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COIN PROBLEMS :

Terri has $13.45 in dimes and quarters. If there are 70 coins in all, how
many of each coin does she have?

Let : x = the number of dimes


70 x = the number of quarters.

Terri has 27 dimes and 70 x = 70 27 = 43 quarters.

Bobbie has $1.54 in quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies. He has twice
as many dimes as quarters and three times as many nickels as dimes. The
number of pennies is the same as the number of dimes. How many of each
coin does he have?

Let : x = the number of quarters ($0.25 each)


2x= the number of dimes ($0.10 each)
3(2x) or 6x = the number of nickels ($0.05 each)
2x= the number of pennies ($0.01 each)
Bobbie has 2 quarters; 2x = 2(2) = 4 dimes; 6x = 6(2) = 12 nickels; and
2 x = 2(2) = 4 pennies.

MIXTURE PROBLEMS :

How many liters of a 70% alcohol solution must be added to 50 liters


of a 40% alcohol solution to produce a 50% alcohol solution?

liters sol'n % alcohol total liters alcohol


70% sol'n x 0.70 0.70x
40% sol'n 50 0.40 (0.40)(50) = 20
50% mix 50 + x 0.50 0.50(50 + x)

From the last column, you get the equation 0.7x + 20 = 0.5(50 + x). Solve for x.

0.7 x + 20 = 0.5(50 + x)
0.7x + 20 = 25 + 0.5x
0.7x 0.5x = 25 -20
0.2 x = 5
X = 25

How many ounces of pure water must be added to 50 ounces of


a 15% saline solution to make a saline solution that is 10% salt?

ounces liquid % salt total ounces salt


Water x 0 0
15% sol'n 50 0.15 (50)(0.15) = 7.5
10% mix 50 + x 0.10 0.10(50 + x)
From the last column, you get the equation 7.5 = 0.1(50 + x). Solve for x.

(Note the percentage for water. "Pure water" contains no salt, so the percent of salt
is zero. If, on the other hand, you were trying to increase the salt content by
adding pure salt, the percent would have been one hundred.)

7.5 = 0.1(50 + x)
7.5 = 5 + 0.1 x
7.5 5 = 0.1 x
2.5 = 0.1 x
25 =x

How many pounds of lima beans that cost $0.90 per pound must be
mixed with 16pounds of corn that costs $0.50 per pound to make a
mixture of vegetables that costs$0.65 per pound?

pounds $/pound total $ for veggies


lima beans x $0.90 $0.90x
Corn 16 $0.50 (16)($0.50) = $8
Mix 16 + x $0.65 (16 + x)($0.65)

From the last column, you get the equation $0.90x + $8 = (16 + x)($0.65). Solve
for x.

$0.90x + $8 = (16 + x)($0.65)


$0.90x + $8 = $10.4 + $0.65x
$0.90x - $0.65x =$10.4 - $ 8
$0.25x = $ 2.4
X = 9.6 pounds

AGE PROBLEMS :

In three more years, Miguel's grandfather will be six times as old as


Miguel was last year. When Miguel's present age is added to his
grandfather's present age, the total is 68. How old is each one
now?

Let : m = Miguel's present age


g = grandfather's present age
Then m + g = 68 (Equation 1)
m 1 = Miguels age last year
g + 3 = grandfathers age in 3 more years
g + 3 = 6(m 1) (Equation 2)
Solving the first equation, I get m = 68 g. (Note: It's okay to solve for "g =
68 m", too. The problem will work out a bit differently in the middle, but
the answer will be the same at the end.) I'll plug "68 g" into the second
equation in place of "m":

g + 3 = 6m 6 (subs. from eq 1 : m= 68 g to m in eq 2)
g + 3 = 6(68 g) 6
g + 3 = 408 6g 6
g + 3 = 402 6g
g + 6g = 402 3
7g = 399
g = 57

Since "g" stands for the grandfather's current age, then the grandfather is
57 years old. Since m + g = 68, then m = 11, and Miguel is presently
eleven years old.

One-half of Heather's age two years from now plus one-third of her
age three years ago is twenty years. How old is she now?

This problem refers to Heather's age two years in the future and three years
in the past.

age now: H
age two years from now: H + 2
age three years ago: H 3

one-half of age two years from now: ( 1/2 )(H + 2) = H/2 + 1


one-third of age three years ago: ( 1/3 )(H 3) = H/3 1

The sum of these two numbers is twenty

H
/2 + 1 + H/3 1 = 20
H
/2 + H/3 = 20
3H + 2H = 120
5H = 120
H = 24

Heather is 24 years old.


NUMBER PROBLEMS (CONSECUTIVE & FRACTION)

The sum of the reciprocals of two consecutive integers is 5/6. Find the
integers.
Let the consecutive integers be n and n+1:

The LCD is

Multiply through by this LCD

gives solution

gives solution

We discard the fractional solution, since it is not an integer.

So the only solution is 2,

so the consecutive integers are 2 and 3:

Checking:
Twice the larger of two numbers is three more than five times the
smaller, and the sum of four times the larger and three times the smaller
is 71. What are the numbers?

the larger number: x


the smaller number: y

twice the larger: 2x


three more than five times the smaller: 5y + 3
relationship between ("is"): 2x = 5y + 3

four times the larger: 4x


three times the smaller: 3y
relationship between ("sum of"): 4x + 3y = 71

Two equations in two variables:

2x = 5y + 3
4x + 3y = 71

Solve the first equation for x:

x = (5/2)y + (3/2)

Then substitute this into the second equation in place of the "x":

4[ (5/2)y + (3/2) ] + 3y = 71
10y + 6 + 3y = 71
13y + 6 = 71
13y = 65
y = 65/13 = 5

Now that I have the value for y, I can solve for x:

x = (5/2)y + (3/2)
x = (5/2)(5) + (3/2)
x = (25/2) + (3/2)
x = 28/2 = 14

The larger number is 14, and the smaller number is 5.


WORK PROBLEMS :

If 6 workers can harvest a field in 18 hours, how many workers would it have
taken to do it in 3 hours?

Solution : Let x be the number of workers it would have taken.

(6 workers)(18 hours) = (3 hours)x


108 worker-hours = 3x hours
36 workers = x

If 8 workers can plant a garden in 6 hours, how many workers would it have
taken to do it in 4 hours?

Solution : Let x be the number of workers it would have taken.


(8 workers)(6 hours) = (4 hours)x
48 worker-hours = 4x hours
12 workers = x

INVESTMENT PROBLEMS :

A woman had $10,000 to invest. She deposited her money into two accountsone
paying 6% interest and the other interest. If at the end of the year the total
interest earned was $682.50, how much was originally deposited in each account?

Let x represent the amount deposited into the 6% account


10,000 x is the amount deposited at
The amount of interest earned at 6% is 0.06 x
the amount of interest earned at is 0.075(10,000 x )
The total amount of interest is $682.50, so 0.06 x + 0.075(10,000 x ) = 682.50.

The woman deposited $4500 in the 6% account and 10,000 x = 10,000


4500 = $5500 in the account.
AREA PROBLEMS :

As shown in the following diagram, a rectangle's length is 2x + 1 and its width is 2x 1.


If its area is 15 cm2, what are the rectangle's dimensions ?

Solution : A = l x w

(2x + 1) (2x 1) = 15
4x2 1 = 15
4x2 = 15 + 1
4x2 = 16
X2 = 4
X=2
Therefore length = 2x + 1 width = 2x - 1
= 5cm = 3cm

A rectangle is 4 times as long as it is wide. If the length is increased by 4 inches


and the width is decreased by 1 inch, the area will be 60 square inches. What were
the dimensions of the original rectangle?

Let x = original width of rectangle


Sketch the figure

A = lw
substitute the values from the question and from the sketch.
60 = (4x + 4)(x 1)
Use distributive property to remove brackets
60 = 4x2 4x + 4x 4
Put in Quadratic Form
4x2 4 60 = 0
4x2 64 = 0
This quadratic can be rewritten as a difference of two squares
(2x)2 (8)2 = 0
Factorize difference of two squares
(2x)2 (8)2 = 0
(2x 8)(2x + 8) = 0
We get two values for x.

Since x is a dimension, it would be positive. So, we takex = 4


The question requires the dimensions of the originalrectangle.
The width of the original rectangle is 4.
The length is 4 times the width = 4 4 = 16
Answer: The dimensions of the original rectangle are 4 and 16.

MONEY PROBLEMS :

David has only $5 bills and $10 bills in his wallet. If he has 5 bills totalling $35,
how many of each does he have?

Let x = $ 5
Y = $ 10
X + y = 5 equation 1
5x + 10y = 35 equation 2

From eq. 1 : x = 5 y substitute in eq. 2


5x + 10y = 35
5(5-y) + 10y = 35
25 5y + 10y = 35
5y = 35 25
5y = 10
Y = 2 substitute in eq. 1 , we get x = 5 - 2
=3
Therefore we have (3) three $5 bills and (2) two $10 bills.

DISTANCE PROBLEMS :

A 555-mile, 5-hour plane trip was flown at two speeds. For the first part
of the trip, the average speed was 105 mph. Then the tailwind picked up,
and the remainder of the trip was flown at an average speed of 115 mph.
For how long did the plane fly at each speed?
d r t
first part d 105 t
second part 555 d 115 5t
total 555 --- 5

Using "d = rt", the first row gives d = 105t and the second row gives :

555 d = 115(5 t)

Since the two distances add up to 555, add the two distance expressions,
and set their sum equal to the given total:

555 = 105t + 115(5 t)

Then solve:

555 = 105t + 575 115t


555 = 575 10t
20 = 10t
2=t

"t" stands for the time spent on the first part of the trip, so the answer
is "The plane flew for two hours at 105 mph and three hours at
115 mph."

FAULINE DEUNE G. CARLOS


BS-CHEMICAL ENGINEERING