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UAV based real time video surveillance over 4G


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Conference Paper December 2015


DOI: 10.1109/ICOSST.2015.7396417

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UAV based Real Time Video Surveillance over 4G
LTE
Sameer Qazi1, Ali Shuja Siddiqui2 and Asim Imdad Wagan3
1.Department of Electrical Engineering, DHA Suffa University, Karachi, Pakistan
2. University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, USA
3. Department of Computer Science, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
s.qazi@dsu.edu.pk, alishuja@gmail.com, asim.imdad@nu.edu.pk

AbstractConstant video surveillance of remote locations in infrastructure (Figure 1). This architecture consists of several
rural areas, dense urbanized dwellings and strategic military outdoor macro cells and indoor femto cells to build a closed-
sites is of paramount interest to law enforcing agencies. Aerial
monitoring is now made possible by using dozens of camera circuit monitoring framework for streaming real time video.
mounted UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) streaming video The outdoor framework is a system of macrocells where
from different vantage points to a single command and control several camera mounted UAVs, in constant flight, referred to
center. In this paper, we present an architecture for closed circuit
as macroUEs in this work transmit real time video to their
monitoring of such sites, which may consist of multiple indoor
and outdoor vantage points by using the legacy 4G LTE wireless respective macro base stations referred to as macroENBs in
network cellular infrastructure in and around the buildings this work. UE refers to mobile User Equipment and ENB
consisting of several outdoor macro cells and indoor femto cells refers to Enhanced Node. The topology of our network and
to build a closed-circuit monitoring framework for streaming
real time video. Such a framework would lead to timely action in associated terminologies are adapted from 3GPP R4-092042
crime or disaster prevention. We investigate the technical standard. Similarly, indoor framework comprises of indoor
performance of such a video streaming system using the metrics UAVs or Wireless IP cameras (homeUEs) transmitting real
of throughputs, loss rates and delay in relation to the physical time video to their respective indoor basestations
aspects of wireless propagation; multipath propagation loss,
shadowing and fading models. (HomeENBs). The video streams are concurrently sent to a
command and control center over Internet. Such a framework
KeywordsUAV, LTE, Wireless Propagation, Real Time Video would lead to timely action in crime or disaster prevention.
Streaming, Surveillance

I. INTRODUCTION Our contributions in this work are as follows: (1) Proposal of a


two-tiered architecture for Real Time Building monitoring
Constant aerial video surveillance of remote locations is
using multi UAVs with vantage points both inside and outside
required in rural areas e.g. dams, crops, farms etc for natural
the building whose surveillance is to be carried out; (2)
disaster prevention e.g. floods and epidemics. Similarly, it is
Investigation of the technical performance metrics of such a
required in dense urbanized dwellings; high rise residential
multi-UAV real-time video streaming system using encoded
blocks and office towers for accident and terrorism prevention.
MP4 video format of real-time surveillance video; and (3)
Finally it is also required for the security of strategic military
Studying the effects of realistic wireless propagation scenarios
and nuclear sites. Unmanned aerial monitoring is now made
to study the effects of wireless signal distortion due to
possible by using dozens of camera mounted UAVs
multipath propagation and fading at practical UAV flying
(Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) such as quadcopters and
speeds (typical of urban settings) and signal propagation loss
unmanned gliders streaming video from different vantage
(shadowing loss) through multistory building structures. We
points of the location of interest to a single command and
use realistic UAV flight models for macro cells, consider
control center. Its application in the field of public safety
handover algorithms for seamless mobility and real frequency
communications has recently garnered attention of the
band (2.1 GHz) of communication of wireless nodes on board
researchers [1-2].
UAV under the 4G LTE standards. Finally, the work is
In this paper, we present a two tiered architecture for closed validated by simulations carried out in Network Simulator-3
circuit aerial monitoring of such sites, which may consist of (version 3.23) [3].
multiple indoor and outdoor vantage points by using the
The organization of this paper is as follows: Section II reviews
recently deployed 4G LTE wireless network cellular
related work in this field; Sections III and IV present brief
Figure 1. Two tiered Building Surveillance System comprising of both Macro and Femto Cells.

tutorial of the different types of wireless propagation models placement as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization
for signal propagation on wireless hops and mobility models problem for maximum network connectivity, load balancing
used for the UAVs. Section V describes the simulation and data transmission rates. However, the paper considers
parameters used in this work; Section VI presents the UAVs are relay points in the sky for mobile nodes on ground
Performance Evaluation and Section VII finally concludes the that cannot reach each other without the UAVs. In this paper
paper. we do not address the problem of nodes on the ground and
consider all nodes to be airborne.
II. RELATED WORK
Becmezci et al. [4] identified the potential of Flying Adhoc III. WIRELESS PROPAGATION MODELS USED
Networks (FANETs) in modern day applications their recent Unlike wired signal propagation which varies proportionally
survey paper. Many researchers have assumed simplistic LoS as per distance according to a deterministic model, wireless
propagation models in their research due to the high flying signal propagation has to undergo other challenges as well,
altitudes of UAVs; however, recently Eckert et al. [5] have namely shadowing and multi-path propagation. Under Line of
identified new propagation models for newer class of Sight (LoS) signal propagation, the Friis propagation model is
application possible with Aerial Adhoc Networks such as used as shown below by Equation 1:
inter-paraglider communication. Sahingoz [6-7] has recently
published two papers on research challenges of mobile Pt Gt Gr 2
networking using multiple co-ordinating UAVs and posed Pr (d ) = (1)
(4d ) 2
many interesting question on routing protocol suitability,
quality of service and UAV path planning; but does not Pr ( d ) = Received power at distance d
address the topic of propagation models. This paper is also a Pt = Transmit power
step in these directions to answer some of these open
Gt G r = Transmit and Receive Antenna Gains
questions in a simulated environment with real propagation
models and routing protocol performance evaluation. Haibo et
al. [8] have addressed the Aerial Adhoc Networks nodes
However, when receiver and transmitter have no clear line of where
sight, such as when wireless signal has to pass through is the tuning parameter ( = 1 makes the system memoryless
obstacles (such as walls) it is referred to as shadowing loss. If
not typical of flight patterns), s, and p are average values of
the wireless signals sees intermittent reception of Line of Sight
Signal and reflected versions of signals from other obstacles it speed, direction and pitch; s x 1 , x 1 and p x 1 are Gaussian
n n n
is referred to as multipath propagation or fading. Here rapid
Random variables for randomness in new values selected
constructive and destructive interference between the LoS and
reflected versions of the signal cause rapid fluctuations in Table 2 shows the parameters used in our simulation to
received signal strength. simulate the macroUE flights.

A. Shadowing Loss Table 2. Gauss Markov Model Parameters to simulate


The indoor wireless propagation model included in ns-3 mobility of macroUEs
includes Hybrid Buildings Propagation model. This model
combines Hata model, COST231, ITU-R P.1411 model (short TIME STEP 0.5 SECONDS
range communications) and ITU-R P.1238 (indoor
communications) model to evaluate the path loss under ALPHA 0.85
different scenarios, The parameters used to model shadowing
MEAN VELOCITY VARIABLE 1-10 M/S
loss are depicted in Table 1.
MEAN DIRECTION UNIFORM RV (MIN=0, MAX=6.28)
Table 1. Building Propagation Model Parameters
MEAN PITCH UNIFORM RV (MIN=0.05, MAX=0.05)
THRESHOLD FROM LOS TO NLOS 200 M

NORMAL VELOCITY GAUSSIAN RV (MEAN=0, VARIANCE=0, BOUND=0)


INTERNAL WALL LOSS 5 DB

NORMAL DIRECTION GAUSSIAN RV (MEAN=0, VAR=0.2, BOUND=0.4)


STANDARD DEV OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO CALCULATE 7
SHADOWING DUE TO EXTERNAL WALLS
NORMAL PITCH GAUSSIAN RV(MEAN=0, VAR =0.02, BOUND=0.04)
STANDARD DEV OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO CALCULATE 8
SHADOWING FOR MACROUES

STANDARD DEV OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO CALCULATE 5 In this work we assume that homeUEs are either fixed
SHADOWING FOR HOMEUES
wireless IP cameras fitted discreetly into rooms or miniature
UAVs which adopts a stationary resting position on a window
B. Multipath Propagation Models and Fading sill or cabinet to evade detection. Hence, we consider all
Trace based fading models are incorporated in ns-3 to simulate homeUEs as stationary in this study connected with their
fading at different speeds. We use the same model in this basestations (access points). Connectivity to the remote hosts
work. For details the user can refer to ns-3 documentation. is via the legacy internet connection of internet hosts inside
the building albeit over a secure connection. MacroUEs on the
IV. GAUSS MARKOV MOBILITY MODEL FOR MACROUES other hand are considered mobile and may reconnect with
We use the Gauss-Markov mobility model in this work other macroENBs based on handover like in regular cellular
previously introduced by D. Broyles et al. [9] and J. Rohrer et networks. Handover algorithms of macroUEs is based on the
al. [10] to model the flight pattern of an actual real world maximum received signal from the Macrocell basestations.
macrocell UAV (referred to as macroUE in this work). The
model updates speed, direction and pitch variables. The speed V. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT AND PARAMETERS
and direction variable dictate the new speed and direction in The simulations are carried out using NS-3 version 3.23
the x-y plane, and the third variable of pitch determines the which is the most updated stable version of Network
angle about the azimuth (or motion along z-axis); the Simulator as of now. The network topology is as per 3GPP
equations are given below (2-4): R4-092042 as outlined in Figure 1 considering both macro and
femtocells.
s n = s n1 +(1 ) s + (1 2 ) s xn 1 (2)
The parameters are described in complete detail in Table 3
n= n1+(1 ) + (1 2 ) x n 1
(3) shown below.
p n = p n 1 +(1 ) p + (1 ) p xn 1
2
(4)
Table 3. Simulation parameters as per 3GPP R4-092042
specification
APARTMENTS/ROOMS 4

FLOORS 4

FEMTOCELLS 2-8

MACROENB SITES 1-3

AREA MARGIN FACTOR 0.5

MACROUE DENSITY (NUMBER PER SQ METER) 0.00002

HOMEENB DEPLOYMENT RATIO 0.2

HOMEENB ACTIVATION RATIO 0.5

Figure 2. Two tiered Building Surveillance System comprising of both Macro


HOMEUES TO HOMEENB RATIO 1
and Femto Cells. The units of x and y axis are in meters

MACROUES/HOMEUES 10-20 / 2-10

MACROENB /HOMEENB TX POWER 46 / 20 DBM

MACROENB DLEARFCN / HOMEENB DLEARFCN 100

MACROENB ULEARFCN / HOMEENB ULEARFCN 18100

HOMEENB BANDWIDTH (IN TERMS OF RESOURCE 100


BLOCKS RBS)

MACROENB BANDWIDTH (IN TERMS OF RESOURCE 100


BLOCKS RBS)

NUMBERS OF BEARERS PER UE 1 Figure 3. Impact of number of Macrocells and mobility on Throughput of
MacroUEs
SRS PERIODICITY 80

SCHEDULER PROPORTIONAL

FAIR

VI. PEFORMANCE EVALUATION


Figure 2 shows an example radio environment map depicting
the femto-cells inside a typical building and a large 3-sector
macro-cell outside. In this figure, the building footprint
dimensions are of the electrical engineering laboratories block
building of the DHA Suffa University and the number of
floors are varied from one to three to determine the
performance of homeUEs. Similarly, the number of macro
cells are varied from one to three the determine the effect on Figure 4. Impact of number of Femtocells and building size on Throughput of
throughput when the mobility of the macroUEs (onboard HomeUEs
UAVs) are varied.
We obtained four short MPEG-4 encoded videos of the in Aerial UAV based building surveillance networks in a
surveillance recordings of of the buildings and used a trace simulated environment but with realistic propagation and
based simulation to stream these videos using the Evalvid mobility models encountered in real world UAV based
server-client application for ns-3 developed by GERCOM environments. This research area is fairly new only maturing
Group [11]. However, two modification were made by us; in over the last 5 years and this work has tried to answer some of
the original GERCOM code the video is streamed from remote the unanswered research questions and open challenges posed
hosts to the macroUEs/homeUES and macroUEs used a by previous researchers. As future work, we can consider
random waypoint mobility model. In our situation, the videos other propagation environments and presence of both real time
are streamed from the macroUE/homeUE to a remote host and non-real time traffic [12].
and the macroUEs use the Gauss-Markov model as explained
earlier.
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In this paper, we have investigated the effects on network
performance in terms of data throughputs that can be possible

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