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APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION GUIDE

LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

G3600 G3500
G3400 G3300
3600 3500
3412E 3400 3126B
C18 C-16 C-15 C15
C13 C-12 C11 C-10
C9 C-9 C7
Contents

Lubricating Oil Systems ..........................................................1


General Description........................................................... 2
Flow ........................................................................... 2
Engine Sump ................................................................ 2
Main Oil Pump.............................................................. 2
Oil Coolers ................................................................... 2
Oil Cooler Bypass Valve................................................. 3
Oil Filters ..................................................................... 7
Oil Filter Differential Pressure Gauge ............................... 7
Duplex Oil Filters .......................................................... 7
Auxiliary Oil Filters ........................................................ 7
Supplemental Bypass Filters ........................................... 7
Centrifugal ............................................................... 7
Absorptive ............................................................... 8
Oil Level Gauge (Dipstick) .............................................. 8
Crankcase Breather ....................................................... 8
Oil Pressure Regulation Valve ......................................... 8
Priority Valve................................................................ 8
Temperature Regulators................................................. 9
Prelubrication ............................................................... 9
Intermittent Prelube System ......................................10
Continuous Prelube System.......................................10
Redundant Prelube System........................................10
Quick Start Prelube System.......................................11
Postlubrication.............................................................11
Optional Systems ............................................................15
Duplex Oil Filter System ...............................................15
Remote Oil Filters ........................................................15
Lubricating Oil Heating System......................................16
Oil Makeup Systems ....................................................17
Oil Pressure Monitoring.................................................19
Turbocharger Oil Accumulator .......................................19
Remote Sump Tanks ....................................................19
Remote Sump with Gravity Drain ...............................19
Remote Sump with Scavenging Pump ........................21
Piping .....................................................................21
Suction Strainer.......................................................22
Auxiliary Sump Tank ................................................22
Auxiliary Oil Sump System Considerations ..................22
Additional Considerations .................................................24
Supplemental Bypass Filter Systems ..............................24
Emergency Systems.....................................................24
Transmissions .............................................................24
Piping Systems and Flexible Hoses.................................24
Lubricating Oil Centrifuges ............................................25
Centrifuge Supply Pump ...............................................26
PreHeater....................................................................26
Sample Points .............................................................26
Lube Oil Storage and Transfer Systems ..........................26
Clean Oil.................................................................26
Dirty Oil ..................................................................27
Renovated Oil..........................................................27
Transfer Pumps .......................................................27
Storage Tanks .........................................................27
Lubricating Oil Selection .......................................................33
Properties .......................................................................34
Viscosity ....................................................................34
Additives ....................................................................34
Total Base Number (TBN)..............................................35
Total Acid Number (TAN)..............................................35
Cleanliness..................................................................35
Engine Oil Selection .....................................................35
Consumption...................................................................37
Oil Change Interval.......................................................37
Monitoring Quality ...........................................................38
SOSSM .....................................................................38
Wear Analysis .............................................................38
Oil Condition Analysis ..................................................38
Additional Tests ..........................................................38
Contamination.................................................................39
Copper .......................................................................39
Silicon ........................................................................39
Sodium, Silicates, Carboxylic Acid Base .........................39
Silicon, Chromium, Iron, Aluminum ................................39
Silicon, Lead, Aluminum, Tin .........................................39
Chromium, Molybdenum, Aluminum...............................39
Aluminum ...................................................................39
Iron ............................................................................39
Soot...........................................................................39
Water.........................................................................40
Fuel ...........................................................................40
Sulfur .........................................................................40
Reference Material...............................................................41
Foreword
This section of the Application and Installation Guide generally describes wide-
ranging requirements and options for the Lubrication System on Caterpillar engines
listed on the cover of this section. Additional engine systems, components and
dynamics are addressed in other sections of this Application and Installation Guide.
Engine-specific information and data are available from a variety of sources. Refer
to the Introduction section of this guide for additional references.
Systems and components described in this guide may not be available or
applicable for every engine. Below is a general listing of lubrication systems and
components for various Caterpillar engines. Refer to the Price List for specific
options and compatibility.

G3300/G3400
C-10/C-12

C-15/C-16
z Standard C11/C13

C15/C18

C27/C32

G3500

G3600
3126B

Optional

3412E

3500

3600
- Not Available
C-9
C7

C9

Filter Differential
Pressure Gauge - - - - - - - - - - z -
Duplex Filter - - - - - - - - - -
Centrifugal Bypass
Filter - - - - - - -
Pressure Regulator
Valve z z z z z z z z - z z - z z -
Priority Valve - - - - - - - - z - - z - - z
Temperature
Regulator - - - - - - - - - - - - z
Prelube System - - - - - - - - - - - z
Postlube System - - - - - - - - - - - z - - z
Remote Filter - - - - - - - - -
Oil Heating System - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Makeup System - - - - - - - - - - - -
Monitoring System - - - - - - - - z - - z - z
Programmable
Monitoring System z z z z z z z z - z z - - - -
Turbocharger Oil
Accumulator - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Remote Sump - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Emergency
Systems - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sample Points z z z z z z z z z z -

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Lubricating Oil Systems


Proper lubrication is critical to successful engine operation. The lubrication
system of a modern engine accomplishes three primary purposes:
It lubricates surfaces to minimize friction losses.
It cools internal engine parts that cannot be directly cooled by the engines
water-cooling system.
It cleans the engine by flushing away wear particles.
Additionally, the lubricant itself performs other functions:
It cushions the engines bearings from the shocks of cylinder firing.
It neutralizes the corrosive elements created during combustion.
It seals the engines metal surfaces from rust.
Lubricating oil systems require clean oil that is free from abrasive particles
and corrosive compounds. These systems require a lubricant with sufficient
film strength to withstand bearing pressures and heat exposure to cylinder
and piston walls. In addition, the lubricant must have a viscosity index that is
low enough to flow properly when cold. The lubricant must also be capable
of neutralizing harmful combustion products and holding them in suspension
for the duration of the oil change period. Your local Caterpillar dealer should
be consulted to determine the best lubricant for your local fuels.
The oil system provides a constant supply of filtered oil to the engine. Main
bearings, piston cooling jets, camshafts, gear train, rocker arms, and
turbocharger bearings are just a few of the components that require proper
lubrication for normal function. The oil system is not only for lubrication.
Engines equipped with HEUI fuel systems use engine oil to drive and control
fuel delivery. This makes an effective lubricating oil system particularly
important on these engines.

SECTION CONTENTS
General Description .............. 2 Additional Considerations ....24
Lubricating Oil Flow Marine/Offshore
Lubricating Oil Components Requirements
Sample System Diagrams Lubricating Oil Centrifuges
Optional Systems................15 Lubricating Oil Storage
Optional Lubrication Lubricating Oil Transfer
Systems and Components Systems
Sample Sump Configurations

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

General Description
The following is a brief description
Flow
of common lubrication system
A typical engine lubricating oil flow
components.
schematic is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the Engine Sump
lubricating oil flow for 3600/G3600 The engine sump serves as the
engines. engines main oil reservoir and
The basic flow of the lubricating oil contains the bulk of the engine oil.
begins with an engine mounted, gear Typically part of the engine package,
driven, fixed displacement gear the sump is located below the
pump. The pump pulls oil from the crankcase to collect the oil as it
sump through a coarse strainer on drains from the engine.
the suction bell. The oil is then Sumps can differ in capacity,
pumped toward the oil cooler. Oil configuration and tilt capability to
cooler flow can differ depending on accommodate various engines and
engine design. Engines designed applications.
with an oil cooler bypass valve can Tilt capability requires additional
divert some of the oil flow around consideration for the oil sump to
the cooler under certain conditions. ensure proper lubricating oil system
The valve operates based on oil function. Marine and offshore
viscosity (measured by pressure- engines may be installed and put
drop across the oil cooler). In into continuous use while in a tilted
engines without a bypass valve, the position. Other mobile applications
oil flows through the oil cooler. may require temporary operation in a
Next, the oil flows to the oil filters. tilted position.
All oil flow is filtered before entering
Caterpillar can provide engines that
the engine unless the filter becomes
meet or exceed specific tilt angle
plugged. If the filter is plugged, a
requirements. Refer to the Caterpillar
valve allows the oil to bypass the
TMI for specific information.
filter to help prevent lubricating oil
starvation. Oil flow proceeds to oil Main Oil Pump
galleries in the engine block where it The main oil pump is a gear driven,
is distributed to all the components fixed displacement pump. The pump
requiring oil flow and pressure. output depends on engine speed and
Gravity returns the oil to the sump the effects of changing system
via drain tubes and passages in the restrictions are minimized by the use
cylinder head and engine block. of pressure regulating valves.
Lubricating oil systems may be
equipped with additional or optional Oil Coolers
components. Some components are The oil coolers are typically shell-
not available for all engine models, and-tube type, with series water
applications and duty cycles. flow and parallel oil flow. Some

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

larger engines, however, may use the oil cooler becomes plugged or if
plate-and-frame type for remote the oil viscosity is high. In this
cooler applications. Specific cooler situation, viscosity is determined by
designs will vary with engine model the pressure differential across the
and rating. oil cooler. If the pressure differential
exceeds a preset limit, the valve
Oil Cooler Bypass Valve opens allowing oil to bypass the
The oil cooler bypass valve allows cooler. Cold starts often cause the
oil to flow directly to the oil filters if lubricating oil to bypass the cooler.

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Typical Engine Lubricating Oil Flow Schematic

Figure 1

1. Sump lube oil is drawn from the sump through a oil to bypass the cooler until the oil is warm
strainer into the inlet of the lube oil pump. enough to require full oil flow through the cooler.
2. Lube Oil Pump the quantity of lube oil delivered 6. Lube Oil Filter Caterpillar lube oil filters are the
by the lube oil pump exceeds the engine's needs full-flow type with a bypass valve to provide
when the engine is new. As the engine clearances adequate lubrication should the filter become
increase through normal wear, the flow required plugged. The filter system may have the
to properly lubricate the engine will remain replaceable element type or the spin-on type. The
adequate. oil filter bypass valve is protection against lube oil
3. Oil Pressure Regulating Valve this valve starvation if the oil filter clogs.
regulates oil pressure in the engine and routes 7. Engine Oil Passages the main oil flow is
excess oil back to the sump. distributed through passages to internal engine
4. Lube Oil Cooler the oil to the engine is cooled by components. The oil flow carries away heat and
jacket water or external water source in the wear particles and returns to the sump by gravity.
engine oil cooler . 8. Prelubrication Pump used only during starting
5. Oil Cooler Bypass Valve when the viscosity of cycle.
the oil causes a substantial pressure drop in the 9. Check Valve prevents oil back flow through
oil cooler, the bypass valve will open, causing the prelubrication pump when the pump is inactive.

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

3600 Lubricating Oil System Model 3608

Figure 2

1. Oil Pump 10. Oil Manifold (Oil To Piston Cooling Jets)


2. Prelube Pump 11. Oil Manifold (Oil To Bearings)
3. Oil Coolers 12. Oil To Main Bearings
4. Oil Filters 13. Oil To Camshafts
5. Oil Thermostat Housing 14. Centrifugal Filters (3600 Only)
6. Oil Filter Duplex Valve Handle 15. Turbocharger
7. Priority Valve 16. Bypass Oil
8. Oil To Centrifugal Filters (3600 Only) 17. Check Valve
9. Emergency Oil Locations * Flow in Opposite Direction During Prelube

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

3600 Lubricating Oil System Schematic - Model 3612

Figure 3

1. Oil Pump 11. Oil Manifold (2) (Oil To Piston Cooling Jets)
2. Prelube Pump 12. Oil To Main Bearings
3. Oil Coolers 13. Oil To Camshafts
4. Oil Filters 14. Centrifugal Filters (3600 Only)
5. Oil Thermostat Housing 15. Turbocharger
6. Oil Filter Duplex Valve Handle 16. Bypass Oil
7. Priority Valve 17. Check Valve
8. Oil To Centrifugal Filters (3600 Only) 18. Piston Cooling Jets
9. Emergency Oil Locations 19. Check Valve
10. Oil Manifold (Oil To Piston Cooling Jets) * Flow in Opposite Direction During Prelube

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Oil Filters Auxiliary Oil Filters


Caterpillar oil filters are designed to Some Caterpillar rich burn
remove solid particles (large enough (stoichiometric) gas engines include
to cause noticeable abrasion) from an auxiliary oil filter. Where
the oil by mechanical filtration. applicable, this auxiliary filter is
Standard oil filter systems on shipped loose and provides added
Caterpillar engines meet particulate capacity and filtering to the
requirements and are sized to lubricating oil system, providing for
provide reasonable time intervals longer oil change intervals.
between element changes. If a deep sump oil pan option is
Filter change intervals should be used, the auxiliary filter should be
maintained in line with published omitted from the system. The
service data relating to particular auxiliary oil filter may be considered
engine models, application and duty optional on engines equipped with a
cycle. standard sized oil pan if the oil
The use of genuine Caterpillar change interval is reduced. In such
elements is encouraged for optimum circumstances, an oil analysis is
protection of your engine. recommended to determine the
correct oil change interval.
Oil Filter Differential Pressure Auxiliary filter capacity varies by
Gauge engine model, application and duty
Oil filter differential pressure cycle.
gauges are available and
recommended for many engine Supplemental Bypass Filters
models. In most cases the gauges Caterpillar engines usually do not
are not integrated into the engine require a supplemental bypass oil
controls, but can be monitored by filter system. However, some
the operator to protect against unusual operating conditions may
engine operation with plugged cause users to install such a system.
filters. Refer to the Special Considerations
section for more information.
Differential pressure gauges are
standard on 3600/G3600 lubricating Supplemental filters generally fall
oil systems. into two categories, centrifugal and
absorptive. Centrifugal filters have
Duplex Oil Filters proved helpful in extending the
Duplex oil filters can be used primary filter life while absorptive
instead of standard oil filters on filters reduce acids and
some engine models. In many contaminants in the oil.
applications, the use of duplex filters
Centrifugal
can allow an oil filter change while
Used primarily on the 3500 and
the engine is operating. Refer to the
3600 diesel engines, engine-
Optional Lube Oil Systems section
mounted centrifugal filters remove
for more information.
micron-size solids from the oil such

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

as sludge, wear materials, soot and checked for accuracy and


carbonous material. recalibrated if necessary.
Centrifugal bypass filters are not
Crankcase Breather
recommended for gas engines.
The crankcase breather benefits
Centrifugal filters can increase the the oil system by equalizing
number of operating hours before crankcase and ambient air pressures.
the primary filters become restricted. Refer to the Crankcase Ventilation
Additional information about Application and Installation Guide,
centrifugal bypass filters can be Media Number LEBW4958-00 for
found in the Additional more information.
Considerations section of this guide.
Oil Pressure Regulation Valve
Absorptive Most engine models utilize an oil
Absorptive filters have an pressure regulation valve to regulate
absorbent media such as cotton or the oil pressure in the lubricating oil
cellulose fibers which absorb acids, circuit. Excess oil is routed back to
moisture and remove contaminants the sump.
from the oil.
Supplemental bypass absorptive Priority Valve
filters increase oil capacity and may 3600/G3600 lubricating oil
allow oil and filter change periods to systems are regulated by an oil
be extended. However, the drain priority valve. Refer to Figure 4.
intervals cannot be extended
arbitrarily. Oil and filter life must be
verified by adequate monitoring
systems.

Oil Level Gauge (Dipstick)


The oil level gauge, or dipstick, is
marked with graduations that
indicate the engine oil level in the
sump. Engines that are 32 liters or
less must be stopped to check the
oil level.
Figure 4
On engines above 32 liters, the
dipstick is marked to allow the oil
level to be checked while the engine The priority valve regulates oil
is stopped or running. pressure at the cylinder block main
oil gallery rather than at the oil
Marine and offshore engines are pump. This makes the oil gallery
commonly installed and operated in pressure independent of the oil filter
a tilted position. After installation, and oil cooler pressure drops.
dipsticks on these engines should be

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

The valve also features advanced Prelubrication


oil regulating capabilities for better Used primarily on larger engines,
engine protection and lubricating oil prelubrication systems lubricate all
management. critical bearing journals before
energizing the starting motors.
Temperature Regulators Prelubrication is mandatory
Oil temperature regulators direct equipment for 3600/G3600 engines
lubricating oil to the oil coolers and and especially important after
then oil filters. While most Caterpillar periods of idleness, oil changes and
engine models require full oil flow filter changes.
through the cooler at all times, some
of the larger engines, notably 3500 Prelubrication systems are
engines configured for high jacket available to operate with electric
water (JW) temperatures and all starter or air starter motors. The
3600 engines, utilize a temperature systems can be manual or
regulator in the oil circuit in order to automatic. An automatic system is
more closely control the oil shown in Figure 7.
temperature. The manual system requires the
The 3500 engines, configured for engine operator to manually operate
high JW temperatures, cool the oil a sump pump to fill the engine oil
using the aftercooler circuit instead passages before activating the
of the JW circuit. These engines starter motors.
also use an oil temperature regulator Automatic systems significantly
in place of the oil cooler bypass reduce the amount of prelube time
valve to avoid overcooling the oil. prior to engine crank. The prelube
Temperature regulators in 3600 pumps may be driven by an electric
engines also help maintain the oil at motor, a compressed air motor, or a
the optimum temperatures needed compressed natural gas motor (gas
for tighter ring clearances and engines only), but must be powered
extended ring life associated with from a source independent of any
the engine. failure that could require the engine
to start. After oil is sensed at the
In either case, oil temperatures are upper portion of the lubrication
controlled within acceptable limits, system, the starter motors are
provided the cooling system is automatically energized.
adequately sized.
Automatic prelubrication systems
Note: Oil life will be shortened, and supplied by Caterpillar include
engine components may suffer starting controls, electric or air
damage, if excessive oil powered pumps, a check valve and
temperatures are permitted during engine piping. The check valve is
operation. used to prevent pressurized oil from
flowing through the prelube pump
during engine operation.

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Refer to the engine model specific Continuous Prelube System


price lists for the various options Continuous prelubrication is for
available. immediate starting applications and
Note: Remote mounted prelube is typically used in conjunction with
pumps must be located and piped to jacket water and lube oil heating.
prevent excessive inlet restriction. Used mostly on the 3600 family of
Several automatic prelubrication engines, a continuous prelube
systems available for Caterpillar system eliminates the delay of
engines are: waiting for the completion of an
intermittent prelube cycle. This
Intermittent Prelube System
system is operating continuously
Continuous Prelube System when the engine is not running. This
Redundant Prelube System ensures that lube oil will be available
at the bearings at all times, allowing
Quick Start Prelube System
immediate starting of the engine.
Intermittent Prelube System The continuous prelube systems
The intermittent prelube system utilize pumps with lower flow rates
provides suitable performance for than intermittent prelube systems.
applications not requiring quick start This system relies on an engine oil
capability. level start permissive, in lieu of the
The intermittent prelube system pressure switch permissive used
uses an engine mounted pump and with the intermittent prelube
is engaged immediately prior to system. A minimum level of oil in
engine start-up. the engine is required to fulfill the
Figure 5 is a schematic of a starting system interlock.
prelube system for a 3600/G3600 Redundant Prelube System
engine. The type of prelube pump The redundant prelube system
determines whether the system is combines the continuous and
intermittent or continuous. intermittent prelube systems,
Intermittent prelube time will vary offering the benefits of both. Under
with engine model as well as oil normal circumstances, the
temperature. A well-designed continuous prelube pump keeps the
system must include a prelube pump engine ready for immediate start-up
shutdown capability to prevent the by maintaining the level of oil in the
pump from operating too long. Since engine. The intermittent prelube
the intermittent prelube pump pump will only operate if the
operates at a higher flow rate and continuous pump fails. This system
pressure than the continuous pump, is typically selected for black start or
operating the pump for extended emergency generator applications,
time periods is not recommended. when it is critical that an engine is
This can result in excessive oil in the able to start.
cylinders and potentially cause When an engine equipped with a
hydraulic lock at start-up. continuous prelube system shuts

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

down, the intermittent pump will pressure decreases and the pilot
postlubricate the engine. After controlled spill valve opens and the
postlubrication the oil pressure prelube pressure switch opens.
decreases and the pilot controlled When the pressure switch opens the
spill valve opens and the prelube continuous pump will energize and
pressure switch opens. When the maintain the oil level in the engine.
pressure switch opens the Quick start prelube time will vary
continuous pump will energize and little with oil temperature. Typical
maintain the oil level in the engine. quick start prelube times, measured
Quick Start Prelube System from the start initiate signal to
The quick start prelube system starter engagement, are 5 to 7
consists of two electric prelube seconds with 25C (77F) oil.
pumps, a continuous pump and a
booster pump. This system is similar Postlubrication
to the redundant prelube system, 3600/G3600 engines have a
except that the booster pump is not standard postlubrication cycle.
just a back-up for the continuous Postlubrication maintains oil flow
pump, it is an integral part of the after engine shutdown to protect the
system. turbocharger bearings.
Figure 6 and Figure 7 are Engine postlubrication will not
schematic examples of quick start function if the Emergency Stop (E-
prelube systems. Stop) button is used to shutdown
the engine. Since an oil leak could
While the engine is not operating, potentially require the use of the E-
the continuous pump maintains the Stop button, the postlubrication is
oil level near the top of the cylinder disabled to stop oil flow to a
block via the spill valve. When the possible leak. An E-Stop button is
engine is started, the continuous located on the control panel,
pump will stop and the booster junction box and the customer
pump will start in order to raise the terminal strip. Since no
pressure to a sufficient level to postlubrication occurs with the use
permit cranking. of the E-Stop button, the E-Stop
When the engine shuts down, the should only be used for emergency
booster pump will postlubricate. shutdowns.
After postlubrication, the oil

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

3600/G3600 Engine Lubricating Oil System with


Intermittent or Continuous Prelube

Figure 5

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

G3600 Engine Lubricating Oil System


with Optional Quick Start Prelube

Figure 6

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

3600/G3600 Air Prelube

Figure 7

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Optional Systems
This section generally describes The system provides the means for
various lubrication system options changing either the main or auxiliary
available for Caterpillar engines. filter elements with the engine
Please refer to the engine price lists running at any load or speed. A filter
for availability of these options on change indicator is included to tell
specific engine models. when to change the main filter
elements. A vent valve allows
Duplex Oil Filter System purging of air trapped in either the
Many marine and oilfield engines main or auxiliary system when
that require marine classification installing new elements.
society certification must be capable
Note: Air must be purged from the
of oil filter change while running.
changed section to eliminate
Changing the filters during operation
possible turbocharger and bearing
may also be a customer requirement
damage. Refer to the engine
on certain Electric Power Generation
Operation and Maintenance Manual
and Industrial applications.
for purging instructions.
Note: Changing oil filters during
The auxiliary system is capable of
engine operation should not be
providing adequate oil filtration for at
performed on engines equipped with
least 100 hours under full load and
unit-mounted radiators and cooling
speed operation. The same filter
fans. Oil can be blown onto hot
elements are used in both systems.
engine surfaces and ignite.
The optional Caterpillar duplex oil Remote Oil Filters
filter system (one example is shown Some Caterpillar engines have the
in Figure 8 below) meets the capability for remote mounting the
requirements of the standard filter oil filter when space limitation or
system plus an auxiliary filter system serviceability is a problem, such as
with the necessary valves and mobile type land drill rigs. However,
piping. to protect warranty coverage,
authorization from Caterpillar Inc.
must be obtained before making any
modification to the engine lubrication
system.
While remote filters have more
potential for oil leaks, they seldom
cause problems when the following
recommendations are followed:

Figure 8

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Use procedures designed to Lube oil heating systems are often


maintain oil system thermostatically controlled. When
cleanliness during removal and the engine is shutdown and the oil
installation of oil filters and drops below the desired
lines. Keep all openings temperature, the heating system
covered until final connections activates. The heating system stops
are made. after the engine is started or the oil
Use quality pipe or medium has reached the desired
pressure, high temperature temperature.
120C (250F) hose that is The Caterpillar lube oil heating
equivalent to, or exceeds, the system is a prepackaged, shipped
SAE 100R5 specification. loose unit, that may be used as a
Keep oil lines as short as stand-alone lube oil heater or in
possible and at least as large combination with a jacket water
as engine connections. heater. The typical package includes:
Support hoses as necessary to Circulating pump
keep from chafing or cutting Electric oil heater
on sharp corners. Control panel, including
Use care in connecting oil controls for starting/stopping
lines so the direction of oil pump, temperature control,
flow is correct. etc.
CAUTION: Engine damage will occur Piping, valves and fittings on
if the oil filter is improperly the unit (customer must make
connected. piping connections to the
engine).
Lubricating Oil Heating System
In some limited applications, jacket
Cold oil has a higher viscosity and
water heaters in conjunction with
flows more slowly through oil
continuous prelubrication may
passages, reducing its ability to
satisfy lube oil heating requirements.
quickly go where it is needed. Cold
However, this method of heating
oil can also place a higher demand
should be carefully calculated before
on the starting system, requiring
implementation.
higher starting torque. Lubricating oil
heating systems address these Another solution that requires
issues. careful consideration is immersion
heating. Heating elements in direct
On some engines lube oil heating
contact with lubricating oil are not
systems are recommended for
recommended due to the danger of
heating the lube oil to 10C (50F)
coking. To avoid coking when
when ambient conditions are below
heating oil, heater skin temperatures
this temperature. They are also
must not exceed 150C (300F)
recommended when quick start
and heater elements must have a
capability is required.
maximum heat density of 1.24

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

w/cm2 (8w/in2). Marine applications activated. See Figure 9 for proper


use a variation of an immersion mount locations.
heater when steam is piped though Most oil level switches and oil level
the engine oil sump. makeup devices are vented. If
Heating pads, designed for oil vented to the atmosphere, they will
preheating, may also be used. These regulate to some erroneous level due
can be used to bring the lubricating to the crankcase pressure. The vent
oil up to the desired 10C (50F). line from these devices should go to
the crankcase (well above the oil
Oil Makeup Systems line). There must be no low spots in
Some applications may require that the vent line that could allow oil to
a fixed oil makeup system be collect and cause a blockage of the
installed to ensure that a constant vent line.
level of lube oil is maintained in the
For an oil makeup system to
engine sump. In most cases, this is a
maintain a constant oil level in the
customer furnished system, but
sump, the system should add oil to
Caterpillar offers oil makeup systems
the sump when the level drops
that work with a customer supplied
below the Running Full mark on the
gravity-fed oil supply to maintain a
oil level gauge (dipstick). See Figure
safe and constant oil level. The
9 for proper mount location. This
Caterpillar lube oil makeup system
automatic system senses the oil
typically includes an oil level
level and feeds oil into the sump
regulator and alarm & shutdown
from a remote oil reservoir as
switches.
required.
Oil level alarm and shutdown
The remote reservoir must be able
switches alert the operator when
to feed the oil into the sump at all
low oil levels are present. The oil
operating conditions. Some makeup
level alarm should sound when the
systems are pump operated while
oil level in the sump drops below the
others are gravity fed. Depending on
Add mark on the oil level gauge
the height at which the makeup line
(dipstick). An oil level shutdown
enters the oil pan, pressure in the oil
occurs when the oil level in the
pan can range from 0 kPa to 7 kPa
sump drops below an acceptable
(0 psig to 1 psig), so it is important
level in the sump.
that each system be inspected and
It is important to mount the oil tested to ensure proper operation
level regulator and shutdown switch and positive oil flow.
gauges in the proper location. Failure
A shutoff valve should also be
to properly locate the gauges could
installed between the remote oil
result in premature alarm/shutdown
reservoir and the oil level regulator
conditions or allow the sump oil level
to provide a means for serviceability
to drop far below recommended
and maintenance
levels before the alarm/shutdown is
The Caterpillar oil makeup system
offered on G3600 engines provides

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

a floor-standing, gravity-fed oil


makeup system. The system is
activated by a float valve if the oil
level drops below full running level.
A second float valve activates a
low/high level alarm if the oil level
drops below or exceeds a preset
alarm level. A third float valve
provides an engine shutdown
contact if the oil level drops below a
preset shutdown level.

Locations for Low Oil Level Alarm, Shutdown and Makeup Gauge

Figure 9

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Oil Pressure Monitoring engine shutdown. This is caused by


Maintaining sufficient oil pressure high pressure intake air in the heat
is critical to engine operation. A exchanger flowing back though the
means of monitoring oil pressure turbocharger compressor. The
should be used. In some cases, this turbocharger oil accumulator
will be done by the use of oil provides a supply of oil to lubricate
pressure gauges. Additionally, low and cool the turbocharger in such a
oil pressure contactors may be used circumstance. The oil accumulator
to shutdown the engine if pressure protects and can extend the life of
becomes too low. turbocharger bearings.
Most engines have some level of Turbocharger accumulators are
oil pressure monitoring; refer to the optional equipment on G3500
Operation and Maintenance Manual engines.
for each engine for available
features. Advanced features on Remote Sump Tanks
some Caterpillar engines include Engine room space, tilt
user-switchable options and user- requirements or the desire to extend
programmable setpoints for oil change periods, may dictate
Warning/Derate/Shutdown. using a remote oil sump tank. Figure
12 to Figure 15 are provided as
The switchable options allow the examples of remote sump tanks.
user to choose how the engine
responds to low oil pressure. A common external lube oil tank
system for use during standard
The programmable setpoints allow operation for a multiple engine
the user to choose when and how installation is NOT recommended
the engine responds to low oil under any circumstances. While the
pressure. economics of a common lube oil
Default parameters and setpoint system can be appealing, the
values for these functions are increased risks involved do not
available in the Caterpillar TIA, TMI, outweigh the benefits. In the event
and Electronic Special Instructions of the failure of one engine, all of
for each engine. the engines which share the
For increased safety, automatic common lube oil system will be
engine shutdown features may not compromised.
be available on single engine marine Remote Sump with Gravity Drain
or mobile applications where an The suggested design of an remote
unexpected engine shutdown may sump tank is shown in Figure 15.
create a hazardous situation.
The following guidelines should be
Turbocharger Oil Accumulator considered when remote sumps are
Engine models above 32 liters installed in the engine mounting
equipped with air-to-air aftercooling structure:
(ATAAC) may experience reverse
running of the turbocharger upon

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

The sump should occupy the To provide adequate


entire length of the engine to degassing of the remote
ensure uniform thermal sump, a minimum distance of
expansion. approximately 150 mm (6 in.)
Flanged, flexible, drain must be provided between the
connections should be used at top of the tank and the
each end of the engine highest oil level expected in
mounted sump to prevent the tank.
damage from vibration and Transverse structures in the
thermal growth. tank should be configured
The connections must be with air holes and oil passages
compatible with engine lube in the structure must ensure
oil at a temperature up to adequate oil flow to the pump
130C (266F). suction piping.
The connections should Two 100 mm (4 in) minimum
withstand exposure to fuel, diameter air vent pipes should
coolant and solutions used to be located on remote sump
wash the engine. tanks. On marine applications,
install one vent tube at the
Drain pipes from the engine oil
forward end of the tank and
sump to the remote sump
another at the aft end of the
should terminate below the tank.
minimum oil level.
Locate collecting sumps on
The engine sump drains
marine applications at the aft
should be located as far from
end of the tank. When used, a
the oil pump suction area as
lube oil centrifuge would take
possible.
oil from the collecting sump,
Each suction pipe should be at a level below the main lube
fitted with a bell mouth to oil pump suction pipe, and
keep pressure losses to a discharge clean oil back to the
minimum. The maximum sump near the lube oil pump
available suction lift to the suction piping.
engine driven lube oil pump,
Prior to filling, the inner
including losses in the piping
surfaces of the remote sump
and strainer, must be kept
tank must be accessible for
below 1.3 m (51 in).
cleaning, after initial
The oil should be in the tank construction or following
for the longest possible time repairs.
to maximize degassing.
Use flanged joints on the
suction piping to the lube oil
pumps to allow inspection
before use.

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

The surfaces above the crankshaft during engine operation.


minimum oil level must be Remote sumps with scavenging
corrosion protection coated. pumps are normally used where the
The tank requires a local foundation structure height is small.
sounding tube for determining Oil from the remote sump is
oil volume as well as a low returned to the engine oil system by
level alarm contactor. the engine driven main pressure
On marine applications, a pump. Due to the importance of the
cofferdam should be installed main engine lube oil system, marine
to separate the remote sump societies and/or the owner may
tank from the shell. require electric, motor-driven
standby pumps. This system can
Marine sump tanks should become very complex due to the
also be fitted with a coil to additional pumps, piping and valves.
heat the oil to 38C (100F). Also, the oil level in the remote
The coil must be sump must be kept below the engine
manufactured from corrosion crankcase to prevent oil leak back
resistant material. Heating into the engine during shutdown.
elements in direct contact This system can also result in a long
with lubricating oil are not narrow tank. The space required for
recommended due to the such a tank can be put to better use
danger of coking. To avoid on marine applications. Incorporate
coking when heating oil, the features recommended in the
heater skin temperatures must design of the remote sump tank with
not exceed 150C (300F) gravity drain discussed above.
and heater elements must
have a maximum heat density The scavenging pump can not be
of 1.24 w/cm2 (8w/in2). used on applications requiring the
engine driven auxiliary water pump,
Remote Sump with Scavenging as it is driven off the same engine
Pump drive.
An engine driven scavenging pump
can be provided for remote sump Piping
applications that do not permit Remote sump tank piping must be
gravity drains. The scavenging pump short with minimum bends and have
is used to empty the oil from the a continual upward slope towards
engine collection pan into the remote the pump. This slope helps avoid
sump; Refer to Figure 12. The pump cavitation and keeps suction
engine collection pan typically has a pressure drops to a minimum. Install
very low capacity and excess oil a non-return valve in the piping to
accumulation will result in the prevent the oil from flowing
crankshaft throws splashing in the backwards when the engine is
oil. This splashing contributes to stopped. The pipes must be
excessive foaming of the oil and can supported and have flexible
cause dynamic problems in the connections at the engine and

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

auxiliary connecting points. Provide Although the relationship between


vent and drain connections at the lubricating oil volume and oil change
high and low points in the system. interval is a reasonable guide, oil
Suction Strainer analysis should be used to determine
Install a suction strainer in the oil change intervals for the increased
capacity.
piping between the remote sump
and the lube oil circulating pumps. Auxiliary Oil Sump System
This protects the pumps from large Considerations
particles that may collect in the The oil source line should be
tank. It should have a stainless steel connected to the auxiliary
basket with 650 micron (0.025 in) tank as close to the engine oil
perforations and magnetic inserts. A pump as possible.
differential pressure gauge should be The auxiliary oil sump tank
used to indicate when manual must be full prior to starting
cleaning of the strainer is required. the engine and remain full at
Auxiliary Sump Tank all times.
If longer oil change periods are Upon engine start, the
desired, consider the use of an auxiliary oil sump overflows,
auxiliary oil sump tank. Refer to returning the oil to the engine;
Figure 10. Unlike remote sump tanks exactly compensating for the
which replace the engine oil sumps, oil removed through the oil
auxiliary sump tanks supplement the source line to the auxiliary
engine oil sump. The auxiliary oil tank.
sump is used in addition to the
Use hoses and fittings as
engines oil sump.
described in Remote Sump
An engines oil change interval is Tanks. An orifice may be
directly proportional to its total oil required in the line to achieve
quantity, all other factors remaining appropriate oil flow for the
equal. The oil change interval can be system.
doubled by adding an auxiliary sump
A check valve should be
with the same capacity as the
installed in the oil pump
engine mounted oil sump. This
discharge line. Set the valve
increased capacity doubles the
to open at 75% of the
amount of oil available to be
measured pressure at the line
contaminated, diluted, or neutralized
connection point, when the
and allow proportionately longer
engine is at operating
periods between oil changes.
temperature and maximum
Note: Auxiliary sump tanks can operating speed.
increase the interval between oil
changes. They do not increase the
interval between filter changes.

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Auxiliary Oil Sump Connection Schematic

Figure 10

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Additional Considerations
This section generally describes and the ship to reach port for engine
additional systems and components repairs.
that are not part of Caterpillar Guidelines for emergency
standard or optional lubrication lubricating oil system operation:
systems. However, these systems
Keep pressure drops to a
may be required for successful
minimum by using short, low
engine or package application and
restriction lines.
installation.
Use a line size at least as
Supplemental Bypass Filter large as the engine connection
Systems point.
If supplemental centrifugal or Install a low restriction
absorptive bypass filters are used, strainer in front of the
the system must have a non- emergency oil pump.
drainback feature in place for engine
Install a low restriction check
shutdown. A 3.175 mm (0.125 in.)
valve between the emergency
maximum diameter orifice, limiting
pump discharge and the
flow to 7.57 lpm (2 gpm), must also
engine inlet connection.
be used. Refer to engine general
dimension drawings for Use a pressure limiting valve
recommended bypass filter supply in the emergency system set
location and oil return to the at the maximum oil pressure
crankcase. limit of the engine.

Emergency Systems Transmissions


Many standby generators, fire Marine classification societies that
pump and marine applications require emergency lubricating oil
require the capability to connect an pumps for single propulsion engine
emergency lubricating oil pump into applications also require emergency
the engines lube oil system. Many lubricating oil pumps for the
Caterpillar engines can be provided associated marine transmissions to
with these optional connections meet the unrestricted service
when necessary. classification. In these cases, refer
to the transmission manufacturers
This is a specific requirement of
operation manual for instructions, oil
marine classification societies for
flow and pressure requirements and
seagoing single propulsion engine
follow the guidelines listed above.
applications. The purpose is to
ensure lubricating oil pressure and Piping Systems and Flexible
circulation in the event of an engine
Hoses
lubricating oil pump failure. The
In addition to the emergency
emergency oil pump allows the
lubricating oil system requirements
single propulsion engine to operate

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

described above, marine direct gravity feed from the


classification societies have specific centrifuge.
requirements relating to the There are two basic methods for
materials used in the installation of configuring the lubricating oil
these systems. Although these centrifuge system. The first method
systems are not typically offered by is to supply each engine with its
Caterpillar, they are still critical to own centrifuge.
the overall success of a given
Figure 14 and Figure 15 include a
installation. Therefore, piping system
typical lubricating oil centrifuge
and flexible hose material
system. The second method is to
considerations are discussed in the
service up to four engines with a
Piping Systems section of this guide.
single lube oil centrifuge. Certain
Lubricating Oil Centrifuges requirements must be met in order
Caterpillar engines are provided to use a single centrifuge for
with attached lubricating oil filters multiple engines. These requirements
and in some cases, centrifugal are:
bypass filters. However, customer- All precautions must be taken
supplied centrifuges or separators to minimize sump cross-
can also be installed in certain contamination. This includes
applications. Lubricating oil locating the changeover
centrifuges are commonly used in manifold at the centrifuge.
marine and offshore applications, Programmable Logic
where the availability of clean oil Controllers (PLC) and
may be limited. automatic valves must be
Caterpillar does not offer a used for the changeover of
centrifuge as part of its standard sumps.
package and recommends that a No more than four oil sumps
reputable centrifuge manufacturer be per centrifuge may be used.
consulted to ensure proper
equipment selection, application and A redundant centrifuge and
installation. Centrifuge size is the necessary piping and
typically based on the power output valves, must be incorporated
of the engine. Due to frequent into the design of the
cleaning requirements, the centrifuge application.
should be self-cleaning. Solid bowl The centrifuges should be
separators must not be used for lube oversized.
oil service. The fresh water and Consult Caterpillar for a
control air requirements for the specific project or application.
centrifuge should be specified by the
The centrifuge should take oil from
manufacturer. The sludge discharge
the rear of the engine and return it
process should be automatic, with
to the front of the engine, so that
the sludge tank arranged to accept
clean oil is as close to the engine oil

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

pump suction as possible. Shutoff heating oil, heater skin temperatures


valves can be provided for customer must not exceed 150C (300F)
connection, but flexible connections and heater elements must have a
must be provided by the customer. maximum heat density of 1.24
w/cm2 (8w/in2).
Centrifuge Supply Pump
The centrifuge supply pump can be Sample Points
either direct driven from the Check the centrifuge efficiency by
centrifuge or electric motor driven, drawing samples from points
but is typically part of the centrifuge upstream and downstream of the
package and is sized accordingly. centrifuge. Figure 11 shows a
typical sampling connection.
PreHeater
The centrifuge preheater is also a
part of the centrifuge package and
its size is determined by pump
capacity and required temperature
rise between the sump and the final
centrifuge. The final outlet
temperature is determined by the
centrifuge manufacturer, but will
range between 80 and 90C (176
and 194F), depending on the grade
and type of oil used. Other heater
sizing considerations are: Figure 11
Oil temperature should be
98C (210F) for engines Lube Oil Storage and Transfer
centrifuging during engine Systems
operation. Figure 13 and Figure 14, at the
If the centrifuges operate end of this section, show typical
when the engines are not piping schematics for an operational
running the heater must be lubricating oil storage and transfer
oversized to account for the system.
heat normally supplied by an The system consists of three
operating engine. storage tanks, a centrifuge system
The heater must be and a transfer pump arranged as
thermostatically controlled to follows:
maintain the oil temperature Clean Oil
to the centrifuge within 2C Clean oil from the storage tank is
(4F). piped to supply the engine sump (or
Note: Heating elements in direct sumps), either by gravity, via the
contact with lubricating oil are not centrifuge, or by the transfer pump.
recommended due to the danger of
coking. To avoid coking when

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Dirty Oil Storage Tanks


Dirty lube oil is removed from the Each tank should be configured
engine sump (or sumps), by the with the following:
transfer pump and discharged to the
Fill Port
dirty lube oil storage and settling
tank. Vent Location

Renovated Oil Local Sounding Port


Contaminated oil can be cleaned Gauge Glass
using the lubricating oil centrifuge Heating Coil
and discharged to the renovated oil
Thermometer (with well)
tank.
Transfer Pump Suction Port
Transfer Pumps
The lube oil transfer pump is used Drain Port
to move oil from the engine sump Steam Blowout Port
(or sumps), the clean oil storage Manhole
tank, the dirty oil storage and
Ladder (if required)
settling tank and the renovated oil
tank. The pump can discharge oil to Heating coils should raise the
the dirty oil storage and settling lubricating oil temperature to
tank, the sludge tank and the engine approximately 38C (100F). When
sump (or sumps). heating with steam or water, the
heating coils must be manufactured
The transfer pump should be a
from corrosion resistant material.
gear-type pump and include a relief
valve. Transfer pump sizing is based Note: Heating elements in direct
on project specific requirements. The contact with lubricating oil are not
following transfer pump recommended due to the danger of
characteristics are provided only as a coking. To avoid coking when
sample. heating oil, heater skin temperatures
must not exceed 150C (300F)
Pump Flow Rate 190 lpm
and heater elements must have a
(50 gpm)
maximum heat density of 1.24
Pump Pressure - 345 kPa (50 w/cm2 (8w/in2).
psi)
The engine can be filled with oil
Operating Fluid Temp. from the storage tank via the
130C (266F) centrifuge, by the transfer pump
Viscosity for sizing electric (with a strainer), through the
motor 1000 cSt forward or aft simplex drain valves,
or through the filling cap located on
the engine crankcase cover.

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Many variables go into establishing Tank Volumes Liters Gallons


tank capacity. The number of Lubricating Oil
7500 2000
Storage Tank
engines installed, sump volume and
Dirty Oil Storage
lubricating oil consumption are just a and Settling Tank
3750 1000
few. The lubricating oil storage tank Renovated Oil
3750 1000
capacity table is provided only as a Storage Tank
sample to show the size relationship
between tanks.

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Remote Lube Oil Sump Arrangement

Figure 12

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Remote Dry Sump System

Figure 13

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

3600/G3600 Lube Oil System - Wet Sump Diagram

Figure 14

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

3600/G3600 Lube Oil System - Dry Sump Diagram

Figure 15

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Lubricating Oil Selection


Bearing failure, piston ring sticking and excessive oil consumption are
classic symptoms of oil-related engine failure. There are numerous ways to
avoid them. Three of the most important are SOSSM, regular maintenance
of the lubrication system and the use of correct lubricants. Taking these
measures can mean the difference between experiencing repeated oil-related
engine failure and benefiting from a productive and satisfactory engine life.
The following information describes the properties of lubricating oil, as well
as the consequences of oil contamination and degradation. Also discussed
are methods of identifying contamination and degradation and preventive
measures to help you protect your engine against the devastating effects of
oil-related engine failure.
Please note that this information is supplemental and in no way replaces
specific lubricating oil requirements for your application; nor does it preclude
the need for oil analysis.
For model-specific information, refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for each engine.

SECTION CONTENTS
Properties ..........................34 Monitoring Quality ..............38
Characteristics of SOSSM
Lubricating Oil Oil Analysis
Components of Lubricating Contamination....................39
Oil Contaminants and
Caterpillar Line of Oils Indications
Understanding TBN
Consumption......................37
Consumption Estimate
Formula
Consumption as an Overhaul
Indicator

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Properties
Viscosity may be low, operating engines can
Viscosity is the property of be subjected to normal oil
resistance to flow in a fluid. Oil temperatures because of
viscosity is its thickness or temperature regulated components.
resistance to flow. Viscosity is The higher viscosity fluids will
directly related to how well an oil provide better protection to all
will lubricate and protect surfaces components during the full day work
that contact one another. Oil must cycle.
provide adequate supply to all
moving parts, regardless of the Additives
temperature. The more viscous Lubricating oil consists of a
(thicker) an oil is, the stronger the oil mixture of base oil fortified with
film it will provide. The thicker the certain additives. Depending on the
oil film, the more resistant it will be type of base, paraffinic, asphaltic,
to being wiped or rubbed from naphthenic or intermediate (which
lubricated surfaces. Conversely, oil has some of the properties of the
that is too thick will have excessive former), different additive
resistance to flow at low chemistries are used to strengthen
temperatures and so may not flow or modify certain characteristics of
quickly enough to those parts the base oil.
requiring lubrication. It is therefore The most common additives are
vital that the oil has the correct detergents, oxidation inhibitors,
viscosity at both the highest and the dispersants, alkalinity agents, anti-
lowest temperatures at which the wear agents, pour-point dispersants
engine is expected to operate. and viscosity improvers.
Oil thins out as temperature Detergents help clean the
increases. The measurement of the engine by reacting with
rate at which it thins out is called oxidation products to stop the
the oils viscosity index (VI). New formation of insoluble
refining techniques and the compounds.
development of special additives Oxidation inhibitors help
which improve the oils viscosity prevent increases in viscosity,
index help retard the thinning organic acids and
process. carbonaceous matter.
The minimum temperature for the Dispersants help prevent
viscosity grade provides guidelines sludge formation by keeping
for the lowest starting temperature contaminants in suspension.
with a cold soaked engine.
Alkalinity agents help
Caterpillar recommends using the
neutralize acids.
highest viscosity oil possible. Even
though the ambient temperature

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Anti-wear agents reduce TAN monitoring is especially


friction by forming a thin film important in engines using landfill
on metal surfaces. gas.
Pour-point dispersants keep
Cleanliness
the oil fluid at low
Normal engine operation generates
temperatures by preventing
a variety of contamination, ranging
the growth and agglomeration
from microscopic metal particles to
of wax crystals.
corrosive chemicals. If the engine oil
Viscosity improvers help is not kept clean through filtration,
prevent the oil from becoming this contamination would be carried
too thin at high temperatures. through the engine via the oil.
Total Base Number (TBN) Oil filters are designed to remove
Understanding TBN requires some these harmful debris particles from
knowledge of fuel sulfur content. the lubrication system. Use of a filter
Most diesel fuel contains some beyond its intended life can result in
degree of sulfur. One of lubricating a plugged filter.
oils functions is to neutralize sulfur A plugged filter will cause the
by-products, retarding corrosive bypass valve to open, releasing
damage to the engine. Additives in unfiltered oil. Any debris particles in
the oil contain alkaline compounds the oil will flow directly to the
which are formulated to neutralize engine. When a bypass valve
these acids. The measure of this remains open, the particles that
reserve alkalinity in an oil is known were previously trapped by the filter
as its TBN. Generally, the higher the may also be flushed from it and then
TBN value, the more reserve through the open bypass valve. Filter
alkalinity or acid-neutralizing plugging can also cause distortion of
capacity the oil contains. the element. This happens when
The TBN value of an oil degrades there is an unacceptable increase in
during operation over time and can the pressure difference between the
be used as a potential indicator of outside and inside of the filter
when to change oil. element. Distortion can progress to
cracks or tears in the paper. This
Total Acid Number (TAN) again allows debris to flow into the
High combustion temperatures in engine where it can damage
natural gas engines, especially lean- components.
burn fuel systems, can rapidly
deplete TBN and raise acid content Engine Oil Selection
in the oil. A TAN value higher than Due to significant variations in
that of new oil may indicate quality and performance of
oxidation or contamination. commercially available oils,
Caterpillar has developed its own
line oil products for Caterpillar
engines.
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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

The Caterpillar line of oils include multi-grade oils are not appropriate.
Diesel Engine Oils (DEO), Natural For instance, SAEO is recommended
Gas Engine Oils (NGEO) and Special for engines equipped with
Application Engine Oils (SAEO). DEO mechanical unit injection. Additional
and NGEO are available in various reference on lubricating oil is
viscosity grades to cover a broad available in the sources listed at the
range of operating temperatures. end of this guide.
SAEO is used for products where

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Consumption
Oil consumption is a consequence Consumption as an Overhaul
of normal engine operation. This oil Guide
needs to be replenished between
maintenance intervals. Typical oil Oil consumption increases over
consumption figures are provided in time due to normal wear. Therefore,
the Technical Information Appendix oil consumption rate can serve as an
for the purpose of predicting the indicator of wear and used to predict
quantity and cost of make up oil, as the need for an overhaul. Caterpillar,
a part of total operating costs. In however, recommends taking a more
practice, many factors will affect oil comprehensive approach. Trending
consumption including load, oil engine output, measuring specific
density, oil additive packages and fuel consumption and measuring
maintenance practices. cylinder pressure are better tools for
determining the need for an
The rate of oil consumption is overhaul.
typically reported as brake-specific
oil consumption (BSOC) so it is Oil Change Interval
independent of operating load. To Caterpillar recommendations for oil
convert to a volume per hour basis, change periods are published in
the engine load and oil density must Operation and Maintenance Manuals
also be known. for each engine. As an alternative,
The following formula may be used change intervals can be established
to estimate oil consumption. by a comprehensive maintenance
management program that includes
oil condition analysis. Caterpillar
BSOC
(g/bkW-hr)
offers such a program. It is the
L/hr = Engine bkW x Load Factor (%) x SOSSM services program.
Density of
Oil**

BSOC
(lb/bhp-hr)
gal/hr = Engine bhp x Load Factor (%) x
Density of
Oil**
**Typical engine oil has a density of 899
g/L (7.5 lb/gal).

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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

Monitoring Quality
Monitoring lubrication quality can the various wear elements can be
maximize the life of engine oil and established for the particular engine.
provide optimum protection for the Impending failures can be identified
internal engine components. when trend lines deviate from the
established norm.
SOSSM
Wear analysis is limited to
The Caterpillar tool for oil analysis
detecting component wear and
is SOSSM, which is part of the
gradual dirt contamination. Failures
SOSSM services program. This
due to component fatigue, sudden
program determines oil change
loss of lubrication or sudden
intervals based on condemning limits
ingestion of dirt occur too rapidly to
and trend analysis established for
be predicted by this type of test.
the engine. It also looks for the
presence of oil contaminants, which Oil Condition Analysis
are used to analyze the condition of Oil condition analysis determines
the engine, indicate shortcomings in the amount of contaminants, such
engine maintenance and detect the as soot and sulfur, oxidation and
first signs of excessive wear. nitration products. Results can be
Sampling intervals differ for used to customize (reduce, maintain,
various engines and applications. or extend) oil change intervals for
Refer to the Operation and particular conditions and
Maintenance Manual for appropriate applications.
intervals or contact your Caterpillar
dealer. Additional Tests
Chemical and physical tests detect
The SOSSM testing includes wear
water, fuel and antifreeze in the oil
analysis, oil condition analysis and
and determine whether or not their
additional chemical and physical
concentrations exceed established
tests. Contact your Caterpillar dealer
limits.
for complete information and
assistance on the SOSSM services
program.

Wear Analysis
Wear analysis monitors component
wear rate by identifying and
measuring concentrations of wear
elements in oil. Based on known
normal concentration data,
maximum limits of wear elements
are established. After three oil
samples are taken, trend lines for

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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Contamination
The following are examples of
Silicon, Lead, Aluminum, Tin
typical contaminants and the affect
This combination indicates dirt in
they have on the condition of your
the lower portion of the engine,
engine. Engine operating conditions
possibly leading to crankshaft and
can also play a major role in the type
bearing wear.
and degree of oil contamination. For
a more thorough discussion of this Chromium, Molybdenum,
topic, refer to Applied Failure
Aluminum
Analysis Oil and Your Engine,
This combination can lead to ring
Media Number SEBD0640.
and piston wear, resulting in blow-
Copper by, increased oil consumption and oil
A high concentration of copper degradation.
indicates thrust washer or bushing
Aluminum
wear.
This can be a critical concern.
Silicon Concentrations of aluminum suggest
Above normal readings of silicon bearing wear. Relatively small
can indicate a major problem. Oil increases in the levels of this
loaded with silicon becomes, in element should receive immediate
effect, a grinding compound which attention because, once rapid wear
can remove metal from any number begins, the crankshaft may produce
of parts during operation. large metal particles which will
become trapped in the oil filters.
Sodium, Silicates, Carboxylic
Iron
Acid Base
Iron can come from any number of
A sudden increase in sodium,
sources. It can also appear as rust
silicates, or carboxylic acid base
after engine storage. Frequently,
readings indicate inhibitor leaking
when accompanied by a loss of oil
from the cooling system. Inhibitor
control, increases in iron
may indicate antifreeze in the
contamination indicate severe liner
system which can cause oil to
wear.
thicken and become like sludge,
leading to piston ring sticking and Soot
filter plugging. A high soot content is not usually
the direct cause of failure. Solid
Silicon, Chromium, Iron,
particles do not dissolve in the oil,
Aluminum causing the filters to become
A combination such as this signals plugged and depleting dispersant
dirt entry through the air induction additives. Soot indicates a dirty air
system, possibly causing ring and cleaner, engine lug, excessive fuel
liner wear. delivery, or repeated acceleration in
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Lubrication Systems Application and Installation Guide

the improperly set rack limiter contact. This can lead to bearing
(smoke limiter). It can also indicate a failure and piston seizure.
poor quality fuel.
Sulfur
Water The presence of sulfur signals
Water combined with oil will create danger to all engine parts. The type
an emulsion which will plug the of corrosive wear attributed to high
filter. Water and oil can also form a sulfur content can also cause
dangerous metal corroding acid. accelerated oil consumption. The
Most instances of water more fuel consumed during an oil
contamination are the result of change interval, the more sulfur
condensation within the crankcase. oxides are available to form acids.
More serious contamination occurs Therefore, an engine working under
when a leak in the cooling system heavy loads should have its oil
allows water to enter from outside checked more often, including its
the engine oil system. TBN, which relates directly to an oils
ability to neutralize sulfur by-
Fuel products. Fuel sulfur damage can
Fuel contamination decreases the cause piston ring sticking and
oils lubricating properties. The oil no corrosive wear of the metal surfaces
longer has the necessary film of valve guides, piston rings and
strength to prevent metal-to-metal liners.

Caterpillar
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Application and Installation Guide Lubrication Systems

Reference Material
The following information is
provided as additional reference to
subjects discussed in this manual.
The following service publications
provide comprehensive information
on lubricating oil, as well as other
fluids used in Caterpillar engines.
Although Caterpillar brand oil is the
only oil Caterpillar endorses, these
guides also provide minimum
requirements for commercially
available oils.
SEBD0640
Oil And Your Engine
LEBW4958
Application and Installation Guide,
Crankcase Ventilation
SEBU6251
Caterpillar Commercial Diesel
Engine Fluids Recommendations
SEBU6400
Caterpillar Gas Engine Lubricant,
Fuel and Coolant
Recommendations
SEBU7003
3600 Diesel Engine Fluids
Recommendations for Lubricants,
Fuels and Coolants
PEDP7036
SOSSM Fluid Analysis
WECAP
Web Engineering Cataloging and
Procuring website

Caterpillar
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LEBW4957-00 2005 Caterpillar Printed in U.S.A.
All rights reserved.