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# COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC.

## , BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89
Technical Note
Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## This Technical Note describes algorithms for determining the placement of

shear studs on a composite beam, including providing three example prob-
lems. Also see Technical Notes Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite
Beam Composite Beam Design, Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Compos-
ite Beam Segment Composite Beam Design, and User-Defined Shear Stud

Basic Equations
Equation 1 applies at the output station with the maximum positive moment
when there is full (100%) composite connection.

Vh
N1 = Eqn. 1
q

where,

## Vh is the total horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum

positive moment (where the concrete is in compression) and the points of
zero moment for full composite connection. Vh is derived by the smaller of
Equations 1a, 1b or 1c as applicable. Note that Equation 1a applies to both
rolled beams and user-defined (welded) beams. Equation 1b only applies to
rolled beams and Equation 1c only applies to user-defined (welded) beams.

Vh = Eqn. 1a
2

where,

## fc = Compressive strength of the concrete slab, ksi. This item may

be different on the left and right sides of the beam.

## Basic Equations Page 1 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

When the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span, Ac is the area of con-
crete in the slab above the metal deck that is above the elastic neutral axis
(ENA) of the fully composite beam. When the deck span is parallel to the
beam span, Ac is the area of concrete in the slab, including the concrete in the
metal deck ribs, that is above the ENA of the fully composite beam. This item
may be different on the left and right sides of the beam.

## For rolled beams only:

A s Fy + b cp t cp Fycp
Vh = Eqn. 1b
2

## b f - top t f - top Fy ht wFy

Vh = + +
2 2
Eqn. 1c
b f - bot t f - bot Fy b cp t cpFycp
+
2 2

it exists), in2.

beam, in.

steel beam, in.

beam, in.

## Basic Equations Page 2 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## tf-top = Thickness of top flange of a user-defined (welded) steel

beam, in.

Equation 2 applies at the output station with the maximum positive moment
when there is partial composite connection.

Vh'
N1 = Eqn. 2
q

In Equation 2, V'h is equal to the percent composite connection times Vh. For
example, if there is 70% composite connection, V'h = 0.7 Vh.

Equation 3 applies at any other output station regardless of the percent com-
posite connection.

M
N1 station 1
Mstation max
N2 = 0 Eqn. 3
1

where,

## N2 = Number of shear studs required between the output sta-

tion considered and adjacent points of zero moment for

## N1 = Number of shear studs required between the output sta-

tion with the maximum positive moment and adjacent
points of zero moment for the design load combination,
unitless.

## = A term equal to Str/Sbare for full (100%) composite con-

nection and Seff/Sbare for partial composite connection,
unitless. Str is the section modulus for fully (100%) com-
posite transformed section referred to the extreme tension
fiber of the steel section (including cover plate, if it ex-
ists), in3. Sbare is the section modulus of the steel beam
alone (plus cover plate, if it exists) referred to the ex-

## Basic Equations Page 3 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## treme tension fiber, in3. Seff is the effective section

modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the ex-
treme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including
cover plate, it if exists), in3.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 1

Shear stud distribution example 1 is shown in Figure 1. It is a 30-foot-long
simply supported beam. It has 1 klf uniform loading and a 50 k-ft moment at
the right end. For this example, assume the following:

## ! Output stations occur at every 2 feet along the beam.

! The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud, q, is 12.4 kips.

## ! The horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum mo-

ment and adjacent points of zero moment, Vh', is 245 kips.

! The support distance, S, plus the gap distance, G, is equal to 0.50 foot (6
inches) at each end of the beam.

! The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the
beam is 36 inches.

As shown in Figure 1, this beam has one composite beam segment that has a
length, LCBS, of 29 feet.

Note:
Use the Assign menu > Frame/ Line >Frame Output Stations command to modify the
number of output stations for a beam.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Page 4 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

1 klf

50 k-ft

30'
13.33 k 16.67 k

13.33 k
Shear
13.33'
16.67 k

50 k-ft
Moment
3.33'

## 88.89 k-ft (actual Mmax) Actual point of

zero moment
from left end of beam

## point of zero moment

Output station 14 ft
End of beam flange

## End of beam flange

ETABS calculated

Center of support
Center of support

L1 and
LCBS

LCBS = 29'

L = 30'

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Page 5 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

Table 1 illustrates how the bending moment is calculated by the program for
this beam at each output station. Note the following about Figure 1 and Table
1:

! The actual maximum moment for this beam of 88.89 k-ft occurs at a dis-
tance of 13.33 feet from the left end of the beam, as shown in the mo-
ment diagram in Figure 1. As shown in Table 1, since the program only
calculates moment at the designated output stations, it picks up the
maximum moment as 88.67 k-ft at the station located 14 feet from the
(center of the support at the) left end of the beam. Increasing the number
of output stations will decrease the difference between the program-
calculated maximum moment and the actual maximum moment.

! The actual point of zero moment near the right end of the beam occurs
26.67 feet from the left end of the beam (3.33 feet from the right end of
the beam), as shown in the moment diagram in Figure 1. Referring to Ta-
ble 1, the program calculates the point of zero moment by assuming a lin-
ear variation of moment between output stations located 26 and 28 feet
from the left end of the beam. This assumption yields a point of zero mo-
ment that is 26.63 feet from the left end of the beam (3.37 feet from the
right end of the beam). The dimensions shown in the bottom sketch of
Figure 1 reflect this program-calculated point of zero moment.

Station Moment
(ft) (k-ft)

0 0.00
2 24.67
4 45.33
6 62.00
8 74.67
10 83.33
12 88.00
14 88.67
16 85.33
18 78.00
20 66.67
22 51.33

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Page 6 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Table1 Example 1, Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam

Station Moment
(ft) (k-ft)

24 32.00
26 8.67
28 -18.67
30 -50.00

The program calculates the maximum moment as 88.67 k-ft at the output
station located 14 feet from the left end of the beam. Multiplying Mmax by
0.999 yields 0.999 *88.67 = 88.58 k-ft. Because no other output station has
a moment that exceeds 0.999Mmax (88.58 k-ft) and no point loads are on this
beam (for any load case), the only output station that is considered when
determining the shear stud distribution is the station 14 feet from the left end
of the beam (the maximum moment location).

The required number of shear studs between the maximum moment and ad-
jacent points of zero moment, N1, is calculated using Equation 2 as:

## Vh' 245 kips

N1 = = = 19.76 studs
q 12.4 kips per stud

The distances L1 left and L1 right for the output station located 14 feet from the
left end of the beam are shown in Figure 1.

N N
NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1
L 1 left L 1 right

## 19.76 studs 19.76 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 29 ft
13.50 ft 12.63 ft

19.76 studs
NCBS1 = Roundup * 29 ft
12.63 ft

NCBS1 = 46 studs

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Page 7 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

The minimum number of studs required in the composite beam segment for
this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Technical Note Distribution of
Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design as:

L
MS CBS = Roundup CBS
MaxLS

29 ft 12 in
MS CBS = Roundup = 10 studs
36 in 1 ft

Thus, the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the
minimum requirements. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the
beam, the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the
beam is 46.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 2

Shear stud distribution example 2 is shown in Figure 2. It is a 30-foot-long
simply supported beam. It has point loads at the beam one-third points. For
this example, assume the following:

! The point loads do not come from other beams in the program model.
Thus, this beam has one composite beam segment instead of three com-
posite beam segments.

## ! Output stations occur at every 2 feet along the beam.

! The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud, q, is 12.4 kips.

## ! The horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum mo-

ment and adjacent points of zero moment, Vh', is 124 kips.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Page 8 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

5k 20 k

## 10' 10' 10'

10 k 15 k
30'

10 k
5k
Shear

15 k

Moment

100 k-ft
150 k-ft (Mmax)
from left end of beam
from left end of beam
End of beam flange

## End of beam flange

Output station 20 ft
Output station 10 ft
Center of support

Center of support

LCBS = 29'

L = 30'

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Page 9 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

! The support distance, S, plus the gap distance, G, is equal to 0.50 foot (6
inches) at each end of the beam.

! The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the
beam is 36 inches.

As shown in Figure 2, this beam has one composite beam segment that has a
length, LCBS, of 29 feet.

Table 2 shows the bending moment calculated by the program for this beam
at each output station.

## Table 2: Example 2, Distribution of Shear Studs on a

Composite Beam
Station Moment L1 left L1 right
(ft) (k-ft) (ft) (ft)

## 0 0.00 N.A. N.A.

2 20.00 N.A. N.A.
4 40.00 N.A. N.A.
6 60.00 N.A. N.A.
8 80.00 N.A. N.A.
10 100.00 9.5 19.5
12 110.00 N.A. N.A.
14 120.00 N.A. N.A.
16 130.00 N.A. N.A.
18 140.00 N.A. N.A.
20 150.00 19.5 9.5
22 120.00 N.A. N.A.
24 90.00 N.A. N.A.
26 60.00 N.A. N.A.
28 30.00 N.A. N.A.
30 0.00 N.A. N.A.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Page 10 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

The required number of shear studs between the maximum moment (located
at the output station 20 feet from the left end of the beam) and adjacent
points of zero moment, N1, is calculated using Equation 2 as:

## Vh' 124 kips

N1 = = = 10.00 studs
q 12.4 kips per stud

The required number of shear studs between the point load located at the
output station 10 feet from the left end of the beam and adjacent points of
zero moment, N2, is calculated using Equation 3 as:

Mstation
N1 1
N2 = Mstation max =0
1

100 k - ft * 1.40
10.00 studs 1
150 k - ft
N2 = = Negative
1.40 1

N2 = 0 studs

The distances L1 left and L1 right for the output stations located 10 feet and 20
feet from the left end of the beam are shown in Figure 2.

For the output station located 10 feet from the left end of the beam:

N N
NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1
L 1 left L 1 right

0 studs 0 studs
NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 29 ft
9.50 ft 19.50 ft

NCBS1 = 0 studs

For the output station located 20 feet from the left end of the beam:

N N
NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1
L 1 left L 1 right

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Page 11 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## 10.00 studs 10.00 studs

NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 29 ft
19.50 ft 9.50 ft

10.00 studs
NCBS1 = Roundup * 29 ft
9.50 ft

## NCBS1 = Roundup (30.53 studs)

NCBS1 = 31 studs

The minimum number of studs required in the composite beam segment for
this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Technical Note Distribution of
Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design as:

L
MS CBS = Roundup CBS
MaxLS

29 ft 12 in
MS CBS = Roundup = 10 studs
36 in 1 ft

Thus, the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the
minimum requirements. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the
beam, the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the
beam is 31.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Page 12 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3

Shear stud distribution example 3 is shown in Figure 3. It is identical to Ex-
ample 2, except that the point loads are assumed to come from end reactions
of other beams that are included in the program model. Thus, three compos-
ite beam segments are in this example instead of the one composite beam
segment that was in Example 2. For this example, assume the following:

## ! Output stations occur at every 2 feet along the beam.

! The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud, q, is 12.4 kips.

## ! The horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum mo-

ment and adjacent points of zero moment, Vh', is 124 kips.

## ! The ratio = Seff/Sbare is equal to 1.40.

! The support distance, S, plus the gap distance, G, is equal to 0.50 foot (6
inches) at each end of the beam.

! The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the
beam is 36 inches.

As shown in Figure 3, this beam has three composite beam segments labeled
1, 2 and 3 from the left end of the beam to the right end of the beam. The
lengths of these composite beam segments are LCBS1 = 9.5 feet, LCBS2 = 10
feet and LCBS3 = 9.5 feet.

Table 2 shows the bending moment calculated by the program for this beam
at each output station. Table 3 summarizes how the shear stud distribution is
determined for this beam.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 13 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

5k 20 k

## 10' 10' 10'

10 k 15 k
30'

10 k
5k
Shear

15 k

Moment

100 k-ft
150 k-ft (Mmax)
from left end of beam
from left end of beam
End of beam flange

## End of beam flange

Output station 20 ft
Output station 10 ft
Center of support

Center of support

L = 30'

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 14 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Table 3: Example 3, Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam

Left to Right Along the Beam
Station Moment L1 left L1 right Studs NCBS1 NCBS2 NCBS3
10 ft 100 k-ft 9.5 ft 19.5 ft 0.00 0 (1) N.A. N.A.
20 ft 150 k-ft 19.5 ft 9.5 ft 10.00 5 (2a) 5 (2b) N.A.

## Right to Left Along the Beam

Station Moment L1 left L1 right Studs NCBS1 NCBS2 NCBS3
20 ft 150 k-ft 19.5 ft 9.5 ft 10.00 5 (3b) 5 (3b) 10 (3a)
10 ft 100 k-ft 9.5 ft 19.5 ft 0.00 5 (4d) 5 (4b) 10 (4a)
The numbers in parenthesis identify equations from Technical Note Distribution of Shear
Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design.

The number of shear studs listed in the Studs column of Table 3 is calculated
exactly as described for Example 2. Equation 3 is used at the station 10 feet
from the left end of the beam, and Equation 2 is used at the station 20 feet
from the left end of the beam.

The columns labeled NCBS1, NCBS2 and NCBS3 show the number of studs required
in composite beam segments 1, 2 and 3, respectively, along with the equation
used to calculate that number of studs. The equation number is shown in pa-
renthesis.

The calculation proceeds from left to right along the beam and then back
along the beam from right to left. The detailed calculations associated with
Table 3 are shown in the next subsection entitled "Detailed Calculations."

The final required number of shear studs for each of the composite beam
segments is shown in the last row of Table 3. Composite beam segments 1, 2
and 3 require 5, 5 and 10 shear studs, respectively. This is a total of 20 shear
studs. This compares with 31 studs required in Example 2, where a uniform
intensity of shear studs is assumed over the entire beam rather than over
each of the three composite beam segments.

Detailed Calculations
This subsection shows the calculations required to obtain the values in the
columns labeled NCBS1, NCBS2 and NCBS3 in Table 3.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 15 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Left to Right at 10 Feet from Left End

We begin by working from left to right along the beam. The first output sta-
tion considered is 10 feet from the left end of the beam. This output station is
considered to be in composite beam segment 1. Equation 1 of Technical Note
Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design is
used to calculate the studs required in composite beam segment 1.

N N
NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * L CBS1
L 1 left L 1 right

0 studs 0 studs
NCBS1 = Roundup Max , * 9.5 ft
9.5 ft 19.5 ft

NCBS1 = 0 studs

Thus, NCBS1 is calculated as zero studs. Because the output station considered
is in composite beam segment 1 and we are working from left to right along
the beam, NCBS2 and NCBS3 are not yet applicable.

## Left to Right at 20 Feet from Left End

The next output station considered is 20 feet from the left end of the beam.
This output station is considered to be in composite beam segment 2.
Equation 2a of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite
Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the studs required in com-
posite beam segment 1.

N
NCBS1 = Roundup * L CBS1 NCBS1 Prev
L 1 left

10.00 studs
NCBS1 = Roundup * 9.5 ft 0 studs
19.5 ft

NCBS1 = 5 studs

## Next, we need to determine whether to use Equation 2b or Equation 2c of

Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite
Beam Design for composite beam segment 2.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 16 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

n 1 ? n 1
N
L 1 left
*
i =1
L CBSi < N
i =1
CBSi

1 ? 1
10.00 studs
19.5 ft
* i =1
L CBSi < N
i =1
CBSi

?
10.00 studs
* L CBS1 < NCBS1
19.5 ft

?
10.00 studs
* 9.5 ft < 5 studs
19.5 ft

## 4.87 studs < 5 studs Use Equation 2b of Technical Note

Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam
Design.

## Thus, Equation 2b of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Com-

posite Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the studs required
in composite beam segment 2.

1
N-

i =1
NCBSi

NCBS2 = Roundup 1
* L CBS2 NCBS2 Prev

L 1 left L CBSi
i =1

## 10.00 studs - 5 studs

NCBS2 = Roundup * 10 ft 0 studs
19.5 ft 9.5 ft

NCBS2 = 5 studs

## Because the output station considered is in composite beam segment 2 and

we are working from left to right along the beam, NCBS3 is not yet applicable.

## Right to Left at 20 Feet from Left End

Now we work back along the beam from right to left. Thus, the next output
station considered is the one 20 feet from the left end of the beam. This out-
put station is now considered to be in composite beam segment 3.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 17 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Equation 3a of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in
composite beam segment 3.

N N
N CBS3 = Roundup Max , * L CBS3 N CBS3 Prev

L1 left L1 right

10 studs 10 studs
N CBS 3 = Roundup Max , * 9.5 ft 0 studs
19.5 ft 9.5 ft

10 studs
N CBS 3 = Roundup * 9.5 ft 0 studs
9.5 ft

NCBS3 = 10 studs

## Equation 3b of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in
composite beam segments 1 and 2.

## Right to Left at 10 Feet from Left End

The final output station considered is 10 feet from the left end of the beam.
This output station is now considered to be in composite beam segment 2.

## Equation 4a of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in
composite beam segment 3.

N
NCBS3 = Roundup * L CBS3 NCBS3 Prev
L 1 right

0 studs
NCBS3 = Roundup * 9.5 ft 10 studs
19.5 ft

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 18 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Next we determine whether to use Equation 4b or Equation 4c of Technical

Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam De-
sign for composite beam segment 2.
rightmost ? rightmost
N
L 1 right
* L CBSi <
i =n +1
N
i =n +1
CBSi

?
0 studs
* L CBS3 < NCBS3
19.5 ft

?
0 studs
* 9.5 ft < 10 studs
19.5 ft

## Thus, Equation 4b of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Com-

posite Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the studs required
in composite beam segment 2.

rightmost
N-

i=3

NCBSi

NCBS2 = Roundup rightmost
* L CBS2 NCBS2 Prev

L 1 right
L CBSi
i=3

N - NCBS3
NCBS2 = Roundup * L CBS2 NCBS2 Prev
L 1 right L CBS3

0 - 10
NCBS2 = Roundup * 10 ft 5 studs
19.5 ft 9.5 ft

## Equation 4d of Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite

Beam Composite Beam Design is used to calculate the shear studs required in
composite beam segment 1.

## Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Page 19 of 20

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs

## Minimum Studs Required

The minimum number of studs required in the three composite beam seg-
ments for this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Technical Note
Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design.

L 9.5 ft 12 in
MS CBS1 = Roundup CBS1 = = 4 studs
MaxLS 36 in 1 ft

L 10 ft 12 in
MS CBS2 = Roundup CBS2 = = 4 studs
MaxLS 36 in 1 ft

L 9.5 ft 12 in
MS CBS3 = Roundup CBS3 = = 4 studs
MaxLS 36 in 1 ft

Thus, the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the
minimum requirements. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the
beam, the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the
beam is 5 in composite beam segment 1, 5 in composite beam segment 2 and
10 in composite beam segment 3, for a total of 20 shear studs.