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COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89

Technical Note

Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

shear studs on a composite beam, including providing three example prob-

lems. Also see Technical Notes Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite

Beam Composite Beam Design, Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Compos-

ite Beam Segment Composite Beam Design, and User-Defined Shear Stud

Patterns Composite Beam Design for more information.

Basic Equations

Equation 1 applies at the output station with the maximum positive moment

when there is full (100%) composite connection.

Vh

N1 = Eqn. 1

q

where,

positive moment (where the concrete is in compression) and the points of

zero moment for full composite connection. Vh is derived by the smaller of

Equations 1a, 1b or 1c as applicable. Note that Equation 1a applies to both

rolled beams and user-defined (welded) beams. Equation 1b only applies to

rolled beams and Equation 1c only applies to user-defined (welded) beams.

Vh = Eqn. 1a

2

where,

be different on the left and right sides of the beam.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

When the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span, Ac is the area of con-

crete in the slab above the metal deck that is above the elastic neutral axis

(ENA) of the fully composite beam. When the deck span is parallel to the

beam span, Ac is the area of concrete in the slab, including the concrete in the

metal deck ribs, that is above the ENA of the fully composite beam. This item

may be different on the left and right sides of the beam.

A s Fy + b cp t cp Fycp

Vh = Eqn. 1b

2

Vh = + +

2 2

Eqn. 1c

b f - bot t f - bot Fy b cp t cpFycp

+

2 2

it exists), in2.

beam, in.

steel beam, in.

beam, in.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

beam, in.

Equation 2 applies at the output station with the maximum positive moment

when there is partial composite connection.

Vh'

N1 = Eqn. 2

q

In Equation 2, V'h is equal to the percent composite connection times Vh. For

example, if there is 70% composite connection, V'h = 0.7 Vh.

Equation 3 applies at any other output station regardless of the percent com-

posite connection.

M

N1 station 1

Mstation max

N2 = 0 Eqn. 3

1

where,

tion considered and adjacent points of zero moment for

the design load combination, unitless.

tion with the maximum positive moment and adjacent

points of zero moment for the design load combination,

unitless.

load combination, k-in.

nection and Seff/Sbare for partial composite connection,

unitless. Str is the section modulus for fully (100%) com-

posite transformed section referred to the extreme tension

fiber of the steel section (including cover plate, if it ex-

ists), in3. Sbare is the section modulus of the steel beam

alone (plus cover plate, if it exists) referred to the ex-

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the ex-

treme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including

cover plate, it if exists), in3.

sign load combination, k-in.

Shear stud distribution example 1 is shown in Figure 1. It is a 30-foot-long

simply supported beam. It has 1 klf uniform loading and a 50 k-ft moment at

the right end. For this example, assume the following:

! The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud, q, is 12.4 kips.

ment and adjacent points of zero moment, Vh', is 245 kips.

! The support distance, S, plus the gap distance, G, is equal to 0.50 foot (6

inches) at each end of the beam.

! The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the

beam is 36 inches.

As shown in Figure 1, this beam has one composite beam segment that has a

length, LCBS, of 29 feet.

Note:

Use the Assign menu > Frame/ Line >Frame Output Stations command to modify the

number of output stations for a beam.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

1 klf

50 k-ft

30'

13.33 k 16.67 k

13.33 k

Shear

13.33'

16.67 k

50 k-ft

Moment

3.33'

zero moment

from left end of beam

Output station 14 ft

End of beam flange

ETABS calculated

Center of support

Center of support

L1 and

LCBS

LCBS = 29'

L = 30'

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Table 1 illustrates how the bending moment is calculated by the program for

this beam at each output station. Note the following about Figure 1 and Table

1:

! The actual maximum moment for this beam of 88.89 k-ft occurs at a dis-

tance of 13.33 feet from the left end of the beam, as shown in the mo-

ment diagram in Figure 1. As shown in Table 1, since the program only

calculates moment at the designated output stations, it picks up the

maximum moment as 88.67 k-ft at the station located 14 feet from the

(center of the support at the) left end of the beam. Increasing the number

of output stations will decrease the difference between the program-

calculated maximum moment and the actual maximum moment.

! The actual point of zero moment near the right end of the beam occurs

26.67 feet from the left end of the beam (3.33 feet from the right end of

the beam), as shown in the moment diagram in Figure 1. Referring to Ta-

ble 1, the program calculates the point of zero moment by assuming a lin-

ear variation of moment between output stations located 26 and 28 feet

from the left end of the beam. This assumption yields a point of zero mo-

ment that is 26.63 feet from the left end of the beam (3.37 feet from the

right end of the beam). The dimensions shown in the bottom sketch of

Figure 1 reflect this program-calculated point of zero moment.

Station Moment

(ft) (k-ft)

0 0.00

2 24.67

4 45.33

6 62.00

8 74.67

10 83.33

12 88.00

14 88.67

16 85.33

18 78.00

20 66.67

22 51.33

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Station Moment

(ft) (k-ft)

24 32.00

26 8.67

28 -18.67

30 -50.00

The program calculates the maximum moment as 88.67 k-ft at the output

station located 14 feet from the left end of the beam. Multiplying Mmax by

0.999 yields 0.999 *88.67 = 88.58 k-ft. Because no other output station has

a moment that exceeds 0.999Mmax (88.58 k-ft) and no point loads are on this

beam (for any load case), the only output station that is considered when

determining the shear stud distribution is the station 14 feet from the left end

of the beam (the maximum moment location).

The required number of shear studs between the maximum moment and ad-

jacent points of zero moment, N1, is calculated using Equation 2 as:

N1 = = = 19.76 studs

q 12.4 kips per stud

The distances L1 left and L1 right for the output station located 14 feet from the

left end of the beam are shown in Figure 1.

N N

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1

L 1 left L 1 right

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 29 ft

13.50 ft 12.63 ft

19.76 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup * 29 ft

12.63 ft

NCBS1 = 46 studs

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

The minimum number of studs required in the composite beam segment for

this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Technical Note Distribution of

Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design as:

L

MS CBS = Roundup CBS

MaxLS

29 ft 12 in

MS CBS = Roundup = 10 studs

36 in 1 ft

Thus, the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the

minimum requirements. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the

beam, the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the

beam is 46.

Shear stud distribution example 2 is shown in Figure 2. It is a 30-foot-long

simply supported beam. It has point loads at the beam one-third points. For

this example, assume the following:

! The point loads do not come from other beams in the program model.

Thus, this beam has one composite beam segment instead of three com-

posite beam segments.

! The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud, q, is 12.4 kips.

ment and adjacent points of zero moment, Vh', is 124 kips.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

5k 20 k

10 k 15 k

30'

10 k

5k

Shear

15 k

Moment

100 k-ft

150 k-ft (Mmax)

from left end of beam

from left end of beam

End of beam flange

Output station 20 ft

Output station 10 ft

Center of support

Center of support

LCBS = 29'

L = 30'

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

! The support distance, S, plus the gap distance, G, is equal to 0.50 foot (6

inches) at each end of the beam.

! The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the

beam is 36 inches.

As shown in Figure 2, this beam has one composite beam segment that has a

length, LCBS, of 29 feet.

Table 2 shows the bending moment calculated by the program for this beam

at each output station.

Composite Beam

Station Moment L1 left L1 right

(ft) (k-ft) (ft) (ft)

2 20.00 N.A. N.A.

4 40.00 N.A. N.A.

6 60.00 N.A. N.A.

8 80.00 N.A. N.A.

10 100.00 9.5 19.5

12 110.00 N.A. N.A.

14 120.00 N.A. N.A.

16 130.00 N.A. N.A.

18 140.00 N.A. N.A.

20 150.00 19.5 9.5

22 120.00 N.A. N.A.

24 90.00 N.A. N.A.

26 60.00 N.A. N.A.

28 30.00 N.A. N.A.

30 0.00 N.A. N.A.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

The required number of shear studs between the maximum moment (located

at the output station 20 feet from the left end of the beam) and adjacent

points of zero moment, N1, is calculated using Equation 2 as:

N1 = = = 10.00 studs

q 12.4 kips per stud

The required number of shear studs between the point load located at the

output station 10 feet from the left end of the beam and adjacent points of

zero moment, N2, is calculated using Equation 3 as:

Mstation

N1 1

N2 = Mstation max =0

1

100 k - ft * 1.40

10.00 studs 1

150 k - ft

N2 = = Negative

1.40 1

N2 = 0 studs

The distances L1 left and L1 right for the output stations located 10 feet and 20

feet from the left end of the beam are shown in Figure 2.

For the output station located 10 feet from the left end of the beam:

N N

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1

L 1 left L 1 right

0 studs 0 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 29 ft

9.50 ft 19.50 ft

NCBS1 = 0 studs

For the output station located 20 feet from the left end of the beam:

N N

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1

L 1 left L 1 right

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 29 ft

19.50 ft 9.50 ft

10.00 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup * 29 ft

9.50 ft

NCBS1 = 31 studs

The minimum number of studs required in the composite beam segment for

this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Technical Note Distribution of

Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design as:

L

MS CBS = Roundup CBS

MaxLS

29 ft 12 in

MS CBS = Roundup = 10 studs

36 in 1 ft

Thus, the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the

minimum requirements. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the

beam, the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the

beam is 31.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Shear stud distribution example 3 is shown in Figure 3. It is identical to Ex-

ample 2, except that the point loads are assumed to come from end reactions

of other beams that are included in the program model. Thus, three compos-

ite beam segments are in this example instead of the one composite beam

segment that was in Example 2. For this example, assume the following:

! The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud, q, is 12.4 kips.

ment and adjacent points of zero moment, Vh', is 124 kips.

! The support distance, S, plus the gap distance, G, is equal to 0.50 foot (6

inches) at each end of the beam.

! The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the

beam is 36 inches.

As shown in Figure 3, this beam has three composite beam segments labeled

1, 2 and 3 from the left end of the beam to the right end of the beam. The

lengths of these composite beam segments are LCBS1 = 9.5 feet, LCBS2 = 10

feet and LCBS3 = 9.5 feet.

Table 2 shows the bending moment calculated by the program for this beam

at each output station. Table 3 summarizes how the shear stud distribution is

determined for this beam.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

5k 20 k

10 k 15 k

30'

10 k

5k

Shear

15 k

Moment

100 k-ft

150 k-ft (Mmax)

from left end of beam

from left end of beam

End of beam flange

Output station 20 ft

Output station 10 ft

Center of support

Center of support

L = 30'

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Left to Right Along the Beam

Station Moment L1 left L1 right Studs NCBS1 NCBS2 NCBS3

10 ft 100 k-ft 9.5 ft 19.5 ft 0.00 0 (1) N.A. N.A.

20 ft 150 k-ft 19.5 ft 9.5 ft 10.00 5 (2a) 5 (2b) N.A.

Station Moment L1 left L1 right Studs NCBS1 NCBS2 NCBS3

20 ft 150 k-ft 19.5 ft 9.5 ft 10.00 5 (3b) 5 (3b) 10 (3a)

10 ft 100 k-ft 9.5 ft 19.5 ft 0.00 5 (4d) 5 (4b) 10 (4a)

The numbers in parenthesis identify equations from Technical Note Distribution of Shear

Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design.

The number of shear studs listed in the Studs column of Table 3 is calculated

exactly as described for Example 2. Equation 3 is used at the station 10 feet

from the left end of the beam, and Equation 2 is used at the station 20 feet

from the left end of the beam.

The columns labeled NCBS1, NCBS2 and NCBS3 show the number of studs required

in composite beam segments 1, 2 and 3, respectively, along with the equation

used to calculate that number of studs. The equation number is shown in pa-

renthesis.

The calculation proceeds from left to right along the beam and then back

along the beam from right to left. The detailed calculations associated with

Table 3 are shown in the next subsection entitled "Detailed Calculations."

The final required number of shear studs for each of the composite beam

segments is shown in the last row of Table 3. Composite beam segments 1, 2

and 3 require 5, 5 and 10 shear studs, respectively. This is a total of 20 shear

studs. This compares with 31 studs required in Example 2, where a uniform

intensity of shear studs is assumed over the entire beam rather than over

each of the three composite beam segments.

Detailed Calculations

This subsection shows the calculations required to obtain the values in the

columns labeled NCBS1, NCBS2 and NCBS3 in Table 3.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

We begin by working from left to right along the beam. The first output sta-

tion considered is 10 feet from the left end of the beam. This output station is

considered to be in composite beam segment 1. Equation 1 of Technical Note

Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design is

used to calculate the studs required in composite beam segment 1.

N N

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1

L 1 left L 1 right

0 studs 0 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 9.5 ft

9.5 ft 19.5 ft

NCBS1 = 0 studs

Thus, NCBS1 is calculated as zero studs. Because the output station considered

is in composite beam segment 1 and we are working from left to right along

the beam, NCBS2 and NCBS3 are not yet applicable.

The next output station considered is 20 feet from the left end of the beam.

This output station is considered to be in composite beam segment 2.

Equation 2a of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the studs required in com-

posite beam segment 1.

N

NCBS1 = Roundup * L CBS1 NCBS1 Prev

L 1 left

10.00 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup * 9.5 ft 0 studs

19.5 ft

NCBS1 = 5 studs

Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite

Beam Design for composite beam segment 2.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

n 1 ? n 1

N

L 1 left

*

i =1

L CBSi < N

i =1

CBSi

1 ? 1

10.00 studs

19.5 ft

* i =1

L CBSi < N

i =1

CBSi

?

10.00 studs

* L CBS1 < NCBS1

19.5 ft

?

10.00 studs

* 9.5 ft < 5 studs

19.5 ft

Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam

Design.

posite Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the studs required

in composite beam segment 2.

1

N-

i =1

NCBSi

NCBS2 = Roundup 1

* L CBS2 NCBS2 Prev

L 1 left L CBSi

i =1

NCBS2 = Roundup * 10 ft 0 studs

19.5 ft 9.5 ft

NCBS2 = 5 studs

we are working from left to right along the beam, NCBS3 is not yet applicable.

Now we work back along the beam from right to left. Thus, the next output

station considered is the one 20 feet from the left end of the beam. This out-

put station is now considered to be in composite beam segment 3.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in

composite beam segment 3.

N N

N CBS3 = Roundup Max , * L CBS3 N CBS3 Prev

L1 left L1 right

10 studs 10 studs

N CBS 3 = Roundup Max , * 9.5 ft 0 studs

19.5 ft 9.5 ft

10 studs

N CBS 3 = Roundup * 9.5 ft 0 studs

9.5 ft

NCBS3 = 10 studs

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in

composite beam segments 1 and 2.

The final output station considered is 10 feet from the left end of the beam.

This output station is now considered to be in composite beam segment 2.

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in

composite beam segment 3.

N

NCBS3 = Roundup * L CBS3 NCBS3 Prev

L 1 right

0 studs

NCBS3 = Roundup * 9.5 ft 10 studs

19.5 ft

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam De-

sign for composite beam segment 2.

rightmost ? rightmost

N

L 1 right

* L CBSi <

i =n +1

N

i =n +1

CBSi

?

0 studs

* L CBS3 < NCBS3

19.5 ft

?

0 studs

* 9.5 ft < 10 studs

19.5 ft

posite Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the studs required

in composite beam segment 2.

rightmost

N-

i=3

NCBSi

NCBS2 = Roundup rightmost

* L CBS2 NCBS2 Prev

L 1 right

L CBSi

i=3

N - NCBS3

NCBS2 = Roundup * L CBS2 NCBS2 Prev

L 1 right L CBS3

0 - 10

NCBS2 = Roundup * 10 ft 5 studs

19.5 ft 9.5 ft

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in

composite beam segment 1.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

The minimum number of studs required in the three composite beam seg-

ments for this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Technical Note

Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design.

L 9.5 ft 12 in

MS CBS1 = Roundup CBS1 = = 4 studs

MaxLS 36 in 1 ft

L 10 ft 12 in

MS CBS2 = Roundup CBS2 = = 4 studs

MaxLS 36 in 1 ft

L 9.5 ft 12 in

MS CBS3 = Roundup CBS3 = = 4 studs

MaxLS 36 in 1 ft

Thus, the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the

minimum requirements. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the

beam, the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the

beam is 5 in composite beam segment 1, 5 in composite beam segment 2 and

10 in composite beam segment 3, for a total of 20 shear studs.

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