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Vocabulary and Definitions

S# Vocabulary Term
1 active gas

2 alloy

3 alloy steel

4 aluminum

5 American Welding Society

6 amperage

7 argon
8 backhand technique
9 carbon dioxide
10 carbon steel
11 circuit

12 constant voltage welder

13 consumable electrode

14 contact tip

15 copper
16 corrosion resistance
17 crater

18 cylinder pressure gauge

19 DCEP

20 deoxidizer

21 deposition rate

22 directly proportional
23 drag angle
24 ductility

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S# Vocabulary Term

25 duty cycle

26 electrical resistance
27 electrode axis
28 electrode diameter
29 electrode extension
30 electrode liner

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S# Vocabulary Term
31 electrode orientation

32 fast-freeze weld
33 ferrous metal
34 filler metal
35 forehand technique
36 gas cylinder
37 gas diffuser

38 gas metal arc welding

39 gas nozzle

40 globular transfer method

41 GMAW
42 helium

43 inert

44 inert gas

45 insulator

46 ipm

47 joint preparation

48 low-alloy steel

49 low-carbon steel

50 manganese

51 metal transfer
52 MIG welding
53 molybdenum

54 nickel

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S# Vocabulary Term
55 nonferrous metal
56 oxidation
57 oxide scale

58 oxygen

59 penetration

60 porosity

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S# Vocabulary Term
61 preheating

62 pulse arc transfer method


63 push angle
64 shielded metal arc welding

65 shielding gas

66 shielding gas flowmeter

67 short circuit

68 short circuit transfer method

69 silicon

70 slag

71 spatter

72 spray transfer method

73 stainless steel

74 stickout

75 stringer bead
76 tensile strength
77 titanium

78 transition current
79 travel angle
80 trigger

81 turbulence

82 undercut
83 voltage

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S# Vocabulary Term

84 wash-in

85 weave bead
86 weld axis

87 weld backing

88 weld pass
89 weld toe
90 weldability

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S# Vocabulary Term
91 welding gun
92 weldor
93 wire electrode
94 wire feed speed
95 wire feeder

96 work angle

97 work cable

98 work clamp

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Vocabulary and Definitions
Definition
A gas that reacts with other elements. GMAW uses both active and inactive gas as
shielding.
A metal consisting of a mixture of two or more materials. One of these materials
must be a metal.

A steel that contains intentionally added materials that change the property of the
metal. Common alloy elements include manganese, molybdenum, and nickel.

A silvery white metal that is soft, light, and conductive. GMAW was originally
created to weld aluminum.
The non-profit society that regulates the industrial standards for welding and
promotes the welding industry.
A measurement that indicates the amount of current flowing in a circuit, which is
measured in amperes. GMAW amperage is determined by wire speed.
An inactive gas commonly used as shielding. Argon is much heavier than air, so it
effectively shields the weld area.
Moving the electrode along the workpiece opposite the direction of welding.
An active gas commonly used as shielding for GMAW. Carbon dioxide is
inexpensive but yields a violent arc.
A steel that consists of iron and carbon, without any additional materials.
A controlled path for electricity. All arc welding processes require a closed
electrical circuit in which electricity can easily flow.
A welding machine that maintains a constant voltage setting while compensating
for changes in amperage.
An electrode that conducts electricity to the arc but also melts into the weld as a
filler metal.
The device located inside the welding gun that conducts electricity to the
electrode. The contact tip is usually made of copper.
A reddish metal that is very ductile, thermally and electrically conductive, and
corrosion resistant.
A metal's ability to resist attack by other elements and chemicals.
An undesirable depression in the weld bead. A crater can cause cracking if it is not
properly filled.
The device that indicates the amount of shielding gas present in the gas cylinder.
An abbreviation for direct current electrode positive. DCEP is another way of
expressing direct current with reverse polarity.
A material that removes oxygen from the molten weld puddle and arc. Oxygen can
ruin a weld bead.
The rate at which an electrode melts into the molten weld puddle to form a weld.
A constant ratio between two values. If value A increases, value B also increases.
If value A decreases, then value B also decreases.
A term used in industry for the backhand technique.
A metal's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without breaking.

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Definition
The amount of time in a ten-minute period that an electrical device can perform
work without overheating. If a welding gun has a 30% duty cycle, it can operate for
three consecutive minutes and must rest for seven.
The opposition to current flow. Excessive stickout causes increased electrical
resistance between the electrode and workpiece.
An imaginary line through the center of the electrode.
A measurement of the thickness of the electrode. GMAW has the thinnest
electrode diameters, which allows it to weld thin base metals.
The distance from the end of the contact tip to the end of the electrode.
The insulated lining that surrounds the wire electrode and supports it from the wire
feeder to the contact tip.

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Definition
The position in which a welder manipulates the electrode. Electrode orientation
refers to the work angle and the travel angle.
A weld that solidifies quickly. Fast freezing welds are more easily performed out-of-
position, and they reduce the risk of a leaking weld puddle.
A metal that contains iron. Steel is the most popular ferrous metal.
Metal deposited into the weld that often adds strength and mass to the welded
joint. The wire electrode for GMAW is the filler metal.
Moving the electrode along the workpiece in the direction of welding.
An external device used to house shielding gas. Shielding gas flows from the gas
cylinder, to the gas hose, to the welding gun.
The device inside the welding gun through which shielding gas flows.
An arc welding process in which a bare wire electrode and inert or active shielding
gas are fed to the weld through a welding gun. It is also referred to as GMAW or
MIG welding.
The device placed directly over the welding gun that forces shielding gas to
surround the electrode and arc.
A type of metal transfer in which the electrode produces a large ball of metal when
it touches the workpiece. This deposits large amounts of metal into the weld
puddle.
The American Welding Society abbreviation for gas metal arc welding.
An inactive gas commonly used as shielding for GMAW. Helium is much lighter
than air and can escape the weld area quickly.
Something that is inactive and does not react with other elements. GMAW uses
inert gas as shielding.
A type of gas that does not react with other elements. GMAW uses both inert gas
and active gas as shielding.
A small non-conductive piece of material placed inside the welding gun to prevent
the gas nozzle from becoming electrically charged.
An abbreviation for inches per minute. Ipm refers to the rate at which the wire
electrode feeds through the welding gun.
A variety of processes that prepare base metals before welding. This often
includes preheating, cutting, or other preparations.
A steel that contains small amounts of intentionally added materials that change
the properties of the metal. Common alloy elements include manganese,
molybdenum, and nickel.
A steel that has a carbon range between 0.05 and 0.30%. Also referred to as mild
steel.

A hard, brittle, gray-white metal often added to GMAW electrodes. Manganese


acts as a deoxidizer and increases strength and hardness in the weld.
The way in which filler metal is deposited into a weld.
Another name for gas metal arc welding or GMAW.
A metallic alloying element often added to GMAW electrodes to increase strength
and hardness without decreasing ductility.
A hard, malleable, silvery white metal often added to GMAW electrodes to increase
strength and hardness without decreasing ductility.

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Definition
A metal that does not contain iron. Aluminum and copper are common nonferrous
metals.
A material's chemical reaction with oxygen. Oxidation can ruin a weld bead.
A film that forms on metals like aluminum and carbon steels that must be removed
before welding.
A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that naturally exists in the atmosphere. A small
amount of oxygen is sometimes used for shielding. However, too much oxygen
causes cracking and rusting in the metals.
The depth to which the arc heat can melt the joint below the surface of the base
metals. The amount of amperage directly affects weld penetration.
The appearance of tiny bubbles on a weld bead as a result of gas entrapment.
Excessive porosity can weaken a weld.

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Definition
The application of heat to a base metal immediately before welding. Preheating
helps reduce hardness in the metal.
A type of metal transfer in which as little as one droplet of metal forms on the end
of the electrode at a time. Pulse arc is the most precise transfer method.
A term used in industry for the forehand technique.
An arc welding process that uses a flux-coated rod as its electrode. It is also
referred to as SMAW or stick welding.
A gas that protects the weld puddle and arc from reacting negatively with the
atmosphere. GMAW shielding gas is supplied by a cylinder and flows through the
welding gun.

The device that controls the amount of shielding gas that flows to the weld area.
An interruption in the intended flow of electricity, especially when current flows
"short" of reaching a device. A short circuit causes excess current flow.
A type of metal transfer in which the electrode produces a short circuit and high
current when it touches the workpiece. The high current level causes a violent
transfer of metal, which creates the weld.

A nonmetallic material often added to GMAW electrodes to act as a deoxidizer.

Cooled flux that forms on top of the weld bead. Slag protects cooling metal and is
then chipped off. GMAW does not use flux, and as a result, does not have slag.

Liquid metal droplets expelled from the welding process. Spatter can leave
undesirable dots of metal on a workpiece surface.
A type of metal transfer in which the metal at the end of the wire melts into small,
fine droplets creating a stable arc and little spatter.
A type of steel that contains more than 15% chromium and exhibits excellent
corrosion resistance.
A term used to describe electrode extension, or the distance from the end of the
contact tip to the end of the electrode.
A type of weld bead formed by moving the electrode straight across the joint. A
quality GMAW stringer bead has good wash-in at the toes of the weld.
A metal's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull it apart or stretch it.
A silvery white metal that has a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion
resistance. Titanium is often used in aerospace applications.
The current at which a consumable wire electrode goes from the globular transfer
method to the spray transfer method.
The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode and the weld.
A lever on the welding gun. When a welder holds the gun above the workpiece and
pulls the trigger, the welding process begins.
An upset in the even flow of shielding gas to the welding area. Turbulence causes
gas to swirl, and as a result, mix with outside air. Turbulence is often the result of
excessive shielding gas.
A groove melted into the base material, usually along the toes of the weld, that
produces a weak spot in the weld.
The electrical force or pressure that causes current to flow in a circuit.

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Definition

The section of deposited weld metal that aligns evenly with the weld toe. A good
wash-in is smooth and even along the joint and does not undercut the base metal.

A weld bead formed by moving the electrode along the joint in a weaving motion.
An imaginary line through the center and along the length of the weld.
A strip of metal located on the side opposite of the weld that provides a surface for
depositing the first layer of metal to prevent molten metal from escaping through
the joint. Weld backing is also sometimes used to protect the back of the weld from
atmospheric contamination.
One progression of welding across a joint. The result of a weld pass is a weld
bead.
The point at which the weld face and the base metal meet.
The ability of a material to be welded under imposed conditions into a specific,
suitable structure and to perform satisfactorily for its intended use.

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Definition
An instrument used in some automatic and semi-automatic welding processes that
conducts electricity, guides the electrode, and releases shielding gas.
A term sometimes used to refer to the person who welds.
An electrode that is in the form of a wire. Wire electrodes are more productive than
stick electrodes because they do not require frequent changing.
The rate at which the wire electrode is fed through the welding gun.
The device either built inside the welder or set beside the welder that feeds wire to
the welding gun.
The angle less than 90 degrees between a line perpendicular to the workpiece and
a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. The work angle is
used to center the weld bead on a given application.
The path used in welding to conduct electricity from the welder to the workpiece. In
welding, the cables are connected to the welder, the workpiece, and electrode,
providing a closed electrical circuit.
The component that, along with the electrode, can come in direct contact with the
workpiece during welding. The work clamp is connected to the welder by the work
cable and provides ground for the GMAW circuit.

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