the angular momentum states due to the
state for T = 5 [2 IkB] and g = 0.1 [ I]. In it one can sees that the
spontaneous emission process occur with rates that depend non diagonal elements are zero while the diagonal elements follow
linearly on the angular momentum states, gL while the the Boltzmann distribution. In the right, some diagonal elements of
probability of increasing the angular momentum states due to the density matrix are shown in their transition to the steady state
the thermally induced processes occur with a rate of gL N k (T ), when the system was initially in the angular momentum state
which decays exponentially for large angular momentum y = 7. The dashed lines corresponds to the Boltzmann factors of
the Boltzmann distribution.
states. The zero temperature limit is taken when the
temperature effects of the environment are negligible. By
taking the limit T 0, the temperature dependent terms increased, the purity is never recovered meaning that the
become zero and the master equation becomes in a Lindblad system is ending in some mixture which is a characteristic
form with the Lindblad term: feature of the thermalization.
g
[ s ] = -
2 k=+, -
(dk dk s + s dk dk - 2dk s dk ) , (12) 4.1. The thermal state

which has the same form as the one obtained by Graham and In the following we show that the form of the steady state for
Dittrich in [14] for the pure dissipative case. In equation (8) the model of coupling proposed in (5), along with the master
we have also omitted a term in the von Neumann dynamics equation derived in section 4, is in a Boltzmann distribution
part, which is responsible of small shifts in the energy form. For the steady state it is required that d s dt = 0 . In the
spectrum (see the appendix), since we want to focus only in long time limit, when the stationary condition is reached, all
the non unitary inuence of the baths to the rotor. Figure 1 non diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix s
shows the time evolution of the average of the absolute value become zero due to the decoherence produced by the inter-
of the angular momentum, and the purity of the system for action with the environment. In this limit, the von Neumann
different temperatures, for an initial angular momentum state: dynamics have disappeared and the form of the steady state
y = 7. The average of the absolute value of the angular depends only on the dissipative part of the master
momentum for the zero temperature case has the exact equation (8). In gure 2 at the left, the density matrix in the
damping behavior L = Loe-gt , where Lo = 7 is the angular momentum basis at the steady state is depicted. The
initial angular momentum. As the temperature increases, the system was initially in a superposition conguration of
averages rises up due to thermalization. In the case of the angular momentum states: y = 1 (7 + -7). In the
2
purity, one can notice the characteristic recovery of the purity gure one can see that all non diagonal elements become zero
for the zero temperature case, since the system is damped to at the steady state, therefore we must look at the form of the
the ground state which is a pure state. As the temperature is distribution of the diagonal terms. By inserting the steady

4
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

state condition into (8) together with (9) we nd that at the


steady state, the following relation must be satised:

0= k (T ) , dk s] + [ s dk , O
([O k (T )]
k =+, -

+ [O k (T )
+ dk , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T ) + dk ]) . (13)
Since only diagonal elements contribute to the form of the
steady state, we look for the probabilities fullling last
relation. By computing the diagonal elements of (13), one
sees that the probabilities must satisfy:
Figure 3. The Wigner function of the system is presented for
0 = -l (Pl + Nl - 1(Pl - Pl - 1)) q (l - 1) temperature T = 5 [2 IkB], g = 0.1 [ I] and strength of the
+ (l + 1)(Pl + 1 + Nl (Pl + 1 - Pl)) q (l) external eld in units of [2 I]: a) h = 0 , b) h = 2 , c) h = 4,
- l(Pl + N l -1(Pl - Pl + 1)) q ( - l - 1) d) h = 10 , e) h = 40 , f) h = 80 .
+ (l + 1)(Pl - 1 + N l (Pl - 1 - Pl)) q ( - l) , (14)
where Pl = l, l and q (x ) is the step function dened as of the Wigner function of the system given by the following
transformation [23]:
q (x ) = 1 if x 0 . One can assume that the four different
rows in (14) are independently equal to zero, therefore the 1 p

following relations for the probabilities holds: W (f , l) =
2p -p df f - f 2 f + f 2 ei l f .
(2l - 1) 2 (2l + 1) 2 (19)
- -
Pl = e 2IkB T Pl - 1, Pl + 1 = e 2IkB T Pl , (15)
for the positive part of the spectrum (l > 0 ) and gure 3 shows the phase space distribution function for the
(2 l -1) 2 (2 l +1) 2
steady state of the system with increasing values of the
Pl = e
-
2IkB T Pl + 1, Pl - 1 = e
-
2IkB T Pl (16) strength of the external eld, at a temperature T = 5 [2 IkB]
and damping rate g = 0.1 [ I]. There, one can see that for
for the negative part of the spectrum, (l < 0). Equations (15) the case of no force which corresponds to the free rotor [case
and (16) are simply the detailed balance conditions of the (a) in the gure], the phase space representation of the
stationary state. These conditions are fullled if stationary state of the system is fully delocalized in position
- l
2 2
states and Boltzmann distributed in the angular momentum
Pl = Ae 2IkB T . (17)
(the energy basis), along the positive and negative states. As
where A = (2p IkB T 2)-1 2
is a normalization constant. the strength of the external eld increases, localization in
With the conditions established for the probabilities, the angular momentum and position appears as the result of the
density matrix at the stationary regime, s (t ) = external cosine potential. Now the bath damps the system to
l =- Pl l l, with Pl given in (17), takes the form of a the minimum of the potential while the temperature widens
Boltzmann distribution. We also obtain this results from the the distribution around it. For angular momentum states lying
numerical simulations. In gure 2 at the right, the transition of close to the location of the minimum of the potential but far
some diagonal elements to the steady state are depicted. In the from the angular momentum ground state, the probability of
dashed lines the correspondent Boltzmann factors are also these states vanishes rapidly as one moves away from the
plotted to show the that the stationary state is indeed a minimum into the turning points and jumps into lower
Boltzmann distribution. angular momentum states in order to preserve the probability.
This situation repeats for angular momentum states closer to
the ground state. This features resembles the closed
5. Quantum rotor in a uniform external eld trajectories in the classical phase space related to oscillatory
motion. In this context, thermal uctuations make higher
As a demonstrative exercise we show the effects of a nite angular momentum states to oscillate around the minimum
temperature thermal bath to the rotor under the action of a while lower angular momentum states are more likely to be
constant force. For this system the Hamiltonian is given by: damped in to the minimum of the potential. For large enough
L
2 angular momentum states, there is a certain probability to
Hrot = + h cos f (18) cross to the next minimum of the potential through the
2I
separatrix.
where is the strength of the external eld and
1
cos f = 2 l (l + 1l + l - 1l) is the cosine operator
in the angular momentum basis representation [26]. An 6. Quantum kicked rotor
intuitive way to look at the dynamics of the system and
particularly to the steady state of the system is through the The problem of the quantum kicked rotor has been exten-
quasi probability distribution function of the density matrix in sively studied and tackling the case where the kicked rotor is
the phase space representation. For this purpose we make use additionally coupled to a thermal bath could in principal be

5
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

by d E = lim 0(E qst (tK + ) - E qst (tK - )). Further-


more, if we dene the temperature of the system at the quasi
stationary regime as: Ts = 2E qst kB , such that as K 0 , the
temperature of the system matches the temperature of the thermal
environment as in a thermalization process, then the dependence
of the relaxed energy, dE , to the temperature difference between
the rotor and the environment DT = Ts - T seems to be linear,
DT ~ d E , in accordance to the Fourier law for the ux of
energy between the bath and the rotor. In gure 4 at the right, this
fact is shown for different periods of the kick under the resonant
Figure 4. In the left, the energies of the kicked rotor as function of
condition.
the number of kicks with period of the kick tK = p 2 for kick
strengths of the rotor K = n , n = 1, 3, 5, are depicted. In the right,
the dependence of the dissipated energy of the rotor to the 7. Summary
environment in between two consecutive kicks dE is plotted against
the temperature difference between the rotor and the bath DT , for
different periods of the kick under the resonant condition In this paper we have addressed the problem of the quantum
(tK = p q ). Each marker represents a different kick strength; the planar rotor couple to a nite temperature bath by using a
markers closer to the origin are the smallest kick strengths, K = 1 , model of interaction that successfully provides the tools for
and the kick strength increases by one as one moves away from the developing a master equation for the rotor coupled to a nite
origin. In both gures, the temperature of the bath is T = 5 [2 IkB]
temperature bath. No model as such has been previously
and damping rate is g = 0.1 [ I].
derived for the nite temperature regimes. A master equation
has been derived for the model of interaction here proposed,
the topic of a full paper. Here we want to focus only on the by using the the weak coupling limit and the BornMarkov
regimes where the quantum resonances are expected to approximation for which the zero temperature limit (pure
appear, see e.g. [1], and study the effects that the thermal bath dissipation) is also contained in the master equation as a
has to the rotor in this regime. In the typical quantum kicked particular case. It was shown numerically and analytically that
rotor problem, the rotor is subject to periodic kicks due to the for the derived master equation based in this model of inter-
inuence of a cosine-delta potential. The Hamiltonian of the action, the system reaches a Boltzmann distribution state at
system in this case is given by: the stationary regime. As exemplication of the possible
applications of the model, the case of the rotor in a uniform
2
L external eld and the quantum kicked rotor, both in contact
Hrot = + K cos
f d (t - ntk) , (20)
2I n
with a nite temperature bath, were briey studied. In the
former, we have shown that the systems presents a classical
where K is the kick strength in units of and tK is the period of behavior when the magnitude of the eld is sufciently
the kicks with the same units as the time evolution of the system. strong. In the later we have shown that the coupling to the
In the resonant condition, the kicks are done with a period that thermal bath destroys the resonant features of the quantum
are rational multiples of 2p , and the energy of the rotor is kicked rotor, leading the system into a quasi stationary con-
supposed to increase quadratically with the number of kicks. dition in which the the dissipated energy to the environment
When the quantum kicked rotor is additionally coupled to the depends linearly to the temperature difference between the
thermal bath, the effect of the bath will be to dissipate to the thermal bath and the rotor in accordance to the Fourier law.
environment, a certain amount of energy gained by the kicks. In
gure 4, at the left, the average energy of the rotor for different
kick strengths at a temperature T = 5 [2 IkB] and damping rate Acknowledgments
g = 0.1 [ I] is depicted. The upper peaks represents the energy
immediately after a kick is done while the lower peaks represents We want to thank A Eisfeld and A Croy for annotations to
the energy just before a kick is done. For this rate of damping, the this manuscript and the discussions about the derivation of the
resonant features are not present anymore and the energy instead master equation. Also we want to thank T Gorin for the
of increase quadratically with the number of kicks; the system enlightening discussions about the quantum kicked rotor
reaches a quasi steady condition where the amount of energy problem. PCLV acknowledges the hospitality and nancial
gained by a single kick is equal to the amount of energy support of the MPIPKS where part of this work was rstly
dissipated to the environment between two consecutive thought under a postdoctoral stay.
kicks. By denoting the average energy at the quasi stationary
regime as E qst = lim 0 12 (E qst (tK + ) + E qst (tK - )),
where lim 0 E qst (tK + ) is the energy just after a kick and Appendix Derivation of the master equation
lim 0 E qst (tK - ) is the energy just before a kick, then as the
kick strength is increased, the average energy E qst is also Here we show the standard procedure for deriving the master
increased, and so does the amount of energy dissipated to the equation. Starting with the full Hamiltonian of the composite
environment between two consecutive kicks, which we denote system: H = Hrot + He1 + He2 + Hint where Hrot is the

6
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

Hamiltonian of the free rotor, He1 and He2 are the Hamilto- Now one can exchange the order of integration in (A.5) and
nians of the two different baths described by (7) and Hint is the evaluate these integrals by introducing a full eigenbasis of the
interaction Hamiltonian between the system and the two baths system, = l =-l l, next to the exponentials of L . For
given by (5). By considering an initially separable density each element evaluated in the integration one can separate
matrix of the composite system: = s e1 e2 , the the real and the imaginary parts by using the relation

solution of the von Neummann equation in the interaction 0 dt eit = pd ( ) iP/ , with P being the Cauchys
picture of the composite system and in the BornMarkov limit principal value. For the real part, integration over will yield
[28], has the general form: delta functions of the form d (w k - Wkl ) where
1
d s(t ) 1
= - 2 dt Tre [H int (t ) , [H int (t - t ) , s (t ) e]] ( )
Wkl = kl + 2 I . Consequently, integration over w k will
dt 0 set the frequencies for the Planck functions into the frequency

(A.1) differences of the rotor: - dw kd (w k - Wkl )
The operators d+, d- in the interaction picture can be written N (w ) = N (Wkl ). On the other hand the imaginary part of
k

as: the integral will yield a term that can be incorporated to the

von Neumann dynamics, by using the secular approximation
dk (t ) = e-i (k L+ l) t dk = dk e-i (k L- l) t , (A.2) and by neglecting non physical contributions. This term
for k = +, -, and l = 2I , L = L I . Since the baths are commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system and contributes
supposed to be in a stationary Boltzmann states: with a certain shift to the eigenenergies of the system.
1 Typically this term is related to a Lamb shift effect and
e = k nk e-Enk kB T nk nk , any perturbation therma-
sometimes is simply neglected. This will be our case since we
lizes immediately and also the self correlation functions of the want to focus only on the non unitary dynamics effects of the

baths are null: aj (s ) ai (t ) = aj (s ) ai (t ) =bj (s ) bi (t ) = bath. By recovering the identity from the full eigenbasis and
bj (s ) bi (t ) = 0. By introducing the continuous limit of the dening the operators:
distribution over the baths frequencies and considering (2l + 1) 2 -1
identical coupling strengths and homogeneous and at N k (T ) = e 2IkB T - 1 klkl (A.9)
distributed frequencies of the baths: gj2 = g D (w ) p , l=0
where is a scale factor and D(w ) is the density of states
of the two different baths, then one can write for baths The master equation can be written into its nal form,
correlation functions the following:
d
i s = [Hrot + HLS , s] + i [ s] (A.10)
gi gj ij (t ) g

- w t
d w e N (w )
i (A.3) dt
i, j
where
gigj *ij (t ) g -dw e-iw t (N (w ) + 1)

(A.4)
i, j g k (T ) , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T )]
where + j (t ) ai and *ij +(t ) = aj (t ) ai are the
[ s ] = - ([O
ij (t ) = a 2k =+, -
bath correlation functions correspondent to the bath coupled
+ k (T )
[O

+ dk , dk s] + [ s dk , O
k (T ) + dk ])
to the positive part of the angular momentum spectrum and
-
ij (t ) = bj (t ) bi, *
-
ij (t ) = bj (t ) bi are the bath correla-
(A.11)
tion functions correspondent to the bath coupled to the
negative part of the spectrum. The functions N(w ) = where the operators O k (T ) dk contain the temper-
k (T ) = N
(ew kB T - 1)-1 are the Planck distribution functions. By ature dependence and is the damping rate. The term HLS
going back into the Schrdingers picture, the master equation appears from the imaginary part of the integrals in (A.5) and it
takes the form: is responsible of small shifts on the energy spectrum since it
d s ig commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system. This term has
i
dt
= [Hrot , s] -
k=+, - 0 dt -dw k k (w k, t )[ s] the form:
(1) (2)
(A.5) HLS = G k dk dk - dk G k dk (A.12)
k =+, -
where the super operator k (w k , t ) is dened as
k where
k (w k , t )[ s] = e-iw t (N (w k ) + 1) D
k
2 [ s ]
1k [ s] + h.c.
+ eiw t N (w k ) D
k
(A.6) gP N (w k )
dw k w k - W ll,
(1)
G k = (A.13)
and l =- - kl

l) t
1k [ s] = e-i (k L+
D dk dk s - dk e-i (k L+ l) t s dk (A.7) gP N (w k ) + 1
- dw k
(2)
G k = ll . (A.14)
2k [ s] = dk ei (k L+
D
l) t
dk s - ei (k L+ l) t dk s dk . (A.8) l =- w k - Wkl

7
Phys. Scr. 91 (2016) 055101 P C L Vzquez and A Garca

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