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Safety in any plant is considered as a fundamental part of any plant as it affects everything and
everyone in the plant and a cement plant is certainly not excluded in practicing habits that promote

In a cement producing plant, hazards could be observed in the following areas and processes:

Environment, Work and Passage Areas

Clinker production
Milling processes at raw mill, cement milling and coal milling
Material transport
Isolation and
By the use of hazardous materials

Aside from those, there are also special hazards as a result of the work environment such as:


And to address the harm that could arise from the different hazards, the implementation of the
hierarchy of hazard control should be applied.

The hierarchy of hazard control is as follows:

Elimination wherein the sources of hazards are physically removed

Substitution or replacing the hazard source with less hazardous materials
Engineering Controls which are designed to remove the hazards from the source before it
reaches the workers. According to the National Institute for Occuational Safety and Health
(NIOSH), well-designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and
will typically be independent of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
Costs may be higher at first but will decrease other costs in the long run.
Administrative Controls involve the people themselves. These administrative controls are
done via trainings, procedure changes, installing labels and cautionary signs and more. and
The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). This control is considered as the least
effective means of controlling hazards because of the high potential for damage to render PPE

These control measures could be observed in different ways in different areas of the plant.

For the Environment, work and passage Areas:

The environment should be free from obstacles.

All tools should be placed to their respective tool box.
All equipment and tools should be placed away from the work area to avoid obstacles incase of
All emergency exits including fire exits should be free from obstacle, and should have proper
signage and emergency lights.
Roads and path of trucks should be free from pedestrians and should also have proper signage
and traffic warnings.

The use of safety labels should also be observed and the following should be observed in using these

Attach labels and safety pre-cautions to serve as a guide to the workers.

Attach directions and labels for emergency exits.
Place the label to where they are easily seen.
All workers should have their own materials according safety operations and others.
All workers should be supervised by a safety engineer and should wear proper ppo (personal
protective gear) before going to work.
Safety precautions should be placed in the entrances or doors to serve as a reminder to the
Equipments should also have labels and warnings for basic operations.
Warnings should be placed in dangerous areas such as sink holes in quarry, excavation, slippery
places or roads .hot bodies, etc.

For the Quarrying, the following hazards that could be encountered are the following:

Common hazards associated with the heavy plant (e.g. dumper trucks, front loading shovels, fork
lift trucks) used in quarrying and bulk material transport include vehicle impact and twisted ankles
during embarking and disembarking. Vehicle impact as the potential for particularly high severity
incidents, in quarries.

Vehicular accidents.
Risk of possible falling objects.
Hazardous fumes in the mine or quarry. E.g. coal gas.
Helicopter Over flight Hazard.
Risk of falling from high places.

To save everyone from these hazards, the following safety countermeasures should be present and

Proper signs and safety precautions.

Proper lightings.
Proper and frequent maintenance of vehicles and other heavy equipments.
Phones are prohibited in the site. This may cause disturbance to the workers.
Always wear safety gears especially hard caps to protect you to unexpected falling objects.
Flying over the near the site is really dangerous because of thinness of the atmosphere that
may lead to stall.
Stay away from heavy equipments it has to be noted that the driver has limited eye site.
Install rear cameras to reduce risk in traffic.
Always wipe or clean the head lights and back lights of heavy equipments. Dust is always
present in cement industry, it might cover the lights of heavy equipments.
Always wear safety harness when working in high places.

For the Crushing Process, the possible hazards that could be present are:

Physical direct contact to the machine that may cause injury.

Falling objects are also present in this process.
Traffic hazards.

And the safety countermeasures for these hazards are the following:

Staying away from the machine when it is operating.

Wear safety equipments.
Always be attentive of possible unexpected scenarios.
Proper slogans should be where it can be easily seen.
Staying away from heavy equipments, the driver has limited eye site. Install rear
cameras to reduce risk in traffic

For the clinker production, incidents and injuries resulting in burns arise from contact with hot clinker
or cement powder. Hazards are particularly associated with hot cement kiln dust (CKD), and dust on
preheater systems. Chemical (alkali) burns may also result from contact with CKD.

It should be taken note that material in the mill is at temperatures up to 120C and in the tower the
material can be as hot as 900C. Contact with the material is more likely when:

Clearing blockages in the tower where there is the potential for it to flush through the process and
during rodding and cardoxing where it can be ejected over a wide area.

For the hot Clinker, contact is possible in the:

clinker cooler building

along the clinker pan conveyors
in the clinker dome and
long the belts to the cement mills

Contact is possible in the precipitator and by-pass dust when:

access is required to the precipitator hoppers

working on the screws and drag chain conveyors and when
maintaining the dust transfer pumps

Contact with hot cement is possible during the following scenarios:

accessing the cement transfer lines

working on the packers
carrying out work on the cement screw conveyors and drag chains. rt

To counter these hazards, the hierarchy of control should be observed:

Eliminate the hazard (install insulators)

Reduce the risk at source
Isolate people from the hazard
Control the risk by other means
Protect yourself with the correct PPE

During the material transport, traffic hazards are the most likely hazards to occur and to face these
hazards both the vehicle and the vehicle operator (driver) should be in proper and neat condition to

All categories of vehicle, including self-propelled mobile plant, must not be operated unless:

Vehicle is fit for purpose, inspected and confirmed to be in safe working order.
Number of passengers does not exceed manufacturers design specification for the vehicle
Loads are secure and does not exceed manufacturers design specifications or legal limits for the
Seat belts are installed and worn by all occupants
Safety helmets are worn by riders and passengers of motorcycles, bicycles, quads, snow-mobiles
and similar types of vehicle and

Drivers must not be authorized to operate the vehicle unless:

They are trained, certified and medically fit to operate the class of vehicle.
They are not under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and are
Not suffering from fatigue
They do not use hand-held cell phones and radios while driving.

A confined space is any space of an enclosed nature where there is a risk of death or serious injury from
hazardous substances or dangerous conditions. Hazards include

Lack of oxygen
Poisonous gas, fumes or vapour liquids and solids, which can fill the space suddenly and
Fire and explosions

Therefore, entry into any confined space cannot proceed unless:

All other options have been ruled out and permit is issued with authorization by a responsible
Permit is communicated to all affected personnel and posted, as required.
All persons involved are competent to do the work.
All sources of energy affecting the space have been Isolated.
Testing of atmospheres is conducted, verified and repeated as often as defined by the risk
Stand-by person is stationed.
Unauthorized entry is prevented.

In order to minimize the risks associated with confined entry, the following should be observed:

Avoid entry to confined spaces e.g. by doing the work from outside.
Blockages can be cleared in silos by use of remotely operated rotating flail devices, vibrators or
air purgers.
Inspection, sampling and cleaning operations should be regularly done using the right
Remote cameras can be used for internal inspection of vessels.
Make sure that the combustible material are separated according to its kind and store them in a
cool dry place.

Any isolation of energy systems such as mechanical,electrical,process, hydraulic and others, cannot
proceed unless:

The method of isolation and discharge of stored energy are agreed and executed by
competent people.
Any stored energy is discharged.
A system of locks and tags is utilized at isolation points
A test is conducted to ensure the isolation is effective and
Isolation effectiveness is periodically monitored

Obviously, the use of hazardous materials also have its own set of hazards such as:

Possible poisoning due to inhalation of hazardous materials.

Possible direct contact of material or chemical to the eyes.
Direct contact may cause skin disorders.

And for the safety counter measures:

The workers should wear proper ppt (cloves, goggles, boots, hard cap , etc.).
In case of irritation, do not use alcohol, use water instead.
In case of eye irritation, do not rub your eyes, rinse with water and call a physician immediately
or go to the clinic.
In case of poisoning, call a physician .

As said earlier, there are also special hazards coming from the results of the work environment namely
dust, noise and vibrations and fires.

The inhalation of dust can cause elevated chronic obstructive lung diseases. So for safety purposes, it
is good practice to limit dust levels and employee exposure both in terms of employee health and good
housekeeping and appropriate respiratory protection should be worn where work has to be carried out
in dusty areas in cement plants.
Too much exposure to sounds and vibrations might deafen workers. So the following should be

Wearing appropriate earplugs.

Improved noise personal protective equipment is also helping reduce the effects of
Regularly monitor employee auditory functions to ensure this does not exceed natural
decline with age.

Also, Unexpected explosions may occur when highly combustible materials are exposed to heat due to
confined places. In order to be safe, the following safety measures should be taken note of:

For plastics: Recycled plastics are normally used in shredded form and conveyed pneumatically.
There can be considerable associated dust requiring eye protection and breathing masks as well
as full body clothing, metal silos and ducts need electrical earthing to prevent an explosion
hazard. Fire protection is also required, as well as evacuation instruction in thecase of fire, as
smoke vapours can be toxic.
For solvents: Recycled solvents must be rigorously sampled at intake because of variable
chemical and physical composition in order to determine health precautions. Most solvents are
toxic and may be flammable. Therefore health precautions are similar to those used in the
source industry (e.g. chemical, pharmaceutical) Intake and storage systems must be designed
for safe, automated handling, with spill, fire and explosion protection, with an associated
emergency plan. Health procedures require eye protection, breathing masks and full cover
For Used Oils: Used oils will need to be checked for PCB content, which will determine precise
precautions required.

According to Maine Department of Labor, safety in the workplace will pay off in many ways
because it affects everything and everyone in the workplace, that is why safety should always be
a top priority during the planning of the plant.

Sources: (2017). CDC - Hierarchy of Controls - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. [online]
Available at: [Accessed 16 Dec. 2017].

Mabuti, M. (2015). Safety in Cement Plant. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 16 Dec. 2017]. (2017). SafetyWorks!: Safety Pays for Everyone. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Dec. 2017].