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When talking about Vietnam War, you probably may think of the post-
modern war. Though, this book aims to talk about the Feudal
Vietnamese tactics, partly explain how Đại Việt (the former name of
Vietnam), a small country which is just half the size of Vietnam right
now, ruled by a newly established Trần dynasty, became the first to
defeat the Mongols, and defeated the Mongols three times. 50 000
soldiers for the first war! 500 000 soldiers for the 2nd and even more for
the 3rd! All ended up in bitter defeats that after the 3rd unsuccessful
campaign, Kublai Khan banished his own son, Prince Toghan, for life!

Here, I tried to collect the most precise information. However, there
were many conflicting details from different books (It’s understandable
since each side of wars usually write history differently for different
purposes. Besides, as Vietnam experienced many wars throughout our
history, many Vietnamese books have been collected and burned or took
away by our enemy. So, the remaining materials are very little and
discrete. Later generations tried to learn more about the past, but they
had to use many materials from other countries.) So, please send your
comments to if you found errors or have
some comments. Thank you!

like and share to encourage the author to write the next part! Thank you! Thu Nguyen East.If you found this work .flies@gmail.wind. please rate.

.................................................................................................... 23 Đại Việt ............. 18 Raising tension ........................................................................... 14 Đại Việt diplomatic tactics after first Đại Việt – Mongols war ................................................................. 52 First counter – attack ............................ 11 Couldn’t catch Đại Việt King.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 32 We attack Champa.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 The decisive battle of Đông Bộ Đầu ........ 33 Behead me first! .................................................................................................................................................................... 34 The Diên Hồng convention ......................... 55 The minorities tactics ................. 53 The battle of Hàm Tử Quan: ......................... 40 The battle of Vạn Kiếp ......................................................................................................................................Yuan war ........................ 9 The battle of Phù Lỗ .................... not Đại Việt ............................................... 54 The battle of Chương Dương: . 29 Prince Chiêu Văn and the Đà Giang up-raising ....................................................................................................... 6 First Mongolian invasion ...................................... 38 The War ............................................................................................Contents The Mongol military tactics and organization ................... 18 Champa – Yuan war....................attack: ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 ............................................................................................... 9 The battle of Bình Lệ Nguyên ...................................................................... 58 Comments: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 The surprise for the Mongols at Thăng Long capital ................. 49 Chance comes only once ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 46 The counter .................. 44 The fight against the Yuan troops in pursuit .................................................................................................................................. 33 Exhortation to the military officers ....................... 41 Yuan troops from Yunnan . the Mongolian general committed suicide! ........................................................................................................................................... 16 2nd time defeat the Mongols ........................................................ 57 The second battle of Tây Kết ............................................................................. 29 Twisting the orange.................. 40 The capital ...................................................

but extremely hardy. Mongolian horses are relatively small. Each Mongol soldier typically maintained a few horses. Their rapid speed could truly amaze their enemy. In addition. After conquering the opponent. which can be considered as a strong advantage when attacking. Loyalty Officers and troopers alike were usually given a wide leeway by their superiors in carrying out their orders. However. The Mongol military tactics and organization The amazing Mongol military tactics and organization enabled this Empire to conquer nearly all of Asia. the mobility of individual soldiers made it possible to send them on successful scouting missions. they usually store food for a short time. They changed horses regularly to avoid wearing out the animals and still travel at high speed for days without stopping (Unlike other races. all members had to be unconditionally loyal to each other and to their superiors. gathering intelligence about routes and searching for terrain suited to the preferred combat tactics of the Mongols. so long as the larger objectives of the plan were well served and the orders promptly obeyed. Moreover. longwinded and have excellent stamina. The Mongols thus avoided the pitfalls of overly rigid discipline and micromanagement. they could live off the ground). This also helped them travel faster. self-sufficient. they rob for food from local regions instead. which have impeded armed forces throughout history. and especially to the Khan. If one soldier ran . the Middle East and parts of Eastern Europe. Let’s explore these first before talking about the Mongols invasion of Đại Việt! The speed One of the amazing things about the Mongols is their speed.

gathering civilians from the nearby areas to fill the front line for the city/town attack before scaling the wall. however. and that the destruction of their cities was the worst loss a sedentary population could experience. and determining the level of ability of each principality to resist invasion. establishing trade routes. Prior to the invasion of Europe. especially in terms of spreading terror and fear to towns and cities.from danger in battle. They knew that sedentary populations were not free to flee danger as were nomad populations. instead of having their city ransacked and destroyed. They made well-educated guesses as to the willingness of each principality to aid the others. They often offered an opportunity for the enemy to surrender and pay tribute. When cities accepted the offer. and other services. then letting some survivors flee to the main city to report their losses to the main populace to weaken resistance. he and his nine comrades from the same arban would face the death penalty together. the Mongols would invade and destroy the city or town. simultaneously draining the resources of the city with the sudden influx of refugees. If the offer was refused. Batu and Subutai sent spies for almost ten years into the heart of Europe. they were spared. when invading an area. Spy The Mongols carefully scouted out and spied on their enemies in advance of any invasion. [Wikipedia] Psychological warfare The Mongols used psychological warfare successfully in many of their battles. supplies. but were required to support the conquering Mongol army with manpower. and pillaging the surrounding area and killing some of the people. but allow a few civilians to flee and spread terror by reporting . closing supplies to the city and waiting for its inhabitants to surrender. and their ability to resist alone or together. Also. the Mongols would do all that was necessary to completely conquer the town or cities. Some tactics involved diverting rivers from the city/town. making maps of the old Roman roads.

Another way the Mongols used deception and terror was by tying tree branches or leaves behind their horses. This created many battlefield scenarios for the opponents where the Mongols would seem to appear out of nowhere and there were seemingly more of them than in actuality. right and/or from their rear. which would appear to the enemy scouts and spies that their force was almost five times larger than it actually was. thereby forcing the enemy to surrender. For instance. also to fake numerical superiority. They dragged the foliage drag behind them in a systematic fashion to create dust storms behind hills to appear to the enemy as a much larger army. when approaching a mobile army. These reports were an essential tool to incite fear in others. each trying to outflank and surprise their opponents. Other techniques used commonly by the Mongols were completely psychological and were used to entice/lure enemies into vulnerable positions by showing themselves from a hill or some other predetermined locations. then disappearing into the woods or behind hills while the Mongols' flank troops already strategically positioned would appear as if out of nowhere from the left. The Mongols also used deception very well in their wars. they would let prisoners and civilians ride their horses for a while before the conflict. Because each Mongol soldier had more than one horse. while camping in close proximity of their enemies at night. the units would be split into three or more army groups. they would feign numerical superiority by ordering each soldier to light at least five fires. both sides often had a similar if differently motivated interest in overstating the enormity of the reported events: the Mongols' reputation would increase and the townspeople could use their reports of terror to raise an army. However.their loss. [Wikipedia] . Flanking and/or feigned retreat if the enemy could not be handled easily was one of the most practiced techniques. During the initial states of battlefield contact.

only half of the area of Vietnam right now. the Trần emperor refused. Abiska. Dila (in China). the Mongols had very strong. Suspecting that this was just a ruse for invasion. The battle of Bình Lệ Nguyên . demanded the Đại Việt's rulers to upgrade the roads and let their armies pass the through the country to attack the Song from the South. especially in navy. and some royal family members. participated this invasion. the spirit for fighting against the Mongols invasion was high. The sport and martial art spirit developed widely among society.) Also. and put the envoys into jail. the Mongolian dynasty decided to invade Đại Việt. etc. They also had many mighty war elephants. First Mongolian invasion In 1281. they had prepared for the war ahead of time. experienced soldiers trained to fight since their youth. they were very confident about this war. They sent envoys to Đại Việt several times. So. including Uriyangqatai. etc. On the side of Đại Việt. besides. They wanted to pass through Đại Việt to attack other parts of Song (in China) from the South. In furiousness. the Mongols succeeded in conquering most of Central Asia. a lot of the best Mongolian military leaders. Quaidu. and they had strong military power. This was because the Vietnamese has a long tradition of protecting their homeland. Easten Europe. Moreover. They thought that 50 000 soldiers were enough for a small country like Đại Việt (Đại Việt at that time was very small.

or the elephant riders. As a mettlesome man. and the cavalry. The only one who was always by . after realizing the imperfections of elephantry. so they tried their best to attack the infantry. the King of Đại Việt participated in the battle along with other soldiers and generals. they suffered heavy lost due to the elephantry.At first. Still. the use of elephants turned into a great disadvantage to the Vietnamese troops. However. Some elephants stepped on Vietnamese soldiers when they turned in panic and ran away. the trunks of those creatures. they kept shooting at the eyes. and the spirited Vietnamese men. As the Mongols were very good at shooting arrows. who was also the King. Other generals fought hard against the enemy to notice him. The Mongols gathered toward him. This decision placed himself into great danger. tried their best to kill the Commander in Chief. the elephant mounted troops caused a lot of difficulties to the Mongols. The Mongols took the chance to show their artful archery skill and powerful cavalry. They couldn't get close to the elephants.

there were many ways to pass a river. The Mongols quickly crossed the river after they found out an area with low water level. when the King reached Cụ Bản. the King was still in peril as Uriyangqatai forced his army to pursue the King. Though. but then floated up. ward off many dangers for him was Lê Tần. the Mongols caught up with the main troops at another river.his side. If the arrows sunk. they collapsed the Phù Lỗ Bridge to stop Mongols. shooting a lot of arrows directly up high so that those arrows would then fall straight to the river flow. I believe it's better to withdraw. the Mongols' special technique surprised the Vietnamese troops. . they almost caught up with the King. The Mongols went along the river. Some people asked the King to stay and fight until the end. At that time. The troop under the command of Phú Lương Hầu was just a small troop. Luckily. This slowed the Mongols down. Phú Lương Hầu was appointed to lead a troop to countercheck the pursuit of the Mongols. under the command of General Phạm Cự Chích. then the water level at that location was low enough so that they can pass through directly. The battle of Phù Lỗ While withdrawing. They sunk a few vessels of the Vietnamese troops. After ordering a withdrawal. it's just like using up all the money for gambling. then the water at that point was too deep for their cavalry to pass through. After killing all of them. and then counterattack later! ". Fought till the end. including General Phạm Cự Chích. This is one of their special techniques to measure the depth of the water level. a local troop came to help just in time. but Lê Tần dissuade him: "If your Majesty decides to fight to the end. if the arrows did not float. With a powerful cavalry. they couldn't hold the Mongols for long. but a lot of soldiers died. The fight was still going on. Otherwise.

there was nothing except their envoys in jail. No people! No food! This was planned before as a strategy. the Trần's leaders realized weak and strong points of both sides. the price for the equipment of a cavalryman was equal to the price of all properties in villages combined. was yet to come. rather than a reaction to losing the battle. In some countries. The surprise for the Mongols at Thăng Long capital The Mongols found this was as easy as a piece of cake. Nonetheless. Couldn’t catch Đại Việt King. This obviously was the result of the ruler’s over-confidence. Cacakdu committed a suicide. However. for the surprise for them. the Mongolian general committed suicide! Despite of losing the battle. Their cavalry was very experienced and well-equipped. as Đại . good at martial art. the Mongols had fought since their youth.] So. They didn’t know that Vietnamese troops were able to conduct such a quick withdrawal mostly due to well ship preparation! Though. or run away when the situation went bad. Even though Đại Việt soldiers were well trained. Uriyangqatai was still very angry as they couldn’t capture the King. as it was a place where the Mongols could make the best use of cavalry. When the order of withdrawal was announced. [At that time. the situation also revealed some remarkable points of the Vietnamese army: They didn't surrender. and a lot of the Vietnamese withdrew safely from the battlefield. they were unknowingly in high spirits. the location selection of the battlefield this time was a big mistake. He blamed Cacakdu for these failures. the infantry was not allowed to ride cavalry's horses. when they reached the capital. surrounded by their enemy. in Europe. not by running arbitrary directions! After this victory. they withdrew in an ordered manner amidst the sea of people.

except the empty capital. These actions made the Vietnamese became very indignant and wanted to fight to the end. Such an evacuation required many boats. Therefore. no food left meant that the Mongols had to rob nearby regions. However. the Mongolian army only stored enough food for a short period of time. not accounting for soldiers. the villagers in nearby regions had received the commands of Trần Thủ Độ in preparing the weapons. the royal family. they would rob the local region for food. in case the Mongols led their troops to the capital. or hidden.Việt force was withdrawing. they killed all of the remaining people they encountered and created a lot of destruction. This evacuation is really amazing as there were thousands of civilians. Then. this time. the court's families. revealing Vietnamese's aquatic strength. burying food. the citizens had also been ordered to move out of the capital. Actually. the Mongols decided to stay at the capital and to submit the Vietnamese. Not only people. leaving only a few who had not evacuated in time. after conquering. The local civilians also gathered their own . the soldiers. and being pursued. families of the officials and soldiers to a safe place. Lady Linh Từ had already evacuated the royal family. Since all the troops were at the battle field. and valuable items. The capital is the center of a country. if this was just a reaction. Searching throughout the capital and found almost nothing. children and women fast enough compared to the Mongols. there was almost nothing left. Of course. including old people. and building defensive fences. as the King led all the troops to the battle field. food. when they came to Đại Việt. However. the citizens. who were progressing to the capital. they couldn’t move so many people. but most of the food had also been taken away. However. They became very angry when realizing that fact. but they were soon disappointed! Normally. Moreover. and food had all been evacuated. This placed the Mongols in a food-deprived situation.

However. they didn’t have any problem with food. the King's boat headed toward the boat of Trần Thủ Độ. At Cổ Sở village. Hence. and escape to the Song Dynasty in China). Hence. went to see his younger brother. dug trenches. but Nhật Hiệu said that he couldn't summon them. Nhật Hiệu was a coward. the pillages of the Mongols were mostly fruitless! They soon fell into a devastating situation of lack of food. as long as my head has not fallen down! Please do not worry! The decisive battle of Đông Bộ Đầu The Vietnamese had a lot of vessels. Trần Nhật Hiệu to discuss war tactics. preventing them from advancing further into the village. He was so scared of the Mongolian army that he couldn't stand up. He answered by just dipping his hand into the water and wrote: "Join Song" (that is. people were very worried! After the withdrawal. So.My Dear Majesty. and many types for different fighting purposes. as Đại Việt agriculture was well-developed in time of peace. ----- As for the Vietnamese troops. Then. The king continued by asking about his troop. the sailors also could take the . Sometimes. They had enough food to feed the troops for a long time. his uncle. no invading troop had ever been able to penetrate the Royal Capital. they were shot with arrows from inside the village. and made bamboo spikes. the local troops came up and took Mongol soldier's heads to terrify the Mongols. Uriyangqatai was afraid that they might be attacked if they stayed in the capital. they withdrew to Đông Bộ Đầu. After this. In certain situations. with a small boat. to “welcome” the Mongols. villagers created traps. The Mongolian cavalry horses got caught in the traps.troops to fight against the Mongols. he suggested that the king should leave the country. from the time of the Ngô Dynasty until then. Thủ Độ responded to the King's question: . the King.

it was dark. the haughty Mongols couldn't think of such an attack as the Đại Việt army had lost so miserably before. a minority leader. the civilians ridiculed them as "the Buddha invaders"! A Chinese historian said that: “If they win. then in the dark of the night. [After about a week of suffering in Thăng Long capital. the ability of the Mongols to fight. the Mongols were severely attacked until they reached Quy Hóa by Hà Bổng. took their weapons. so they didn't rob or do any harmful action during their retreat. the King led all the other troops. had been reduced seriously. the Đại Việt leaders hadn't arranged the forces to attack the Mongols when they withdrew. Then. Uriyangqatai knew that the result was clear then. they counterattacked the Mongols. the Mongols adorned their armor. Following. Though. and approached the place of the Mongols. He ordered a withdrawal. they pursue their enemy to kill as many . so the Mongols were disoriented and suffered more and more losses.] On the night of January 29th. and rode horses to fight back. it was too late. who were ready for counterattacking! At that time. Because of that. the Vietnamese troops extinguished all of their torches. Didn't expect such a rapid withdrawal. After they successfully approached the Mongols. was appointed to lead the vanguard in a vessel. The Vietnamese military leaders had partitioned their army into troops and attacked from many directions. 1258. Moreover. who was 18 years old at that time. Still. silently sailed. and shot rains of arrows into the guards of the enemy barracks. enduring the battle unlike any of the former ones. The Mongols could hardly concentrate their soldiers. and his small troop. The Mongols didn’t want the Đại Việt troops to be able to pursue them. After initial losses due to the Vietnamese's surprising attack. they lit up the torches.weapons and fight. they swiftly landed and entered the Mongols’ barracks. This was totally opposite from the spirit of the Vietnamese. The Crown Prince Trần Hoảng. As an experienced military leader. Ten days after the battle of Bình Lệ Nguyên.

if Song would help them attack Jin. the Mongols didn’t return any land to the Song as promised. If they lose.e. The Mongols also sent envoys to Song and suggested that they would return some land to Song. However. Uriyangqatai thought that the rulers were really scared of the Mongols.000 soldiers they had when they attacked Đại Việt. to become their ally. so they couldn't arrange a payback to Đại Việt immediately. which was near Đại Việt. after finishing the invasion. The King grew furious at the attitude of the envoys. but started to invade Song instead]. However. he realized that the Mongols would soon finish conquering Song. After this. they had to concentrate their power to invade Song.. So. He roped and expelled them. the Song will be their next goal. they run so fast that no one can catch up with them…” After losing the war to Đại Việt. Đại Việt accepted the demand in order to keep peace with them. as possible. Uriyangqatai had to go back to China before returning to the battlefield. compared to the 50. However. The Mongols asked for tributes. the Tran Emperor already knew what happened to Song [The Jin Dynasty asked the Song Dynasty to help them fight the Mongols. Song became the Mongols’ ally. instead of roping and expelling the Mongolian emissaries. i. he welcomed the third Mongolian envoy. the Mongols sent envoys to Đại Việt again. but they had only less than 5000 soldiers at the time they joined the other troops in China. They wanted Đại Việt to attack Song with them. He asked for . Finally. Đại Việt diplomatic tactics after first Đại Việt – Mongols war Not long after returning to Yunnan. However. the Mongolian army withdrew to Dali. They reasoned that if the Mongols successfully conquered the Jin. A time later.

and with no mention of hostages. after which. another Mongolian envoy came. both sides agreed that Đại Việt would pay tributes once every three years. without mentioning the Mongolian court. Not long after the Vietnamese emissary came back. Both sides achieved an unexpected warm relationship for a long time. Đại Việt was asked for many things: scholars. to duplicate the letter summoning the Vietnamese King to the Mongolian court. he sent off envoys to Đại Việt with a letter in a mild attitude. It would be unfitting of a King. (Even if Đại Việt wouldn't pay tribute.more. fortunetellers. Uriyangqatai gave an order. The King was the ruler of his country. doctors. He replied: “I'll wait for the official command of the “Mandate of Heaven” [Mongolian Emperor]. so he responded: “A small country showed all the veneration to the great country. the Vietnamese King used the same tactic. Uriyangqatai had already left for the place of Kublai Khan. This response indicated that the King of Đại Việt would not report to the Mongolian court! Buqa sent his subordinate to Kublai Khan (who later became the King of the Yuan dynasty in China). and reported Uriyangqatai's order. Finally. to ask for his response. and yearly tributes. Uriyangqatai required that the King of Đại Việt to participate in the Mongolian court. once again in fury. The subordinate of Buqa came back to Dali. to travel to another country's court as a subordinate. they probably wanted to focus on the battle with the Song first. I will dispatch my son as a hostage”. Buqa sent a subordinate to Uriyangqatai. how should the great treat the small one?” He made no mention of whether or not he would participate in the Mongolian court. and arbitrarily. as the Mongols needed to concentrate on attacking the Song. the King of Đại Việt sent off an emissary to the Mongolian court to negotiate. Disapproved. Then. Initially. After receiving tributes from Đại Việt. To lengthen the time of preparing for war against the Mongols. When the letter of response reached Dali. ships engineers. and Buqa was in charge. the Mongols gave back some gifts in return. Kublai Khan was busy with power struggles. So. It is better to have a portion of tributes .

there were many Song people as the Prince was a military leader who had a deep understanding of Chinese language and customs. With this strategy. In 1285. This was the only dynasty in China that was ruled by the non-Chinese! During the long war between the Mongols and Song. Such strategies were also applied to Đại Việt. The King of Đại Việt pretended as .] 2nd time defeat the Mongols Raising tension Psychological tactics were used by the Mongols during a time of war. Royal family members were to be sent as hostages. Khan demanded that the Vietnamese King must go to the Mongolian court as a subordinate. realizing the favorable time to invade Đại Việt had come. In 1266. They agreed to pay tribute. which required full submission from Đại Việt. Under the troops of Prince Chiêu Văn. the Yuan dynasty. Đại Việt kept a friendly relationship with Song. If the enemy did not submit. Thousands of people that fled from Song to Đại Việt (before and after the Song lost) were well treated. Kublai Khan founded a new dynasty in China. and Vietnamese soldiers must do the duty designated by the Mongolian court. In his letter. the Mongolians finished conquering the Song. and their preparation for the next Đại Việt . Đại Việt did not submit as a subordinate country. they gained many lands without fighting. This made civilians in other villages frightened and surrendered without fighting. along with a letter from Kublai Khan. The talented Chinese were appointed to be officials. The Trần rulers arranged places for them to stay. these Mongolian actions raised strong resentment among Đại Việt society. They sent envoys to Đại Việt. they would kill everyone in the first village that they encountered. However. So.rather than nothing!) This temporary peace was also conducive to Đại Việt.Mongolian war. to keep peace with the bigger country. taxes were to be submitted. the Mongolian court decided to make it hard on Đại Việt. by sending envoys to intimidate. A census was to be conducted.

I'll accept that!”. Upon hearing about the fact.) About scholars. it is still higher than the rank of a King. but I am a King of a country. If I welcome the ambassador as if he was of the same rank as me. the ambassador was given river water. a Vietnamese naval officer reported to the King. It was summer. which was hot and dirty to drink! The guy asked for well- water instead.You are officials of a country. The guy knew this was a lie. doctors. and insisted: “Please give me some well – water. about the invasion plan of the Mongols. He ordered the Royal Palace guard to draw a sword on the neck of the leader. craft men. Moreover. should do something like that? The vice ambassador replied: . Another envoy was isolated. During that year. I didn’t hear about that when my ambassadors came to the Great Court. The King retorted: .. we were exempted from submitting those stuffs .if there were no such requirements. instead of the King-ambassadors order. the Mongolian court sent a letter of reproach. and take him out. After that. Only then he got some well – water to drink. Đại Việt King did not kneel to receive the letter of Kublai Khan.. it would be very offensive to be Great Court! (. but when being asked for water. and urged everyone in the country to prepare for war. In 1269. the King was not concerned about the leader anymore. of a subordinate country! The King got furious. The King responded in an unyielding manner: “I was appointed by Your Majesty.. Soldiers equipped with lustrous sword guarded outside. If there’s something wrong. they even asked the King to treat them as if they had equal ranking to Đại Việt King. After this. Those arrogant envoys brought weapons into the interior palace (this behavior was considered hostile in Feudal times). The envoys complained about this.Even though the rank of an envoy is low. the Mongolian court sent envoys again. The guy was put under house arrest. The soldiers told him that well-river was poisonous.

when the time came for the next tribute to be paid. This. actually had prevented Uriyang from going around and observing situation in Đại Việt. ... This time. The case was over then. So. the King dispatched an emissary to their court instead of replying and refused to kneel while receiving Kublai Khan's letter. of course. It's strange that you ask for those again!” Kublai Khan sent another letter to criticize. The pillar must have been sunken".. he reasoned that "Last time. After taking the ambassador to several places.*.. They cannot bear the feeling of being far from home. we will wait for the next tribute to bring them to you!" However. and Uriyang. In 1272 the Mongolian Yuan dynasty sent Uriyang to Đại Việt.from 1263. and are not as fast as the Mongolian horses. elephants are animals of affection. but Đại Việt found reasons to dismiss that demand many times.. the Lý Kính Tu said: "It's been a very long time. ~. so I was not directly mentioned the real matter. was just a ruse to get more information about the geography of Đại Việt. had to return with (probably) no information. in order to plan their military invasion. For the tribute in 1269. . and don't want to leave!" The diplomatic war kept growing in tension. the King said: "elephants are large in size. .. The troops. they are slow creatures.~ The Mongols asked for elephants. to inquire about the Copper Pillar from the time of Ma Yuan. I'm afraid that it would go against your Majesty. a high-ranking official of the Yuan. Along with him to the Northern boundary regions was a troop of 2000 soldiers. under the ruse of helping Uriyang find the Copper Pillar. Actually. led by two young generals. The King designated Lý Kính Tu to deal with this problem.

Mandarin Trần Quang Khải visited him. Prince Hưng Đạo shaved his head and visited Sài Thung. This time. my civilians were all frightened. Sài Thung harassed the rulers. Đại Việt had the Yuan envoys to “exercise” by going on long. He came back to the place Đại Việt arranged for him to stay.In 1279. by going on the route that former envoys have used to travel. of course. They held him a banquet in a Hallway. However. Though. Sài Thung came with many guards. valleys. The Prince came to throne] of not asking for "the Great Court's appointment"! Instead of heading to Đại Việt from the direction of Yunnan as former emissaries had done. the harassment had not stopped. Sài Thung lay down. alluding that the Mongols had finished conquering the Song. still welcome the envoys. they made the Yuan envoys waited for letters to come and go between the two sides. but instead of welcoming the guest. past rivers. required the Vietnamese court to send people to welcome him from the border. Đỗ Quốc Kế pick up the Yuan envoys from the border. Kublai Khan sent off Sài Thung to reproach the new king [the former King had died. plainest routes. The Emperor designated the high-ranking mandarin Trần Quang Khải to pick Sài Thung up from Phú Lương River. They don't know from which country your envoys came from. Sài Thung hit the guard on the head with a rope." Nevertheless. Finally. which made the guard bleed. the Vietnamese King sent a letter: "As the Duke approached our border. Sài Thung led his men from the direction of Ung Châu. go through jungles. The ambassador didn’t go to the banquet after seeing it was not held in a luxury place. the Mongols finished conquering Song and found Yuan dynasty in China. However. Đại Việt. meandering routes. Please continue your journey. Disapproving of this action. under the ruse of a . Sài Thung rode a horse to the Grand Royal Hall and was stopped by the royal guard. and paid Trần Quang Khải no attention! Then. instead of going to the capital by the shortest. Though. Đại Việt rulers wanted the ambassador to be less haughty. They had to climb mountains.

With my health. My brothers and sons are similar. Later. Subsequently. The King dispatched envoys to the Mongolian court along with Sài Thung. In 1281. I won’t be able to adapt to the Yuan climate. About attending Yuan court. came to the Yuan dynasty to pay the periodic tribute. I don’t know how to ride horse. I’m afraid that I will die on the way. Kublai Khan kept Đại Việt vice ambassador. Trần Quốc Tuấn bled heavily at his head. With those reasons. Angrily. Sài Thung read the letter of Kublai Khan in the Grand Royal Hall. Believing that the guest was a real monk. Kublai Khan directly intimidated about war and asked the Vietnamese King personal attendance at Yuan dynasty’s court. Sài Thung welcomed him in a friendly way. the King's Uncle. gave Đại Việt King Kublai Khan’s letter. Sài Thung ordered his men to point an arrow many times at Trần Quốc Tuấn head. the King used many reasons to deny Kublai Khan's request. There was no golden man. Kublai Khan enthroned Prince Trần Di Ái as the new King of Đại Việt and established a puppet Vietnamese government. when Trần Quốc Tuấn left. Sài Thung attended the banquet held at Tập Hiền Royal Hall. Sài Thung saw him out the door respectably. but his countenance was not changed. Sài Thung was dispatched to Đại Việt again. Nonetheless. The conversation kept going on as if nothing happened. Đại Việt must pay tribute of a golden man and two pearls for the eyes. Instead of the aggressive manner when he discovered a fake monk. he said: “I grew up in palace. Kublai Khan ordered his men to escort this "new government" to their home country . Besides.” Sài Thung had to return with no achievement. Khan intimidated. the Vietnamese envoys. if Đại Việt King was not to present in Yuan court. and the Vietnamese King was still absent. In the letter. Amazed by Trần Quốc Tuấn attitude and his manner. led by Trần Di Ái. and some other human tribute stuffs. After learning that Trần Quốc Tuấn was not a monk.Chinese monk.

Trần Ích Tắc was ridiculed by the name "Ả Trần" ("the woman named Trần") meaning that Trần Ích Tắc was "as coward as a woman". the Emperor and other important figures. Indravarman V ignored this. instead of attacking Đại Việt first. He will replace you in ruling Annam. Champa – Yuan war Đại Việt. and fled back to China. but Trần court were still united by the effort of the Retired Emperor. I'll let you take rest to recover your health. they would gain huge advantages in attacking Đại Việt.” As this delegation reached Đại Việt’s Northern borders. The King of Champa. at that time. as the King of Annam (Đại Việt). The defected Prince Trần Di Ái was captured and was demoted to a soldier. right after they finished conquering the Song. Chenla [a Khmer Empire]. Hence. before being annexed to Vietnam right now. asking for Champa’s King to go to Yuan’s court as a subordinate. His defection and several high-ranking officials of Trần royal court had an adverse impact for the Trần Dynasty in the beginning of the war of resistance. Khan said haughtily: “As you told me that your health was not good enough to come to my court. The Kingdom has an important geographical position. If the Mongols could occupy this Kingdom. as well as . In the letter. Trần Di Ái. even though it was much smaller than Yuan. the Yuan started a plan to conquer Champa and demanded Đại Việt to let Yuan army pass through the country to invade Champa. and many other countries in the South. The harmony of them. Champa first.with his letter. Being the only defected prince of Trần clan. the Mongols dispatched their emissary to Champa. I established your uncle. Sài Thung had one eye shot out. Champa is a collection of Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam. they were ambushed by Đại Việt forces and retreated. So. the united spirit of the society was one of the main factors that led to the victory of the Trần Dynasty over the Mongols' second invasion. So. the Yuan decided to attack its smaller neighbor. along with the Yuan court’s letter. was a strong country.

my civilians have become wanderers. Besides. who know when Đại Việt will give food! Besides. Đại Việt rulers said that “After years of following the Great Dynasty for years. and ask for those countries submission. during the Champa – Yuan food. they had prepared for the war ahead of time. and that the civilians in former Song didn’t submit to their Yuan new dynasty. When saying “Please wait” with no mentioning of specific time. the rulers foresaw the ambition of the Yuan court. and human resources for the Yuan armies. Đại Việt rallied 20 000 soldiers and 500 war vessels to help Champa. Đại Việt King reasoned that: “My country is near the Coast. the soldiers had been allowed to go home and work. So. About helping weapons and armies. They had bumper crops at that time. Ung Châu belongs to Quangxi. Obviously. Đại Việt found reason to refuse the Yuan request. weapons. So please wait! We will bring food to Ung Châu for you!”. So. we can’t grow many crops. we don’t even have enough food for ourselves!” To stop the Yuan from asking. However. it would be very unfavorable to Champa. . we haven’t made used of our weapons. those weapons had already worn out. the Yuan court dispatched delegates to go to other Southern countries. The Champa rulers knew that if a country submitted to the Yuan dynasty. a regions has many uprising against the Yuan. So. Đại Việt King criticised the crimes that the Mongols committed at his country after the first war. Đại Việt government took great care of the infrastructure. After Your Great Force withdrawal (that is after the first Đại Việt – Mongols war). In 1282. all the delegates that go by the Champa territory were captured. He knew that Đại Việt King was playing on him. So. Also. In reality. we suffered flood recently. So. Instead of helping Yuan. Đại Việt King said in addition: “I don’t dare to go against your Great Commander.” About supplying food. Ariq Qaya got angry but found no reason to talk back. their economics recover very fast after the first war. About the Kingdom of Champa.

For two months. under the command of my King. (They also asked for help from Đại Việt and Chenla. The Yuan armies entered an empty Vjiaya capitol. instead of submitting. The King and the Prince will come later. a massive number of soldiers from Guǎngzhōu came to Champa. As they wanted less human loss. The ambassador kept insisting on a later time and said that he would report Sogetu’s . Sogetu dispatched envoys to the Champa Royal Palace many times and required submission from Champa.In 1282. he asked me to bring his spear here first to show his sincerity. Sogetu decided to attack. They attacked the Champa armies at night. He and his force joined the King’s force. there were not many casualties. However. before the first battle.) The King's uncle brought a lot of tribute to Sogetu and said: “Our King wanted to come. they got into the trap of Champa.” Sogetu trusted the envoy and sent his man to the Champa King to convene the King of Champa as a subordinate. His eldest son promised to come here after three more days. the King sent Sogetu a letter of war- provocation. This caused damage to more than half of the ships that the Mongols possessed. to have more time to prepare for a counter-attack. in order to help the Champa armies. Champa sent envoys to “ask for being a subordinate” as a ruse to have more time for evacuating their forces and resources.” Sogetu was hesitant about whether to receive the tribute or not. and then withdrew to Vjiaya. Sogetu regulated his force and led his force to Vjiaya. The envoy said: “I came to surrender. Unluckily for the Mongols. but he is too sick to come. He required the King of Champa to come immediately. The battle lasted more than half of a day before the situation went bad for the Champa armies. In return. In 1283. The King of Champa dispatched an envoy to the place of Sogetu. After occupying the fortress. the waters were stormy. Though. The Prince Harijit ordered a withdrawal. the King's uncle was appointed to be an ambassador and joined Sogetu in the tactics game. So.

I will capture him. Knowing that. he dispatched his two sons here to see you first. I heard from the soldier that Prince Harijit has died due to injury. Now. Sogetu trusted the guy and accepted his suggestion. On 03/08/1283. his armies were defeated. He said that they were sons of the Champa’s King. He would lead the Yuan envoys to the places later. the ambassadors asked the two hostages to come back and report this news to the King first. In addition.demand to the King. he asked for some Yuan outfits to demand the Chams civilians to submit and capture the King and his sons. the King had 10.” The Yuan envoys thought those words were real. So. So. they let the Champa’s ambassador go. Additionally. continuing his mission. in Sogetu’s barracks. Who reported to Sogetu that the King had reserved resources. At that time. Now. with two hostages. he sent his men off to investigate the situation under the subterfuge of visiting the injured King. he spread those words out definitely to kill me. The King was shot in his cheek. He made many bad remarks about the King to Sogetu. He recovered. they were stopped by the guard.” Sogetu didn’t believe that these men were sons of the King. and said to one of the Yuan envoys: “The King is contemplating between whether to surrender or not. and he returned to Sogetu to report the news. and plead for being subordinates. Please return to your leader and tell him that if the King does not come. As the ambassador and the Yuan envoys approached the Champa troops’ head-quarter. Several days later. but he felt too ashamed and terrified to come. Seven days later. the Champa’s ambassador came to Sogetu’s barracks. the ambassador came again. there was a Chinese man. Sogetu decided to accept the tribute and wait.000 soldiers for the war. he said: “At first. Finally. Then. fortified . the ambassadors led some high-ranking officials of Champa’s court to Sogetu’s barracks. The Champa’s ambassador pretended as if he was cheated by the Champa’s King. so he returned them all. and bring him to your leader.

Sogetu believed that the Champa’s armies were mostly dissolved. Hence. and left out the Yuan armies. The Champa’s leaders perceived that they could not defeat the Yuan in a single battle. As the Champa’s leader’s realized the chance for them had arrived. They divided armies into defensive troops and waited for the Yuan court aid. but the Yuan also suffered heavy loss. Prince Harijit had to order a withdrawal. they attacked the Yuan troops. The soldiers and civilians gathered in small groups. Sogetu had his soldiers steal. The Champa’s ambassador lead the force of the Yuan general to Vajia. The Chinese man was roped after this. the situation went bad for them. causing many casualties. He suggested Sogetu dispatch his men to the Regions in Champa and ask for submission. they waged guerilla warfare instead. So. to ambush the Yuan troops that . and summoned for the aid of the regions in the country. Winning Sogetu’s credence. They withdrew from Vjiaya to Quy Nhơn and built a wooden fortress for long stationing. At last. to confront the ambassador.fortresses. Sogetu won the battle. and store food. After realizing being in a trap. However. After the traps. the Yuan troops deployed their tactics under a favorable plain battlefield environment and defeated the Champa’s troops. they waited for the aid from the Yuan court instead of attacking. Meanwhile. Heavy damages and the sturdy fortresses of Champa made the idea of attacking seem hopeless to them. then rode his elephants to hide in the jungle. and have no ability to resist Sogetu. Sogetu started to attack. he sent off another general with him to capture the Champa’s King and lead his force to Bán Sơn tower in case the situation went bad. the ambassador was able to control the situation. However. The Champa’s armies had planned many traps with rocks and wood for them. Sogetu brought that Chinese man to Champa’s ambassador. Champa’s soldiers ambushed the Yuan armies. the Champa’s ambassador “consecrated” his tactics to Sogetu.

Could not find Sogetu in the capital. they sailed toward the North to find Sogetu’s troops. the Yuan court had a strong desire to occupy Champa and lend its way to expand their empire. avoiding difficulties in aid by sea. Nevertheless. They could only defend and do agriculture for their own food sources. it was hopeless for Sogetu to attack to Champa’s troops. the Champa’s leaders were also aware that it’s not a good idea to attack the Yuan armies. Though. but eventually were sent back to Champa for war. Kublai Khan wanted to have Đại Việt a long time before.had stolen food. Though. they didn’t know that Sogetu and his force had relocated. So. This tactic was very efficient. and made the region unstable. in order to make the way to attack other countries. On the other hand. and asked the court to attack Đại Việt first. the Yuan court decided to aid via sea – route. they didn’t follow their leader’s commands. This led Sogetu to conquer Đại Lãng to station. However. but they refused. It’s not until March 1284 that Ataqai led 30. However. At that time. he thought it was easier to conquer Champa first. they sent envoys to ask the Yuan troops to return to their home country. the Yuan court asked Đại Việt to lend the way to attack Champa. storms destroyed most of their ships. the heavy taxes and public services were too difficult for civilians in the South of the Yuan (the region that the Mongols had taken from the Song dynasty not long before). The survivors were tired from the weather and returned to their home country. He ordered his man to build a wooden fortress and do agriculture to have food for their own. Sogetu preferred to wait for the aid. they came to the capital of Champa instead. So. and to attack Đại Việt . Hence. When they were on their way. became thieves. The number of Yuan soldiers kept declining as many died and deserted from the military. Having no other choice.000 Yuan soldiers and several hundred ships to Champa. There were many uprisings that hindered the aiding process. Hence. He sent a letter to the Yuan court.

They just said vaguely: “Champa is my country subordinate. etc. the Yuan was always ambushed by Đại Việt small military groups. Many of the generals of their troops were among the best of the empire. Though. Champa was unenlightened. and Ariq Qaya (ranked number 3 in the Empire for his war victories). Đại Việt knew that.Đại Việt war broke out. the Yuan . with food and medicine. I felt poor for them this time but couldn’t say it was destiny. realizing the difficulties in attacking Champa. they had troops able to fight in many environments. he changed his plan. their army was better prepared this time. with the hindering weather and sea. To invade Đại Việt. Đại Việt didn’t admit. they had requested Đại Việt to lend them the way to attack Champa. and different weather conditions. the Yuan sent letter of reproach. At this time. with the idea of crushing Đại Việt in a flash.” Đại Việt .from many directions. However. Li Heng. The Yuan court had strong ambition in this invasion. Now. This included Prince Toghan as the Commander in Chief. this plan couldn’t come true. a disadvantage is that the experiences of these troops are not homogeneous. they already concentrated troops . Twisting the orange As said before. Actually. Knowing that Đại Việt had a hand in Champa – Yuan war. They planned to invade Đại Việt from both the North (China) and the South (Sogetu led his force to attack Đại Việt from Champa). Đại Việt overall strategy was using guerrilla tactics. So. at that time. Yunnan. However. and many people from minorities that live on savannas. even a three years old child knows what will happen if an enlightened collude with an unenlightened. In addition to this. etc. and then to conquer all the other part of South East Asia.Yuan war At the beginning of 1285.000 soldiers from different races. Omar. Including well trained Mongolian cavalries. Kublai Khan mobilized 500.

but he still thought I’m a kid and does not want me to discuss warfare problems with the others!” Think of this and think of the cruelty of the enemy. and other people came. you should be praised! Then. In 1282 a military convention was held at Bình Than.between the Đại Việt-Yuan border. they’ll take over our country! Please fight against them! After that. as you care for the country even if you’re small. but it has been crushed with his hands. He was seen coming out. Trần Quốc Toản accosted the King and said:  Please don’t lend them the way to attack Champa. not Champa. in fact. He waited from the morning till noon and still was not able to see the King. the King gave him an orange. and the rulers believed that there was a high possibility that the Yuan. he took out his sword and said:  I want to see the King! Don’t stop me! At this time. as was ready to receive the penalty for entering without the King’s permission! The King lifted him and said: . he felt furious and clinched his fist. The King came to the aid of the vessel. He got very angry and pushed some soldiers that tried to stop him from entering the grounds. If you do that. . the vessel of the King came. but he was too young. from some unknown moment. wanted to invade Đại Việt first. At this convention. he placed the sword on his neck. to discuss war strategies. Trần Quốc Toản gave thanks to the King. As more soldiers started to surround him. Trần Quốc Toản wanted to participate. and went back to the shore in an unhappy mood: “The King gave me an orange. This is where the all-time famous story about Trần Quốc Toản began. This news was reported to Đại Việt rulers.I ought to penalize you! However. He showed them the orange that the King gave him.

he went home. his death is still an open question! . In the victory of Hàm Tử battle. and many other battles.After this. according to some historical materials. mobilized more than a thousand house servants and civilians. in some battle. he was one of the main commanders. Kublai Khan’s Prince Toghan had to retreat. he got married to a princess of the former Song dynasty. Some historians said that he died at the age of eighteen. made vessels with the flag weaved with the lines: “Defeat the enemy. and died in Song. He went to Song to help people resist against the Mongolians. in which. He continued to fight under the command of Prince Chiêu Minh in the Battle of Chương Dương. However. he was appointed to the battlefield. He bought weapons. repay the Emperor’s grace!” Later. So. Songetu’s navy was almost demolished. His troops always fought bravely against the enemy so that the Yuan Dynasty’s troops had to retreat.

They were amazed once again to see the Prince drink wine from his nose. the King appointed him to be in charge of this region. you're our brother!" The Prince responded intimately: "We've always been brothers!" With this special way. He also gained great respect among ethnic groups in this region. Knowing this fact. without any bloodshed. When he met Trịnh Giác Mật. and eat the way their people did. Prince Chiêu Văn was appointed to lead the army to deal with Trịnh Giác Mật revolt (He was also a famous general at the time). He ordered his man to send the Prince a letter. Many generals went there. The Prince walked calmly. The Lord of some minority in Đà Giang. the ethnic groups in those regions played important roles and gained many victories for the country. he went to the revolt headquarters with only some servants. but with no result. Realizing he was a golden bridge between the court and the minorities in the West North and the East. without any fear among the arrays of men with swords. Trịnh Giác Mật sketched a plot to assassinate the Prince. Finally. and tried to suppress the uprising. History showed that this was a perfect choice. Prince Chiêu Văn and the Đà Giang up-raising However. which stated "[Trịnh] Giác Mật does not want to go against the dynasty. Every leader of the revolt was startled! Then. a mishap in Đại Việt’s preparation was an up-raising in Đà Giang region. Trịnh Giác Mật invited the Prince to a banquet. During the war against the invasion of the Mongolians. he told Trịnh Giác Mật in their language and customs: "My servants left ears were hot when we were on our way. Trịnh Giác Mật said in great surprise: "The Prince. the Prince pacified the situation very soon. the government will appoint another general in Chief to defeat them!" So. which meant to scare him. we will surrender immediately!" Other generals were afraid that this was a plot. and now their right ears are hot". If your majesty can come to our headquarters on your own. Trịnh Giác Mật rose an uprising against Tran dynasty. . but the Prince said: "Don't worry! If I die this time.

while the Yuan armies were taking a rest. In return. Behead me first! At the end of 1284 (Lunar calendar). Instead. the Great General Phạm Ngũ Lão led more troops to the border. When the night come. right from the start of military progression. Đại Việt ignored this. they continuously be attacked by Đại Việt guerrilla forces. and to welcome Toghan. one of the Yuan vanguards had to stop at the River Bank to find ships to get their soldiers cross the river. The Yuan force was attacked after losing their leaders. Though. the Yuan general got into the ships with two girls. the young men in the village have dive to the water. When progressing deeper and deeper to Đại Việt inland. Some stories were recorded. Unknowing to them. dig holes in their vessels and places something into the holes to stop water from getting into the ships. Đại Việt King requested Toghan to withdraw and reminded Toghan that Kublai Khan had wrote in his letter years ago: “I have forbidden my military Commander to invade your Kingdom”. Only waited for that. Prince Hưng Đạo withdrew to Vạn Kiếp. They agreed to go to the opposite bank with the Yuan commanders. The girls were arranged to get back. Toghan said that he will attack Champa. Two Yuan commanders died. The King convened him to Hai Duong and asked: . Later. not Đại Việt It was pretty obvious that the Yuan would attack Đại Việt. Upon losing the battle. The ship sunk. they moved some troops to Northern border. some young men took out the stuffs from the holes that they had dig before. The Yuan commanders sent ships to pick up the girls. asked Đại Việt to prepare routes. not Đại Việt. We attack Champa. On the opposite side of the river were two beautiful girls in their shop. Toghan attacked Chi Lăng. food. they sent a letter to Đại Việt. Local civilians held a party for the Yuan. At Thương River.

and took care of military matters. and what would happen to our society? If you want to submit. but what would happen to the sanctuary of our dynasty. As the enemy is that strong. should we surrender instead having bloodshed for our civilians. After this. Exhortation to the military officers Prince Hưng Đạo Source: Wikipedia . please behead me first! The King felt better after hearing those honest words. and destruction of our country? Prince Hưng Đạo responded:  I understand you want the best for our homeland. Prince Hưng Đạo came back to Vạn Kiếp. With all his heart. to motivate the soldiers' spirit so that they could defeat the incoming Mongol invaders. he wrote the following proclamation.

Every century has produced heroes who have sacrificed their lives for their country. therefore. Who was Wang Gong Jian? And who was his lieutenant Ruan Wen Li? They were the ones who defended the great citadel of Diao Yu against Mongke's immense army. on hearing about these deeds of the past. a subject living far from the Court. of Yu Rang who swallowed burning charcoal to avenge his leader. We have seen the enemy ambassadors haughtily traveling over our roads and wagging their owlish tongues to insult the Court. I shall tell you instead of several more recent events that have taken place during the years of the Song and Yuan dynasties. of young Jing De who rescued the Emperor Taizong of Tang besieged by Wang Shi Chong. the Song people will be eternally grateful to them. they boldly humiliate our high officials. Despicable as dogs and goats. of Yao Yu who took a blow in his back to spare King Chao. you are not well-versed in letters. their names have remained rooted in the minds of the Mongol military chieftains. Who was Uriyangqatai? And who was his lieutenant Qisusi? They were the ones who drove deep into an unhealthful country in order to put down the Nanchao bandits and they did it within the space of a few weeks. Therefore. they .I have often read the story of Ji Xin who replaced the Emperor Gao of Han to save him from death. would their names have been inscribed on bamboo and silk to live eternally in Heaven and on the Earth? But as descendants of warrior families. Let us speak of them no more. and Gao Qing. you may have some doubts. You and I were born in a period of troubles and have grown up at a time when the Motherland is in danger. who insulted the rebel An Lu Shan to his face. Supported by the Mongol Khan. If they had remained at home to die by the fire. of Shin Kuai who cut off an arm to save his country.

when your rank was too low. If you had to travel by water. To yield to their exactions would be to feed their insatiable appetites and would set a dangerous precedent for the future. I tremble with anger because I cannot eat our enemy's flesh. gold and silver. Indeed. The exploitation of your personal affairs makes you forget your duties to the State. I promoted you.incessantly demand the payment of pearls. If the enemy comes. when you lacked rice. I fed you. and drink his blood. you are seduced by liquor and music. silks. I supplied you with vessels. are forced to serve the barbarians and you feel no shame! You hear the music played for their ambassadors and you do not leap up in anger. Tears roll down my cheeks and my heart bleeds as if it were being cut to shreds. we shared the same dangers. You have served in the army under my orders for a long time. in the possession of your gardens and rice fields. the distractions of the fields and of the hunt make you neglect military exercises. you remain indifferent when your country is threatened! You. chew up his liver. if you had to travel by land. you amuse yourselves at the cockfights. And now. I clothed you. at the banquet table our laughter resounded in unison. even Wang Gong Jian and Uriyangqatai did not show more solicitude for their officers than I have displayed for you. In time of war. When you needed clothing. I fail to eat during the day and to sleep at night. I increased it. I supplied you with horses. In the face of these dangers to the Motherland. when your pay was insufficient. officers. will your cocks' spurs be able to pierce his armor? Will the ruses you use in your games of chance be of use in repulsing him? Will the love of your wives and children be of any use in the Army? Your money . lie down in his skin. in gambling. Our wealth is limited but their cupidity is infinite. I would gladly surrender my life a thousand times on the field of battle if I could do these things. and in the tranquility of family life. you remain calm when your emperor is humiliated. No.

but your privileges too will be assured for the future. It would not be my family alone that would be driven out. but your fame too will endure for a hundred centuries to come. Exercise your soldiers in the skills of archery until they are the equals of Peng Meng and Hou Yi. nor your music to deafen him. would you not be perfectly happy even if you did not expect to be? I have studied every military treatise in order to write my manual entitled "Principles of Military Strategy". Tell me: Could you then indulge yourselves in pleasures? I say to you in all frankness: Take care as if you were piling wood by the fire or about to imbibe a hot liquid. but yours too will be worshipped in the spring and autumn of every year. not only my fief will be safe forever. If you will make an effort to . Not only the memory of my ancestors will be venerated from generation to generation. Not only my family will enjoy the comforts of life. but your wives and children would also be reduced to slavery. but those of your ancestors would also be violated. but you too will be able to spend your old age with your wives and children. What grief! And not only would I lose my fief. At that moment. Then we will display Kublai's head at the gates of the Imperial Palace and send the King of Yunnan to the gallows. those famous archers of olden times. your alcohol to besot him. Your family's honor would also be sullied forever with the shame of your defeat. I would be humiliated in this life and in a hundred others to come. All of us. but yours too will find a place in our nation's history. Not only will my name be immortalized. After that. It would not be only the graves of my ancestors that would be trampled under the invader's heel. Not only will I have accomplished my aspirations in this life. would then be taken prisoner. you and I together. and my name would be ignominiously tarnished.would neither suffice to buy the enemy's death. but your property too would fall into enemy hands.

Though. If that is what you want.Mongols” tattoo The proclamation inspired not only the military officials. Many of those men were so old that they couldn’t come on their own and had to be carried on the backs of young men in their village. and to follow my directions. how will you be able to hold your head high between Heaven and Earth? The purpose of this proclamation is to let you know my deepest thoughts. Surprisingly. your names will be dishonored forever. but every people across the country! Soldiers. The Retired King convened a meeting called Diên Hồng. Why? Because the Mongols are our mortal enemies. if you do not train your soldiers to drive out these barbarians. elder people were well respected by society. This was the first time that old men from every village gathered. everyone raised a fist high: . to instruct yourselves in its teachings. “Kill the Yuan. The Retired King held the banquet himself and asked the old people whether to fight or to submit. to show their spirit! The Diên Hồng convention In feudal times. If you refuse to fight the Mongols in order to wash away the national shame. Despite the fact that they knew almost nothing about politics or military matters. soldiers. you will become my enemies. despite their age. it would be to surrender to them. On the other hand. where the eldest men from every part of the country were invited. their spirit was higher than it conscientiously. we cannot live under the same sky with them. to discuss with their Retired King the country’s affairs. And when the enemy has finally been defeated. you will become my true companions-in-arms. The eldest man in a village was seen as a representative for that village. if you fail to study it and ignore my advice. civilians draw “Kill the Yuan- Mongols” tattoo on their arms.

- Let's fight! Let's fight!
There were many people, but the
words “Let’s fight” came out at the
same time, without hesitation as if
there was only one man with a super
loud voice! The Hall was moving
with the sounds of high-spirited
men! After this, those men were the
people who conveyed the
government’s policies, to other
people in their villages.
Ngô Sĩ Liên, a historian made a remark that: “The war was a great
challenge for the country. The Retired King, the King, and the court
together surely had the strategies for the war already. The reason for the
convention was mainly to know what civilians thought from their
representatives, and to encourage the civilians."
From that time, the meeting was the symbol of unity of the society,
between the government and the civilians, etc.
At that time, Thoát Hoan's troops had reached Ung Châu. The Yuan
force lead by Naxirut Din from Yunnan was ready to pass the border.
The Vietnamese civilians had concentrated food, weapons, and troops as
the government's order were given out.
At the end of January 1285, Toghan and A Lý Hải Nha, with their forces
reached Đại Việt border. The Vietnamese troops were ready. The
Emperor sent Toghan a letter, so they would really think that the Đại
Việt officials were scared of them (as a tactic):
"I can't see your halo with my own eyes, but I'm delighted. As I have
received a letter from the Mandate of Heaven, which said that: "I
ordered my man not to attack your country, but now I'm so appalled to
know that there are many barracks in Ung Châu. Please re-judge our

loyalty, and forgive us if there was something wrong." Toghan replied
with a lie: "We are about to attack Champa, not Annam [Đại Việt]!"
Shortly after, the first battles occurred. The war officially began.
The War
The battle of Vạn Kiếp

At Vạn Kiếp, Prince Hưng Đạo had 200,000 soldiers, but Toghan had

They wanted to defeat the Tran's main army before assailing the capital
of Đại Việt. So, they attacked Vạn Kiếp first instead of the capital. They
arranged cavalry and infantry troops as the main force. Along with that,
they stole timber, and other materials to assemble ships. They also got a
number of war vessels from Đại Việt during previous battles and many
from robbing civilians' ships. In sum, they had several hundred ships.
Under the command of Omar, the best navy commander of the Yuan
dynasty, the mission of this naval force was to coordinate with other
forces and to attack the Đại Việt's troops when the troops withdrew.
In mid-February of 1285, Toghan appointed Omar to lead a force of
300,000 soldiers to attack Đại Việt troops, as the vanguard. Toghan led
the rest after him on probation. The Yuan Navy was over confident

about their great cavalry, and with their world-famous archery to help.
Though, the Đại Việt troops weren't panicked. Đại Việt’s powerful Navy
stopped the advance of the enemy, time after time. Unable to advance
further, the Yuan troops suffered heavy losses.
However, the Yuan, with their populous troops didn't stop. Other Yuan
generals coordinated their forces with Omar forces, and attacked Đại
Việt's troops, from many directions. Even though Đại Việt's Navy
seemed to be excelled in the river, the situation on the ground was in
reverse order.
Receiving the alarming message, the Emperor of Đại Việt led 1000
vessels, and 100,000 soldiers. From the capital Thăng Long to Vạn Kiếp,
to help Prince Hưng Đạo. Though, the Đại Việt soldiers were still
outnumbered by the the Yuan. The battle lasted for 3 days before the
situation went bad for Đại Việt. The King and the Prince ordered a
withdrawal, as for how Prince Hưng Đạo debated in his book about the
art of war: "The excellent don't need too many victories but need to
ensure the final, the biggest battle winning."
Omar and his Navy tried their best, but couldn’t stop the withdrawal of
the Vietnamese troops, as the Vietnamese troops dominated the main
river routes. Both sides suffered a severe loss during the brutal, long-
lasting battle.
The capital
After occupying Vạn Kiếp, the Yuan troops progressed through Bắc
Giang. There was little Đại Việt armies at this location, as well as some
other nearby places. The Yuan troops took over those places quite
rapidly. They committed a lot of crimes when they were on their way.
Especially when they captured Vietnamese soldiers with the tattoo of
“Kill the Yuan-Mongols enemy!”
The Đại Việt government had evacuated their resources and people
ahead of time. They also had their armies in charge of the rivers near the

Seeing him. and placed weapons for defense.Dear Your Majesty! I know that my ability is limited. the Yuan troops had gathered near the Red river (on the other side of the river was the Capital). two sides were in great tension. they waited for other troops instead of attacking right away. Finally. build fences for protection. but please let me try! The King was very happy to hear this and said: . He ordered the soldiers to draw the tattoo of “killing the Mongols”.Dogs bite strangers that are not their owners. Đại Việt’s King wanted someone to go to the Yuan barracks as an ambassador for negotiation [actually. Omar said: . Hence. The Yuan vanguard was only a rivers distance from Đại Việt forces. Our Emperor didn’t know that. That’s a serious offense to our troops! . It seemed that Đại Việt had well prepared for defense. Đỗ Khắc Chung raised his voice: . Why don’t I have that tattoo? To prove what he said was true. Đại Việt were best at navy but not the Yuan. In that time the war subsided temporarily. this just a ruse to know more information about the Yuan armies]. so almost nobody volunteered to Though. Shortly after the battle of Vạn Kiếp.It's amazing to see a marvelous horse among the horses of the carriage! Đỗ Khắc Chung carried the King’s letter to the Yuan barracks. Though. the Yuan waited for other troops and try to found a navy.Your King is ill-mannered. and there are a lot of rivers in Đại Việt. Đỗ Khắc Chung showed his arm to Omar. They draw the tattoo on their own to show loyalty. I am his close Mandarin. Omar said: .

Why hasn’t your country come to talk. Omar ordered his man to go after and capture Đỗ Khắc Chung. . this man acted very naturally. he just said: “A dog bites people who are not its owner”. Omar continued: . This attack ended in failure for the Yuan troops. but instead went against us? What would happen to a mantis.Our troops just go through your country to conquer the Kingdom of Champa. Omar said to his generals: . A country with talented people like this is not easy to conquer! After this. we will flatten your country. after which. He didn’t besmirch his superior. Yuan troops attacked. . Soon after Trần Khắc Chung came back to his barracks. He didn’t flatter me. if the King of Đại Việt comes here to talk. it would be a serious offense of us that time. Stationed at the border. They put significant effort into attacking the South of the capital.Under my threats. If you did that. Đỗ Khắc Chung came back to his barracks and reported the valuable information that he observed about the Yuan troops to the King. Đại Việt will be fine.Your Great Commander didn’t follow the old way of Hàn Tín when he tried to take over the Kingdom of Yên. you attacked us. and to stop the possible withdrawals of Đại Việt. no one will survive! After Đỗ Khắc Chung came back to Đại Việt barracks. Toghan decided to use all his forces to attack. However. Đại Việt knew that and tried to collapse the enemy’s plan. trying its best to stop a wheel? Đỗ Khắc Chung retorted: . Otherwise. He is a truly gifted diplomate. and sent a letter prior to progressing. if not to say. They said that even a worm will turn. but it was too late. people.Our troops have traveled a long way to get here.

Upon discovering these facts. at a very expensive price. The next day. they progressed to the capital. Somte papers about Đại Việt preparation were left to show Đại Việt determination. the troops led by Prince Chiêu Văn were not too many. Toghan immediately had his forces go after Đại Việt. and attack from two different directions. at least 10 000. the number of soldiers must not be small. a high-ranking official of the Yuan. With people from different races. Song soldiers that wanted to have places to stay and revenge for their lost country. minorities. At this time. As it would be dangerous to lead the Yuan troops joined with Toghan’s troops. with numerous people. Toghan still didn’t know that most of Đại Việt’s main troops had withdrawn safely. As Đại Việt’s main force was to be concentrated at the Central Main Land. The King was not there. they stationed near the fortress and continued attacking. the Yuan troops successfully conquered the fortress.Mongols war was evident. due to Đại Việt weapons and armies. Đại Việt armies were not there. Yuan troops from Yunnan At the same time. Within a day. They still celebrated their victory. they got closer and closer to the fortress. This was not easy as these non-homogeneous troops couldn’t cooperate due to differences in language and customs. Prince Chiêu Văn led his forces against the Yuan troops progressed from Yunnan. They only saw some letter that Kublai Khan sent that have been tore down that the King left to show that the Yuan words and orders were nothing to Đại Việt. This Yuan troop was mainly to disperse Đại Việt force. The Yuan also found a lot of guidance to civilians on resisting the Yuan.Toghan’s force suffered heavy loss. and then join Toghan force. Only then. Though. Though. since this troop was led by Naxirut Din. So. The valuable items and people had all been evacuated. . We don’t know the exact number of soldiers in this troop. they realized it was empty. including Vietnamese. Đại Việt had to spread their armies. but the fear of no food like the first Đại Việt .

Naxirut Din headed towards Thu Vật and fought with Prince Chiêu Văn troops. he had a tough time with the ambushes of minority troops. with their own military force. The Yuan attacked this region. They showed their submission by paying taxes. With this speed. Hà Đặc and his force killed the enemy by using guerilla warfare. He had to spread out his armies to deal with those troops. He dispatched his men to go first and explore the region that they were heading to. Prince Chiêu Văn fought with Naxirut Din force to kill part of them while kept withdrawing.Đại Việt government didn’t have their officials for minorities. After coming across this region. As they reached Bạch Hạc. Instead. He wanted to defeat the Prince once and for all. He wanted to make use of the geography to kill more enemies later. after which.) About Naxirut Din. the Prince’s mission is to reduce the strength of the Yuan troop and maintain his force. At Quy Hóa. after several small battles to kill parts of the enemy. So. tributes. the Prince asked everyone to leave the vessels and went on foot to Thăng Long capital. a betrayal Prince. the Prince noticed that the Yuan chased after them in a slow manner. there was probably ambushers ahead!”. “Cooperate” means that Đại Việt government couldn’t intervene in their matters. there were only 1000 soldiers to join with Toghan force. He said to other generals: “Normally. Many people appeared worried. While sitting on the vessel. The reporter said that there were ambushers ahead. (These italic paragraphs might not true as it based on Trần Ích Tắc. these regions were autonomous. the government was pretty much like a coalition of different communities. Ích Tắc slandered Chiêu Văn. Hà Đặc and Hà Chương were regions leaders. It his words. Prince Chiêu Văn ordered a withdrawal. they would chase us very rapidly. This . To them. So. and cooperated if there were wars. The Prince conducted a spiritual ceremony to embolden them. Though. they got the bad news that the capital had fallen.

The Yuan leaders found him to be a skillful. even though Đại Việt didn’t win. Suffered heavy loss after 3-4 days even though they were much larger than their opponent. this was a pain of the dynasty. so that the main force could withdraw safely. (Admittedly. rather than become a Prince of Yuan!”. Thanks to him. which pursued Đại Việt main force. with a small number of vessels to fight against the yuan troops. with not many soldiers compared to the Yuan. Trần Bình Trọng was so determined that he didn’t eat their food. the King fell into distress and gave him the title of Prince Bảo Nghĩa. Though. Toghan had his navy as the vanguard. Receiving the bad news about the death of Trần Bình Trọng. The princess An Tư had to sacrifice herself. the Yuan was very irritated. Đại Việt armies had a longer time to re-organize. the Yuan troops became .) Thanks to her. Trần Bình Trọng was captured.time. The fight against the Yuan troops in pursuit Đại Việt heavily lost. The battle happened at a river that Đại Việt troops could make use of geographically. The Yuan troops tried to attack several times but didn’t succeed. Most of his soldiers were killed. At last. Trần Bình Trọng led a few thousands of soldiers. they tried many ways to persuade him to work for them instead. the Yuan killed him. When being asked: “Would you like to become a Prince of our Yuan dynasty?”. to fight against the Yuan troops that are much more populous than them. they still had a very difficult time. and cavalry behind to assist the Navy. to slow down the speed of Yuan troops. as Toghan would attack from the North. Though. The people who escorted her to the Yuan barrack wore outfit for death ceremony. they collapsed the Yuan scheme of attacking from many directions. Knowing it’s impossible to persuade this mighty general. At Đà Mạc. Sogetu would attack from the South. daring man. after the cooperation of the Yuan Navy and Cavalry. So. Đại Việt also had some troops to fight against the Yuan troops. he retorted angrily: “I’d like become a ghost of Đại Việt. and later the Great Prince Bảo Nghĩa. became Toghan’s woman.

Prince Hưng Đạo planned two more troops to fight against the Mongols. They had to stay a much longer time and eventually were kicked out by Đại Việt’s forces. As they gained more land. populous troops to kill Đại Việt leaders had totally collapsed. and many of them got tired. Trying their best. they needed to spread their army out to deal with Đại Việt’s dissociated military forces. instead of for defense. The next battle at Hải Thị became a battle with the purpose of killing the enemy. and destroy their logistics. The Yuan passed Hải Thị rapidly and some of their troops were dispatched to catch Đại Việt troops. the Yuan better organized and attacked in coordination between infantry. Otherwise. They also had infantry to support the navy in the river. the Yuan’s initial idea of conquering Đại Việt. At first. Gained more experience after the battle of Đà Mạc. Đại Việt troops fought back. and Navy. on the strategic field. those guerrilla forces might disrupt their communication. they actually won. Đại Việt placed many piles near the river bank. the Yuan won in almost every great battle. as Đại Việt force had been reorganized and became larger than the Yuan troops that pursued them. Moreover. restricting the route that the Yuan Navy could enter. they unknowingly fell into Đại Việt's trap. Until this time. They couldn't get food from the local region. However. thanks to Trần Bình Trọng and his troops. it's no longer that the Yuan pursued Đại Việt force. Hence. They attacked intensely. Even though Đại Việt lost the battle. they needed to have a considerable number of soldiers to attack Đại Việt’s main force.hopeless in catching the king of Đại Việt. Though. cavalry. instead of attacking. the Yuan troops had a hard time in logistics transportation. killed many of them and then withdrew to Thiên Trường. neither. instantly by using their mighty. as . In the meantime. However. the number of Yuan soldier has ebbed. A place that Đại Việt could make use of geographically. Li Heng led his troops back to Toghan place. From the time invading Đại Việt. One of the places in his plan was Hải Thị. so that the main force had enough time to withdraw and reorganize.

from different directions. Hence. the number of Yuan soldiers at Vạn Kiếp was less than Đại Việt. made use of local geography to attack the Yuan. fences. the Yuan couldn't get information about Đại Việt’s Navy in time for reinforcement. Đại Việt gained back the control of Vạn Kiếp. Moreover. As the Yuan went in small groups to those villages. Even though Toghan had his troops stationed at Vạn Kiếp. Some minority leaders led their local troops and/or government troops. people were very united. Nguyễn Thế Lộc attacked and occupied Vĩnh Bình. Đại Việt villages are similar to tiny countries. losing the routes for logistics. they had to pay a very expensive price. losing Vạn Kiếp made the leaders confused. From there. the Yuan soldiers became more and more brutal. One led by the King and the retired King to fight with Toghan force from the South. With a powerful . If they attack Prince Hưng Đạo then the King’s force might attack them from another direction. Hence. in which. Ariq Qaya sent a letter to Kublai Khan (the Yuan Emperor) and asked for reinforcement. This bloodthirsty manner made local civilians fight against them even more ferociously. and becoming thousands of starving men. Local people could place many traps over there or under the ground. Though. In addition. headed to Vạn Kiếp. March 1825: Đại Việt partitioned their force into two. There were rivers.local people had buried or hide their food before. Đại Việt could collaborate with other forces to disrupt the Yuan logistics. This placed the Yuan at the risk of no more logistics. These were very nice examples of Đại Việt’s unity. the Yuan was under the risk of being attacked. Now. The other part led by Prince Hưng Đạo in more than a thousand vessels. if the Yuan attack Đại Việt King force then they could be attacked by Prince Hưng Đạo forces. As a result. Đại Việt had so many rivers that it was hard to control all. At this time. bamboo bushes around the villages as fortifications. he also had to diffuse his troops to ensure good control of other regions. Toghan still had a very powerful force. the minorities were also very active during the war.

Đại Việt’s soldiers were downhearted. So that they could have a better chance of attacking Đại Việt’s other force’s. the King had his man caved on a vessel: . The Yuan troops were exhausted after a nonstop journey of searching. it was a pity since the time has not come for them.Navy. Đại Việt had strategies to deal with this. They were also hoping for a battle that they could fight to suppress Đại Việt’s main force.attack. Prince Hưng Đạo. After the battle. and more. and ended up with many empty vessels that Đại Việt left behind. Sogetu’s force reached and joined Toghan’s force. They planned a counter . So. when heading toward the South. Toghan wouldn't know where to search for Đại Việt’s leaders. the King had to order a withdrawal. They held many military campaigns along the Sea Coast. the self-initiative belongs to Đại Việt. To encourage them. Toghan was afraid that he couldn’t capture the King at the time. People worried about the situation. This time. Their only choice was to wait for Đại Việt’s troops to attack. At this time.attack: Đại Việt’s force had many advantages at that moment. and leaders finally got out of the pursuit of the Yuan. he ordered all of his troops to search for the King throughout the region. Those vessels were not of much use to them. they immediately concentrated their army and headed to Toghan place. After a dramatic hide and seek game with the enemy. So. they took some vessels and sunk the rest. as their strength was with the cavalry rather than Navy. The counter . they were still very populous and powerful. led his force to Thiên Trường to help. So. and wait for Sogetu forces to cooperate. Acknowledged of the King's force movement. Even though the Yuan troops were weaker than before. Đại Việt’s main troops. The Yuan held a huge attack with all their force to Thiên Trường and tried to kill the King and the Retired King. gaining back the routes for logistics. Though. Sogetu's force was dominating in Thanh Nghệ region. They continuously fell into Đại Việt traps. Besides. Upon hearing this bad news.

Besides. and was besieged by the Kingdom of Wu. They committed a lot of sins but didn’t get much food. neither. He had sacrificed so much for the Yuan victories. even though Đại Việt’s troops had an uneasy time. it had been three months that they . who had only 5. This order from Toghan made Sogetu and the soldiers under Sogetu’s command extremely down-hearted. their logistics routes were attacked severely. As the Yuan gather their forces to attack Thiên Trường and pursued Đại Việt’s main force and leaders. Toghan didn’t want Sogetu’s troops to join his force.000 soldiers (actually. they did not have enough food for their armies. Their logistics were attacked and destroyed seriously when being transported from Yuan to Đại Việt. who tried many ways to get them into. Toghan troops weren’t any better than Sogetu’s. Those words were meant to remind the soldiers of Goujian. Toghan actually made a bad move by having all his forces try to find and kill Đại Việt’s leaders. They had a problem of starving and were tired and ill due to climate differences. At last. they couldn’t get much food from Đại Việt’s local regions. The Yuan troops also got exhausted. Sogetu was an experienced military leader of the Yuan. He alluded that Đại Việt still had 100. Due to the ferocious resistance of local people. this might not true. Sogetu was ordered to be stationed in Trường Yên..000 soldiers. They had to disperse their force’s. after a useless and hopeless pursuit. After this battle. to deal with guerilla tactics that Prince Hưng Đạo. Even though the Yuan dominated. Hoa Diên still had 100. The King alluded that even if the situation went bad. Hence.000 soldiers in his force. The King just exaggerated it to encourage his soldiers). Their logistics were destroyed severely when being transported.You should remember: In the old story of Cối Kê. Sogetu let his men. and to find food for his own troops. and went out and stole food from local regions. and even took over the Kingdom of Wu. Lacking food. he was able to turn it around. Instead. they shouldn’t falter.

together with Sogetu. However. they couldn’t surpass Prince Chiêu Minh defenses.came there. near the Coast in Thanh Hóa without the detection of Toghan. they had to deal with Prince Chiêu Minh forces. However. Đại Việt’s . so that they could go out and rob for food. At this time. and helped each other when being attacked. Toghan discovered army movement. At Thanh Hoá. many people repudiated this idea. Though. Moreover. they became enervated. Prince Chiêu Minh didn’t pursue him. there were not many people that lived in that region. Li Heng suggested Toghan allocate some troops there in case Đại Việt King attacked and retook this region. robbing food was not easy. Lacking logistics. After getting control of Thiên Trường. Trying hard. the weather got hotter. to head to Thanh Hoá and attack Đại Việt. There. Đại Việt used some tactics to get their force concentrated. So. After a few days that the King and his force reached Thanh Hoá. Đại Việt’s main force and leaders were totally safe and had time to restore their power and store food. they could not concentrate. Summer came. Under the defense of Prince Chiêu Minh. the Yuan’s condition did not allow them to disperse their forces to as many regions as before. Thanks to the development of agriculture in peace time. He let the Yuan forces to be weaker and weaker instead. They had to withdraw to a place with more people in the hope of robbing for more food. Sogetu’s troops were exhausted due to food shortages and going on long military campaigns. Toghan appointed Omar to lead his Navy in 60 vessels. Toghan partitioned and allocated his troops into a series of barracks. Instead. In the meantime. the food shortages in Yuan troops became more and more serious. they couldn’t adapt to local weather. they reorganized and waited for the Yuan troops to be more and more devastated. which made it easier for Đại Việt’s disassociated force to attack. At this time. as this means spreading out their force. as this meant the food shortage condition would be more serious.

in contrary to Yuan's troops devastated spirit and condition. However. experienced Song. the local troops. troops of minorities attacked the Yuan armies by guerrilla tactics even more. as well as the routes for logistics transportation. Đại Việt’s unity. Their soldiers got sick often. they might overcome difficulties. in order to make things easier. Even though Đại Việt had a powerful Navy. After that. Besides. the spirit of the troops got higher and higher. Jin soldiers and leaders that could adapt to Đại Việt battle environment. the only way to crush the enemy spirit.armies were able to go anywhere in the country without food shortages. When Sogetu was in . the Yuan invaders this time were even much stronger than what Đại Việt’s leaders could imagine. They must use their force to protect the regions they occupied. With not only the Mongols cavalry but also many mighty. at this point. No need to organize a big battle. collapse their pride. Probably. Another noticeable thing is if the Yuan occupied the Red River Plain for a long time. Hot weather and common rain shower plus logistics shortage made the condition for Yuan’s troops worse and worse. Though. it would be an auspicious time to dislodge them after a decisive battle. Even though Đại Việt troops were still much less than Yuan troops. were too weak to hold a large-scale attack. Đại Việt had made use of natural forces to weaken the enemy. the people in the country were willing to give their food to the troops. Đại Việt leaders decided to hold a decisive counter – attack. Chance comes only once Realizing the time has come. and a dynasty full of brilliant minds would soon bring them to victory! Summer came. The Yuan troops. As the Yuan enervated. perhaps is to win in a big battle. The King suggested that they should crush the spirit of the Yuan troops before holding that decisive counter– attack. and pandemic started to spread. the former Song and Jin Navy in Yuan troops at that time had a very strong at Navy also. Toghan’s troops turned into groups of sick and starving people. tradition.

Trường Yên. Thanh Hoá and the southward region. The goal is to gain back control the originate of Tran Dynasty and raise the spirit of the army. the chance only came once. They could do the same thing in Đại Việt if Đại Việt troops didn't do anything. He discussed with other military leaders. In fact.Champa. Besides. from that region. they were able to be stationed in Champa for a long time before joining Toghan in attacking Đại Việt. First counter – attack At the end of May 1282. Sogetu planned to do that. he had his men build a rampart and did agriculture on their own to raise the troops. trespassed into main rivers to defeat Toghan's most exhausted force. were not as fertile as the Red River Plain. One group led by Prince Hưng Đạo went by sea route to attack Thiên Trường. they could go by the river-route to the North and . Đại Việt troops headed to the North in two formations. In this way. In sum. promised to flatten Đại Việt within 3 years. where Đại Việt armies stationed. Moreover. when he was not able to exert pressure on the Champa's leaders.

and take back the capital. Prince Chiêu Văn let a troop of Song soldiers into the battle. They quickly gain control of river routes. Prince Chiêu Minh. they gained the control of many important sea routes in Red River Plain. Another formation mixed of infantry and Navy. So. Đại Việt took back Thiên Trường without much effort. a Prince of the former Song dynasty. near Đại Việt capital. At this time. When they discovered Đại Việt troop presentation. Đại Việt moved their force expeditiously.surround the Yuan troops. isolated many Yuan armies in this region. had its Navy as a vanguard. The fight occurred ferociously. to cut off the Yuan’s escape if Đại Việt won. it was easy for them to bring force from one barracks to another in case. led by the King. Moreover. the Retired King. Sogetu led his force from Tây Kết to rescue Hàm Tử. and swiftly took control of the situation. and some other high-ranking military commanders headed toward the Yuan big barracks along the Red River. Khoái Châu. After that. ready for a decisive battle. if the Yuan dominated. Prince Hưng Đạo and his men rapidly accosted the Yuan’s barracks “A Lỗ”. infantry to collaborate. They wanted to pay back for their lost . The battle of Hàm Tử Quan: At Thiên Mạc. they could easily withdraw to Trường Yên. their infantry started to attack. navy. Both sides have their best military leaders and force at this battle. and it was easy for cavalry.000 soldiers at that location. The main purpose is to separate Toghan and Sogetu. The Yuan had many Navy troops at this location. the situation was also favorable to Đại Việt. it was too late for other barracks to help. They also had force concentrated at Tây Kết. Đại Việt’s armies were much larger. Đại Việt. The Yuan has 10. Moreover. of course. This troop was under the command of Triệu Trung.

Moreover. The government also called for the help of local troops. Thiên Trường. Đại Việt also had their force attack Sogetu’s force at Tây Kết. One to protect the land they took back and attack the Yuan remnants at Thiên Mạc. Hence. Many more didn’t fight at their best. . Đại Việt farmers had trained themselves into real warriors. this tactic surprised and depressed the Yuan troops. Trường Yên. One is to attack Toghan at the capital. fought against the enemy together with Đại Việt’s regular force. Aside from this. they were at the very high spirit. in order to stop Sogetu’s aid to Hàm Tử. So. troops of farmers. this was not easy at all for Đại Việt. Đại Việt tried their best to have the Yuan troops isolated and sent many talented leaders to help Prince Chiêu Minh attack Toghan. or to collaborate with the first force and attack Toghan if necessary. in order to encourage them. and led Song’s force to Đại Việt to help. the Yuan still had thousands of soldiers and many experienced leaders under Toghan Command. Đại Việt divided their force into three formations. Đại Việt shot to the Yuan barracks arrows with papers attached. They said on the paper that they would only attack the Mongols. many Chinese soldiers in the Yuan barracks surrendered to Đại Việt. This victory totally collapsed the Yuan defense and crushed their spirit. Đại Việt’s forces won at both battles. The Yuan was at the low spirit. they could join Toghan force. and succeeded beyond Đại Việt’s expectation. not the The third attack Vạn Kiếp and interrupt Yuan routes of withdrawal. The battle of Chương Dương: Even though many Yuan troops were defeated and scattered. So. they thought that the Song had taken back their sovereignty from Kublai Khan. Prince Chiêu Văn let this troop wear Song uniforms instead of Đại Việt uniforms. Also. After a time of war. When they saw the Song troop.

they surrounded the fortress (the capital). They were beaten up by Đại Việt forces again.Prince Chiêu Minh led his force to attack Chương Dương. they couldn’t against Đại Việt troops. The remnants of this were ambushed when trying to cross another bridge. In danger. After using up arrows and the food shortage became more serious. Tired after being attacked at Thăng Long. Even Yuan soldiers concentrated over there. They tried to get on the bridge. Đại Việt suffered heavy lost. the Yuan military leaders discussed and decided to withdraw to Yuan. The remnants of this remnant later gathered with Toghan. The Yuan showed off their world-renowned archery again. Prince Hưng Đạo also asked Prince Hưng Ninh to pursue Toghan armies from a different direction. Đại Việt won the battle of Chương Dương and later the battle at Giang Khẩu. Some other remnants of the Yuan after the battle of Hàm Tử gathered and came to Thăng Long capital. Next. Toghan’s force was ambushed when they were on the way. Toghan led his armies to Chương Dương to help. The Yuan armies wanted to escape instead of fighting. Though. Prince Chiêu Minh appointed the young Trần Quốc Toản to lead a cavalry troop pursued Toghan force. The remnants were pursued by Trần Quốc Toản and his force when they cross the temporary bridge. Upon knowing this bad news. there were traps everywhere in Đại Việt waiting for them. but they were so determined in regaining control of the capital. Toghan had all his force tried to get out of the surrounding Đại Việt’s armies. Being shot from inside the fortress. After the Yuan finished making a temporary bridge. the Yuan quickly lost again. This made the bridge . ready to go across the river. Đại Việt’s armies attacked.

this force had to withdraw by the routes that they came from. They withdrew after knowing Toghan withdrew. Some of his close men were also captured. Seeing arrows on a tree. other troops. Hà Đặc led his men to attack the Yuan. By the routes that they believed that the Yuan would go by. Hà Đặc always went first in the battle. and people in the country were also busy attacking the Yuan remnants. Upon reaching Vĩnh Bình. to avoid they joined each other and turned the situation upside down. Đại Việt’s men kept pursuing. They had to fight against the minorities forces. Prince Trần Quốc Uy and Prince Trần Quốc Nghiễn led their armies to pass Đại Việt – Yuan border in pursuit of the Song. Toghan had only half of his force when he passed the river. The Yuan were frightened while seeing those from afar. the Yuan armies ran very fast. and put in some huge arrows. At the same time. Đại Việt’s troops fell into difficulties. Toghan got into a copper roller and had his men rolled it to escape under Đại Việt rain of arrows. Phú Thọ). Hà Đặc had his man move big straw effigies that had some giant arrows attached on. At Trĩ Sơn mountain (Phù Ninh. they used some tricks before attacking. on the mountain routes every evening. Đại Việt at that time had controlled all the main routes.collapsed. they were ambushed by the force of Prince Trần Quốc Nghiễn. He was so fervent that he died at last. the Yuan stopped by Cự Đà and wait for further observation of the situation instead of progressing. Losing the leader. Having much fewer people. The minorities tactics Talk about the Yuan force led by Naxirut Din from Yunnan. . As a valiant man. Panicked. Li Heng suffered heavy wounds and died later. They were busy at the West of Thăng Long. Hà Đặc led a force with different types of people to attack Naxirut Din forces. Hà Đặc had his men dig some holes on a big tree. After dispiriting them. So. including his brother.

Powerful. Đại Việt’s troops at Thiên Trường only allowed them to control the main river routes. Sogetu was killed. Sogetu fled to the coast of Thiên Trường and collected his remnants. In June 1285. with the idea of joining with Toghan force. Sogetu and Omar led this force to Red River. Some of Đại Việt’s force also partitioned in small groups and attacked the Yuan in guerrilla form. a high order ranking Yuan official led his men to surrender Đại Việt. Exhausted. At night. Đại Việt quickly controlled the situation and gained a victory. to payback for his brother and other people. but not the coast. The Yuan was a new uprising force at that time. After coming back to his barracks. the battle broke out. Many Yuan remnants started to come to his place. Đại Việt’s force pursued the Yuan and killed a lot of Yuan soldiers. this Yuan troop took a rest. They didn’t know that Toghan had been beaten up. in collaboration with attacking from outside. Đại Việt’s force used the clothes and flags that Hà Chương stole from the enemy to intermingle in the Yuan barracks. This clever tactic brought them a great victory. captured more than 50. He also stole clothes and flags from the Yuan. Đại Việt King ordered his men to arrange a battle at Tây Kết upon knowing the Yuan force movement.000 prisoners of war.After killing the leader of Northern minorities. Comments: After half of a year. Omar escaped by sea routes. Đại Việt dislodged the Yuan out of their territory. When Sogetu and his force reached Tây Kết. he led Đại Việt force to attack the Yuan immediately. They fought from inside out. Hà Chương escaped. Hà Đặc’s brother. That’s truly amazing! The defection of Trần Ích Tắc and several high-ranking officials of Trần royal court did have an adverse impact for . The second battle of Tây Kết After losing the battle of Hàm Tử. conquering a lot of lands but lost to a newly established dynasty in Đại Việt. At that time.

Some people suggested that the King opened the box that contains those letters . Ngô Thì Sĩ praised the strategies of Đại Việt King and other leaders in his book Việt Sử Tiêu Án: “Every time hearing that the Yuan came and rob. but Trần clan and royal court were still united by the effort of the Retired Emperor. After the Yuan withdrew. Each time knowing the enemy came. The enemy didn’t know where the King and the main force really were. At the same time. When the Yuan came. South or West. he encourages his men. the King went out to take care of the military matters. the King and his Prince. This was a wonderful tactic!” King Thánh Tông. the King just stays in the Palace. ask for guidance very conveniently. In fact. was very successful in keeping the unity among the Trần clan. his officials could report to him the status. etc.the Trần Dynasty. It was not cowardice. He didn’t stay at a fixed place. The harmony of them was one of the main factors that led to Đại Việt victory. The King was nice to not only his relative but to everyone. the soldiers tried their best on their missions. the Yuan could interrupt the logistics routes and the aid force from outside. it is easier for a leader to encourage his people by showing that he really cared. the son of the Retired King Thái Tông. on the ground or river. The King went out immediately. At high spirit. They had flexible strategies in arranging and moving forces. Mandarin slept together on mats at Royal Palace very timidly. There was not any specific way. They moved troops very rapidly and withdrew really quickly in an ordered manner. In the beginning of the war of resistance. If instead of going out. some official surrendered secretly. Đại Việt got the letters of those officials to the Yuan. Trần Quang Khải. When it was too late for people to go home. He held banquet so that they could enjoy together. the Emperor and other important figures like Trần Hưng Đạo. That would be dangerous since they could just wait for us to be in food shortage and attack.

The second part of this book will be about the third war. the coffin was able to be moved to the tomb. Finally. Kublai Khan. Toghan was banished by his own father. after which. and furthermore. it was time for the coffin of the Retired King to be moved to his tomb but there were still a lot of civilians in the Palace to show their appreciation to the dead Retired King. along with their brilliant ideas. the King asked Trịnh Trọng Tử to dissolve them. Đại Việt tried their best to destroy the Yuan force. Though. they started to get near to those singing groups. like and share to encourage the author to write the next part! Thank you! . etc. Only after that. which. Trọng Tử partitioned the guards into different groups. sang some Royal songs that were strange to normal civilians. this work might help you better understand about Vietnamese art of war overall and meanings of Vietnamese 3 defensive war. please rate. Hopefully. Though. the King ordered his man burned it instead. Another remarkable point about this newly established dynasty was the attitude of leaders to other classes of people when holding the military meeting at Bình Than. so that they won’t want to come back. saving all other Southeast Asian kingdoms from being ruled by the Mongols. bravery stories that contributed to Đại Việt victories. The civilians found strange. the third Đại Việt - Mongols war still happened.and punishes those who surrendered. If you found this work meaningful. The unity of the leaders and the society as a whole had brought victories to Đại Việt in their defensive war. They lived in harmony with their civilians: Once. The guards tried to get them out but they couldn’t. many famous figures related to all the three wars. according to some historians. the Vietnamese victories over the Mongols had successfully prevented the Mongol conquest to Southeast Asia. and don’t have enough resources to payback to soon. asking for ideas of elder men at Diên Hồng meeting.

References:  Vietnam defeat the Yuan three times ( Việt Nam 3 lần đánh Nguyên toàn thắng) Nguyễn Lương Bích. Phạm Cự Chích. . Chiêu Văn Trần Quốc Toản. Chiến tranh Nguyên Mông-Đại Việt lần 2. Mongol invasions of Vietnam. Lê Tần. Trần Quang Khải.m.wikipedia. kháng chiến chống quân Nguyên Mô phan-ve-cuoc-chien-vi-dai-chong-nguyen-mong-lan-thu-hai-ạch_Đằng_(1288)  http://motthegioi.  Wikipedia: Trần Thủ Độ. Trần Hưng Đạo.html  Images are from games. Yuan dynasty. Trần Khắc Chung.  https://en. and some online websites. Hịch tướng sĩ.