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In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Diploma Garment manufacturing 2008-2010 Submitted to Prof. Tarun Pandey & Prof. Suranjan Lahiri
Date of Submission-05.05.2009
Reema Chuchra Chitra Rastogi Nitin Kushwah
GM - 2nd sem
Working on this project has been an enriching experience, which provided a platform not only for learning different processes that are involved in the production of a garment, the different machineries used as well as an opportunity to face the practical difficulties in obtaining the primary information from the people, so as to achieve the goal. Mr. TARUN PANDEY and Mr. SURANJAN LAHIRI gives us an opportunity to work on this project and in turn gain in depth knowledge of the module of PRODUCTION OPERATIONS & PLANNING by seeing its working and functioning ourselves. The project report bears the imprint of many people who are involved in the successful completion of this project. Most importantly we would like to thank the following people at MARAL OVERSEAS without whose help, guidance,
knowledge and support we would not have been able to finish this project.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.
PRODUCT DETAILS DETAILS OF FABRIC DETAILS OF TRIMS/ACCESSORIES MEASUREMENT CHART FLOW CHART OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS FABRIC DEPARTMENT
CUT ORDER PLAN SEWING DEPARTMENT PRE PRODUCTION PLANNIING TIME AND ACTION PLAN BILL OF MATERIALS PRODUCTION PLANNING- GANTT CHART CAPACITY PLANNING CAPACITY CALCULATION OPERATION BULLETIN ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING LINE BALANCING CALCULATIONS MACHINERY MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT APPAREL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
201305 (U.CUTTING MACHINES MARKER MAKING. COMPLIANCE BROKEN NEEDLE POLICY FINISHING DEPARTMENT PLANT LAYOUTS CUTTING DEPARTMENT. Hosiery Complex.II (Extension). 25. MARKER PLANNING MARKING MODES SPREADING OR LAYERING SPREADING MODES CUT ORDER PLAN FUSING TIME AND MOTION ANALYSIS WORK STUDY METHOD STUDY TIME STUDY CONCLUSION MARAL OVERSEAS LTD. 26. 37.) Nature of Business Year of Business Establishment : Garment Mfg. 33. Phase . and Exporting : 1989 4 . 24. 31. Noida . 35. 27. 29.SNO Topic Pg No 22. 30. Company Address : A-11. 28. 23. 32.P. 36. 34.
Export Markets Total Production Capacity per Day Total No. Liquid Stretch and many more are used for specific needs of customers. Enzyme. Zigzag structure. etc. Resin. M&S. Micro modal. polyester. Flat back rib. Acid.000 Pcs. UV. Japan. 5 . Gulf. Interlock. : 10. Mesh. Pique. Next. Orvis. etc.Brands Offered : Nike. Bio. Rib. USA. Different finishes such as Moisture management. Breeze. They also do all types of Garment dyeing & washing including Enzyme. Stone. of Cutting Machines : Canada. Fleece.000 – 15. Anti bacteria. Soya. Modal. Cotton Ginny. Europe. RCC (Real Cool Cotton). Silk. of Finishing Machines Total No. and distress wash for giving different looks to garments. Lycras fabrics etc. Tencel. Teflon. of Sewing Machines Total No. Patagonia. Vitamin E. Active & Sports wear. Pointelle. : 855 no : 34 nos : 21 nos PRODUCT RANGE OVERVIEW Taking advantage of its in-house spinning and fabric production. Polyester. Different fabric structures & textures are used such as S/jersey. Bamboo. Blair. Oxyrich. Jacquard. Honeycomb. Cotton blends. in 100% cotton. Leisure. Night. Fragrance. They manufacture garments for various categories like Casual. Timberland.
Henley shirts. Camisoles. Shorts. Metal contamination prevention & Detection of in. Polo shirts. Rugby shirts. • BRANDS Maral offers one of the world’s most comprehensive and most enchanting range of knitted products (T-shirts. Tank tops. Pyjamas. Mobile inspectors in line.. etc. which help us. produce high quality garments. Panel inspection. Setting standards for individual operations on each machine are few initiatives. All sewing machines have latest auto trimmers & no loose cutters are allowed on production floor.line & Packed products. • There is a strict system in place for records on broken needles. 210 Gms WOVEN: 100% Cotton Canvas.INFRASTRUCTURE • • Vertically integrated from Yarn spinning to Garments.) PRODUCT DETAILS MIXED MEDIA SHIRT Fabric details: KNIT: 100% Cotton. The placket & pocket making machines produce fine quality products. Jackets. 7 ounce 6 . Joggers. Hooded shirts.
Tailored knit collar.Straight bottom single turned hem.2 Patch chest pockets with 2-ply button closed flaps.Set-in short sleeves with a single turned hem. .2 woven vertical inset panels at front. .Knit 3-button CF placket with "X" box stitched reinforced bottom. 7 . .STYLING DETAILS: . . .
• • 8 .Side vents reinforced with a woven rectangular woven patch "X" box stitched at the top. • • • • • 2 woven vertical inset panels at front affixed to garment body with 2N edge stitch. 1 at collar band and one extra in plastic bag attached to care/joker label) . 4-hole plastic 20L buttons (2 at CF placket. 2N edge stitched to body of garment at armhole. Knit 3 button interlined lapped CF placket.Fusible interlining for collar. 2N egdestitching with reinforced "X" box stitching at bottom. . pocket flap and hem. COMPONENTS/TRIM DETAILS: . .4 DTM.DTM twill tape at side vents. Bottom placket has 3 DTM plastic 20L buttons attached with "X" stitching. Set-in short sleeves..Plastic collar stays at collar points. collar band. Side vents finished with DTM twill tape. Top of vent is reinforced by "X" box stitching a woven rectangular patch to the face of shell fabric. Straight bottom single turned hem finished with a 2N bottom cover stitch. Single turned sleeve hem finished with a 2N bottom cover stitch. Upper placket (wearer's left) has 2 vertical and 1horizontal (at neck) rectangle buttonholes. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS: • • • Single/double needle topstitching All 2N edge stitching is set at 1/4" margin Knit 2-ply tailored collar joined to collar band with SN edge stitching is affixed to the body with SN edge stitching. front placket.DTM thread for internal and external stitching .
42/ INCH DETAILS OF FABRIC (KNITED) TYPE FIBRE CONTENT FABRIC WEIGHT WALES & COURSE KNITTED SINGLE JERSEY 100% COTTON 200 GSM WALES: 32 PER INCH COURSE: 46 PER INCH WEAVE COUNT PIQUET 20s DETAILS OF ACCESSORIES/ TRIMS USED IN 9 .outer ply is knit fabrication and inner ply is contrast woven.48/INCH.• 2 Square patch chest pockets with 2-ply button through flaps. 2-ply pocket flap finished with SN edge stitching . Stitched to body before being turned and SN edge stitched with 1/4" margin. • • • Pocket has woven contrast trim which extends from pocket edge to 1/2" below pocket flap. DETAILS OF FABRIC USED IN STYLE # 55132 DETAILS OF FABRIC USED (WOVEN) TYPE FIBRE CONTENT ENDS/PICKS WOVEN (CANVAS) 100% COTTON ENDS . PICKS . pocket hem and flap are interlined with a compatible non woven fusible before being finished with a SN edge stitched and reinforced corners.
Xl.NO ACCESSORIES/TRIMS USED 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Kimble Polybag Printed Tissues Paper Barcode Stickers Carton Stickers Carton Carton Tape Blair Main Label Wash care Sewing Thread(DTM) Buttons Button Pouch Fusing Mobilon Tape Plastic Collar Stays Twill Tape (DTM) REMARKS/SPECS 3”.3xl Coats 4 Holes.2xl.Flat White W Xl.M.20 Lines ------ 10 .11” X 12” + 2” Outer Flap 15” X 10” – White --19 7/8 Lx 12 1/8” (W) X 12 1/8” (H) 4” Clear Tape -S.L.STYLE # 55132 S.
MEASUREMENT CHART STYLE # 55132 S.NO DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 FRONT BODY LENGTH FROM HSP ACROSS SHOULDER CURVED AH ACROSS BACK 8” HSP CURVED AH SHOULDER SLOPE IL TO AH FORWARD SHOULDER HEIGHT TO SEAM BACK YOKE HEIGHT CBN CHEST CIRC AT AH SWEEP CIRC AT TOP OF VENT/SLITS SLIT/VENT HEIGHT SLEEVE LENGTH FROM AH SHORT SLEEVE UNDERARM LENGTH FROM AH SLEEVE HEM HEIGHT ARMHOLE CIRC CURVED AH ON SEAM SLEEVE OPENING CIRC SHORT NECK WIDTH SEAM TO SEAM AT HSP FRONT NECK DROP HSP TO SEAM BACK NECK HIGH DROP HSP TO SEAM COLLAR HEIGHT AT CBN COLLAR STAND HEIGHT AT CBN COLLAR POINT LENGTH CF PLACKET LENGTH CF PLACKET WIDTH POCKET HEIGHT WITH FLAP POCKET FLAP HEIGHT AT CENTRE POCKET WIDTH AT TOP EDGE TOP POCKET PLACEMENT FROM HSP TOP POCKET PLACEMENT FROM TOL(-) -3/8 -1/2 -1/2 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -1 -1 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -1/8 -1/2 -1/2 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -1/8 -1/8 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -1/4 -3/8 -1/4 -1/4 TOL(+) 3/8 ½ ½ ¼ ¼ ¼ 1 1 ¼ ¼ ¼ 1/8 ½ ½ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 1/8 1/8 ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ 3/8 ¼ ¼ EVAL( LG E) 30 20 19 11/2 0 0 48 48 3 11 0 1 23 ½ 16 ½ 7¼ 3½ 1 1¾ 1¼ 1¼ 6 1 3/8 6 2 5 9½ 2 11 .
FLOW CHART OF MFG. PROCESSES
FABRIC & ACC. AVG. CALCULATION
FABRIC & ACC.PURCHASE
REPORT TO H.O.
FABRIC LENTERING & CHECKING
CUTTING DOCKET ISSUE
WASHING / DRYCLEANING
Metal Detector Machine
OVER VIEW CHECKING
ARRANGE IN THE RACKS
ISSUE FOR CUTTING
Fabric was received in the form of Rolls (woven) from the fabricator. The knitted fabric was received in Tubular form with the following details:
Name of fabric supplier Name of export house Date of dispatch Fabric details Colour
Cloth stocks should be stored so as to avoid soiling or mechanical damage, where possible at a standard temperature and humidity, so that dimensional changes do not take place in store and there is no danger of fungal attack. The ends of rolls must be protected against the light and dirt if stocks are held for longer duration of time. Care must be taken to avoid distortion or damage during handling. Since most cloth arrives in heavy bolts, mechanical handling not only reduces labour cost but may also avoid damage as well. HOW ARE FABRICS AND TRIMS STORED? (At MARAL OVERSEAS)
After the fabric has been sourced and delivered it is checked by the storage department to see if the exact quantity has arrived and if the quality of the fabric needed is up to par. Fabric storage is done according to the lots. Fabric storage is done on the following: • • Racks Wooden palate
It is very necessary to arrange the fabric in the proper form and manner because it makes the work and process easier and convenient.
sewing thread. INSPECTION Inspection in reference to quality control in the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw material (such as fabric. In this system the flaws or affect are assigned a point. the fabric is issued in exchange of a requisition slip and challan. yards are considered seconds. buttons. Any leftover fabric is again send to the fabric store which can be further used for sampling or for re-cutting of defective pieces. Rolls with few defects were labelled with yellow sticker (on hold). The main objective of inspection is the detection of defects as early as possible in the manufacturing process so that time and money are not wasted later on in correcting the defect.value based on the length of the defect or the dimension of the hole.Whenever a requirement is placed from cutting department. Those fabric rolls containing more than 40 point per 100 sq. 4 point system: The fabric quality is assessed on the number of defect point per 100 sq. trims etc) to check if they meet the required quality parameters. After checking rolls of fabric (lot wise) by 4 point system rolls are labelled by stickering basically called as RED LIGHT SYSTEM by them: • • Rolls rejected by the checker were placed red sticker on the roll. yard. 15 . The system used in MARAL OVERSEAS was 4 point system. zippers.
• Rolls without any defect were labelled with green sticker which denoted roll is of good quality and is ready for cutting. Colour Fastness To Washing 2. TESTING OF GARMENT (style # 55132) Following test have been performed on Garment: 1. Appearance After washing CUTTINGFABRIC ISSUE DEPARTMENT MARKER MAKING LAYERING CUTTING ASSORTING TICKETING BUNDLING CHECKING 16 PACKING IN POLYBAG WITH BIN CARD . Dimensional Change After Washing 3.
• • 17 . of layers was 110 layers. After layering the fabric was allowed to relax for some time. For cutting they were using straight knife with 7” length. • • • • • • average consumption per garment was 0. There were 5 tables for layering and 20 helpers. • Lay height was 3” . The total no.SPREADING OR LAYERING It is the process of superposing lengths of the fabric on a spreading or a cutting table.0335 gms (for knits) Lay length was 4 meters. SPREADING DONE AT MARAL OVERSEAS: In our garment spreading was done manually. The speed of layering was 50 ‘palle’ in an hour. They were manually doing the spreading which was taking 2 hours.4’’. The length of the table was 10 metres and the width of 2 tables was 60’’ and 3 tables were 48”.
TOTAL NAVY WHEAT TEAL 28 28 28 84 84 84 84 252 140 140 140 230 144 144 144 432 72 72 72 216 48 48 48 144 516 516 516 1548 S M L XL XXL 3XL Total 18 . # 55132 Fabric 100%cotton. In Cutting department after receiving the fabric cut order plan was made as shown: Cut order plan: Main Body Details: Style No. 3. 1. pocket & tabs Canvas fabric Width: 143 cm Size Ratio: Colour S. first Fabric was issued from the fabric department through fabric issue challan. No. 2. 210 GSM Tubular /open Open width 147 cm.In cutting department. Garments components: Back/front/sleeve/placket/collar/cuff Trims: woven patch on front. single jersey.
7 258 258 258 774 NAVY WHEAT TEAL 516 516 516 1548 Size cut ratio and marker utilization: S.335 0.Fabric Consumption: Body Fabric req. 6 mtr 4 mtr 3 mtr Length Cutable Width(cm) 142.64% 85.6 523.6 174.) 4 mtr. pocket.5 142. 2. for order in Kgs Woven Body fabric Fabric required for req.5 142.335 1% 1% 1% 174. 3.27% 19 . 4.11% 86.5 147 Marker Utilization 85.8 565.335 0. Cutting Combination S(1)-M(1)XXL(1)-3XL(1) M(3)-XXL(2)3XL(1) L(2)-XL(2) S-M-L-XL-XXL3XL Layer (mtr.61% 86.6 1696.6 174.6 565.No 1. for tabs & front order patch @ 50 in Mtrs cm per pc Extra Consumption Cuttin per pc in Kgs g % Twill tape 10 mm for back neck tape & slit Twill tape 10 mm for back neck tape & slit @ 1 MTR 0.6 565.
168 60+60+60 420 432 132 60+60 60 60 REMAINING +12 12 X 3. 84 84 M 252 84 L 420 XL 432 2XL 216 84 3XL 144 84 REMAINING X 168 420 432 132 60 2.Cut Plan: S 1. 420 110+110 432 110+110 200 100+100 212 100+100 X 12 Then they cut XL and XXL for 12 pieces. And cut only 1% extra CUTTING RECORDS 20 .
All the parts of the same lot and size are tied into bundles containing 1015 garments. these bundles are sent to the production floor for stitching in exchange of requisition slip. Bundle sizes may range from two to a hundred parts. an operation bundle for pocket setting might include shirt fronts and pockets that are to be attached. For example. • After this. Total number of pieces in the bundle. There were 3.4 people assigned for bundling & Bundling speed was 200 pcs /hr. • They keep record of daily cutting and pieces issued to sewing department. the numbers allotted according to the assembly sequence.e. The stickers specifies the: • • • • • Lot number Size Part-number i.Separate cutting report was maintained which had details of each layer cut. 21 . BUNDLING AND TICKETING Bundles consist of garment parts needed to complete a specific operation or garment component. The bundles are also numbered specifying the sizes.
PRE PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES: T&A P.D Bill of Material Capacity planning 22 . samples/approvals and documentation are at the right place at the right time to start actual production.C.Sewing Department: Bundle Distribution Stitching Inline Inspection End Line Inspection Finishing Department PRE-PRODUCTION PLANNING: Often referred to as T&A (Time and Action) or Critical Path and arguably the most important activity involving ensuring the various elements of materials.
Actual dates A map where you can see the deviances. 23 .TIME AND ACTION PLAN Target vs. This is the time and action plan followed by MARAL OVERSEAS for mixed media shirt. Apply corrective actions to minimize the effects of deviance.
Received.Date Bulk Fabric Submit Date Bulk Fabric Approval Date Fit Sample Submit Fit Sample Comments 2nd Fit Sample Submit 2nd Fit Sample Comments Pp Sample Submit Pp Approval FPT Ok GPT Ok Cutting Start Cutting End Sewing Start Sewing End Finishing Start Finishing End 6 March NA NA 16 February 22 February 10 March 10 March 28 February 7 March 16 February 23 February 2 March 9 March 26 March 1 April 3 April 30 March 6 April 8 April 7 April 14april 12 April 16 April 7 February 12 February 20 April 1548 100% Cotton 24 .Date Packing Emb.Received.Buyer’s Name Style # Blair #55132 Knit Single Jersey 20s 200 GSM 7 Ounce Woven Fabrics Detail Ex. Factory Quantity Fabric Req. App. Order Detail By K&P Release 15 February Yarn In-House Date 19 February Knitting Start Date 22 February Knitting End Date 24 February Fabric Dyeing / Washing Start 28 February Fabric Dyeing / Washing End 4 March Fabric In House Date (Knit) Fabric In House Date (Woven) Knit Down Submission Knit Down Approval Embellishments Indent Date Fabric Approval Date Sewing Emb.
intermediate assemblies. parts and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end item (final product) . components. sub-components. or confined to a single manufacturing plant. It may be used for communication between manufacturing partners. Purchase Indent Purchase order. Gives the statement of requirement of raw materials. sub-assemblies.BILL OF MATERIALS (BOM) It is the term used to describe the raw materials. FABRICS 25 .
6 174.LGE: 28 QUANTITY PER BOX SIZES XLG 1 1 1 1 1 1548 1548 1548 Extra 55132 1571 1571 1625 Final Quantity PO-F24762 1571 1571 1625 SUPPLIED BY THE BUYER 60 61 65 26 .10"X12" + 2" Outer flap) Fold Size .6 565. For Order In Kgs Body Fabric Req.11-1/2” x 9-3/4” Tissue Paper (15"x10") White Barcode Stickers Carton sticker Carton (19-7/8” (L) x 12-1/8” (W) x 12-1/8” (H)) QUANTITY PER BOX SML .6 565. Tabs & Front Patch @ 50 Cm Per Pc Twill Tape 10 Mm For Back Neck Tape & Slit Twill Tape 10 Mm For Back Neck Tape & Slit @ 1 MTR 0.6 1696.8 565.335 1% 1% 1% 174.335 0.335 0.Consumption Per Pc In Kgs Extra Cuttin g% Body Fabric Req.6 174.6 523. For Order In Mtrs Woven Fabric Required For Pocket.7 258 258 258 774 NAVY WHEAT TEAL 516 516 516 1548 TRIMS Actual 780421 Polybag Printed (W X L .
44 103.762 108.3XL: 24 Carton Tape (4" Clear tape) SEPARATOR Transparent sticker Blair Main Label MSW--004 Sewing thread I-4870 1 10 mt/carton 650 60 130 1548 10.Black White Wash care NAVY 00 516 1032 46.00 61 132 1594 11 65 132 1594 NAVY 00 WHEAT 04 TEAL 05 2 154800 154800 154800 1548 516 516 516 1548 154800 154800 154800 3096 3096 3096 3096 1571.2 S M L XL 2XL 3XL S M L XL 2XL 3XL 28 84 140 144 72 48 28 84 140 144 72 48 29 87 144 148 74 49 29 87 144 148 74 49 50 100 160 160 100 70 50 100 160 160 100 70 27 .36 387 387 387 3189 22 22 22 1571 49 108 Collar Stays Buttons 6 Button Pouch FUSING .22 48.
S M L XL 2XL 3XL
28 84 140 144 72 48
29 87 144 148 74 49
50 100 160 160 100 70
Production planning is an integrative process of coordinating plant resources with the demand for finished goods. Production planning may be defined as the technique of foreseeing every step in a long series of separate operations, each step to be taken at the right time and in the right place and each operation to be performed in maximum efficiency. Production planning involves coordinating plant capacity with style requirements, projected volume, and shipping dates. Coordinating a plant’s resources and activities requires teamwork and an integration of operating systems.
New technology provides the data and means for more accurate planning, scheduling, and management of resources. As work is planned and scheduled, production planners are expected to effectively utilize plant capacity, maintain high productivity and balance work flow.
STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PRODUCTION FUNCTION
• Effective production and operations management. • Lower a firm’s costs of production. • Boost the quality of its goods and services. • Allow it to respond dependably to customer demands. • Enable it to renew itself by providing new products
Under routing, the operations, their path and sequence are established. To perform these operations the proper class of machines and personnel required are also worked out. The main aim of routing is to determine the best and cheapest sequence of operations and to ensure that this sequence is strictly followed.
It means working out of time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series as routed, making allowances for all factors concerned. It mainly concerns with time element and priorities of a job. Useful tools for scheduling include a Gantt chart and a PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart.
Scheduling usually starts with preparation of master schedule which is weekly or monthly break-down of the production requirement for each product for a definite time period, by having this as a running record of total production requirements the entrepreneur is in better position to shift the production from one product to another as per the changed production requirements. This forms a base for all subsequent scheduling activities.
Fabric in house
time (labour) space. machine. Capacity is created from the availability of resources such as machines. or work centre in a given period of time. and facilities that require capital invested by the firm.80 minute 31 Production / line /day 279 Pcs. Finishing and Packing start 12-04-09 Finishing and packing done simultaneously with production Inspection and Dispatch Shipment Date 19-04-08 26-04-2009 Capacity planning: Capacity refers to the productive capability (output) of a plant. 31 .Layer length No of layers Relaxation time No of table allotted 4 mtr 110 2 hour 2 Stitching Start SAM for stitching No of M/C per line 7-04-09 33.
processes. of minutes/day = 536 x 480 = 257280 min/day Total time /month = total no. the materials. of minute/ month/smv = 4013568 / 33.Capacity is frequently measured in units of output (no of garments or garment parts) but may be expressed in terms of input (no of hours or days). of working days /month = 257280 x 26 = 6689280(on 100% efficiency) Total time per month on 60% efficiency = 6689280 x 60/100 = 4013568 Standard minute value of garment = 33. Many factors affect output capacity including variations in: 1) Space utilization and limitations 2) Equipment type 3) The size. skill.480 Min. of minutes / day x no. of machine x total no.80 Than. Machines = 536 Total Machine time per day = no. Working Hours = 8 Hours . Total No.8 = 118745 pieces 32 . CAPACITY CALCULATION Total No. total productivity per month of garment = total no. versatility 4) Productivity of the labour force. and product must be the same overtime. When output is used as a measure of capacity.
52 Production per Day per Line = 8. No. MACHINE DETAILS WITH OPERATION BULLETIN: S. M/C DESCRIPTION QUANTITY 33 .80 = 14.Production per Day per Machine At 100% Efficiency= 480/33. Of Machine of Factory = 500 Production per Day of Factory = 500 X 8.16 Piece Total No.52x 33 =281.20 X 60/100 = 8.80 MIN.52 = 4260 Piece Production per Month of Factory = 4260 X 26 = 110760 Pieces SMV Of Garment = 33.20 Production per Day per Machine At 60% Efficiency = 14.
1 Single needle lock stitch 295 2 Over lock 120 3 Flat lock 19 4 Chain stitch 7 5 Button hole 5 6 Button Attach 5 7 Zig -Zag Lock Stitch 3 8 Bar-tack 4 9 Embroidery 1 10 Needle Detector 2 34 .
000 0.850 0.NO. & Finish Placket Pressing Placket Attach Placket Finish Placket Box Making Collar Marking Collar Running Collar Edge Stitch Collar Top Stitch Bottom Hem Fold Band Attach at Collar Collar Band Edge Stitch Main Label Attach At collar Band Shoulder & Pkt panel attach Shoulder Top Stitch Collar Attach Collar Finish Sleeve Finish M/c Type 5 T O/L DNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS ATTACHMENT/PRESSOR FOOT Standard standard standard CR 1/32 CR1/32 SAM M/c 1.500 1.750 2.S.750 1.000 2.830 0.000 1. Pressing Pkt.000 MANUAL 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Manual Manual SNLS SNLS Manual SNLS SNLS SNLS Manual SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS SNLS 5 TO/L DNLS SNLS SNLS Template Pattern CR 1/32 standard Template standard standard standard Pattern standard CR 1/32 standard CR 1/4 standard CR 1/32 standard standard standard standard CR1/32 standard 35 1.850 0.660 1.930 0. Attach Marking Pkt. Flap Edge Stitch Pkt.. Flap Running Pkt.000 0.750 1. Panel Edge Stitch & Mouth Fold Pkt.000 1.000 1.750 2.500 1.000 1.000 0. Flap Att.500 1.750 0.000 . BREAK DOWN 1 2 3 4 5 Front Panel Attach Front Panel Top Stitch Pkt.000 0.830 0. Attach Pkt.500 0.
one can minimize the number of workstations for a given production rate or maximize the production rate for a given number of workstations. • So either.Assembly line balancing • Objective of assembly line balancing is to minimize the imbalance among workstations while trying to achieve a desired output rate. Input for assembly line balancing: 1. • Though typically carried out at the design stage of the assembly line. A set of tasks to be performed and the time required to perform each task 36 . line balancing is also required whenever there is a change in product design and/or new product introduction.
and 3.2 minutes. the worker could produce – 480 parts/day. since the task time is 0. Now suppose.that is.2.400 parts/day. a total of 960 parts/day. The desired output rate or forecast of demand for the assembly line. and takes 0. all the tasks must be performed to complete one part. Thus. • • Suppose that one worker performs all three tasks (sequentially). • • The first two requirements can be obtained from the product design documents The third one is specified by the management.5+0. total time required to complete one part is 0. The first operator can produce 120 parts per hour. the sequence in which tasks must be performed. Then in an 8-hour shift. • • • • 37 . and takes 0.3 min to finish the tasks and hence can produce 1.5 minutes Task B is next. Lastly. three workers are assigned for the line. The precedence relations among the tasks. • Since. the third worker can produce 2. Task A is first. and takes 0. Example • An activity consisting of three tasks: A.3 minutes Task C is the last.2 = 1 minute.5 min.600 parts/day. B and C. each performing one of the tasks.3+0. The second worker takes only 0.
So the maximum output of this three-operator assembly line is 960 parts/day. we have achieved the same output (of 960 parts) using just two operators.• However. Thus. the cycle time is 1 minute. The cycle time cannot be smaller than the largest operation time. if we use only one operator. if three workstations are used. the workstation 1 performing task A is a bottleneck in the process. Task A is the bottleneck.5 minutes. The first operator performs task A. • • • • • • • Cycle time: • • • • The interval between successive outputs coming off the assembly line. Same thing happens for the third worker. So the second worker is idle some of the time waiting on components to arrive from the first operator. Now.5 minutes. the line is said to be balanced and the production is 960 parts per day. • 38 .5 min to complete the assigned duties.5 minutes. Finally. the cycle time is still 0. the cycle time is 0.600 parts because the first worker has a lower production rate. In the previous example. Now suppose that two workers are assigned to the assembly line. the line can produce only one assembly every 0. the second worker cannot produce 1. If two workstations are used. since each operator needs exactly 0. Thus. and the second operator performs tasks B and C. nor can it be larger than the sum of all operation times. One completed assembly per minute. That is.
9 SAM of Machine = 30. 55132 SPI O/L: 12-13 SAM: 33.80 Man Power: 35 SPI S/L: 9-10 M/c: 31 Needle NO.55/29 39 .55 Average SMV of Machine = total SMV/ total no.LINE BALANCING: #Style No. of operation = 30.
750 1. Flap Edge Stitch Pkt. BREAKE DOWN SAM M/c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Front Panel Attach Front Panel Top Stitch Pkt.= 1. Pressing Pkt.000 2.750 2.750 2.000 0.90 2 2 MANUAL 0.79 0.500 1.500 1.830 0.90 1.79 0.71 1.NO.500 1.95 1 1 1 1 1 MACHINE REQUIRED MACHINE ALLOTED 40 .42 0.500 0.95 0. Attach Pkt. Flap Att.90 1.000 1.830 0. & Finish Placket Pressing Placket Attach Placket Finish Placket Box Making Collar Marking Collar Running Collar Edge Stitch Collar Top Stitch Bottom Hem Fold 1.660 0.000 1. Pannel Edge Stitch & Mouth Fold Pkt.05 Machine Required = Actual SAM/ Avg SAM S. Flap Running Pkt.42 1 2 1 1. Attach Marking Pkt.42 1.42 1.000 0.750 0.95 1.000 1.628 1 1 1 1 0..000 0.
000 1.95 0.25 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.95 0.42 0.88 0.000 2.930 0.850 0.000 1.809 0.95 1.71 0.809 1.750 1.500 1.95 0. 41 .809 0.95 0.085 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 32 MACHINERY MAINTENANCE: Reasons for Machine Tool Maintenance (I) The objective of machine tool maintenance is to achieve minimum breakdown and to keep them in good working condition at the lowest possible cost.95 0.95 0.000 0.19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Band Attach at Collar Collar Band Edge Stitch Main Label Attach At collar Band Shoulder & Pkt panel attach Shoulder Top Stitch Collar Attach Collar Finish Sleeve Finish Armhole Top Stitch Sleeve & Body Bottom Fold Side Attach Slit Tuck Twill Attach at Slit Slit Finish Side patch attach 1.850 0.000 30.95 0.90 30.850 1.55 3.
(iii) They manufacture the components most economically. for these machine tools are inspected periodically against: • • • • • • • Use of wrong or inadequate lubrication Change in level of the machine tools Wrong use and overloading of the machine tools Wear of slide ways. Need For Machine Tool Maintenance (I) Machine tools are properly maintained so that they remain in working condition at all the times. (iii) Maintenance division of the factory ensures the availability of the machines and services required by other sections of the factory for the performance of their functions at optimum return on investment whether this investment be in material.(ii) Machine tools should be kept in such a condition which permits them to be used at their optimum (profit making) capacity without any interruption or hindrance. MAINTENANCE: • • • Breakdown Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Preventive Maintenance 42 . bearings and other components Dust. machinery or personnel. heat and humidity Vibration and Chatter Corrosion of some parts due to the use of wrong lubricants etc. (ii) Their accuracy does not deteriorate.
The maintenance department checks into the fault and makes the necessary repairs. an electric motor of a machine tool will not start. etc. Causes of Equipment Breakdown • • • • • • Failure to replace worn out parts. Neglected cooling system.Breakdown maintenance implies that repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal function any longer. wrong fuel.) Indifference towards equipment vibrations.g. Indifference towards minor faults. production department calls on the maintenance department to rectify the defect. etc. hurried maintenance and excessive delays in production.BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE . External factors (such as too low or too high line voltage. This type of maintenance may be quite justified in small factories. This leads to poor. 43 . Under such conditions. After removing the fault. unusual sounds coming out of the rotating machinery. a belt is broken. e. equipment getting too much heated up.. etc. maintenance engineers do not attend the equipment again until another failure or breakdown occurs. Disadvantages of breakdown Maintenance • Breakdowns generally occur at importunate times. Lack of lubrication.
cranes. Studies indicate that this savings can amount to as much as 12% to 18% on the average. The success of preventive maintenance is entirely dependent on the system laid down and the quality of people who operate it and therefore it must be strictly controlled by supervision. for example. equipment life is extended and its reliability is increased. Faster plant deterioration. More spoilt material. hoists and pressure vessels. Direct loss of profit. By simply expending the necessary resources to conduct maintenance activities intended by the equipment designer. Increased chances of accidents and less safety to both workers and machines. or mitigate degradation of a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life through controlling degradation to an acceptable level.• • • • • • Reduction of output. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Actions performed on a time.or machine-run-based schedule that detect. Breakdown maintenance practice cannot be employed for those plant items which are regulated by statutory provisions. lifts. Objectives of Preventive Maintenance - 44 .
• Cost involved with repair or replacement of equipment. overhauls etc. • Increased component life cycle. (ii) To make machine tools always available and ready for use. • Reduced equipment or process failure. • Energy savings. (vi) To achieve maximum production at minimum repair cost. (iii) To maintain the optimum productive efficiency of the machine tools.(I) To minimize the possibility of unanticipated production interruption or major breakdown by locating or uncovering any condition which may lead to it. • Cost effective in many capital intensive processes. 45 . especially if overtime is needed. • Flexibility allows for the adjustment of maintenance periodicity.) Advantages of Preventive Maintenance: • Requires less staff. (vii) To ensure safety of life and limb of the machine tool operators. (viii) To maintain value of machine tools (by periodic inspections. Disadvantages of Preventive Maintenance: • Increased cost due to unplanned downtime of equipment. repairs. • Increased labour cost. • Estimated 12% to 18% cost savings over reactive maintenance program. (v) To reduce the work content of maintenance jobs. (iv) To maintain the operational accuracy of the machine tools.
Inspection. • Inefficient use of staff resources. 46 . • Potential for incidental damage to components in conducting unneeded maintenance. • Includes performance of unneeded maintenance. lubrication. Scheduled maintenance practice incorporates inspection. servicing etc. and repair of certain equipment which if neglected can result in breakdown. of these equipments are included in the predetermined schedule. • Labour intensive. lubrication. Schedule maintenance practice is generally followed for overhauling of machines. Scheduled Maintenance Scheduled maintenance is a stitch in time procedure aimed at avoiding breakdowns.• Possible secondary equipment or process damage from equipment failure. • Catastrophic failures still likely to occur.
47 . bushes etc. bearings. The following reports were prepared- 1.MACHINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT The maintenance department is a very important supporting department to the production as it assures product quality. NOTE: Filters and gaskets cannot be cleaned and re-used. gears. CHECK WEAR AND TEAR OF MAJOR PARTS Check the abnormal sound in the machine due to wear and tear between the major parts like main shafts. crank shafts. -Use recommended sealing bond while replacing filters and gasket areas properly cleaned. OVERHAUL MAINTENANCE 2. etc.. OILING AND GREASING Oil specification: NEW DEFRIX OIL TIME PERIOD FOR OILING OF M/C’S SNLS: 1 month F/L and O/L: 6 month CHANGE OIL FILTERS AND OIL GASKETS Change clogged oil filters and damaged gaskets. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE 3. to prevent leakage.
length. LEATHER BELTS. CHECK THE CONDITION OF MOTOR PULLEY V. his next greatest contribution is to ensure that it receives an adequate supply of lubrication 48 .PARTS TO BE CHECKED:• • • • • • NEEDLE BAR ALIGNMENT NEEDLE BAR UPPER & LOWER BUSH HORIZONTAL & VERTICAL GEARS UPPER AND LOWER SHAFT ALIGNMENT FEEDDOG CRANK & CRANK SHAFT ALIGNMENT UPPER AND LOWER SHAFT BEARINGS BELTS CHECK WEAR AND TEAR OF INTERNAL TIMING Check wear and tear of internal timing belts in flat lock.BELTS. FLAT BELTS Check the conditions like wear and tear in the belt. etc. LUBRICATION: The day to day responsibility for the maintenance of machine tools is in the hands of the operator. stretch ability and durability of the belt. feed of the arm etc.. and provided he uses it properly. double needle. multi needle chain stitch.
On modern machine tools various units such as headstocks are provided with automatic lubrication by means of a pump with provision for a continuous filtering system and an indicator to observe the circulation of the oil. and equipment that directs work flow and generates finished products. MODULAR PRODUCTION SYSTEM 4. This traditional method of manufacturing has been widely adopted in the Apparel Industry for the past 3 decades. Parts of various components after 49 . SECTIONAL SYSTEM 5. ONE PIECE SYSTEM/ BODY LINE SYSTEM 6. Commonly used production systems to mass produce apparel are as follows: 1. PROGRESSIVE BUNDLE SYSTEM: 2. In sewing department the process can be done by using one of these lines depending upon the size of order and skills required to do a job. however. production processes. UNIT PRODUCTION SYSTEM 3. Other parts of machine. depend on daily attention of the operator and it is fairly general practice to issue a chart for his guidance. APPAREL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: An apparel production system is an integration of materials handling. ETON SYSTEM MARAL OVERSEAS follows the Assembly Line / (PBS) production system. personnel.
Operators work at different rates. A PBS may require a high volume of work in progress (WIP) because of the number of units in the bundles and the large buffer of back up work that is needed to ensure a continuous work flow for all operators. poor quality concealed by bundles. absenteeism and equipment failure causes major bottlenecks within the system. Routing identifies the basic operations. Each style has different processing requirements and thus different routing. Bottlenecks within the assembly line system: 1. the operators have to stop and leave their workspace to look for the bundles. large inventory. factory porters/helpers are hired to do this transporting work. extra handling and difficulty in controlling inventory. The PBS may be used with a skill center or line layout depending on the order that bundles are advanced through production. The operators perform the same operation on a continuing basis which allows them to increase their speed and productivity. thus large quantities of work in progress (WIP) can build up ahead of some operations. This is called the Progressive Bundle System (PBS). But usually. and the work centers where operations are performed. This method requires bundle to be transported to individual sewing operators. 2. The progressive bundle system is driven by cost efficiency for individual operations.being cut in the Cutting Room are tied up in bundles and distributed out to the Sewing Section. Large quantities of WIP make it difficult to track specific orders and provide flexibility for customers. sequence of production. Sometimes. Slow processing. 50 . Large quantities of WIP leads to longer throughput time.
4. if they find any defect. The operators complete there operations and forward the garment further. Operator who finishes the last operation puts a sticker on a garment which consists a no. 2. Small bundles allow faster throughput unless there are bottlenecks and extensive waiting between operations. This system allow better utilization of specialized machines. who keep on checking the finished garments. If the fault is in the machine then immediately the maintenance in charge is called for rectification of problem. While production takes place there are inline checkers with there tables. 51 . they send the garment to that operator who made that mistake. The production per worker or group is slow in the beginning but once the operators are set the production increases. WORK FLOW IN SEWING DEPARTMENT 1. The success of bundle system depends on how the system is set up and used in the plant. 8. 7. of self identification. 3. Every group is given the bundles and the parts are distributed to the operators as per there jobs. Thorough analysis is done to find whether the problem is occurring due to the fault of the machine or negligence of operator.Benefits of assembly line system: 1. 2. They check each and every garment. 5. If they are satisfied they will pass the garment for further operation. 9. 6. The bundles are brought in from the cutting dept. as output from one special purpose automated machine may be able to supply several operators for the next operations.
a company has to follow other regulations too. Brussels ) ILO (International Labour Organization. In case of the operator’s mistake he is asked to do that operation again. After the line set up the first 50 pieces are stitched to check the working of machines. Once the production flows the pieces coming out from all the lines are checked randomly by final checker. These set of rules and regulations are called COMPLIANCES/ CODE OF CONDUCT (COC). He reports the supervisor who makes the requisition slips and forwards it to the stores. needle etc. 11. they follow the compliances issued by ILO. UN) In Maral Overseas. While working if the operator needs any material for eg. They too indirectly help in marinating the quality. ELEMENTS OF COMPLIANCE: • LEGAL COMPLIANCE 52 . There are two organizations which look after the international compliance issues. 12. COMPLIANCES Apart from the procedures. Thread. • • BSCI (Business social compliance initiative.10. 13.
This payment is made in lieu of accident which could have 53 .• • • • • • • • • FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION COMPENSATION WORKING HOURS PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION WORK PLACE SAFETY PROHIBITION OF CHILD LABOUR PROHIBITION OF FORCED LABOUR ENVIRONMENT SAFETY FRISKING SHOULD NOT BE DONE COMPLIANCE CAN BE DIVIDED UNDER 3 HEADS: 1) LEGAL 2) INFRASTRUCTURE 3) SOCIAL LEGAL: Law of Land is approved by the municipal corporation of the area where the unit has been set up. Compensation : Compensation is paid to the laborers and is outside the wages.
They have also put up a board outside their main gate warning against underage people seeking work. Prohibition of child labor: Children below 18 years are strictly prohibited. Electrical wires should be properly fixed and concealed. Prohibition of discrimination: Discrimination on the bases of cast. 54 .happened in the production unit and has caused injury to the laborer . For e.it is also paid if a laborer is laid off with no fault of his own. . Prohibition of forced labor: Forced labor is prohibited everywhere in India. Electrical point should be properly concealed. SOCIAL: Social compliance includes all the things which are for the welfare of workers. To ensure this every operator has to submit the concerning documents while joining. A single complaint against a person can land him in prison. All the operators are paid in cash and there is no force in there choice of working there. creed.g. it is also for looking after the working condition. color or sex is a legal crime and is punishable under Indian law. INFRASTRUCTURE: • • • Building should be safe and strong.
dates of the salary should be fixed and it should be given on the fixed day itself. Under the act of 1948. a worker can do overtime maximum • • • • 2 hours/day 12 hours/week 48 hours/month 52 hours/ 3months Overtime is paid double the amount of his salary. Wages are given according to the skill of the workers and this should be beforehand told to worker. article 52 states that weekly holiday along with national and festival holidays should be given to the workers. Leave/ holidays: under the act of 1948. BONUS: under the act of 1965.L’s in the whole year. bonus is given to the worker on the occasion of Diwali. Earn leave (E. It means that he gets the salary of 2 hours if he works for an hour. Maternity leave: under the act of 1961 a female worker can take leave for 12 weeks.Wages: wages should be given on time.e. Overtime charges and details are also clearly told to the workers. 15 E. 55 .L): a worker who works for minimum of 240 days are allowed to take an E.L after every 20 days i.
Presence of doctors (full time/ part time): according to the standard there should be for 50 workers – first aid 500 workers or more – dispensary 500 – Welfare officer 1000 – Safety officer 56 . doctor for it. B. there should be a crèche wherever there are minimum 30 women working. By providing Aqua guard water filters and water coolers for drinking water. Hygienic food is provided through a contractor in the factory canteen. Place for lunch: a proper canteen and place for lunch should be provided to the workers. Health-first aid: they provide this facility to the worker. Crèche: according to the rule. By planting flowers. Healthy and safe:1. 5. 3. Through horticulture.S. They provide A. 2. Environment Safety The following steps are taken in to keep the environment clean. green plants and green trees. 4.B. ETP plant is installed to clean polluted water from laundry department. Time should be fixed for lunch in the factory.
The workers get gratuity of 15 days after completing their job of 5 years. The way of these nearest hospitals should be known to each and every employee of the company. This yellow mark line indicates the separation of machines to the movable free area. Evacuation plan: incase of fire. This plan should be taught to the workers and everyone should be aware of this. Safety yellow mark line: This line is very essential for the safety of operators. those workers who have completed the term of 5years of their job would be getting the benefit of gratuity. Exit marks: exit marks should be properly indicated in English as well as in the local language so that the workers can also understand it. Gratuity: under the act of 1972. Fire fighting system : 57 . there should be proper way and plan to vacate the factory easily without any accidents. Adequate space should be given in between the machines (lines) so that operator should feel comfortable while doing his job which will result in good quality and also in case of emergency one can easily move through the path. Nursing home/hospital has to be declared: nearest hospital and nursing home should be marked and all the workers of the company should be aware of that particular hospital so that everybody knows that where should they approach in case of emergency.
Machine guards Protection from electricity and chemicals. Small box with glass cover should be there and it should ring as soon as the glass breaks. Yellow line and black line should be around the extinguisher. it should be easily accessible without any hindrance. • Mask: operator should be provided with mask whenever he is on the machine or he is doing the operation which involves cotton fluff. Metal detection certificate must be completed for each shipment. 2) Fire alarm: fire alarm should be there on each floor of the factory. 3) Fire hydrant: At the entrance 100-150 meter red pipe should be placed and should be connected to the source of water in the factory. Metal detection should be the final process performed before item is placed in the cart Metal detection should take place AFTER all work. A hammer should also be chained there in this box to break the glass in case of emergency. including repairs has been completed. Workers should also be given coaching to use it. Metal detection machine should be calibrated at the start of each shift.1) Fire extinguisher: 1meter by 1 meter space should be given around fire extinguisher in the factory. • • • • • 58 . but prior to sealing the polybag. • • Broken Needle and Auxiliary Sewing Tool Policy Metal Detector Policy: • All orders to be passed through a metal detection system to confirm that no foreign metal objects are included in the garment. Inspection quantity should be 100% of order quantity.
Discounted FOB as outlined in the B-grade policy. Difference in duty paid at full FOB and the discounted FOB. Penalty fee of $100 per occurrence. Columbia QC will perform random metal detection audit during final inspection.• • Metal detection certificate must be submitted to Columbia QC during final inspection. Audit Costs including labour and materials. The chargeback amount will be calculated to recover any or all of the following costs that result from foreign metal objects negligently included in our product. 59 . A metal object in garments is one example of product not built to specification. Any chargeback or settlements against Columbia Sportswear. • It is a policy to issue chargeback to our suppliers in the event that problems with the product are determined to be caused by the supplier’s negligence. Claims: • Columbia Sportswear incurs costs when product is received that is not built to specification. • Product found to contain metal objects will be classified as 5th quality and un-saleable. • SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE WORKING CONDITIONS AND EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE FACTORY • There should be less material handling operations.
transport and replacement of the operations while stitching this will help in increasing the efficiency.• • • • • • Since layout plays an important role hence there should be increased layout flexibility. There should be proper and improved displays and controls to minimize mistakes. There was tube all along the cutting room. And the most factors important for the factory are to ensure that the work-in-progress is under control by the supervisors etc. • They can eliminate extra task by performing a number of task in one operation by using special multi-task machines. unnecessary transportation of materials from one operation to another etc causes lot of problem in the production completion on time. low waste and high quality. Garment planning should be done in such a way that it should have an easy assembly. There should be no naked light bulbs or tubes in view of the worker when looking at the working area. It is very important that the workstation should be provided with proper sunlight and ventilation. There should be proper machine productivity check this can help in increasing the productivity as well as efficiency. • • • • There should be an easy maintenance. For better results in swing and for good quality it is important to provide training to the operators hence training should be given before starting with any new operation. It is very important that task and operations which do not add value to the product should be identified for example: delay cause by machine breakdown. incomplete raw material. 60 .
FINISHING DEPARTMENT To ensure that the final packed garment is perfect in all respects. Spot/Stain removal. Pressing It is the last process of manufacturing. Maral overseas have their own washing plant. Finishing of garment entails making it ready or the final steps for preparation for use of the garment. machine breakdown. The no of machines which were there in the finishing department was as follows:MACHINE EQUIPMENT 61 . • For better and improved quality it very important to maintain all the reports and records properly and they should be properly checked by the head of the departments.• There should be a proper intervention of absenteeism. • Another very important aspect are the worker as they are the one who produce garment hence it is important to have their involvement in the process of changes as it can increase flexibility and quality in production. After the garment is stitched it comes to the finishing department for checking. problem with raw material etc by supervisor as these problems can lead to problem in the quality and late production. The finishing department consists of procedures such as: Thread trimming. Washing.
NO.S.5 . 1. 2. of Machine 12 2 6 2 PACKING DEPARTMENT Checking Label Attachment • Folding Poly Bag Packing • • Blister Bag Packing Carton Packing Carton Labelling 62 Carton weighing Final Inspection According AQL 2. 3. 4 Type of Machine Pressing Machine Thread Sucker Machine Spotting Gun Lock stitch machine(for alteration) No.
MACHINES REQUIRED IN THE PACKING DEPARTMENT: 1) Strap Machine 2) Cello tape dispenser 3) Metal detector machine. After the packaging is complete the goods are dispatched to the destination specified by the buyer. 63 .
utilization of equipments and safety. and equipment used in the conversion process. delivery schedules and anticipated volume. productivity. maintenance. PLANT LAYOUT is the Arrangement of equipment and facilities to achieve quickest and smoothest production at the least cost. The facilities include receiving. employee amenities etc. Layout affects production capacity. Layout of an apparel production plant directs the flow of materials and finished goods from start to completion and integrates the material handling and production systems. tool rooms.DEPARTMENT WISE LAYOUTS: PLANT LAYOUT is the special arrangement and configuration of departments. A good layout has the flexibility to be changed to meet requirements of the product line. processing time. cost. work stations. shipping departments. inspection. FEATURES OF A PROPERLY LAID OUT PLANT ► Smooth and rapid movement of materials from RM stage to finished product stage ► The movement is generally in forward direction ► The materials do not criss-cross or go backward and forward for further operations ► Production bottlenecks and delays are few ► Materials handling costs are reduced 64 . manufacturing.
comfort 65 . health. bottlenecks ► Minimize accidents ► Use available space efficiently.OBJECTIVES OF A GOOD LAYOUT ► Minimize material handling cost ► Minimize congestion. effectively ► Provide ease of supervision ► Allow ease of maintenance ► Provide for future expansion ► Better working conditions – safety.
Sewing floor Machine No.8 m 67 . of Machine Dimension(LXB) Sewing m/c Inspection table Sorting Table Ironing Table Racks Finished garment table 170 15 5 10 5 2 3.8' 3' X 3' 2.5' X1.5' X 3' 72" X 24" 2' X 20' 3' X 6' CUTTING Cutting table Straight knife Band knife Fusing machine Ticketing machine Recutting table Inspection table for cut component Basket Table(tkt & bnd) End cutter Die Cutter 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 4 2 4 1 108' X 60 ' 48" X 45 " 4' X 4' 3' X 4' 3' X 4' 12 m X 1.
23 15 1 2 6mX4m 84' X 36' 4' X 2' FINISHING ROOM Washing machine Tumble dryer Hydro extractor Ironing table Thread suction Stain removing table 8 1 1 2.STORE Fabric racks Fabric Inspection machine Table & chairs Pallets Weighing machine Trim rack small Trim rack big 1 4 1 2' X 2' 3.8' 3' X 4' PACKING Table for folding & Packing AQL table Bins Needle detection machine 6 1 10 1 4' X 4' 3' X 4' 3' X 4' 68 .22 m 0.33X6.07 m X 1.5' X1.13 m X 1.22 m 1.91m(dia) 72" X 24" 3' X 4' 3' X 3' Button holing machine Button riveting machine Boiler Inspection table 5 5 1 6 3.5' X1.66 27.8' 3.92X10.
332" 4.5' X1.99"*1.32" 1.Carton packing machines CAD ROOM System Digitiser Plotter 4 1 1 15" X 17" 5.77" .999" 2.5 feet 69 .66"*.5 feet 2.66"*7.5 ' X 3 ' 7' X 4' SAMPLING Cutting table pattern making table Grading table sewing machine Ironing table Inspection table Mini Boiler 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 2' X 3' 4' X 3' 4' X 3' 3.8' 72" X 24" 3' X 3' Dimension of articles: Fan Tube Light Height of light from ground7 feet Toilet sheet Office Table Chair Aisle distance Distance between machines 4" 13.
severing) a spread into the garment parts that are of the precise size and shape of the pattern pieces on the marker. Cutting contributes to the quality. efficiency and costs of subsequent operations including handling. carving. The cutting process may also involve transferring marks and notches from the marker to garment parts to assist operators in sewing. Chopping or sectioning a spread into blocks of piece goods may precede precision cutting of individual pattern shapes. fusing and sewing.CUTTING CUTTING is the preproduction process of separating (sectioning. Different kind of cutting equipments include: Stationary cutters Band knives Die cutting Servo cutters etc. 70 .
Blade cooling systems are optional auxiliaries. They are not necessary for all cutting machines • Disadvantages Of straight knife 71 . knife machines are: 4”. 7”. Advantages: It is most common means of cutting lays because it is versatile. usually on roller for ease of movement. or ½ hp with speeds of 3500 or 1750rpm. cheaper than a band knife. portable. The base plate on its roller slider under the glazed paper which is spread below the bottom ply of fabric in the lay. 5”. a stand carrying a straight vertical blade with varying edge characteristics and an electric motor above it. more accurate on curves than a round knife. The motor determines the cutting power of the cutting machine. 8”. Motor power drives the reciprocating blade and operator power drives the knife through the lay. Most st. 6”.knife cutting machines come in 1/3. 9” and up to 13”. relatively reliable and easy to maintain.Straight Knife It consists of a base plate. a handle for the cutter to direct the blade and a sharpening device. Straight knife specification • • • The standard cutting heights for st. 1/4. Two kinds of power are required to operate a straight knife.
• This cuts the fabric with one way thrust of the blade edge. • -Standard rotary machines are made with the following blade diameter: 2 1/2”. 4”. knife cuts with a two way thrust. 7”.• • Many st. • The cutting capacity of rotary machines is governed by knife diameter. The rotary cutting machine has a circular knife whose edge rotates counterclockwise into the superposed plies as the machine is propelled laterally into the spread. 3”. 5”. The lower end of a straight blade gets more wear and tear than the upper part because the lower end cuts in every spread. motor horse power and motor speed. 6”. 3 ½”. 72 .-knife blades tend to wear out faster at the lower end of the blade. up and down. 8” and 12”. whereas the st. Rotary cutting machines • The basic difference between the rotary and straight machines is the blade shape and blade thrust. 5 ½”. whereas the top part cuts only in those spreads high enough to reach it.
73 . Tables usually have an air floatation system. on small intricate The turning of the block on the narrower blade disrupts the superposed plies less than the wider blade of a turning st. They are used more in men's wear than in women’s wear as they are often used to cut large garment parts. Disadvantage: It is difficult for a circular blade to negotiate a tight curve. Advantages: Band knives are used when a higher standard of cutting accuracy is required. such as large panels of jackets and overcoats.Advantage: It is a fast machine. such as an arm hole. This permits more precise perpendicular cutting curves and angles. excellent for cutting straight lines or gradual curves. knife in the same block. The fabric is either pulled back or pushed into the cutting blade. Band knife machines • • • • • Band knife blades are narrower than straight-knife blades.
CUTTING DEPARTMENT FABRIC ISSUE MARKER MAKING LAYERING CUTTING ASSORTING TICKETING BUNDLING CHECKING 74 PACKING IN POLYBAG WITH BIN CARD .
: : Line Total ……….In cutting department. first Fabric was issued from the fabric department through Fabric Issue Challan. Quantity Size Width In Mtr. No. : Run Date Time STYLE Fabric Description: S... Cutting Dept... Fabric Code Colou r Issue Roll Actual Roll Line No. FABRIC ISSUE CHALLAN HAD THE FOLLOWING DETAILS: Sales Order No. (Receiving qty :_______) In Cutting department after receiving the fabric cut order plan was made according to: 75 .. Fin.
No. 6 7 Type of Machine Straight Knife Cutter Band Knife Cutter Fusing machine Computerized Cutter Spreader Drill machine Cutting tables Total No. 3.MARAL OVERSEAS The equipments used were hand sheers. band knife. of Machines • Machine Capacity • Table Length CUTTING DEPARTMENT . and stickering machines. iron weight.5 feet 76 . Of Machines 7 2 3 1 2 1 5 22 Cutting table height: 2. fusing machines. clamps. 5. 4. 2. 1. straight knife. Below are the details of the equipments: MACHINE SPECIFICATION Sr.• Quantity • No.
fabric. MARKER PLANNING Marker planning is defined as efficient layout of the patterns in such a way that there is minimum fabric wastage.-using half-set patterns for exactly symmetric designs/garments or full set pattern Marking and spreading mode of the fabric (depends on the symmetry of the fabric design/garment design) 77 . Marker making is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specific style. Production patterns that have been developed and graded on a CAD system are ready to be called up and placed on a marker based on cutting orders.g. Design characteristic of the finished garment. Cutting was done by straight knife and band knife. REQUIREMENTS FOR MARKER PLANNING: • • • Aligning the fabric as per the grain line. Computerisation greatly improves accuracy increases control of variables. of stickering table: 2 rows Total number of employees in cutting department: 20 people Spreading and layering was done manually. e. and reduces time required for making markers. and distribution of sizes. MARKER MAKING: A marker is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for the sizes of a specific style that are to be cut from a single spread.Cutting table width: 60 inches and 48’’ Cutting table length: 10 mtrs No.
There are 3 types of marker planning: Manual Paper making Computer Maximum Marker Utilization= area of patterns in the marker plan / total area of the marker x100% (Marker utilization may be calculated by a Planimeter and it depends on fabric characteristic and pattern piece characteristic. Widening the width of the marker. Interlocking more sizes and parts. 78 . Using non sectional marker more than sectional marker Efficiency of the marker = covered area / total area X 100 First the large pieces are laid and then smaller ones are fitted.) Thumb rule for increasing marker utilization are: 1. 3. 2.
NAP UP AND DOWN (N/U/D): all the pattern pieces of one size to be placed in one direction and another size placed in opposite direction 80 .MARKING MODES: Orientation of pattern pieces within a marker is called marker mode. The symmetry of pattern pieces and fabric determines the appropriate marker mode for a particular style. Marker modes can be of three types: NAP EITHER WAY (N/E/W): with symmetric. pattern pieces can be placed on a marker lying in either direction. Directional fabrics require that all pattern pieces be placed on a marker in only one direction. non directional fabrics. up or down. or fabrics with one way design. knits. the orientation of pattern pieces is extremely important to the consistency and quality of the product. NAP ONE WAY (N/O/W): with directional fabrics such as napped fabrics. uneven plaids.
the marker mode followed for our product (mixed media shirt) was SPREADING OR LAYERING It is the process of superposing lengths of the fabric on a spreading or a cutting table. Asymmetric (single jersey) Symmetric (cotton canvas) It also included remarks. Marker Mode N/O/W N/O/W 81 . CUTTING RECORDS Separate cutting report was maintained which had details of each layer cut. Garment pattern 1 2. IN MARAL OVERSEAS: Spreading was done manually.In MARAL OVERSEAS. S.NO.
• Lay height was 3 . For cutting they were using straight knife with 7” length • • • Spreading modes: 82 . SPREADING DONE AT MARAL OVERSEAS: In our garment spreading was done manually.4’’ • • • • • The average consumption per garment was 0. Lay length was 4 meters There were 5 tables for layering and 20 helpers.• They kept record of daily cutting and pieces issued to sewing department. The speed of layering was 50 ‘palle’ in an hour. The length of the table was 10 mtrs and the width of 2 tables was 60’’ and 3 tables were 48”.335 grams. After layering the fabric was allowed to relax for some time. They were manually doing the spreading which was taking 2 hours. The total no of layers were 110 layers.
If a rotating turn table is used to turn the fabric roll 180 degrees at the end of each ply. as fabric is laid down continuously as the spreader moves up and down the table. Face one way (f/o/w): F/O/W spreads are more time consuming and expensive because fabric must be cut at each end of the spread and the new end repositioned. This spreading mode is called nap 83 . DIRECTION OF FABRIC NAPFabrics that are asymmetric or directional because of structure or finish require special treatment. non. This spreading is faster and therefore less costly. which places alternate plies face-to-face or back-to-back. Face to face (f/f): F/F spreading may be continuous or the piece cut and the roll turned at the end of each ply. non-directional fabrics allow flexibility for spreading. Symmetric. the fabric can be spread from both ends of the table without a wasted trip. This is particularly helpful when spreading prints.directional fabrics are spread continuously. Often symmetric. These fabrics can be spread face-to-face with the nap running both up and down the spread.Spreading mode is the manner in which fabric plies are laid out for cutting. Two factors are considered in determining the appropriate spreading mode: • • Direction of fabric face Direction of fabric nap DIRECTION OF FABRIC FACE.the fabric face may be positioned in two ways.
N/O/W F/O/W. directional fabric must have the fabric nap facing the same direction on all pieces in the garment. Asymmetric (single jersey) Symmetric (cotton canvas) Spreading Mode F/O/W.no.This type of fabric can also be spread face-one-way with the nap running up and down. N/O/W CUT ORDER PLANNING: 84 . otherwise garment parts will appear to be of different shades. the spreading mode followed for our product (mixed media shirt) was s.up and down (N/U/D) . Garment pattern 1 2. Garment cut from asymmetric. This spreading mode is called as nap-one way (N/O/W). In MARAL OVERSEAS.
It is the process that seeks to minimize the total production cost through planning and management of production processes. Releasing order for marker making. Determining whether there marker is available or new marker is needed to be made. Factors affecting cut order plan: • • • • • • • Sizes in the order. Cut order planning involves the following responsibilities: 1. width and sectioning procedures for marker making and spreading. how many of each size should be in each marker. Cost of the fabric 85 . Maximum lay length. Examining incoming orders and piece goods availability. 3. Cutting done by size wise. and the no of ply that will be cut from each marker. 2. The most efficient ratio is often 1:2:2:1. Determining volume. Developing instruction for optimum marker making and fabric utilization. Usable cloth width. three sizes cut together to increase the marker efficiency. Maximum ply height. size ratio. spreading and cutting It determines how many markers are needed. Maximum and minimum number of sizes in the marker. 4. 5. Colors in the order.
Cut order plan: Main Body Details: Style No. 210 GSM Tubular /open Open width 147 cm.There are two factors which are consider to prepare cut order plan Production capacity The input planning of a product is depending on its out put. M/c limitation M/c limitation is also one of the factors which affect the cut order plan. # 55132 Fabric 100%cotton. Garments components: Back/front/sleeve/placket/collar/cuff Trims: woven patch on front. single jersey. Because we cut only 2/3 rd length of total length of straight knife blade. pocket & tabs Canvas fabric Width: 143 cm 86 . Cutting per day is done according to the stitching of garments per day. Cut order plan is prepared according to the production per day.
3.6 523.6 565.6 565.6 1696. No.6 174.8 565.335 0.7 258 258 258 774 NAVY WHEAT TEAL 516 516 516 1548 87 . 2. pocket. TOTAL NAVY WHEAT TEAL 28 28 28 84 84 84 84 252 140 140 140 230 144 144 144 432 72 72 72 216 48 48 48 144 516 516 516 1548 S M L XL XXL 3XL Total Fabric Consumption: Extra Consumption Cuttin per pc in Kgs g % Body Fabric req. for order in Kgs Woven Body fabric Fabric required for req. for tabs & front order patch @ 50 in Mtrs cm per pc Twill tape 10 mm for back neck tape & slit Twill tape 10 mm for back neck tape & slit @ 1 MTR 0.Size Ratio: Colour S.335 1% 1% 1% 174.6 174.335 0. 1.
6 mtr 4 mtr 3 mtr Length Cutable Width(cm) 142.5 147 Marker Utilization 85.61% 86.Size cut ratio and marker utilization: S. 3.11% 86. 420 110+110 432 110+110 88 . 84 84 M 252 84 L 420 XL 432 2XL 216 84 3XL 144 84 REMAINING X 168 420 432 132 60 2. 4.5 142. 168 60+60+60 420 432 132 60+60 60 60 REMAINING +12 12 X 3.No 1.64% 85.) 4 mtr.5 142. 2. Cutting Combination S(1)-M(1)XXL(1)-3XL(1) M(3)-XXL(2)3XL(1) L/2-XLS-M-L-XL-XXL3XL Layer (mtr.27% Cut Plan: S 1.
reducing fabric waste and minimizing requirements for operator skill. Quality of cutting has great impact on the quality of the assembly processes that follow. • • • Throughout cutting there was a permanent Q. is checked for cutting consistency and records are maintained • • • Marker mode correct as per the fabric and garment Spreading mode correct as per the fabric and garment 89 .C who was keeping a check on the cutting quality. if needed. to keep track of lots cut at the packing stage.200 100+100 212 100+100 X 12 Then they cut XL and XXL for 12 pieces. And cut only 1% extra CUTTING QUALITY: Accuracy is probably the most important factor affecting the cutting operation. • Each dye lot is to be cut in ratio to maintain colour consistency. Dye lot numbers are given to each layer cut. Manufacturers want to accomplish high quality output from the cutting process while operating at high speed. More importance was given on notch cutting. Each layer cut.
Each layer edge is checked for unacceptable skew / torque. The operator in the sewing line works on a bundle 90 .T. CUTTING RECORDS Separate cutting report was maintained which had details of each layer cut.S) is a tool to measure individual operator’s performance and efficiency. .• • • • • Grain line properly maintained Pattern and cut fabric properly matching Frayed edges-blade problem notches and drill marks properly visible All component parts of the garment are laid parallel to the warp (length) of fabric unless style warrants others positioning of parts. Stickering is done because of following reasons: To identify right and wrong hand side of the fabric To locate missing parts To identify panels BUNDLING AND TICKETING Bundle ticket system (B. It also included remarks. They kept record of daily cutting and pieces issued to sewing department STICKERING After cutting the stickers are put to trace and stitch the panels.
So the auditor and the examiner can easily find out the operator and suggest corrective action.e.and pastes a ticket office operation on every bundle change. bundle number.4 people were assigned for bundling 91 . After this these bundles are sent to the production floor for stitching in exchange of requisition slip. The ticket has got the name of the operation. The supervisor takes an hourly score of that operator by counting the number of tickets in that hour. At the in line and the end line the defect producing operator can be traced out on the basis of the bundle ticket for that bundle.M.T. • 3. B. • • The bundles also numbered specifying the sizes. METHOD: All the operators working in the sewing line in a bundle system pastes their ticket on a bundle change.V.S can help the in line and end line examiner to find the operators producing defects by tracing the bundle number on his ticket. the numbers allotted according to the assembly sequence. • All the parts of the same lot and size are tied into bundles containing 1015 garments. Total number of pieces in the bundle. S. style number (K&P). The stickers specifies the: • • • Lot number Size Part-number i.
: 5-6 min. All lanes walk independently from each other ensuring that the highest operations can be achieved on each lane separately. pocket flap and hem. 92 . front placket. collar band. the fused parts are transferable with the cooling belt to transferable belt. For fusing they were using continuous fusing machine at a Temperature Time Pressure : 1100c. The numbers and width of the lanes can be planned individually within the total working width. : 40 N NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUSING V-AST LOY UP STACKER After fusing.• Bundling speed was 200 pcs /hr FUSING In this T-Shirt Fusible interlining was used for collar. Small rollers hold the finish parts as they enter and in order to avoid folding and creasing.
and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency & economy of the situation being reviewed.Work study: Work study is a generic term for those techniques. WORK STUDY ANALYSIS WORK STUDY WORK METHOD STUDY MEASUREMENT RECORD TO COMPARE SEEK BEST METHOD 93 TIME STUDY SYNTHETICS . which is used in the examination of human work in all its contexts. particularly method study and work measurement. in order to effect improvement. Main aim of work study is to enhance productivity.
METHOD STUDY It is the analyzing of work & suggesting alternative to improve work & to repair it and come out of good & fast results. The function of this study is to determine the equipment to working condition and work method which will enable the worker to produce a maximum no. as a means of developing & applying easier & more effective methods & reducing costs. of units/unit time with a given expenditure of human energy This is done to increase productivity and hence. METHOD STUDY STEPS: It is everybody’s concern and recommendation should be taken from everyone right from the operator to the manager. quality. Method study is the systematic recording & critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work. Sequence of improvement: Examination ----analysis---discussion and test TIME STUDY: 94 .
2. It is to estimate the amount of production the worker should produce with a given work method and expenditure of human energy during a given period of time under given working conditions. properly trained experienced person working at a normal pace to do a specified task. USE OF TIME STUDY: 1. properly trained experienced person working at a normal place to do a specific work. Gives us a base for wage planning 3. It is to estimate the amount of production the worker should produce with a given work method & expenditure of human energy during a given period of time under given working condition.Time study is used to determine the time taken by a qualified. Helps us in determining the std cost of production Time study is used to determine the time (standard time) taken by a qualified. ATTRIBUTES TO TIME STUDY: For any operation. there is • Elemental breakups of operations: every operation should be judiciously divided into elemental breakdown with definite break points 95 . Helps in planning of work and scheduling.
• Allowance: Allowance consists of personal and fatigue time and delay time. Needle changing/bobbin refilling operations are typical examples of delay allowance.• Rating of operator: Rating is that process during which the time study analyst compares the performance (speed or tempo) of the operator under observation with the observers own concept of normal performance. Personal and fatigue time is the time taken by an operator after every 5-6 cycles and is only a break or rest or relaxation after close concentration.14% TYPICAL MACHINE DELAY ALLOWANCES Single needle lockstitch-9% Twin needle lockstitch-14% Three thread overlock-7% four thread overlock-9% Five thread overlock-11% 96 . In American usage the term “grading” is often used with the same usage as “rating”. Going to the washrooms/toilets are also included in it. for garment industry it is approx. it is expressed as a percentage of m/c time. Delay allowance is the time taken only in machine operation due to the complexity of the machinery and the level of maintenance. The person who rate must be licensed operator from ILO (International labor organization). Allowance is expressed as a percentage of basic time.
97 . Plenty of suitable work. Time allowed for the operative’s personal needs and to overcome fatigue. Machine: This is opposite to manual.Although these do not occur in every work cycle they are part of the job and may occur at regular intervals Constant: These elements always have the same basic time. Occasional : ‘ Bundle Handling’ . They may be time spent in allowance to personal needs. Ineffective time It is essential. which are covered by allowances. to set aside one column for activities which do not form part of the work. in preparing for a study. The workplace and the machinery for which the standard time was specified. and it is best to arrange the breakpoints so that the distinction is clearly made. Standard minutes ‘Standard time’ is the average for one cycle of an operation that we would measure over a typical day if we had: • • • • • A skilled operative Adequate incentive to call forth the operatives’ best efforts.TYPES OF ELEMENTS: Repetitive: ‘Pick up and position at needle’ – Most repetitive elements takes about the same time on each occasion that they occur. Manual: This refers to the parts of the job for which the time spent machining is not significant.
We saw what all problems are being faced by the manufacturing department and then how they overcome the problems. 98 . The role of each department from fabric in house to finishing and then finally dispatch.Standard time calculation: Basic time = (Observed rate X Observed time) / standard rating) CONCLUSION In this project we have gone through the manufacturing process. We have learnt how the garment is manufactured step by step.
99 . We tried to understand various problems that arise at every stage and how they can be rectified to keep the quality of garment intact and also the maximum utilization of available resources with the aim of achieving maximum profit. we gained in-depth knowledge on production of a garment and its production planning understanding of production at every stage.After completing this project.
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