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Prepared By: SREEKAR REDDY DUPPALLI

Capt. MUDULI answers by SREEKAR DUPPALLI

Weather Fronts

Principle Fronts are zones of transition between two


different air masses. The zone may be 20 miles
across or it may be 100 miles across, but from
one side of a front to the other, one clearly
would sense that the properties of an air mass
had changed significantly (e.g., contrasts in
temperature and dew point, wind direction,
cloud cover, and on-going weather). The frontal
zone represents the leading edge of a wedge of
cold/cool air. If the wedge is moving into an area
of warmer air, the front is called a cold front. If
the wedge is retreating and warmer air is
moving into an area previously occupied by cool
air, the front is termed a warm front.

Figure 1 - Types of Fronts

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Definition Fronts are boundaries between air


masses of different temperatures.
Fronts are actually zones of transition, but
sometimes the transition zone, called a frontal
zone, can be quite sharp.
The type of front depends on both the
direction in which the air mass is moving
and the characteristics of the air mass.
There are four types of fronts that will be
described below: cold front, warm front,
stationary front, and occluded front.
To locate a front on a surface map, look
for the following:
o sharp temperature changes over
relatively short distances,

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o changes in the moisture content


of the air (dew point),
o shifts in wind direction,

o low pressure troughs and


pressure changes, and
o clouds and precipitation patterns.
Not all of these patterns may be obvious or even
occur, but these are some signs.

Figure 2 - Side View of a Typical Cold Front

Cold Fronts Cold front- a front in which cold air is


replacing warm air at the surface.

Some of the characteristics of cold fronts


include the following:
o The slope of a typical cold front is
1:100 (vertical to horizontal).
o Cold fronts tend to move faster
than all other types of fronts.

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o Cold fronts tend to be associated


with the most violent weather
among all types of fronts.

o Cold fronts tend to move the


farthest while maintaining their
intensity.

o Cold fronts tend to be associated


with cirrus well ahead of the
front, strong thunderstorms along
and ahead of the front, and a
broad area of clouds immediately
behind the front (although fast
moving fronts may be mostly
clear behind the front).
o Cold fronts can be associated with
squall lines (a line of strong
thunderstorms parallel to and
ahead of the front).

In winter, cold fronts move into


Oklahoma mainly from the Canadian
prairies but sometimes from the Arctic
Circle or the eastern Pacific.

Cold fronts almost always are easier to


locate on a weather map than are warm
fronts, primarily because of the strength
of the high pressure system to the north
and west of the cold front compared to
that north of a warm front.

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Cold fronts usually bring cooler weather,


clearing skies, and a sharp change in wind
direction.

Figure 3 - Side View of a Typical Warm Front

Warm Fronts Warm front- a front in which warm air


replaces cooler air at the surface.

Some of the characteristics of warm


fronts include the following:
o The slope of a typical warm front
is 1:200 (more gentle than cold
fronts).
o Warm fronts tend to move slowly.
o Warm fronts are typically less
violent than cold fronts.

o Although they can trigger


thunderstorms, warm fronts are
more likely to be associated with
large regions of gentle ascent
(stratiform clouds and light to
moderate continuous rain).

o Warm fronts are usually preceded


by cirrus first (1000 km ahead),

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then altostratus or altocumulus


(500 km ahead), then stratus and
possibly fog.

o Behind the warm front, skies are


relatively clear (but change
gradually).

o Warm fronts are associated with


a frontal inversion(warm air
overrunning cooler air).

If a warm front exists on a weather map,


it will be northeast of the cold front and
often, to the east of a surface low
pressure area.

Clouds and precipitation are quite


prevalent to the north of the warm front.
This results from the fact that low-level
southerly winds in the "warm sector" of the
cyclone rise up and over the cooler, more dense
air at the surface located north of the warm
front. The lifting leads to saturation, cloud
formation, and, ultimately, to some form of
precipitation.

In Oklahoma, warm fronts are rare in the


winter and non-existent in the summer.

Stationary Fronts Stationary front- a front that does not


move or barely moves.

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Stationary fronts behave like warm


fronts, but are more quiescent.

Many times the winds on both sides of a


stationary front are parallel to the front.

Typically stationary fronts form when


polar air masses are modified
significantly so as to lose their character
(e.g., cold fronts which stall).

Figure 4 - Development of an Occluded Front

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Occluded Fronts Because cold fronts move faster than


warm fronts, they can catch up to and
overtake their related warm front. When
they do, an occluded front is formed.

Occluded fronts are indicative of mature


storm systems (i.e., those about to
dissipate).

The most common type of occlusion in


North America is called a cold-front
occlusion and it occurs when the cold
front forces itself under the warm front.

The weather ahead of the cold occlusion is


similar to that of a warm front while that along
and behind the cold occlusion is similar to that of
a cold front.

What is upwelling?
Upwelling is a process in which deep, cold water rises toward the surface.

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This graphic shows how displaced surface waters are replaced by cold, nutrient-rich water that
wells up from below.
Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water then rises up from beneath
the surface to replace the water that was pushed away. This process is known as upwelling.
Upwelling occurs in the open ocean and along coastlines. The reverse process, called
downwelling, also occurs when wind causes surface water to build up along a coastline and
the surface water eventually sinks toward the bottom.
Water that rises to the surface as a result of upwelling is typically colder and is rich in nutrients.
These nutrients fertilize surface waters, meaning that these surface waters often have high
biological productivity. Therefore, good fishing grounds typically are found where upwelling is
common.

A stationary front is a pair of air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other.
On a weather map, this is shown by an inter-playing series of blue spikes pointing one direction
and red domes pointing the other.
Stationary Front
a front that is not moving

When a warm or cold front stops moving, it becomes a stationary front. Once this boundary
resumes its forward motion, it once again becomes a warm front or cold front. A stationary
front is represented by alternating blue and red lines with blue triangles pointing towards the
warmer air and red semicircles pointing towards the colder air.

A noticeable temperature change and/or shift in wind direction is commonly observed when
crossing from one side of a stationary front to the other.

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Stationary Fronts

A stationary front forms when a cold front or warm front stops moving. This happens when two
masses of air are pushing against each other but neither is powerful enough to move the other.
Winds blowing parallel to the front instead of perpendicular can help it stay in place.

A stationary front may stay put for days. If the wind direction changes the front will start
moving again, becoming either a cold or warm front. Or the front may break apart.

Because a stationary front marks the boundary between two air masses, there are often
differences in airtemperature and wind on opposite sides of it. The weather is often cloudy
along a stationary front and rain or snow often falls, especially if the front is in an area of low
atmospheric pressure.
On a weather map, a stationary front is shown as alternating red semicircles and blue triangles
like in the map at the left. The blue triangles point in one direction and the red semicircles point
in the opposite direction.

What Kind of Weather Occurs Along a Stationary Front?


Fronts refer to the boundaries between air masses, which are large, discrete atmospheric
bodies of unified weather characteristics. Most familiar are cold and warm fronts, which bring

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about notable changes in temperature and are often accompanied by the cloudiness and
precipitation -- and sometimes violent storms -- produced as one air mass is forced upward by
another. If a cold or warm front halts, it becomes a so-called stationary front.
Stationary Front Basics
A stationary front is an unmoving one, at least near Earths surface. Neither abutting air mass
has the power to shove through the other. Such a front may form when upper-level winds that
had previously propelled a front along shift and flow parallel to it, or where air masses equally
matched stall one anothers movements. Even though the surficial front may be basically
stable, air may be significantly moving about higher up in the atmosphere. A stationary front
can eventually dissipate, or, given a shift in upper-level winds or the relative strength of one or
another of the air masses, might resume mobility as a cold or warm front.
Typical Weather
The exact weather of a stationary front depends greatly on the characteristics of its constituent
air masses -- their moisture levels, for example -- and the general instability of the local
atmosphere. Often, however, conditions resemble those encountered along warm fronts:
extensive cloudiness and showers. As a stationary front can be durable, such overcast and
precipitation may persist for days.
Severe Weather
Occasionally, stationary fronts may provoke more extreme weather. Series of thunderstorms or
heavy rain showers may be shafted down the front, promoting flooding in areas within its
influence. A derecho is a fast-moving belt of powerful straight-line winds -- the name comes
from the Spanish word for "direct" -- that are sometimes produced along stationary fronts.
Downdrafts from frontal thunderstorms may shunt high winds downward off the jet stream to
birth derechos, often bowed outward and fast-advancing. These tempests may be hundreds of
kilometers long and howl at 160 kilometers per hour (100 mph) or more. In North America,
they mostly develop in spring and summer east of the Rockies. Derechos are important agents
of ecological disturbance and potentially lethal hazards to humans, particularly those overtaken
in forested areas -- the windstorms can flatten entire tracts of timber -- or mobile homes.
Symbology

On a weather map, different fronts are depicted by symbols of varying color and arrangement.
A cold front is illustrated with a line of blue triangles pointed in the direction of travel and thus
toward warmer air; a warm front is shown as a line of red semi-circles pointed toward colder
air. A stationary front is shown as a combination of the two: a bead of interlocked red warm-

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front semicircles and blue cold-front triangles, each oriented toward the respective opposing
air mass.

Occluded Front
when a cold front overtakes a warm front
A developing cyclone typically has a preceding warm front (the leading edge of a warm moist
air mass) and a faster moving cold front (the leading edge of a colder drier air mass wrapping
around the storm). North of the warm front is a mass of cooler air that was in place before the
storm even entered the region.

As the storm intensifies, the cold front rotates around the storm and catches the warm front.
This forms an occluded front, which is the boundary that separates the new cold air mass (to
the west) from the older cool air mass already in place north of the warm front. Symbolically,
an occluded front is represented by a solid line with alternating triangles and circles pointing
the direction the front is moving. On colored weather maps, an occluded front is drawn with a
solid purple line.

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Changes in temperature, dew point temperature, and wind direction can occur with the
passage of an occluded front. In the map below, temperatures ahead (east of) the front were
reported in the low 40's while temperatures behind (west of) the front were in the 20's and
30's. The lower dew point temperatures behind the front indicate the presence of drier air.
A noticeable wind shift also occurred across the occluded front. East of the front, winds were
reported from the east-southeast while behind the front, winds were from the west-southwest.
Common characteristics associated with occluded fronts have been listed in the table below.

Before Passing While Passing After Passing

Winds southeast-south variable west to northwest

Temperature
Cold Type cold-cool dropping colder
Warm Type cold rising milder

Pressure usually falling low point usually rising

in order: Ci, Cs,


Clouds Ns, sometimes Tcu and Cb Ns, As or scattered Cu
As, Ns

light, moderate or heavy light-to-moderate


light, moderate or
Precipitation continuous precipitation or precipitation followed by
heavy precipitation
showers general clearing

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poor in
Visibility poor in precipitation improving
precipitation

usually slight drop, slight drop, although may


Dew Point steady
especially if cold-occluded rise a bit if warm-occluded

What is an Occluded Front?


Occluded fronts are linked with areas of low pressure called depressions (more on these
soon!). When a depression forms, there is usually a warm front and a faster moving cold front.
The diagram below shows this. To the north of the warm front is the cool air that was in the
area before the depression developed:

The warm air mass is replacing this cool air and at its leading edge is a warm front.

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As the depression intensifies, the cold front catches up with the warm front (remember it
moves faster than the warm front). This is shown below. The line where the two fronts meet is
called an occluded front:

When an occluded front passes overhead, you would feel changes in temperature and wind
speed. Occluded fronts can generate quite stormy weather as they pass over.

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Occluded Fronts
Sometimes a cold front follows right behind a warm front. A warm air mass pushes into a colder
air mass (the warm front) and then another cold air mass pushes into the warm air mass
(the cold front). Because cold fronts move faster, the cold front is likely to overtake the warm
front. This is known as an occluded front.

At an occluded front, the cold air mass from the cold front meets the cool air that was ahead of
the warm front. The warm air rises as these air masses come together. Occluded fronts usually
form around areas of low atmospheric pressure.

There is often precipitation along an occluded front


from cumulonimbus or nimbostratus clouds. Wind changes direction as the front passes and
the temperature changes too. The temperature may warm or cool. After the front passes, the
sky is usually clearer and the air is drier.
On a weather map, like the one on the left, an occluded front looks like a purple line with half
triangles and half semicircles along it pointing in the direction that the front is moving. It ends
at a low pressure area shown with a large L on the map, and at the other end connects to cold
and warm fronts.

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What is an Occluded Front?

An occluded front occurs when a cold front overtakes the warm front in a low pressure storm
system or an extra-tropical storm. This usually happens when the storm reaches its peak
intensity. In most cases, the low pressure storm system will slowly begin to dissipate once this
happens since the warm air source is being cut off from the center of the storm. The low
pressure area will then fill and the pressure will slowly rise. Precipitation will diminish and the
winds will lessen. This process can take several days. The front is represented on a map with
both the triangles of a cold front and the semi-circles of a warm front. They appear on the same
side of the front and are always on the side that the front it moving towards. A stationary front
has the triangles on one side and the semi-circles on the other.

Overview of the provisions

What does the Polar Code mean for ship safety

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How the Polar Code protects the environment:

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Application
Only vessels that intend to operate within the Arctic and Antarctic areas as defined in the Polar
Code need to comply with the code. The areas are as follows:
Arctic: In general north of 60 but limited by a line from Greenland; south at 58 - north of
Iceland, southern shore of Jan Mayen - Bjrnya Cap Kanin Nos.
Antarctic: South of 60.

The safety part of the Polar Code applies to ships certified under SOLAS, i.e. cargo ships of 500
GT or more, and to all passenger ships.

Ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017 shall comply with the safety part of Polar Code at
delivery.

Ships constructed before 1 January 2017 shall comply with the safety part of the Polar Code by
the first intermediate or renewal survey, whichever occurs first, after 1 January 2018.
The environmental part of the Polar Code applies to all ships certified under MARPOL Annexes
I, II, IV and V respectively. Existing and new ships certified under MARPOL shall comply with the
environmental requirements by 1 January 2017. This means that fishing vessels (that carry
MARPOL certificates) will also have to comply with the environmental part of the code,
although not carrying any SOLAS certificates.
Documentation Requirements
Polar Ship certificate:
The safety part of the code has design, construction, equipment, operational, training, search
and rescue requirements related to the potential hazards of operating in polar regions,
including ice, remoteness and severe and rapidly changing weather conditions. It is written in a
goal based manner and provides both functional requirements and detailed requirements.
Dedicated document requirement lists will be provided.
All ships:
To obtain the certificate the manager of existing ships should submit the following to DNV GL:

Report of an operational assessment with hazards of the intended operations based


on the sources of hazards listed in the Code (Hazard analysis)

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A PWOM Polar Water Operational Manual. The PWOM shall address the challenges
found in the Hazard Analysis and document the practical operation of the ship in polar
waters.

Documentation of systems and equipment (to be) installed in order to comply with
the Code and that this is fully functional at the established polar service temperature
(PST) for the vessel.

Intact stability calculations that include allowance for icing according to the Polar Code
Reg. 4.3.

The following design drawings are assumed already approved for existing ships if relevant (i.e.
the ship is built to an ice class) but must be submitted and approved for new ships:
For Polar Class category A: Hull drawings/scantlings and scantlings of propeller blades
referring to Polar Class 1-5
For Polar Class category B: Hull drawings/scantlings and scantlings of propeller blades
referring to Polar Class 6-7
New ships:

Additional requirements:
For Polar Class categories A and B ships the following must be submitted:

Damage Stability calculation in accordance with the requirements in Polar Code Reg.
4.3.2
The Environmental requirements (MARPOL related) of the Polar Code:
Existing ships:

Environmental requirements in the Polar Code are operational and therefore the responsibility
of the master.
In short these are:
P&A manual
The P&A manual (where required) need to be amended and endorsed. This
can/shall be done by the surveyor at the initial Polar Code survey.
Operational requirements, as:
All discharge of oil prohibited (i.e. through 15 ppm OWS)
MARPOL manuals and records to take into account operation in polar waters.

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Sewage discharge restrictions near ice (treated 3nm, untreated 12 nm).


Garbage discharge restrictions near ice, 12 nm.
New ships:
Ships of Polar Class category C: No additional requirements

Ships of Polar Class category A and B (or equivalent ice class):


Documentation to be submitted:

With an aggregate oil fuel capacity of less than 600 m3; a tank plan showing that all oil
fuel tanks are separated from the outer shell (related to MARPOL requirements of the
code).
Where oil and noxious liquid substances tanks, double bottom of minimum 760 mm.
Operational requirements:
Discharge of untreated sewage from cat A and B cargo ships and passenger ships of all
categories is prohibited.
Certification
Polar Ship certificate:
Upon verification and approval of the submitted documentation the vessel can be surveyed and
the appropriate Polar Ship Certificate can be issued. For existing ships of Polar Class category C.
In urgent cases the Polar Ship Certificate may (after document verification and approval at the
approval site/office) be issued without survey. In this case, for continued validity of the
certificate, an on-board survey should be undertaken at the next scheduled survey.

The certificate will be harmonized with the validity of the corresponding SOLAS certificate (CCC,
PSSC).
Manning and training:
In accordance with Part I-A, Ch. 12, masters, chief mates and officers in charge of a navigational
watch shall be qualified in accordance with the STCW Convention and Code (not relevant for ice
free conditions).
MARPOL certificates:
At the next IOPP renewal survey the appendix to the IOPP certificate will be reissued with a
tick-off mark for compliance with the environmental requirements of the Polar Code. The other
MARPOL certificates are unaffected.

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Recommendations
Managers are recommended to contact DNV GL to initiate the approval process before the
certificate is needed. Managers should perform an operational assessment and develop a
PWOM as soon as possible. DNV GL can provide support here as well.

Ocean currents can be generated by wind, density differences in water masses caused by
temperature and salinity variations, gravity, and events such as earthquakes.

Currents are cohesive streams of seawater that circulate through the ocean. Some are short-
lived and small, while others are vast flows that take centuries to complete a circuit of the
globe. There are two distinct current systems in the oceansurface circulation, which stirs a
relatively thin upper layer of the sea, and deep circulation, which sweeps along the deep-sea
floor.
Surface currents are generated largely by wind. Their patterns are determined by wind
direction, Coriolis forces from the Earths rotation, and the position of landforms that interact
with the currents. Surface wind-driven currents generate upwelling currents in conjunction
with landforms, creating deepwater currents.

Currents may also be generated by density differences in water masses caused by temperature
and salinity variations. These currents move water masses through the deep oceantaking
nutrients, oxygen, and heat with them.

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Occasional events also trigger serious currents. Huge storms move water masses. Underwater
earthquakes may trigger devastating tsunamis. Both move masses of water inland when they
reach shallow water and coastlines. Earthquakes may also trigger rapid downslope movement
of water-saturated sediments, creating turbidity currents strong enough to snap submarine
communication cables.
Bottom currents scour and sort sediments, thus affecting what kind of bottom develops in an
areahard or soft, fine grained or coarse. Bottom substrate (material) determines what kinds
of communities may develop in an area.
Finally, when a current that is moving over a broad area is forced into a confined space, it may
become very strong. On the ocean floor, water masses forced through narrow openings in a
ridge system or flowing around a seamount may create currents that are far greater than in the
surrounding wateraffecting the distribution and abundance of organisms as well as the
scientists and their equipment seeking to study them.

Q:
What causes ocean currents?
A:
QUICK ANSWER
Wind, temperature differences, water density and salinity all play a role in generating ocean
currents. Currents may also be influenced by external forces, such as earthquakes, the coriolis
effect produced by the Earth's rotation, and the gravitational pull of the Moon.
FULL ANSWER
Ocean currents are cohesive streams that circulate seawater throughout the oceans of the
world. These currents may be divided into two categories: surface currents, which are driven
largely by wind, and deep water currents, which are influenced more heavily by temperature
variations and differences in water salinity. Surface currents only impact a very thin layer of
seawater at the surface, while deep water currents, which occur at depths greater than 400
meters, account for the bulk ocean currents.
Ocean currents are complex systems responsible for moving tremendous amounts of seawater
as well as storing, transporting and realising thermal energy caused by solar radiation. Currents
of seawater are very similar to air currents and other atmospheric patterns in that currents
typically adhere to a regular set of specific patterns. These currents may occasionally be
disrupted by outside forces, which may temporarily influence or shift currents. Large weather

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systems, storms and hurricanes may impact surface currents, while underwater earthquakes
have the potential to trigger devastating tsunamis.

Rule 8 Action to avoid collision

(a) Any action to avoid collision shall be taken in accordance with the Rules of this Part
and shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, be positive, made in ample time and with due
regard to the observance of good seamanship.
(b) Any alteration of course and/or speed to avoid collision shall, if the circumstances of the
case admit, be large enough to be readily apparent to another vesselobserving visually or by
radar; a succession of small alterations of course and/or speed should be avoided.
(c) If there is sufficient sea room, alteration of course alone may be the most effective
action to avoid a close quarters situation provided that it is made in good time, is substantial
and does not result in another close-quarters situation.
(d) Action taken to avoid collision with another vessel shall be such as to result in passing at
a safe distance. The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until the other vessel
is finally past and clear.
(e) If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel shall
slacken her speed or take all way off by stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.
(f) (i) A vessel which, by any of these Rules, is required not to impede the passage or safe
passage of another vessel shall, when required by the circumstances of the case, take early
action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the other vessel.
(ii) A vessel required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel is not
relieved of this obligation if approaching the other vessel so as to involve risk of collision and
shall, when taking action, have full regard to the action which may be required by the Rules of
this part.

(iii) A vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded remains fully obliged to comply with
the Rules of this part when the two vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of
collision.

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Small alterations of course should be avoided

Rule 13 Overtaking

(a) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, sections I and II, any vessel
overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken.

Note that the focus is on ANY vessel overtaking another. That means that regardless that you
might be sailing a yacht you must still keep out of the way of a power driven vessel if you are
overtaking them.

(b) A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with another vessel from a
direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam, that is, in such a position with reference to
the vessel she is overtaking, that at night she would be able to see only the sternlight of that
vessel but neither of her sidelights.
(c) When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is overtaking another, she shall assume
that this is the case and act accordingly.
Doubt about whether you are overtaking is more likely to happen during the day. For example if
you were approaching from green 110 you would be crossing, but from green 115 you would
be overtaking. At night a stern light would clearly indicate the difference, but in daytime it is less
easy to determine accurately.
(d) Any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make the
overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules or relieve her of the duty
of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear.

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Note that when overtaking another vessel you should allow sufficient room before crossing their
bow. If possible it may be a better idea to allow the other vessel to pass ahead and go behind
their stern instead of crossing their bow.

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Overtaking can be a dangerous manoeuvre because all moving vessels are surrounded by a
pressure wave. High pressure at the ends and low pressure (suction) at the sides. The diagram
below shows this effect, which can be very pronounced in a narrow channel or in shallow
waters.

The pressure wave from a large overtaking vessel can easily cause a smaller one to swing
uncontrollably. As the large vessel approaches, its pressure wave pushes the stern of the other
vessel further away, causing the bow to swing in and bring the smaller vessel directly to
collision, or close enough so that she can be sucked in to collide with the side as the big ship
passes.
Therefore an overtaking vessel should keep well clear and the vessel being overtaken should, if
possible, slow down so that it takes less time to complete the manoeuvre.

Pressure zone around a vessel as it moves through the water

Interaction between vessels as one vessel passes the other

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Rule 19 Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility

(a) This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when navigating in or near an area
of restricted visibility.
If a vessel looms into view through the mist, you are in sight of one another and must
immediately begin to apply the Rules of Section II. You also use different sound signals. Later on
we will learn the difference between the fog signals of Rule 35 and those of Rule 34 which apply
only if you can see the other vessel

(b) Every vessel shall proceed at a safe speed adapted to the prevailing circumstances and
conditions of restricted visibility. A power-driven vessel shall have her engines ready for
immediate manoeuvre.
In restricted visibility, own ships manoeuvrability would be a major influence in choice of speed,
including the ability to reduce speed immediately. On some vessels it may take several minutes
to prepare the engines for manoeuvring, usually resulting in a slight fall in speed and fuel
economy. Exactly how restricted the visibility must be to demand such action is not specified in
the Rules and opinions vary. Depending on the stopping power and manoeuvrability of the ship
it might be appropriate when visibility has fallen to about 5 miles in areas known to be subject
to sudden onset of fog. This requirement also implies hand steering where auto-pilot is normally
used.
(c) Every vessel shall have due regard to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of
restricted visibility when complying with the Rules of Section I of this Part.
The Rules of Section I are those which apply in any visibility. Pay due regard means give
adequate attention to. What this paragraph actually means is that we must give extra
consideration to those Rules as a result of the poor visibility. The Rules of Section I particularly
affected by this requirement are 5, 7 and 8 Lookout, Risk of Collision and Avoiding Action. In
other words we would be expected to post extra lookouts day or night, probably outside and
maybe right forward, so that fog signals or engines of other vessels can be heard.

(d) A vessel which detects by radar alone the presence of another vessel shall determine if a
close-quarters situation is developing and/or risk of collision exists. If so, she shall take avoiding
action in ample time, provided that when such action consists of an alteration of course, so far
as possible the following shall be avoided:

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Not surprisingly, the courts have found that the phrase close quarters situation is open to
argument. Since fog signals (for vessels over 200 metres) have to be audible for 2 miles, this has
become the generally accepted distance at which a close quarters situation might be said to
begin. For smaller manoeuvrable vessels it could be considered rather less. If we keep to the fog
signal analogy it would be half a mile for vessels below 20 metres.

For larger vessels in the open sea is has been suggested that using a 12-mile range scale, targets
should be assessed while in the outer third of the screen and if a close quarters situation is
developing, action should be taken before they reach the inner third. Smaller vessels might do
likewise on a lower range scale.
It should always be remembered that small timber or fibreglass vessels often do not return an
echo until they are quite close to the searching radar, an area of the screen which may be
obscured with sea clutter. A good radar lookout includes frequent changes of range to
determine whether this is happening. Small vessels should deploy properly designed radar
reflectors whenever possible.

On some large vessels, the conning position and radar scanner can be more than 200 metres
from the bow. This creates a long shadow sector where small craft can not be seen either
visually or by radar.

There is no stand-on or give-way in Rule 19. That applies only when vessels are in sight of one
another. In restricted visibility, every vessel must take avoiding actionnot only if there is a risk
of collision but also if a close quarters situation is developing. Close quarters situations can
develop from astern as well as ahead.

(i) an alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a vessel
being overtaken;

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(ii) an alteration of course towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.


The words so far as possible are included in case an alteration to port is necessary due to lack
of sea room or the presence of other vessels. Such action must be made as early as possible and
as boldly as possible. Abeam means at right angles anywhere along the ships length.
The words so far as possible are included in case an alteration to port is necessary due to lack
of sea room or the presence of other vessels. Such action must be made as early as possible and
as boldly as possible. Abeam means at right angles anywhere along the ships length.

There is no stand-on or give-way in Rule 19. That applies only when vessels are in sight of one
another. In restricted visibility, every vessel must take avoiding actionnot only if there is a risk
of collision but also if a close quarters situation is developing. Close quarters situations can
develop from astern as well as ahead.

(e) Except where it has been determined that a risk of collision does not exist, every vessel
which hears apparently forward of her beam the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot
avoid a close quarters situation with another vessel forward of her beam, shall reduce her
speed to the minimum at which she can be kept on her course. She shall if necessary take all
her way off and in any event navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over.

The Rule phrases this in such a way as to emphasise that you have specifically determined by
use of radar that there is no risk of collision, and ensured that any fog signals from forward of

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the beam have been positively identified and do not pose a threat that they are, in fact, from
the vessel which you think they are from, remembering that the direction of sound in fog can be
very deceptive.
It tells us exactly what to do if:
(1) we hear a fog signal apparently forward of the beam
OR
(2) we can not avoid a close quarters situation with another vessel forward of the beam.
We must:
(1) Reduce speed to steerage way
(2) Take all way off if necessary, AND
(3) Navigate with extreme caution.
Before altering course to avoid a collision, you need to know which way the other ship is
heading with respect to your own vessel. This is called her aspect and it can not be determined
from a fog signal. It is also difficult to determine quickly from a radar target. A radar plot as
shown could represent a vessel with aspect Red 30 as sketched next to it.

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On the other hand, it could also represent the two situations below.

If radar indicates an unavoidable close quarters situation with a vessel approaching from ahead
or within about 30 of the bow, a vessel would be expected to reverse engines and take all way
off, while remaining head on to the danger so as to present a smaller target.

Emergency towing arrangements for tankers


SOLAS 1974 Chapter V, regulation 15-1 requires all tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and
above, including oil, chemical and gas tankers, to be provided with an emergency towing

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arrangement at both ends of the ship. This requirement has been in force since 1st January
1996 for new vessels built after that date. For existing vessels, the deadline was set at their first
scheduled docking after 1st January 1996, but not later than 1st January 1999. By the end of
this year, all tankers above 20,000 tonnes deadweight must therefore have such arrangement
in place.
The requirement for towing facilities on board ships is nothing new. Sailors may remember that
they used to store and grease a thick wire on a drum within the forecastle, the so-called
"insurance cable" or "towing cable". The historical background to this cable is long forgotten; it
probably dates back to the days of sailing vessels and steamers, a time when salvage vessels
were few, and such a cable could prove its worth to both underwriters and owners. A "towline"
was introduced in 1912 in Det norske Veritas (DnV) rules for both sailing vessels and steamers.
With vessels growing in size, so did the dimensions of the towing cable, and in the 1960s the
steel wire was so thick and heavy that all sailors knew pretty well that they would hardly be
able to move it out of the forecastle in case of need. There was no requirement for a strong
point or how to fit the towing cable to the vessel, a fact that did not add to a seamans
conception of its usefulness. Class societies gradually relaxed the requirement for towing
cables, and they eventually disappeared from larger vessels. In 1982 IACS 1 introduced a
guidance note on mooring ropes and towing cables, with recommendations on strength,
construction and size, but left its application to the member Class Societies. From 1994 DnVs
rules concerning towings cables operated as a guidance only, and are only applicable to smaller
vessels with a low equipment number.

While the "insurance cable" of the old days became obsolete, oil tanker accidents showed that
there was a need for a permanently rigged and easy to handle hook-up arrangement to be
installed on board the larger vessels. To fasten a towline to a disabled and abandoned vessel in
bad weather has always been a very difficult and dangerous operation. On board a powerless
vessel the vessels own winches are of no use, and there may not be much time available
before the vessel drifts ashore. When the fully loaded oil tanker "BRAER" foundered off the
coast of Shetland in 1993, the process of drafting regulations for an emergency towing
arrangement for tankers was accelerated and draft regulations were presented by IMOs
Maritime Safety Committee in May 1994. Such arrangements had already been designed in the
mid 1980s, and had been installed on board North Sea shuttle tankers in the Statfjord field, as
a remedy to pull them away from the loading point in an emergency.
The IMOs guidelines MSC 35 (63), adopted on 20th May 1994, require an emergency towing
arrangement to be fitted to the forward and aft end of the tanker. The aft arrangement must
be possible to rig in 15 minutes under harbour conditions, while the forward one has a
permitted deployment time of 60 minutes. The arrangements need to be kept simple, as the

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equipment may have to be employed in bad weather and in complete darkness if the vessel is
powerless.
The emergency towing arrangement at the aft end of the vessel must consist of pick-up gear, a
towing pennant, chafing gear, a fairlead, a strong point and a roller pedestal. There are strength
requirements for most parts. Furthermore, it is a particular requirement for the aft
arrangement that the pick-up gear can be released manually by one man only. At the forward
end, the pick-up gear and the towing pennant are made optional, but there is to be a strong
point, a fairlead and a chafing chain.
The towing components need to have a working strength of at least 1,000 kN 2 for tankers
between 20,000 and 50,000 tonnes deadweight, and of at least 2,000 kN for vessels of greater
tonnage. Working strength is defined as one half ultimate strength. The strength should be
sufficient for all relevant angles of the towline, including a 90 pull to either side, and a 30
vertical pull downwards. Such requirements make it necessary not only to strengthen the
vessels hull at the strong point for the towing attachment, but also at the fairlead point. The
towing pennant is required to have a length of at least twice the lightest seagoing ballast
freeboard at the fairlead, plus 50 metres. The requirements for the chafing gear allow for
different designs, but if a chain is used, it should be fixed to the strong point and reach at least
three meters beyond the fairlead.
Before abandoning vessel, the crew is expected to drop the pick-up gear overboard at the stern
of the vessel. Some manufacturers use only one buoy on the pick-up rope, others use two,
claiming that it is much easier to get hold of a rope between two buoys, than the buoy itself.
The buoys should be fitted with a light to facilitate detection at night. While the forward gear is
installed in the vessels centreline, the aft gear is often installed off centre, where space is
available. The gear is therefore not meant for long tows, only emergency use. Some owners
have preferred to install the gear under deck, where it is better protected.
1 International Association of Classification Societies.
2 kN = kilo Newtons.
Today emergency towing arrangements are in place on tankers above 20,000 tonnes
deadweight, and it is believed that the equipment will prove its worth in years to come.
Opinions have also been voiced in favour of fitting such gear to other large vessels, like bulk
carriers and cruise vessels. The installations are relatively inexpensive to fit on new vessels, and
represent an added safety and loss preventive factor for all large vessels.

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summary of magnetic compass Error

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What are errors of magnetic compass?


Errors of magnetic compass:-
1. VARIATION

The true North Pole and the magnetic north pole are not located at the same spot. This
variation causes a magnetic compass needle to point more or less away from true north. The
amount the needle is offset is called variation because the amount varies at different points
on Earths surface. Even in the same locality variation usually does not remain constant, but
increases or decreases at a certain known rate annually.
The variation for any given locality, together with the amount of annual increase or decrease,
is shown on the compass rose of the chart for that particular locality.

Remember: If the annual variation is an increase, you add; if it is a decrease, you subtract
How to calculate variation from compass rose.
To find the amount of variation in this locality in1995, count the number of years since 1990
(in this case 5); Multiply that by the amount of annual increase;(which here gives you 5 X 1,
or 5); add that to the variation in 1990 and you have a 1995 variation of1450 W
Variation remains the same for any heading of the ship at a given locality. No matter which
way the ship is heading, the magnetic compass, if affected only by variation, points
steadily in the general direction of the magnetic north pole.
2. DEVIATION

The amount a magnetic compass needle is deflected by


magnetic material in the ship is called deviation.Although deviation remains a constant
for any given compass heading, it is not the same on all headings. Deviation gradually inc

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reases, decreases, increases, and decreases again as the ship goes through an entire 360
of swing.

The magnetic steering compass is located in the pilothouse, where


it is affected considerably by deviation. Usually the standard compass is topside, where
the magnetic forces producing deviation are not as strong. Courses and bearings by these
compasses must be carefully differentiated by the abbreviations PSC
(per standard compass), PSTGC (per steering compass), and PGC (per gyrocompass). The
standard compass provides a means for checking the steering
compass and the gyrocompass.
3. Turning Error

A turn from the north lags or indicates a turn in the opposite direction. So to roll out on the
correct heading one must roll out of the turn, past the correct heading.A turn from the south
leads. So to roll out on the correct heading one must roll out of the turn, before reaching the
correct heading.

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REMEMBER: THE SOUTH LEADS AND THE NORTH LAGS and THERE IS NO ACCELERATION /
DECELERATION ERROR ON A NORTH OR SOUTH HEADING.
4. Acceleration and Deceleration Error
When on an east or west heading, any increase in airspeed (Acceleration) will cause the
magnetic compass to indicate a false turn toward the north, and any decrease in airspeed
(deceleration) will cause the magnetic compass to indicate a false turn toward the south.
REMEMBER: ACCELERATE NORTH & DECELERATE SOUTH and THERE IS NO TURNING ERROR
ON A EAST OR WEST HEADING.
5. Oscillation Error

This error is caused by turbulence or rough control movements and results in erratic
movement of the compass card.
Oscillation is a combination of all of the other errors, and it results in the compass card
swinging back and forth around the heading being flown. When setting the gyroscopic
heading indicator to agree with the magnetic compass, use the average indication between
the swings.
6. Magnetic dip Error
Magnetic dip is the tendency of the compass needles to point down as well as to the magnetic
pole. Dip is greatest near the poles and least near the Magnetic Equator. The compass card is
designed to operate in the horizontal, therefore, any movement from the horizontal plane
introduces dip error.

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The needle of your magnetic compass will be parallel with Earths surface at the Magnetic
Equator, but will point increasing downward as it is moved closer to the Magnetic Pole.
Northerly turning error is due to the mounting of the compass. Since the card is balanced in
fluid, when the aircraft turns, the card is also banked as a result of centrifugal force. While
the card is banked, the vertical component of the Earths magnetic field causes the north-
seeking ends of the compass to dip to the low side of the turn. When making a turn from a
northerly heading, the compass briefly gives an indication of a turn in the opposite direction.
When making a turn from the south, it gives an indication of a turn in the correct direction
but at a faster rate.

Acceleration error is also due to the dip of the Earths magnetic field. Because of the way the
compass card is mounted, the aft end of the compass card is tilted upward when accelerating,
and downward when decelerating during airspeed changes. This error is most pronounced on
an east / west heading. When accelerating on an east or west heading, the error indicates a
turn to the north. When decelerating on an east or west heading the error is toward the
south.

IMOs Polar Code Enters Into Force Mandatory For Arctic And Antarctic Waters

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With more and more ships navigating in polar waters, IMO has moved to address international
concern about the protection of the polar environment and the safety of seafarers and
passengers with the introduction of new regulations that all ships operating in these harsh and
challenging waters must comply with.

The mandatory Polar Code, for ships operating in Arctic and Antarctic waters, enters into force
on 1 January 2017, marking a historic milestone in the work of the International Maritime
Organization (IMO) to address this key issue. Its requirements, which were specifically tailored
for the polar environments, go above and beyond those of existing IMO conventions such as
MARPOL and SOLAS, which are applicable globally and will still apply to shipping in polar
waters.

Trends and forecasts indicate that polar shipping will grow and diversify over the coming years.
In the Arctic, commercial shipping can make significant reductions in voyage distances between
Europe and the Far East by sailing northern routes, while both the Arctic and Antarctic are
becoming increasingly popular tourist destinations. These challenges need to be met without
compromising either safety of life at sea or the sustainability of the polar environments.
Ships operating in the polar regions face a number of unique risks. Poor weather conditions and
the relative lack of good charts, communication systems and other navigational aids pose
challenges for mariners. And if accidents do occur, the remoteness of the areas makes rescue or
clean-up operations difficult and costly.

Extreme cold may reduce the effectiveness of numerous components of the ship, including
deck machinery and emergency equipment. And when ice is present, it can impose additional
loads on the hull and propulsion system.
To address all these issues, the Polar Code sets out mandatory standards that cover the full
range of design, construction, equipment, operational, training and environmental protection
matters that apply to ships operating in the inhospitable waters surrounding the two poles.
Protective thermal clothing, ice removal equipment, enclosed lifeboats and the ability to ensure
visibility in ice, freezing rain and snow conditions are among the Codes mandatory safety
requirements. The regulations extend to the materials used to build ships intended for polar
operation, and all tankers under the Code will have to have double hulls. From an
environmental perspective, the code prohibits or strictly limits discharges of oil, chemicals,
sewage, garbage, food wastes and many other substances.
The Polar Code will make operating in these waters safer, helping to protect the lives of crews
and passengers. It will also provide a strong regime to minimise the impact of shipping
operations on the pristine polar regions. It will be seen as a major achievement in IMOs work

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to promote safe and sustainable shipping in all regions of the world, including the most
challenging and difficult.
Technical background

The Polar Code includes mandatory provisions covering safety measures (part I-A) and pollution
prevention measures (part II-A) and additional guidance regarding the provisions for both (parts
I-B and II-B).
The safety provisions of the Polar Code will apply to new ships constructed after 1 January
2017. Ships constructed before 1 January 2017 will be required to meet the relevant
requirements of the Polar Code by the first intermediate or renewal survey, whichever occurs
first, after 1 January 2018.
The environmental provisions of the Polar Code apply both to existing ships and new ships.
The Code will require ships intending to operate in the defined Arctic waters and the Antarctic
area to apply for a Polar Ship Certificate, which would classify the vessel as either:

Category A ships designed for operation in polar waters in at least medium first-year ice,
which may include old ice inclusions

Category B a ship not included in category A, designed for operation in polar waters in at
least thin first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions

Category C a ship designed to operate in open water or in ice conditions less severe than
those included in categories A and B.
Before receiving a certificate, a ship would require an assessment, taking into account the
anticipated range of operating and environmental conditions and hazards it may encounter in
the polar waters.

Ships will need to carry a Polar Water Operational Manual, to provide the Owner, Operator,
Master and crew with sufficient information regarding the ships operational capabilities and
limitations in order to support their decision-making process.

The chapters in the Code set out goals and functional requirements specifically covering: ship
structure; stability and subdivision; watertight and weathertight integrity; machinery
installations; fire safety/protection; life-saving appliances and arrangements; safety of
navigation; communications; voyage planning; manning and training; prevention of pollution by
oil; control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk; prevention of pollution by harmful
substances carried by sea in packaged form; prevention of pollution by sewage from ships; and
prevention of pollution by garbage from ships.

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The Polar Code and SOLAS amendments were adopted during the 94th session of IMOs
Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), in November 2014; the environmental provisions and
MARPOL amendments were adopted during the 68th session of the MarineEnvironment
Protection Committee (MEPC) in May 2015.
Training requirements
Mandatory minimum requirements for the training and qualifications of masters and deck
officers on ships operating in polar waters were adopted by IMOs Maritime Safety Committee
in November 2016.

They will become mandatory under the International Convention on Standards of Training,
Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) and its related STCW Code from 1 July
2018.

New mandatory regulations for vessels operating in polar waters

An international framework - the Polar Code is expected to enter into force in 2017 to protect
the Arctic and Antarctic from maritime risks.
Introduction
After intense work and negotiations within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) the
International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (the Polar Code) is expected to enter
into force on 1 January 2017. The Polar Code will be implemented as amendments to MARPOL,
SOLAS and the STCW Conventions and will apply to new ships constructed after that date.
Ships, as defined by the Polar Code, constructed before 1 January 2017 will be required to meet
the relevant requirements of the Polar Code by the first intermediate or renewal survey,
whichever occurs first, after 1 January 2018. However, the Polar Code does not apply to fishing
vessels, vessels under 500 tonnes or fixed structures

The code contains comprehensive detailed requirements in separate chapters about ship
structure; stability and subdivision; watertight and weather tight integrity; machinery
installations; operational safety; fire safety/protection; life-saving appliances and
arrangements; safety of navigation; communications; voyage planning; manning and training;
prevention of pollution (both oil and noxious liquid substances); prevention of pollution from
sewage from ships; and prevention of pollution by discharge of garbage from ships.
Polar Ship Certificate

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The Polar Code will require vessels intending to operate in polar waters, to apply for a Polar
Ship Certificate. The Polar Ship Certificate will classify the vessel as either a Category A, B or C
vessel. Many provisions of the Polar Code are related to the category of the vessel. The
issuance of the certificate requires an assessment by the vessels flag state/class about
identified operational limitations and plans or procedures or additional safety equipment
necessary to mitigate incidents with potential safety and/or environmental consequences. The
assessment may contain information about low ambient air temperature, ice, high latitude,
possibilities of abandoning the ship, remoteness etc. For vessels operating in low ambient air
temperatures, systems and equipment required by the Polar Code must function at the polar
service temperature, which is a temperature specified for a vessel that must be set at least 10
degrees Celsius below the lowest mean daily low temperature for the relevant area and season.
Polar Waters Operational Manual
The Polar Code can be seen as a proactive regulation, aiming at mitigating the risks of operating
in polar waters requiring any vessel sailing in Polar waters to carry a Polar Waters Operational
Manual. The manual will provide the Master and crew with information regarding the ships
operational capabilities and limitations, based on the assessment done to issue the Polar Ship
Certificate.
Risk evaluation of polar operations

These mandatory regulations and standardised approaches are expected to make polar
operations safer for operators, seafarers and more predictable for insurers. Operational
predictability is closely linked to the ability to price the risk of polar operations at a correct
level. As a leading marine insurer Gard has a responsibility to fully evaluate all and any risks of
Arctic and Antarctic activities.
As outlined in previous Insight articles it is no secret that the polar environment imposes new
and unknown challenges on all operators within the industry. It seems likely that a major
incident in polar waters would cost more than, for example, a wreck removal or pollution
response in non-polar waters, due to the unique challenges posed by the location and the
environment.

The cost of carrying out wreck removals continues to escalate and the further complicating
factors in polar waters may create challenges for the international insurance and re-insurance
markets. Depending on whether the claim is poolable within the International Group or not the
loss would fall either on the International Groups reinsurance programme or if outside
the pool on the commercial market.
Polar Operational Limit Assessment Risk Indexing System (Polaris)

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To date there are some concerns that the Polar Code does not take into account that conditions
in the Arctic are never uniform and does not clearly link the ice-classes of vessels with the
actual ice conditions prevailing in the polar regions However, guidelines to the Polar Code have
now been introduced to help solve these issues. The operator is now obliged to explain the
methodology used to determine how the ship will be able to operate in the conditions of the
planned voyage. This system is known as the Polar Operational Limit Assessment Risk Indexing
System (Polaris) and Gard has been involved in its development. Operators intending to
operate vessels in the polar waters will need to be familiar with Polaris in addition to existing
systems such as the Canadian Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System known as the AIRSS system.

Principles of High Latitude Navigation


Navigating in high latitudes requires great care in the procedures and in the use of information.
The remoteness of the Arctic and the proximity to the North Magnetic Pole has an affect on the
charts that are supplied and the navigation instruments that are used with them. This section
discusses some of the effects and limitations on charts and instruments used in the Arctic.

In high latitudes, the meridians are not the familiar parallel lines of the Mercator chart but
radial lines converging at the poles. (This would appear like a bicycle wheel with the pole as the
hub.) Mariners prefer using a Mercator chart, so to preserve the look of a Mercator chart a
polar grid is used. A grid is printed parallel to a meridian, usually the Greenwich meridian. On a
Transverse Mercator chart the fictitious meridians found on this type of chart would serve this
purpose. Because the meridians cross all grid lines at the same angle they are fictitious rhumb
lines.
The direction that is chosen as the reference for the grid is north, so then all parallel grid lines
can be taken to be extending in the same direction. The direction relative to the grid lines is
then known as the grid direction. If a magnetic compass is used to follow the grid direction then
the corrections of variation and convergency can be combined to a single correction called grid
variation or grivation.
4.5.1 Charts
There are two areas of concern with the use of charts in the Arctic. These are consideration of
the uncommon projections used and the accuracy of the surveys.
Projections

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To compensate for the fact that the meridians converge as they near the pole the scale of the
parallels is gradually distorted. In the high Arctic, Mercator projections suffer too much
distortion in the latitude direction to be used for anything but large-scale charts. As the latitude
increases the use of rhumb lines for visual bearings becomes awkward, as it is necessary to add
ever larger convergency corrections.
As the Arctic becomes better surveyed there will be more Mercator charts, but other
projections such as Lambert Conformal, Polyconic, and Polar Stereographic are used as well.
Polar Stereographic is becoming the most popular as it provides minimum distortion over
relatively large areas. The number of different projections make it important, when changing
charts, to check the type and any cautions concerning distances, bearings, etc. For example, the
habit developed with Mercator charts is to use the latitude scale for distance, which is not
possible on Polyconic charts. Particular care must also be taken when laying off bearings in high
latitudes, as a convergency correction may be needed even for visual bearings.

WARNING: IN THE ARCTIC, AS IN ANY OTHER AREA, CHECK THE CHART PROJECTION
BEFORE USE.

Accuracy
The accuracy of charts in the Arctic can vary widely according to the date of survey. The more
frequently travelled areas, such as Lancaster Sound, Barrow Strait, and the approaches to
Polaris and Nanisivik mines, are well surveyed, but many charts are based on aerial
photography (controlled by ground triangulation) combined with lines of reconnaissance
soundings. Even new editions of charts may be misleading as some information on them may
be dated. The appearance of depth contour lines on new charts does not indicate any new
information. Production priorities may result in new information being added to large-scale
charts only.
Precautions to be taken when using charts for Arctic areas include:
checking the projection and its limitations,
checking the date of survey and / or the Source Classification Diagram,
using range and bearing to transfer positions from chart to chart,
checking for evidence of reconnaissance soundings,
using the larger scale map in preference to the smaller scale map; and
checking for the method of measuring distances and taking bearings.

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4.5.2 Canadian Arctic Nautical Charts and Charting Deficiencies


One of the principal problems with charts in the Arctic concerns the horizontal datum on which
the actual chart is based. With more and more vessels using accurate positioning systems such
as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the Russian system (Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya
Sputnikovaya Sistem - GLONASS), the greater the problem will become. Regarding GPS, the
positions are referenced to the World Geodetic System (WGS 84) which is virtually equivalent
to the North American Datum 1983 (NAD 83). If you are navigating on a NAD 83 chart with GPS
there would be no corrections to apply. If you wanted to plot on a NAD 27 chart you must
manually apply the appropriate corrections.
In 1997 there were 245 charts listed in the Arctic Chart Catalogue. Only 55 charts (22%) have
sufficient accuracy or detail to facilitate accurate plotting of positions obtained by GPS, which
requires a chart base relative to the NAD 83 horizontal datum. There are 49 charts that specify
that positioning with GPS can lead to positioning errors up to some defined magnitude, which
may be as much as 4 nautical miles. The remaining 141 charts did not have any information
about the horizontal datum of the chart. For bathymetry (depth soundings, bottom
composition, etc.) it is estimated by the Canadian Hydrographic Service that less than 25% of
the Arctic waters are surveyed to acceptable, modern standards. Much of the data has been
collected by random vessels track soundings or over ice spot soundings.

THE VALUE OF A CHART DEPENDS TO A GREAT EXTENT ON THE ACCURACY AND DETAIL OF
THE SURVEYS ON WHICH IT WAS BASED.

(Navigation Instruction, Canadian Arctic, Vol. 1, 1982, p.8)


Mariners should proceed with due caution and prudent seamanship when navigating in the
Arctic especially in poorly charted areas or when planning voyages along new routes. Additional
information may be found in the Annual Edition Notices To Mariners.
4.5.3 Effect of High Latitude on Compasses and Electronic Aids
Compasses
The magnetic compass can be erratic in the Arctic and is frequently of little use for navigation:
"The magnetic compass depends on its directive force upon the horizontal component of the
magnetic field of the earth. As the north magnetic pole is approached in the Arctic, the
horizontal component becomes progressively weaker until at some point the magnetic compass
becomes useless as a direction measuring device."

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If the compass must be used the error should be checked frequently by celestial observation
and, as the rate of change of variation increases as the pole is approached, reference must be
made to the variation curve or rose on the chart.

The gyro compass is as reliable in the Arctic as it is in more southerly latitudes, to a latitude of
about 70oN. North of 70oN special care must be taken in checking its accuracy. Even with the
compensation given by the latitude corrector on certain makes of compass, the gyro continues
to lose horizontal force until, north of about 85N, it becomes unusable. The manual for the
gyro compass should be consulted before entering higher latitudes. The numerous alterations
in course and speed and collisions with ice can have an adverse effect on its accuracy.
Therefore, when navigating in the Arctic:

the ship's position should be cross-checked with other navigation systems, such as
electronic position fixing devices, where course history could be compared with course
steered (allowing for wind and current); and

the gyro error should be checked whenever atmospheric conditions allow, by azimuth or
amplitude.
Radar
In general, Arctic or cold conditions do not affect the performance of radar systems.
Occasionally weather conditions may cause ducting, which is the bending of the radar beam
because of a decline in moisture content in the atmosphere. This effect may shorten or
lengthen target detection ranges, depending on the severity and direction of the bending. A
real problem with radar in the Arctic concerns interpretation of the screen for purposes of
position fixing.
Position Fixing

Problems encountered with position fixing arise from either mistaken identification of shore
features or inaccurate surveys. Low relief in some parts of the Arctic make it hard to identify
landmarks or points of land. Additionally, ice piled up on the shore or fast ice may obscure the
coastline. For this reason radar bearings or ranges should be treated with more caution than
measurements in southern waters. Visual observations are always preferable. Sometimes it is
possible to fix the position of grounded icebergs and then to use the iceberg for positioning
further along the track, if performed with caution.
Large areas of the Arctic have not yet been surveyed to the same standards as areas further
south, and even some of the more recently produced charts are based on aerial photography.
To decrease the possibility of errors, three lines (range, or less preferably bearings) should
always be used for positions. Fixes using both sides of a channel or lines from two different

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survey areas should be avoided. Because of potential problems, fixes in the Arctic should
always be compared with other information sources, such as electronic positioning systems.
Global Positioning System (GPS)

The Global Positioning System, or GPS, is a space-based radio-navigation system which permits
users with suitable receivers, on land, sea or in the air, to establish their position, speed and
time at any time of the day or night, in any weather conditions.
The navigational system consists nominally of 24 operational satellites in six orbital planes, and
an orbital radius of 26,560 kilometres (about 10,900 nautical miles above the earth). Of the 24
satellites, 21 are considered fully operable and the remaining 3 although functioning, deemed
spares. The orbital planes are inclined at 55 o to the plane of the equator and the orbital period
is approximately 12 hours. This satellite constellation allows a receiver on earth to receive
multiple signals from a number of satellites 24 hours a day. The satellites continuously transmit
ranging signals, position and time data which is received and processed by GPS receivers to
determine the users three-dimensional position (latitude, longitude, altitude), velocity and
time.

GPS was declared initially operational in December 1993 with full operational capability being
declared in July 1995. GPS provides two levels of service - a Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
for general public use, and a Precise Positioning Service (PPS) primarily intended for the use of
the U.S. military. The SPS point accuracies within 100 metres in the horizontal plane and 156
metres in the vertical plane, 95% of the time. However, the US Department of Defense,
deliberately introduced errors in the satellites clock oscillator frequency in a seemingly
random, though controlled manner, consequently degrading the accuracy to those given for
SPS. This deliberate introduction of errors is known as Selective Availability. The US president
has proclaimed that the level of SA will be reduced to zero within the next seven years and
when this occurs the horizontal position accuracy for stand alone civilian GPS receivers will
improve from the previously stated 100 metre level to the 30 metre level.1
Although the satellites orbit the earth in a 55 o plane, the positional accuracy all over the globe
is generally considered consistent at the 100 metre level. For a ship at a position 55 North or
South latitude or closer to the pole, the satellites would be in a constellation around the ship
with the receiver actually calculating the ships Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) with
satellites possibly on the other side of the pole. With a ship at or near the north pole all the
satellites would be to the south, but well distributed in azimuth creating a strong fix. The
exception to this is the vertical component of a position which will grow weaker the further
north a ships sails because above 55 oN there will not be satellites orbiting directly overhead.

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Other than Selective Availability, there are a variety of sources of error which can introduce
inaccuracies into GPS fixes especially in polar regions such as tropospheric delays and
ionospheric refraction in the auroral zone. The troposphere varies in thickness from less than 9
kilometers over the poles to over 16 kilometers on the equator which can contribute to
propagation delays due to the signals being refracted be electromagnetic signal propagation.
This error is minimized by accurate models and calculations performed within the GPS receiver
itself. The ionospheric refraction in the auroral zone (the same belt in which the aurora borealis
/ aurora australis phenomena occur) caused by solar and geomagnetic storms will cause some
error. Sunspot activity is on an 11 year cycle and this activity is expected to peak at about the
year 2000.1
One minor advantage of the drier, polar environment is the efficiency of the receiver to process
satellite data. In warmer, marine climatic conditions it is more difficult to model a wet
atmosphere. 1

If the datum used by the GPS receiver in calculating latitude and longitude is different from the
datum of the chart in use, errors will occur when GPS derived positions are plotted on the
chart. GPS receivers can be programmed to output latitude and longitude based on a variety of
stored datums. Since 1986 the Canadian Hydrographic Service has converted some CHS charts
to NAD 83. Information on the chart will describe the horizontal datum used for that chart and
for those not referenced to NAD 83, corrections will be given to convert NAD 83 positions to
the datum of the chart. The title block of the chart will describe the horizontal datums used for
the chart and will give the corrections to convert from the datum of the chart to NAD 83 and
vice versa.

1 Richard Langley, GPS World, March 1997, July 97 and Telephone Interview
A Users Guide to GPS and DGPS CCG, Marine Navigation Services, Ottawa, Canada, August,
1998

Radios

Radio communications in the Arctic, other than line of sight, are subject to interference from
ionospheric disturbances. Whenever communications are established alternative frequencies
should be agreed upon before the signal degrades. Use of multiple frequencies and relays
through other stations are the only methods of avoiding such interference.
INMARSAT

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Use of INMARSAT services in the Arctic is the same as in the south, until the ship approaches
the edge of the satellite reception. At high latitudes where the altitude of the satellite is only a
few degrees above the horizon, signal strength is dependent on the height of the receiving dish
and the surrounding land. The 1990 repositioning of the Atlantic West satellite has extended its
area of coverage to include most of Lancaster Sound and Barrow Strait.
As the ship leaves the satellite area of coverage the strength of the link with the satellite will
become variable, gradually decline, and then become unusable. When the strength has
diminished below that useable for voice communications, it may still be possible to send
telexes. Upon the ship's return to the satellite area of coverage there may be problems in
obtaining the satellite signal and keeping it until the elevation is well above the horizon.
MSAT - A Regional Communications Satellite System
Early in 1996 a new telecommunications network, called MSAT, was commercially introduced.
MSAT is a Canadian-owned satellite-based network targeted primarily towards mobile users
operating in rural and remote areas. Currently the initial services include: voice (telephone), 4.8
kbps data, facsimile, dispatch radio, electronic mail and voice mail.

MSAT Mobile Communicators are compact, with antennas approximately 20 centimetres high
and 20 centimetres in diameter and have been specifically developed for marine applications.
The equipment and service costs are significantly lower than those charged by international
mobile satellite service providers and due to the satellite's optimal geostationary position over
the equator, excellent coverage is available over the Arctic, the Caribbean and 200 nautical
miles off the east and west coasts of North America.

The MSAT equipment was successfully used from Halifax en route to Resolute, Cambridge Bay
and Tuktoyaktuk during an evaluation of the satellite's coverage in the 1996 shipping season.
MSAT provided a reliable, efficient and inexpensive method for the reception of ice information
in the form of verbal consultation, the paper facsimile generation of ice charts, and electronic
mail of text descriptions of ice conditions from the Canadian Ice Service to the ship. The only
weak link has been the dissemination of large graphics files such as SLAR or RADARSAT imagery
because they are just too big to be sent through the current 4.8 kbps data processors.

MSAT Network upgrades being introduced will include packet-switched communications for
applications such as vessel tracking using Global Positioning System technologies.

Important Points for Ice Navigation of Ships


Navigating in ice waters can be a real task for ships, as the later moves cracking and smashing
through the frozen and frigid seas. While moving towards subzero temperature with ice

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covered waters, the ships captain has to be extremely cautious and must pay utmost attention
to the type of ice, thickness, and its exact location in the subzero navigation areas. If theres any
kind of misjudgment during ice navigation, a detour from the navigable route would lead to
additional fuel wastage and might also get the vessel stuck in thick ice leading to dangerous
situation and damage.
The existence of ice on seawater corresponds to a major restraint for ships and offshore
operations at high latitudes in both the hemispheres. The sea-ice, which on an average is 23 m
thick, can be pierced only by specially designed ice-strengthened vessels or icebreakers with an
appropriate ice class.
Most merchant ships and fishing vessels which are not ice-strengthened must consequently
keep away from all ice waters and sub-temperature areas. In many places, where the
concentration of ice is maximum and the ice pressure is highest, even the most powerful of the
icebreakers have problems with ice navigation.

To avoid such mishaps during ice navigation, an ice pilot and ice breakers are normally provided
for commercial vessel operations which help to safely guide the vessels through the ice field to
and from their destinations. In addition to the ice pilot being on board and the ice-breakers
relentless assistance, a few other measures must be kept in mind by the vessels crew during
the ice navigation.
1. Manoeuvring in Ice
First of all, it is imperative to understand that if any alternative route is available for the ship,
ice water should be avoided at all costs. However, if ice navigation is inevitable, it should be
made at right angles to the leeward edge where the ice is loose or broken. While manoeuvring
through ice if a floe cannot be avoided then it should be hit squarely with the stem. Note that a
glancing blow may damage the ships shell plating or throw the vessel off course causing
another unavoidable blow.
Entry in ice should always be done at low speeds to avoid any sort of damage. Once into the
pack, the vessels speed can be increased so as to maintain headway and control so as to never
lose all way off and avoid the ice floes to close in on the hull, rudder and propeller.
If the ship is stopped by heavy concentration of ice the rudder should be put amidships and the
engines should be kept turning slowly ahead. This will wash away the ice that is accumulated
astern and will help the vessel to fall back.
In a close pack during ice navigation, avoid sharp alterations of course and keep the speed
enough for steerage way. Full rudder movements should be avoided or used only in cases of
emergencies.

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2. Lookout

Always keep vigilant lookout for leads (navigable channel within an ice field) through ice.
Additional lookouts should be posted forward or at higher ends for safety concerns. Conning
should be carried out from the ships bridge to get a better view of the ice accumulation.

Keep in mind that at all times the stern must be observed for rudders movement so as to avoid
a floe from actually moving the stern towards it. In such cases, it is advised to post men right aft
with torches, whistles, walkie-talkies, etc. to make sure that the bridge is informed immediately
in case the propeller is in any kind of danger. This is extremely important in twin screw vessels.
Reduce speed if the ice goes under the ship.

3. Engine care

During ice navigation, engines should be kept running at all times and
under maneuvering conditions in such a way that the ahead and astern movements can be
easily carried out without time delay. Similarly, engine movements from ahead to astern and
vice-verse should be made cautiously to avoid stressing the engine mechanisms in low
temperatures, which could be unfavorable to the ships engine parts. Also, when ice
approaches the stern of the vessel while maneuvering bursts of the engines should be given
accordingly to keep ice from accumulating.
4. Navigation at Night
As far as possible, avoid navigating through ice at night. It is preferred to heave to since the
leads or lanes cannot be seen. Most ice navigators stop the vessel along the edge of the ice and
leave the vessel drifting along with the pack.

At nights, seawater lubricated tail end shafts are in the danger of getting frozen. To avoid from
freezing, vessels with single screws should have their aft peak tank filled with water and have it
kept warm by means of steam hose injection, or other alternative means. The vessel should
keep her engines running with propeller on low RPM so as to avoid seizure by ice.

5. Anchoring
Anchoring in heavy concentrations of ice should be avoided; if ice is moving then its force may
break the cable. When conditions permit, anchoring can be carried out and it must be done in

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light brash ice, rotten ice or widely scattered floes with the main engine on immediate notice.
Anchor should be brought in as soon as the wind threatens to move ice onto the vessel.
Even with the advent of new techniques and technologies for ice navigation such as radar
sensor images through cloud cover, infra-red images, and satellite images for a larger view of
the surroundings around the vessel, it is vital to understand that ships operations of any sort
under the influence of sea-ice are not only dangerous but also life threatening, and utmost care
must be taken while navigating through such ice areas

Polar Environments

In high latitudes, directions change fast with movement of the observer. Near the poles,
meridians converge, and excessive longitudinal curvature renders the meridians and parallels
impracticable for use as navigational references. All time zones meet at the poles, and local
time has little significance. Sunrise and sunset, night and day, as they are known in the
temperate regions, are quite different in polar regions.
At the poles the sun rises and sets once a year, slowly spiralling for three months to a maximum
altitude of 23 27 and then decreasing in altitude until it sets again three months later. The
Moon rises once each month and provides illumination when full, though sometimes the aurora
(gives even more light; and the planets rise and set once each sidereal period (12 years for
Jupiter, 30 years for Saturn).

Fog is most frequent when the water is partly clear of ice. Low cloud ceilings are prevalent.
Whiteouts occur from time to time, when daylight is diffused by multiple reflection between a
snow surface and an overcast sky, so that contrasts vanish and neither the horizon nor surface
features can be distinguished. All these conditions, combined with the ice itself, add to the
difficulties of navigation.
Using Polar Charts
Polar charts are baled largely on aerial photography which may be without proper ground
control, except in a relatively few places where modern surveys are available, e.g. in the
approaches to bases and similar frequented localities. Even then, the conditions under which
these surveys have been carried out are such that their accuracy is unlikely to be similar to that
of work done in more clement dimes. For these reasons the geographical positions of features
may be unreliable and, even when they are correctly placed relative to adjacent features,
considerable errors may accumulate when they are separated by appreciable distances. In
general soundings, topography and all navigational information are sparse in most polar
regions.

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Visual and radar bearings, unless of observed objects which are close, require to be treated as
great circles. If used on a Mercator chart, bearings should be corrected for half-convergency in
the same way as radio bearings.

Natural landmarks are plentiful in some areas, but their usefulness is restricted by the difficulty
in identifying them, or locating them on the chart. Along many of these coasts the various
points and inlets bear a marked resemblance to each other. The appearance of a coast is often
very different when many of its features are marked by a heavy covering of snow or ice than
when it is ice-free.
Using Compasses

The gyro compass losses all horizontal directive force as the poles are approached and is
thought to become useless at about 85 of latitude. It is generally reliable up to 70 but
thereafter should be checked by azimuths of celestial bodies at frequent intervals (about every
4 hours and more frequently in higher latitudes). Frequent changes of course and speed and
the impact of the vessel on ice introduce errors which are slow to settle out.
The magnetic compass is of little value for navigation near the magnetic poles. Large diurnal
changes in variation (as much as 10), attributed to the continual motion of the poles, have
been reported.

In other parts of the polar regions, however, the magnetic compass can be used, provided that
the ship has been swung and the compass adjusted in low latitudes, and again on entering high
ones.

Frequent comparisons of magnetic and gyro compasses should be made and logged when
azimuth checks are obtained.
Learning to Listen to Sounders
The echo sounder should be run continuously to detect signs of approaching shoal water,
though in many parts of the polar regions depths change too abruptly to enable the Mariner to
rely solely on the sounder for warning.
In some better sounded areas, the depths may give an indication of the ships position, or of
the drift of the ice, and in these areas ships should make use of all enforced stops to obtain a
sounding.
Working in drift ice the echo sounder trace may be lost due to ice under the ship or hull noises,
so, if necessary, the ship should be slowed to obtain a sounding.
Being Observant

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The Mariner cannot rely on obtaining accurate celestial observations. For much of the
navigational season clouds hide the sun, and long days and short nights in summer preclude the
use of stars for observations. In summer when, apart from the moon at times, only the sun can
be used for observations, transferred position lines must be used, and as accurate dead
reckoning in ice is impossible, the accuracy of the resulting positions must always be
questioned.
The best positions are usually obtained from star observations during twilight. As the latitude
increases twilights lengthen, but with this increase come longer periods when the sun is just
below the horizon and the stars have not yet appeared.
In polar regions the only celestial body available for observations may not exceed the altitude
of 10 for several weeks on end, so that, contrary to the usual practice, observations at low
altitudes must be accepted.

Most celestial observations in polar regions produce satisfactory results, but in high latitudes
the navigator should be on the alert for abnormal conditions.

Great circle sailing

The calculation of the great circle track between two points A and B with given latitude and
longitude is an exercise in spherical trigonometry.

The points A and B form a spherical triangle with the North Pole C. Each side of this triangle is
an arc of a circle centered at the center of the earth, i.e. a great circle. The length of a great-
circle arc can be read off immediately from the corresponding central angle: the measurement
of the central angle in minutes of arc gives the length of the arc in nautical miles. If we
call a, b, c the sides opposite vertices A, B, C, then in this triangle we know a, b, and C.
Side a has length 90o minus the latitude of vertex B, and vice-versa. The angle C is the
difference between the longitudes of A and B. This is enough information to solve for all the
elements of the triangle, in particular side c (the great-circle distance) and angle A (the initial
course).

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Starting point and destination, together with the North Pole, form a spherical triangle.
Here is the problem from Dutton:
Compute the distance and initial course by great circle sailing from a point in Lat. 37 o-42'
N., Long. 123o-04'W., near Farallon Island Lighthouse, to a point Lat. 34 o-50' N., Long.
139o-53' E., near the entrance to the Bay of Tokio.

In this case we compute a = 90o - 37o42' = 52o18', b = 90o - 34o50' = 55o10' and C = 360o -
123o04' - 139o53' = 97o03'.
We may solve for c using the spherical law of cosines:
cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C.
This gives c = 74.36o or 4461.6 nautical miles.
Once c is known, A can be calculated using the spherical law of sines:
sin A / sin a = sin B / sin b = sin C /sin c.
Using the known values for a, c, and C this gives A = 57.77o, or 57o46'19".
The great-circle track

The rhumb-line track is very convenient, because the ship keeps to the same course through
the whole trip. Its disadvantage is that the straight line on a Mercator map may not be the
shortest path between its endpoints, when measured back on the earth's surface.

The earth's surface is (to a good approximation) a sphere, and the path of shortest length
between two points on a sphere is the great-circle arc between them. The great circle in
question is the intersection of the spherical surface with the plane passing through the two
points and the center of the earth.

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The great-circle path is different from the rhumb line unless the two points are both on the
equator or both on the same meridian. If the points are nearby, say within 50 miles of each
other, the difference between the two paths is inconsequential. But for distant points the
difference may be substantial.

Here is a classic navigation problem, taken from Benjamin Dutton's "Navigation and Nautical
Astronomy," 7th Edition, a text once used at Annapolis.

Compute the distance and initial course by great circle sailing from a point in Lat. 37 o-42'
N., Long. 123o-04'W., near Farallon Island Lighthouse, to a point Lat. 34 o-50' N., Long.
139o-53' E., near the entrance to the Bay of Tokio.
Answer: distance = 4461.7 nautical miles, course = N 57 o46'15"W.

Chart Projections

The surface of the Earth is a sphere and charts are flat surfaces. It is impossible to transfer
the features on a sphere to a flat surface without distorting the features. In making
navigation charts, the chart maker must flatten out the surface of the Earth to put it on a
plane. The process is known as Chart Projection.

Terms we must know before learning the types of projections:


Projection - the extension of lines or planes to intersect a given surface; the transfer of a
point from one surface to a corresponding position on another surface by graphical or
analytical means.

Map Projection - a systematic drawing of lines on a plane surface to represent the


parallels of latitude ant the meridians of longitude of the Earth or a section of the Earth. A
map projection may be established by analytical computation or may be constructed
geometrically.

Tangent - meeting a curve or surface in a single point if a sufficiently small interval is


considered.

Plane - a surface of such nature that a strait line joining 2 of its points lies wholly in the
surface (a flat surface).

The chart maker starts with a Developable Surface that is the area of the Earth that can

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be flattened to form the plane. There are different ways that the surface of the Earth can
be flattened to make a chart. Each method to project the surface of the Earth onto a chart
has its own advantages and disadvantages. The smaller the scale, the more noticeable the
difference between the different chart projections. On the larger scale charts, like harbor
charts, all the projections are practically identical.

When choosing the type of chart projection you are going to use for navigation, you will be
looking for certain desirable properties. These properties are:
True shape of physical features
Correct angular relationship.
Equal area, or the representation of areas in their correct relative proportions.
Constant scale values for measuring distance.
Great circles represented as strait lines.
Rhumb lines represented as strait lines.

Many of these properties are mutually exclusive, i.e. a chart cannot represent both Rhumb lines
and Great Circles as strait lines.

A projection with correct angular relationship will also have true shape of features so it is
conformal & orthomorphic.
Conformal - Having correct angular representation.
Orthomorphic - Preserving the correct shape.
If the points on the surface of the Earth are projected from a single point, the projection
is perspective or geometric.
Perspective - how the Earth looks from a certain point of view & is projected onto a plane to
create an image on the chart.
Geometric

Mercator Projection

Cylindrical Projection
A cylinder is placed around the Earth and is tangent to the equator
The planes of the meridians are extended & they intersect the cylinder in a number of vertical
lines.
The parallel lines of projection (longitude lines) are equidistant from each other unlike the
terrestrial meridians. On the Earth, the meridians converge with increased latitude.
On the earth, the parallels of latitude form circles whose diameter decreases with increasing
latitude.
On the cylinder, the parallels are shown perpendicular to the projected meridians. The cylinder
maintains equal diameter throughout so there is distortion as to the diameter of the latitude
circles.

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Most common projection used for navigation is the Mercator projection which is classified as a
Cylindrical Projection.
The cylinder is tangent along the equator.
The meridians and parallels are expanded at the same ratio with increased latitude.
The ratio is know as Meridional Parts - The length of a meridian, expressed in minutes of arc at
the equator as a unit, constitutes the number of Meridional Parts corresponding to that latitude.
(Used to make Mercator Projections & Mercator Sailings.)

The easy way to understand this projection is to first put the cylinder around the Earth touching
the Equator. Then cut the Lines of Longitude and peal them away from the Earth starting at the
Poles, like you would peal a bannana. Next, stretch the Longitudes so they become the same
width apart as they were at the equator and stick them onto the cylinder. The Meridians are now
parallel to each other on the cylinder but the shape of the land is distorted. It is as if you took
silly putty to a Peanut's Comic and stretched Charlie Brown only side to side - you end up with a
short, fat Charlie Brown. Now you have to stretch the Latitude on the Cylinder so that it gets
stretched the same amount as the longitude did at a given location. You can stretch Charlie
Brown Top to Bottom and end up with a larger version of the comic you pressed the silly putty to.

On the Mercator Projection the 60 nm between each minute of Latitude will look like it is much
farther as you get away form the equator. The Parallels are spread out as they get away from
the equator but in the real world each degree is the same distance apart.

As the distance from the equator increases, degrees of Latitude remain approximately the same
length & the degrees of Longitude become increasingly shorter on the Earth.
Due to the mathematical expansion of the lat./long uses trig functions (secant) this projection
cannot cover the poles. (Secant for 90 is infinity)
Generally, the distortion in the polar regions (above 70N and below 70S) caused by this
projection is too great to be used for navigation.
The Meridians and Parallels are represented by strait lines that are perpendicular to each other.
Rhumb Lines are drawn strait
Great circles are arcs the curve toward the nearest pole.
Conformal, Orthomorphic and proportional. The didtance scale varies.
You can use the Latitude Scale to measure distance - be sure to use the Latitude Scale for the
Latitude you are working on or the Mid-Latitude because of the lengthening of the parallels as
you go toward the poles.

Lambert Conformal

First you must understand the basic conic projection.


Conic Projection -

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Points on the surface of the Earth are transferred to a tangent cone.


When the axis of the cone coincides with the axis of the Earth, the parallels appear as arcs of
circles and the meridians appear as strait or curved lines converging toward the nearest pole.
The point at which the cone is tangent, is know as the standard parallel.
A conic projection tangent to the equator is actually a cylindrical projection because the height
of the vertex of the cone would be near infinity.
At the poles, the height of the cone is 0 so the cone becomes a plane.

The distance along any meridian between consecutive parallels is in correct relation to the
distance on the earth
The scale is correct along any meridian and along the Standard Parallel.

Secant Conic or Conic Projection with 2 standard parallels -


Like the name says, there are 2 standard parallels that the cone is tangent to. This actually cuts
into the earth.
The are between the standard parallels is compressed and the area beyond is expanded.
If the spacing of the parallels is altered, such that the distortion is the same along them as
along the meridians, the projection becomes conformal. That is called a Lambert Conformal
Projection.
Great Circles draw as strait lines - these charts are often used for aeronautical charts or used for
polar navigation.

Gnomonic Chart Projection


A plane is placed tangent to the surface of the Earth.
The points are projected from the center of the Earth to the plane.
The projection is perspective - how the Earth looks from a certain point of view & is projected
onto a plane to create an image on the chart.

Oblique Gnomonic-
A tangent plane is placed on the Earth. This projection is perspective from the center of the
Earth. Basically, if you take a flashlight at the center of the Earth & shine it in the direction of
the tangent plane, the land features will be the shadows that shine on the tangent plane.

This chart is often called a "Great Circle" Chart because its only use is to Plan Great Circle
Voyages. Points along the track then get transfered to a Mercator Projection.

It is not conformal or orthomorphic.

Great circles plot as straight lines and rhumb lines plot as curves away from the pole.
The Meridian will appear as straight lines that converge at the poles as they do on the Earth. The

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Latitude lines, except the equator, will be curved.

Cylindrical Projection

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Great Circle vs. Rhumb line on Mercator Projection

Comparison of Great Circle Route and Loxodrome on the Mercator Projection. The loxodrome is a line of
constant heading, and the great circle, although appearing longer than the loxodrome, is actually the
shortest route between New York and London.
Oblique gnomonic projection

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This tangent plane projection is an Oblique Gnomonic Projection because it is from the perspective of
the center of the Earth.
Click on the picture to see it in motion!

An oblique gonmonic projection in the Southern Hemisphere with a great circle course plotted
out. The gnomonic projection is also know as a "Great Circle" chart because that is really its
only use for ocean navigation. It is used to pan great circle routes.
Click

Amplitude
The Amplitude of a body is the angle at the observers zenith or the arc of his rational horizon
contained between the observers prime vertical and the vertical circle through the body, at
theoretical rising or setting.

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When observing the amplitude of a body, its centre should be on the rational horizon, that is,
its true altitude should be exactly 0 which implies that its zenith distance will be exactly 90.

Amplitude is measured from the observers


prime vertical, as shown in the figure, and not from the observers meridian.
Amplitude is therefore named from east towards n or s when rising and from west towards n or
s when setting and then converted to 360 notation.
For a body with northerly declination, the amplitude will be northward of e or w and
For a body with southerly declination, the amplitude will be southward of e or w
When the declination of the sun remains unchanged between rising and setting, the true
amplitude at rising should equal the true amplitude at setting. Therefore sum of the true rising
bearing and true setting bearing is always equal to 360. The mean between the two bearings
will therefore always be equal to 180. The difference between 180 and the mean of the two
compass bearings will therefore give the error.
Sin amplitude= sin Dec x sec lat

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Using Napiers Rule, IN QUADRANTAL SPHERICAL PZX,


Sin(90-PX)=cos(90-PZ).cosZ
Sin dec = cos lat . Sin(90-Z)
Sin dec = cos lat . Sin Amp
Sin Amp = Sin dec / cos lat
Sin Amp = Sin dec . sec lat
Amplitude Calculation:
1. Obtain GMT
2. Obtain declination of body

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3. Calculate amp as per above formula


4. Convert to 360 notation.

The amplitude of a rising body and also setting body will be the same for a particular
declination for a stationary observer at a particular latitude in the north and also for the same
value latitude in the south.

What is the "1-2-3 Rule" used for hurricane avoidance?

The 1-2-3 Rule is means of avoiding winds associated with a tropical cyclone by taking into
account the forecast track error of the National Weather Service over a 10 year period which is
approximately 100 nm in 24 hours, 200 nm for 48 hours and 300 nm in 72 hours. The forecast
track error is added to the 34 knot wind radii to compute the danger area. The wind radii may
be found within Tropical Cyclone Forecast Advisory (TCM) forecasts. For more detailed
information on the 1-2-3 Rule, see the National Hurricane Center's Marine Safety Page
The National Hurricane Center and Central Pacific Hurricane Center also prepare Atlantic, East
Pacific and Central Pacific "Tropical Cyclone Danger Area" charts for broadcast via radiofax,
depicting the danger area computed using the 1-2-3 Rule as a basis. The danger area will not be
depicted for tropical cyclones that transition to extratropical status.

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MARINE SAFETY ACTIONS


Review regional tropical cyclone climatology for area of expected operations.

Obtain latest Marine Prediction Center & Tropical Prediction Center analysis/forecast
charts; including surface, upper level, & Sea State (wind/wave) charts.
Locate & plot tropical (easterly) waves, disturbances, and tropical cyclones.
If available, examine current satellite imagery.
Obtain latest tropical cyclone advisory messages. Plot current/ forecast positions of all
active/ suspected tropical cyclone activity.
Plot completed tropical cyclone danger area to avoid chart.

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Determine possible courses of action (at least 2) for vessel to take in order to remain
clear of the Danger.
Evaluate current/nearby port & hurricane haven locations that may be considered for
tropical cyclone avoidance.
Calculate Closest Point of Approach (CPA) to tropical cyclone for all courses of action
based on latest forecast/ advisory.
Make decision on course of action to follow and execute. Continue to closely monitor
tropical cyclone's progress and review the actions listed here when new meteorological
analysis & forecast information becomes available.

1-2-3 RULE OF THUMB


1 - 100 mile error radius for 24hr forecast
2 - 200 mile error radius for 48hr forecast
3 - 300 mile error radius for 72hr forecast

STEPS TO DETERMINE THE HURRICANE DANGER AREA


Plot the initial and forecast hurricane positions on a navigation chart.
Find the maximum radius of 34 KT winds at the initial, 24, 48, and 72 hour forecast times
of the TCM.
Apply the 1-2-3 rule to each of the radii at the 24, 48, and 72 hour forecast positions.

Draw a circle around the hurricane initial position with radius equal to the maximum
radius of 34 KT winds given in the TCM.

Draw circles around the 24, 48, and 72 hour forecast positions of the hurricane using the
respective radii found in step 3.
Connect tangent lines to each circle constructed in steps 3 and 4 along both sides of the
hurricane track.
The area enclosed by these tangent lines is known as the danger area of the hurricane
and must be avoided as a vessel attempts to navigate in the vicinity of the hurricane

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Guidelines For Avoiding Hurricanes At Sea


In order to help account for the inherent errors in hurricane forecasting, a few guidelines
should be used by the mariner in order to limit the potential of a close encounter between ship
& storm.

34 KT Rule
For vessels at sea, avoiding the 34 KT wind field of a hurricane is paramount. 34 KT is chosen as
the critical value because as wind speed increases to this speed, sea state development
approaches critical levels resulting in rapidly decreasing limits to ship maneuverability. It also
deserves mention that the state of the sea outside of the radius of 34 KT winds can also be
significant enough as to limit course & speed options available to the mariner and must also be
considered when avoiding hurricanes.
1-2-3 Rule
This is the single most important aid in accounting for hurricane forecast track errors (FTE).
Understanding & use of this technique should be mandatory for any vessel operating near a
hurricane. The rule is derived from the latest 10-year average FTE associated with hurricanes in
the North Atlantic. Application of the rule requires information from the TCM and is extremely
important to remaining clear of a hurricane at sea. See Marine Safety Rules of Thumb at right
for details on applying this most important technique.
The 1-2-3 rule establishes a minimum recommended distance to maintain from a hurricane in
the Atlantic. Larger buffer zones should be established in situations with higher forecast
uncertainty, limited crew experience, decreased vessel handling, or other factors set by the
vessel master. The rule does not account for sudden & rapid intensification of hurricanes that
could result in an outward expansion of the 34 KT wind field. Also, the rule does not account for
the typical expansion of the wind field as a system transitions from hurricane to extratropical
gale/storm.

The Mariners 1-2-3 Rule was developed as an aid for mariners to avoid tropical cyclones by
accounting for forecast track errors and is a must for any mariner to know when navigating
near a hurricane or tropical storm.
The Mariners 1-2-3 Rule originally was an adaptation made from a US Navy training film A
Time for All measures in use during the early 1970s. Since the 1990s the Mariners 1-2-3
Rule has incorporated a danger zone by adding the 10-year average tropical cyclone forecast
track errors which were at the time, approximately 100 nm for each 24 hour forecast period
plus the radius of forecasted gale force (34 knot or higher) winds. The 34 knot or higher wind

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field was chosen as the critical wind speed because at this level or higher the wind and sea
conditions significantly limit ship maneuverability. When ship maneuverability is limited, then
course options are also significantly reduced.

There has been a significant improvement in cyclone track forecasting in recent years and we
should now revise the Mariners 1-2-3 rule to better reflect this improvement. According to Lee
Chesneau, owner of Chesneau Marine Weather and former Ocean Prediction Center
meteorologist we should consider revising the rule as follows:
The overall skills scores of the NHC for track location which the wind radii extends from, has
vastly improved. The 1-2-3 Rule today should include the more accurate skill score data that
adds up to about 1 degree of latitude (60nm) at 24 hours, 2 degrees (120nm) at 48 hours, and 3
degrees (180NM) at 72 hours.

Tropical Cyclone Track Errors

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For example, at 24 hours (1 degree of latitude or 60 nm) would be added to the right and left of
the track. At 48 hours the error is (2 x 1 degree or 120nm) and for 72 hours the error is (3 x 1
degree or 240nm). In addition to the allowance for track error, the forecasted radius of gale
force (34 knot or higher) wind field is also added. Therefore, if the 24 hour forecast shows gale
(34 knot or higher) winds will extend out to 120 nm, then the radius of danger would be 60nm
(the 24 hour average track error) plus 120 nm (radius of forecasted gale or higher winds) or a
total of 220 nm danger zone left and right of the forecasted track and position.

This then becomes the minimum distance to maintain from the hurricane center in 24 hours.
Keep in mind that larger safety zones should be considered whenever there is a high degree of
forecast uncertainty, limited crew experience, or limits on vessel handling. The rule also does
not account for sudden & rapid intensification of hurricanes that could result in significant
expansion of the 34 KT wind field or to the typical wind field expansion that occurs when a
hurricane transitions to an extra-tropical storm.

Proposed New Mariner's 1-2-3 Rule by Lee Chesneau of Lee Chesneau's Marine Weather

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The National Hurricane Center currently produces a Tropical Cyclone Danger Graphic
depicting the 1-2-3 Rule danger zone for tropical cyclones in both the North Atlantic and
Eastern North Pacific oceans but this graphic still uses the older average track error of 100NM
per 24 hours Perhaps it is time for NOAA to update this.

Effect of High Latitude on Compasses and Electronic Aids


Compasses
The magnetic compass can be erratic in the Arctic and is frequently of little use for navigation:

"The magnetic compass depends on its directive force upon the horizontal component of the
magnetic field of the earth. As the north magnetic pole is approached in the Arctic, the
horizontal component becomes progressively weaker until at some point the magnetic compass
becomes useless as a direction measuring device."
If the compass must be used the error should be checked frequently by celestial observation
and, as the rate of change of variation increases as the pole is approached, reference must be
made to the variation curve or rose on the chart.
The gyro compass is as reliable in the Arctic as it is in more southerly latitudes, to a latitude of
about 70oN. North of 70oN special care must be taken in checking its accuracy. Even with the
compensation given by the latitude corrector on certain makes of compass, the gyro continues
to lose horizontal force until, north of about 85N, it becomes unusable. The manual for the
gyro compass should be consulted before entering higher latitudes. The numerous alterations
in course and speed and collisions with ice can have an adverse effect on its accuracy.
Therefore, when navigating in the Arctic:
the ship's position should be cross-checked with other navigation systems, such as
electronic position fixing devices, where course history could be compared with course
steered (allowing for wind and current); and
the gyro error should be checked whenever atmospheric conditions allow, by azimuth or
amplitude.
Radar
In general, Arctic or cold conditions do not affect the performance of radar systems.
Occasionally weather conditions may cause ducting, which is the bending of the radar beam
because of a decline in moisture content in the atmosphere. This effect may shorten or
lengthen target detection ranges, depending on the severity and direction of the bending. A

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real problem with radar in the Arctic concerns interpretation of the screen for purposes of
position fixing.
Position Fixing

Problems encountered with position fixing arise from either mistaken identification of shore
features or inaccurate surveys. Low relief in some parts of the Arctic make it hard to identify
landmarks or points of land. Additionally, ice piled up on the shore or fast ice may obscure the
coastline. For this reason radar bearings or ranges should be treated with more caution than
measurements in southern waters. Visual observations are always preferable. Sometimes it is
possible to fix the position of grounded icebergs and then to use the iceberg for positioning
further along the track, if performed with caution.
Large areas of the Arctic have not yet been surveyed to the same standards as areas further
south, and even some of the more recently produced charts are based on aerial photography.
To decrease the possibility of errors, three lines (range, or less preferably bearings) should
always be used for positions. Fixes using both sides of a channel or lines from two different
survey areas should be avoided. Because of potential problems, fixes in the Arctic should
always be compared with other information sources, such as electronic positioning systems.
Global Positioning System (GPS)

The Global Positioning System, or GPS, is a space-based radio-navigation system which permits
users with suitable receivers, on land, sea or in the air, to establish their position, speed and
time at any time of the day or night, in any weather conditions.

The navigational system consists nominally of 24 operational satellites in six orbital planes, and
an orbital radius of 26,560 kilometres (about 10,900 nautical miles above the earth). Of the 24
satellites, 21 are considered fully operable and the remaining 3 although functioning, deemed
spares. The orbital planes are inclined at 55 o to the plane of the equator and the orbital period
is approximately 12 hours. This satellite constellation allows a receiver on earth to receive
multiple signals from a number of satellites 24 hours a day. The satellites continuously transmit
ranging signals, position and time data which is received and processed by GPS receivers to
determine the users three-dimensional position (latitude, longitude, altitude), velocity and
time.
GPS was declared initially operational in December 1993 with full operational capability being
declared in July 1995. GPS provides two levels of service - a Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
for general public use, and a Precise Positioning Service (PPS) primarily intended for the use of
the U.S. military. The SPS point accuracies within 100 metres in the horizontal plane and 156
metres in the vertical plane, 95% of the time. However, the US Department of Defense,
deliberately introduced errors in the satellites clock oscillator frequency in a seemingly

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random, though controlled manner, consequently degrading the accuracy to those given for
SPS. This deliberate introduction of errors is known as Selective Availability. The US president
has proclaimed that the level of SA will be reduced to zero within the next seven years and
when this occurs the horizontal position accuracy for stand alone civilian GPS receivers will
improve from the previously stated 100 metre level to the 30 metre level.1
Although the satellites orbit the earth in a 55 o plane, the positional accuracy all over the globe
is generally considered consistent at the 100 metre level. For a ship at a position 55 North or
South latitude or closer to the pole, the satellites would be in a constellation around the ship
with the receiver actually calculating the ships Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP) with
satellites possibly on the other side of the pole. With a ship at or near the north pole all the
satellites would be to the south, but well distributed in azimuth creating a strong fix. The
exception to this is the vertical component of a position which will grow weaker the further
north a ships sails because above 55 oN there will not be satellites orbiting directly overhead.

Other than Selective Availability, there are a variety of sources of error which can introduce
inaccuracies into GPS fixes especially in polar regions such as tropospheric delays and
ionospheric refraction in the auroral zone. The troposphere varies in thickness from less than 9
kilometers over the poles to over 16 kilometers on the equator which can contribute to
propagation delays due to the signals being refracted be electromagnetic signal propagation.
This error is minimized by accurate models and calculations performed within the GPS receiver
itself. The ionospheric refraction in the auroral zone (the same belt in which the aurora borealis
/ aurora australis phenomena occur) caused by solar and geomagnetic storms will cause some
error. Sunspot activity is on an 11 year cycle and this activity is expected to peak at about the
year 2000.1

One minor advantage of the drier, polar environment is the efficiency of the receiver to process
satellite data. In warmer, marine climatic conditions it is more difficult to model a wet
atmosphere. 1

If the datum used by the GPS receiver in calculating latitude and longitude is different from the
datum of the chart in use, errors will occur when GPS derived positions are plotted on the
chart. GPS receivers can be programmed to output latitude and longitude based on a variety of
stored datums. Since 1986 the Canadian Hydrographic Service has converted some CHS charts
to NAD 83. Information on the chart will describe the horizontal datum used for that chart and
for those not referenced to NAD 83, corrections will be given to convert NAD 83 positions to
the datum of the chart. The title block of the chart will describe the horizontal datums used for
the chart and will give the corrections to convert from the datum of the chart to NAD 83 and
vice versa.

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1 Richard Langley, GPS World, March 1997, July 97 and Telephone Interview
A Users Guide to GPS and DGPS CCG, Marine Navigation Services, Ottawa, Canada, August,
1998

Radios
Radio communications in the Arctic, other than line of sight, are subject to interference from
ionospheric disturbances. Whenever communications are established alternative frequencies
should be agreed upon before the signal degrades. Use of multiple frequencies and relays
through other stations are the only methods of avoiding such interference.
INMARSAT
Use of INMARSAT services in the Arctic is the same as in the south, until the ship approaches
the edge of the satellite reception. At high latitudes where the altitude of the satellite is only a
few degrees above the horizon, signal strength is dependent on the height of the receiving dish
and the surrounding land. The 1990 repositioning of the Atlantic West satellite has extended its
area of coverage to include most of Lancaster Sound and Barrow Strait.

As the ship leaves the satellite area of coverage the strength of the link with the satellite will
become variable, gradually decline, and then become unusable. When the strength has
diminished below that useable for voice communications, it may still be possible to send
telexes. Upon the ship's return to the satellite area of coverage there may be problems in
obtaining the satellite signal and keeping it until the elevation is well above the horizon.
MSAT - A Regional Communications Satellite System
Early in 1996 a new telecommunications network, called MSAT, was commercially introduced.
MSAT is a Canadian-owned satellite-based network targeted primarily towards mobile users
operating in rural and remote areas. Currently the initial services include: voice (telephone), 4.8
kbps data, facsimile, dispatch radio, electronic mail and voice mail.
MSAT Mobile Communicators are compact, with antennas approximately 20 centimetres high
and 20 centimetres in diameter and have been specifically developed for marine applications.
The equipment and service costs are significantly lower than those charged by international
mobile satellite service providers and due to the satellite's optimal geostationary position over
the equator, excellent coverage is available over the Arctic, the Caribbean and 200 nautical
miles off the east and west coasts of North America.
The MSAT equipment was successfully used from Halifax en route to Resolute, Cambridge Bay
and Tuktoyaktuk during an evaluation of the satellite's coverage in the 1996 shipping season.

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MSAT provided a reliable, efficient and inexpensive method for the reception of ice information
in the form of verbal consultation, the paper facsimile generation of ice charts, and electronic
mail of text descriptions of ice conditions from the Canadian Ice Service to the ship. The only
weak link has been the dissemination of large graphics files such as SLAR or RADARSAT imagery
because they are just too big to be sent through the current 4.8 kbps data processors.
MSAT Network upgrades being introduced will include packet-switched communications for
applications such as vessel tracking using Global Positioning System technologies.

Errors of magnetic compass:-


1. VARIATION
The true North Pole and the magnetic north pole are not located at the same spot. This
variation causes a magnetic compass needle to point more or less away from true north. The
amount the needle is offset is called variation because the amount varies at different points
on Earths surface. Even in the same locality variation usually does not remain constant, but
increases or decreases at a certain known rate annually.

The variation for any given locality, together with the amount of annual increase or decrease,
is shown on the compass rose of the chart for that particular locality.

Remember: If the annual variation is an increase, you add; if it is a decrease, you subtract
How to calculate variation from compass rose.

To find the amount of variation in this locality in1995, count the number of years since 1990
(in this case 5); Multiply that by the amount of annual increase;(which here gives you 5 X 1,
or 5); add that to the variation in 1990 and you have a 1995 variation of1450 W
Variation remains the same for any heading of the ship at a given locality. No matter which

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way the ship is heading, the magnetic compass, if affected only by variation, points
steadily in the general direction of the magnetic north pole.
2. DEVIATION

The amount a magnetic compass needle is deflected by


magnetic material in the ship is called deviation.Although deviation remains a constant
for any given compass heading, it is not the same on all headings. Deviation gradually inc
reases, decreases, increases, and decreases again as the ship goes through an entire 360
of swing.

The magnetic steering compass is located in the pilothouse, where


it is affected considerably by deviation. Usually the standard compass is topside, where
the magnetic forces producing deviation are not as strong. Courses and bearings by these
compasses must be carefully differentiated by the abbreviations PSC
(per standard compass), PSTGC (per steering compass), and PGC (per gyrocompass). The
standard compass provides a means for checking the steering
compass and the gyrocompass.
3. Turning Error
A turn from the north lags or indicates a turn in the opposite direction. So to roll out on the
correct heading one must roll out of the turn, past the correct heading.A turn from the south
leads. So to roll out on the correct heading one must roll out of the turn, before reaching the
correct heading.

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REMEMBER: THE SOUTH LEADS AND THE NORTH LAGS and THERE IS NO ACCELERATION /
DECELERATION ERROR ON A NORTH OR SOUTH HEADING.
4. Acceleration and Deceleration Error

When on an east or west heading, any increase in airspeed (Acceleration) will cause the
magnetic compass to indicate a false turn toward the north, and any decrease in airspeed
(deceleration) will cause the magnetic compass to indicate a false turn toward the south.
REMEMBER: ACCELERATE NORTH & DECELERATE SOUTH and THERE IS NO TURNING ERROR
ON A EAST OR WEST HEADING.
5. Oscillation Error
This error is caused by turbulence or rough control movements and results in erratic
movement of the compass card.
Oscillation is a combination of all of the other errors, and it results in the compass card
swinging back and forth around the heading being flown. When setting the gyroscopic
heading indicator to agree with the magnetic compass, use the average indication between
the swings.

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6. Magnetic dip Error


Magnetic dip is the tendency of the compass needles to point down as well as to the magnetic
pole. Dip is greatest near the poles and least near the Magnetic Equator. The compass card is
designed to operate in the horizontal, therefore, any movement from the horizontal plane
introduces dip error.
The needle of your magnetic compass will be parallel with Earths surface at the Magnetic
Equator, but will point increasing downward as it is moved closer to the Magnetic Pole.
Northerly turning error is due to the mounting of the compass. Since the card is balanced in
fluid, when the aircraft turns, the card is also banked as a result of centrifugal force. While
the card is banked, the vertical component of the Earths magnetic field causes the north-
seeking ends of the compass to dip to the low side of the turn. When making a turn from a
northerly heading, the compass briefly gives an indication of a turn in the opposite direction.
When making a turn from the south, it gives an indication of a turn in the correct direction
but at a faster rate.

Acceleration error is also due to the dip of the Earths magnetic field. Because of the way the
compass card is mounted, the aft end of the compass card is tilted upward when accelerating,
and downward when decelerating during airspeed changes. This error is most pronounced on
an east / west heading. When accelerating on an east or west heading, the error indicates a
turn to the north. When decelerating on an east or west heading the error is toward the
south.

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Passage Planning as Chief Mate

Although Passage Planning is ultimately the responsibility of the Master, the task of double-
checking the Passage Planning Officer's work is often delegated to the Chief Mate. It is fairly
common to be asked what you'd be concerned with as Chief Mate when it comes to Passage
Planning, and the examiner probably doesn't want to hear the old APEM - he already
knows you know that. So, what does he want to hear?

What would a Chief Officer be concerned with in relation to Passage Planning?

Waste Management
Load Line Zones
Expected Navigation
Weather Conditions
Hours of Work and Rest
Maintenance
Ballast Water Management
Stability
Security

"As Chief Officer I would need to consider a lot of things when looking at the Passage Plan. I
would need to look at how I can keep my ship and my crew in compliance with all Regulations
whilst ensuring that the crew get adequate rest.

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Of course, we would need to ensure that we are navigating in Load Line Zones that we are
allowed to navigate in this would be done by checking the Load Line Zone Map in Ocean
Passages for the World, or in the Load Line Regulations themselves. The weather conditions
would of course be important we would need to look at the forecast weather and possibly
alter the passage plan while en route if the forecast changes, to make sure that we do not put
the vessel in heavy weather and that we take the most navigationally advantageous route with
regards to wind and current.

If doing a trans-ocean passage, Ballast Water Management would need to be considered


depending on which method we use, the stability of the ship would need to be taken into
account to make sure we are always in compliance with the intact stability criteria, particularly
if carrying out D1-method Ballast Water Exchange via the Sequential method, as we did on my
last ship.

Id take a look at the planned maintenance that needs to be done, and make sure each job is
done at the best possible time, and that it is planned well in advance for efficiency.

The expected navigational requirements during the voyage would also be important when are
we going to need a Senior Officer on the Bridge, or when will there be a pilot onboard? All of
this needs to be considered so that I as Chief Officer can plan ahead to ensure all crewmembers
are within their Hours of Work and Rest. If transiting through dangerous areas also, the Security
of the ship needs to be considered."

Tropical storms form whenever sea temperatures rise above 27 C and can be up to 650km
across. They occur where the trade winds converge and often when the ITCZ has migrated to
its most Northerly extent allowing air to converge or come together at low levels. The suns
heat passes through our atmosphere and warms the ocean water throughout the
summer. The sea is constantly moving and heat is redistributed to deeper parts of the ocean
so this takes quite some time (this is why hurricanes occur in late summer - when sea
temperature is at its highest).
This causes the seas temperature to rise to 27C and above, which encourages evaporation
and the rising of air and water vapour up through the atmosphere in thermals (find out more
from USA Today.com).
As these thermals rise the temperature drops (at 9.7C per 1000m ascent or the

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DALR). Progressively the relative humidity rises as the air ascends (as cooler air can hold less
water vapour than warmer air), eventually this causes the water vapour to condense into tiny
droplets around dust and pollen (condensation nuclei). These droplets collide together to
form bigger droplets and thus helps to form huge cumulonimbus clouds. Latent heat is
released during condensation fuelling the storm further. Eventually these droplets will collide
and coalesce with one another, become bigger and fall as rain. As a result of condensation,
latent heat is released and te air cools at a slower rate, the SALR, this fuels the storm further.
Because the air has risen in the centre of this storm, an area of low atmospheric pressure
exists at the surface. The Earth's atmosphere acts to balance this out as air rushes from
surrounding high pressure areas to the centre of the storm along the pressure gradient. This
creates the high winds in the storm, and the lower the pressure gets in the centre of the
storm relative to the pressure surrounding the storm, the stronger the winds will become as
the pressure gradient steepens.
The whole storm slowly migrates across oceans towards land, and because of the Earths
rotation or spin (known as the Coriolis force or effect (click here to see an animation)), the
whole storm starts to spiral around a central more calm point, known as the eye. The
pressures and weather are more stable in the eye, as the updrafts of air are balanced by
descending cooled air.
As tropical storms pass over land they lose their source of energy, and the die out.

Why do tropical cyclones require 80F (26.5C) ocean temperatures to form ?


Contributed by Chris Landsea (NHC)
Tropical cyclones can be thought of as engines that require warm, moist air as fuel (Emanuel
1987). This warm, moist air cools as it rises in convective clouds (thunderstorms) in the
rainbands and eyewall of the hurricane The water vapor in the cloud condenses into water
droplets releasing the latent heat which originally evaporated the water. This latent heat
provides the energy to drive the tropical cyclone circulation, though actually very little of the
heat released is utilized by the storm to lower its surface pressure and increase the wind
speeds.
In 1948 Erik Palmen observed that tropical cyclones required ocean temperatures of at least
80F (26.5C) for their formation and growth. Later work (e.g., Gray 1979) also pointed out the
need for this warm water to be present through a relatively deep layer (~150 ft, 50 m) of the
ocean. This 80F value is tied to the instability of the atmosphere in the tropical and subtropical
latitudes. Above this temperature deep convection can occur, but below this value the
atmosphere is too stable and little to no thunderstorm activity can be found ( Graham and
Barnett 1987).

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Ocean currents and gyres

East Greenland
North Icelandic
Arctic Ocean
Norwegian
Transpolar Drift Stream

Angola
Antilles
Azores
Currents Baffin Island
Benguela
Brazil
Atlantic Ocean
Canary
Cape Horn
Caribbean
East Greenland
East Iceland
Falkland

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Florida
Guinea
Gulf Stream
Irminger
Labrador
Lomonosov
Loop
North Atlantic
North Brazil
North Equatorial
Norwegian
Portugal
Slope Jet
South Atlantic
South Equatorial
West Greenland
West Spitsbergen

Agulhas
Agulhas Return
East Madagascar
Indian Ocean
Equatorial Counter
Indian Monsoon
Indonesian Throughflow

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Leeuwin
Madagascar
Mozambique
Somali
South Australian
South Equatorial
West Australian

Alaska
Aleutian
California
Cromwell
Davidson
East Australian
East Korea Warm
Equatorial Counter
Pacific Ocean
Humboldt
Indonesian Throughflow
Kamchatka
Kuroshio
Mindanao
North Equatorial
North Korea Cold
North Pacific

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Oyashio
South Equatorial
Tasman Front

Antarctic Circumpolar
Southern Ocean
Tasman Outflow

Indian Ocean Gyre


North Atlantic Gyre
Major gyres South Atlantic Gyre
North Pacific Gyre

Gyres South Pacific Gyre

Beaufort Gyre
Other gyres Ross Gyre
Weddell Gyre

What's the difference between a tide and a current?


Tides go up and down; currents move left and right.

Tides create a current in the oceans, near the shore, and in bays and estuaries along the coast.
Pictured: Lowtide in Islesboro, Maine.

Tides are driven by the gravitational force of the moon and sun. Tides are characterized by
water moving up and down over a long period of time.

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When used in association with water, the term "current" describes the motion of the water.
Oceanic currents are driven by several factors. One is the rise and fall of the tides. Tides create
a current in the oceans, near the shore, and in bays and estuaries along the coast. These are
called "tidal currents." Tidal currents are the only type of currents that change in a very regular
pattern and can be predicted for future dates.
A second factor that drives ocean currents is wind. Winds drive currents that are at or near the
ocean's surface. These currents are generally measured in meters per second or in knots (1 knot
= 1.85 kilometers per hour or 1.15 miles per hour). Winds drive currents near coastal areas on a
localized scale and in the open ocean on a global scale.
A third factor that drives currents is thermohaline circulation - a process driven by density
differences in water due to temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) in different parts of the
ocean. Currents driven by thermohaline circulation occur at both deep and shallow ocean levels
and move much slower than tidal or surface currents.

What is the difference between ocean current, tidal stream and drifts?
Ocean currents are the result of the movement of water due to rotation of the Earth on it axis.
It also occurs when warmer water from the equatorial region goes to the polar region, as to fill
in the vacuum, created by colder water sinking to greater depths. So between equitorial region
to polar region, warmer water flows on the surface & from polar to equitorial region,below the
depths.
Tidal stream is the last & the first movements of water of the ebb & rising tide. Here at least in
the first hour, the speed is very less, as compared to ocean currents, where huge bodies of
water move from one continent to another.
Drifts are any buoyed up body moved by surface water movements &/or movement caused by
winds.

Waves are caused by the action of wind on the surface of the ocean and the winds are in turn
caused by the heat of the Sun.
Currents
The sun's heat on the equator heats the oceans whereas at the north and south polar regions
the ocean water is not heated as much.
Cold water is denser than warm so the cold water tends to flow along the bottom of the ocean.

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In order to maintain a level warm water flows in the opposite direction at the surface. This sets
up the complex pattern of currents.
Tides
Tides are caused by the gravity of both the Moon and the Sun

How to do Intentional Grounding or Beaching of a Ship?


The master of the ship is the overall in charge of the operations while trading in international
waters. When it comes to safety of the crew and ship, he has to quickly decide the course of
action keeping in mind the after effects of the same.
One kind of emergency situation which can really test skills and ability of a ships captain is -
Beaching of the ship.
What is Beaching of the ship?

Beaching is a process wherein during an emergency situation a ship is intentionally taken


towards shallow waters and at last grounded.
The word Beaching is used for such process because the type of emergency grounding is done
only in those areas where the ground is of soft mud or sand (as in a Beach) in order to avoid
damage to ships hull, propeller, rudder etc.
Why Beaching is done?
The three main reasons for which Beaching of ship is done are:

To prevent loss of ship due to flooding when there is major damage below the water
line of the ship

To refloat the ship when satisfactory repair has been done and water tight integrity is
restored
In order to hand it over to the scrap yard
Procedure to Perform Beaching of Ship:
Ballast the ship to its maximum capacity
Check where the damage is more-bow side or stern side. Head with the damage side for
beaching with 90 o to the tides
Take all measure to avoid ship going parallel to the beach (throw weather anchor first)

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If approaching from astern due to stern damage, drop both the anchor at good distance
so that they can assist the vessel in heaving when going water
Sounding of all tanks must be done before and after beaching

Beaching (by own will)

Sometimes, in case of emergency, the master may decide, by his own will or in agreement with
the Insurance Company and/or the
P & I Club, to run his ship aground, in order :
to save what can be saved
to avoid a dramatic collision

to avoid to be caught on the lee shore in very bad weather (e.g. engine breakdown or
when the engines are not powerful enough to ride the storm)
to avoid the ship from stranding where salvaging would be too difficult or even
impossible (rocks, breakers, heavy current)
to avoid the ship from sinking in deep water (which would make the salvage of the crew,
ship and/or cargo easier and less costly)
Take at least following actions:
Engines stopped
Sound general alarm
Watertight doors to be closed
VHF watch maintained on channel 16
Broadcast to other vessels

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Sound signals, Light / Shapes to be exhibited


Deck lighting switched on
If necessary, use anchors
Sound bilges, tanks and overside around vessel (see also Stranding
Evaluate risks of pollution
Inform company and any third parties if relevant
Update if necessary vessel's position in radio room, satellite terminal and other
automatic distress transmitter (GMDSS)
Consider danger of the situation and if possible take pictures
Consider further actions with consideration for:
o salvage
o risks of sinking (emergency message, EPIRB's, abandon ship)
o secure position (change of tide, weather, stream, stress risks, stability)
o assistance, port of refuge, oil spills
Keep the Company always informed
Enter every action taken in the log book

BEACHING PROCEDURE AND PRECAUTIONS:-


>IF TIME AND PREVAILING CIRCUMSTANCES ALLOW, TAKE FULL BALLAST. THIS WILL MAKE THE
REFLOATING MUCH EASIER.
>SLACK WATER AFTER THE HIGH TIDE IS THE BEST TIME TO BEACH THE VESSEL.
>APPROACH THE BEACH AT RIGHT ANGLES. ALLOWANCE SHALL BE MADE FOR WIND AND TIDE.
> LAY OUT THE ANCHORS AND CABLES AT THE PROPER POSITIONS.
>KEEP ENOUGH STEERAGEWAY TO PREVENT DRIFT OF SEAWARD END.
>DO NOT STOP ENGINES IMMEDIATELY ON TOUCHING BOTTOM. DRIVE UP THE SHIP FIRMLY
ASHORE.REDUCE POSSIBILITY OF POUNDING.
>TAKING BALLAST IN THE END AGROUND AFTER BEACHING WILL HELP TO KEEP IT THERE
FIRMLY.
> SOUND ALL BILGES AND TANKS. INSPECT THE SHIP FOR DAMAGE.
HATCHES MAY HAVE SPRUNG FROM THEIR SEATING AND CAUSE FLOODING LATER.
>CHECK THE DEPTH OF WATER AROUND THE SHIP AND CONFIRM THE NATURE OF BOTTOM.

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>NOTE THE DRAFT. COMPARING WITH FLOATATION DRAFT GIVES A ROUGH IDEA OF THE LOST
BUOYANCY USING THE TPC FIGURES.

Beaching

A vessel may be beached for many reasons, maybe to save it from foundering in deep water or
to flood her, at a recoverable location, in the event of an uncontrolled fire, or simply to carry
out underwater repairs, inspections, or cleaning of a foul bottom.

Points to consider (during beaching):

select the beaching site carefully (if the time permits, consider the type of bottom, how
level is it, obstructions/obstacles present)

check details of tide (tidal heights, direction, tide times)

beach the vessel at 90o to the beach line (level ground)

beach approximately 1-2 hours after high water (to ensure sufficient water to refloat). If
unable to beach around this time period. Ballast the vessel to its maximum draft by
whatever reversible means needed to refloat it

stop engines prior to making contact (cooling water intake protection)

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once vessel has grounded, lay out anchors (fore and aft depending on weather
conditions)

if vessel is moving on bottom, add extra weights, if deep keel vessel, consider shoring up
(prevent vessel lying into the sea for refloating purposes).

Refloating:

attempt to refloat as soon as vessel reaches flotation draft, remove ballast if it was added
- maintain an even trim

bleed cooling systems

use anchors to kedge the vessel.

Modified Lateral Buoys and Marks for 'A Region'

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Modified Lateral Buoys and Marks for 'B Region'

Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners : What is NP247(1)?


The annual summary of admiralty notices to mariners, also popularly known by its publication
number NP 247 (1) and (2), is a publication issued by admiralty (UKHO) on yearly basis. The
notices advice mariners on important matters related to ships navigation, hydro graphic
information, aids to navigation, and changes in shipping channels.

The current edition of Notices to Mariners, superseding and cancelling the previous one, is
divided into two sections. This annual summary is of prime importance to mariners in
keeping navigational chart folio up to date for corrections pertaining to temporary and

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preliminary notices for ships navigation and sailing directions. The annual summary serves as a
database with details of history of corrections for all the charts and sailing directions published
by the British Admiralty or UKHO.

The Annual Summary of Admiralty notices to mariners is divided into two parts:
1. NP 247(1)
2. NP 247(2)
What are the contents of NP 247(1)?
In this publication the contents are in two sections namely
Section 1 Annual Notices to
Mariners
Section 2 Temporary and Preliminary Notices

Starting with an index which consists of a note displaying that the current annual summary
replaces the previous one, which should be cancelled and destroyed, the first section deals with
annual notices for the current year for e.g. an edition of 2013 of Annual summary would deal
with notices applicable till the end of year 2012 comprehensively.
A detailed index of notices is provided regarding navigational importance with respect to the
British Isles, along with vital information about tide tables, suppliers of admiralty charts and
publications, safety of British ships in event of war crisis, voluntary reporting schemes, firing
practice areas, mine laying operations, protection of historic, dangerous and military wreck
sites etc.

The publication also includes an exhaustive list of traffic separation schemes and information
related to ship routeing system shown on admiralty charts. It contains port state notifications
issued under the EU Directives and some parts of ship navigation related regulations issued by
the United States. The annex provided with the notice contains extracts from the US navigation
safety rules.
The second important section of the navigation publication contains a numerical index of
temporary and preliminary notices which are in force since the end of the previous year. The
index is preceded by further detailed description of each notice mentioned in it, thus enabling
mariners to check any chart or any T & P correction applicable to the chart right from its edition
date. This information is significant for mariners to keep a track of any previous notice that has

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been missed out, cancelled or not in force any further. Mariners can thus always refer to the
Annual Summary and keep their navigational chart folios up to date.
Important Notes: Often during Oil Major Inspections observations, navigational charts are
found marked with Temporary and Preliminary notices which are no more in force or have been
cancelled or some notices are found missing. Thus while preparing for such inspections, the
ships navigating officer can always refer to Annual Summary of Notice to appraise the status of
corrections before planning passage in order to keep navigational charts up to date.

What is Annual Summary Of Admiralty Notices To Mariners?


The annual summary of admiralty notices to mariners, also popularly known by its
publication number NP 247 (1) and (2), is a publication issued by Admiralty (UKHO)on yearly
basis. The notices advice mariners on important matters related to ships navigation,
hydrographic information, aids to navigation, and changes in shipping channels.

Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners (NP247) contains the Annual Statutory
Notices to Mariners Numbers 1-26, a summary of Temporary and Preliminary Notices to
Mariners still in force at the start of the year, and a Cumulative Summary of Amendments to
Admiralty Sailing Directions.
Published at the beginning of the year in two parts .Namely 247(1) AND 247(2)

247(1) Annual notices to mariners ,Temporary and preliminary Notices to Mariners still in
force at the start of the year,
247(2) Cummulative summary of amendments to current editions of all volumes of sailing
direction and miscellaneous publication.
It contain the text of all updates to current editions of admiralty sailing direction as well as
miscellaneous publications.
It contains reprints of T/P notices
Corrections to sailing directions
Corrections for tide tables
Contents:-
SECTION 1 ANNUAL NOTICES TO MARINERS 126

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SECTION 2 TEMPORARY AND PRELIMINARY NOTICES

What is Admiralty List Of Notices To Mariners?

Admiralty NMs contain all the corrections, alterations and amendments for the UKHOs
worldwide series of Admiralty Charts and Publications. They are published weekly in several
formats but best known as the weekly booklets, which are despatched directl y from the
UKHO.
Admiralty Charts and Publications should be maintained so that they are fully up-to-date for
the latest safety-critical navigational information. The Admiralty Notices to Mariners service
provides all of the data you need to maintain our products.

What is Weekly Notices To Mariners (WNTM) and its sections?


1,079 Views

Navigationally significant changes to Nautical Charts , Lights , Fog signals , Radio signals and
sailing directions are published in weekly notice to mariners.
Reprints of all Radio navigational warnings in force and a summary of charts & publication
being published.
NOTE:-
1. Contains information, which enables the mariner to keep his charts and books
published by the hydrographic department up to date for the latest reports received.

2. They should be retained until the next annual summary to admiralty notices to
mariners is received.

3. However weekly editions dating as far back as 18 months may be required and must
be kept safely on board.
4. The hydrographer of the navy publishes them.
Contents Of WNTMs :

# T/P Notices On The Last Week Of The Month.


# List Of Publications In Current Usage Quarterly.
# List Of Enforced Navareas Quarterly.

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List Of Sections Of Weekly Notices To Mariners.


SECTION 1: Explanatory Notes, Use Of Charts And Associated Publications.

Asterix alongside these items of correction indicate original information i.e information
gathered by the british hydrographer and not by other countrys authorities
SECTION 2: Updates To Standard Navigatinal Charts & Admiralty NTMS,Temporary And
Preliminary Notices.
Items tagged PL are new editions of charts, suppliers information, chart corrections.
Last correction date is given below the actual correction.
1. Geographical Index.
2. Notice Number / Page / Chart / Folio Number.
3. Chart Number / Notice Number.
4. Blocks And Notes Accompanying Notices In This Section Are Placed Towards The End
Of This Sections.
SECTION 3: Reprints Of Radio Navigational Warnings
21 NAV areas to be filed, cancel as per cancellation or enforced list. Hydrolants and Hydropacs
to be filed along with nav warnings file itself.
They are issued by the united states coast guard:
HYDROLANTS: Warnings For Pacific And Indian Oceans.
HYDROPACS: Atlantic And Mediterranean Sea.
Section 4: Ammendments To Sailing Directions
Updates to all sailing directions are given under section 4, those enforced at the end of year
are reprinted in The Annual Summary Of Admiralty Notices to mariners part 2 , NP 274 (2)
SECTION 5: Ammendments To Admiralty List Of Lights And Fog Signals.

Updates of all list of lights are given in section 5 and may be published in an earlier editions
than the chart updating notices.
Astersk mark (*) indicates change in light.
Astersk mark (*) in all column of light indicates new light
SECTION 6: Ammendments To Admiralty List Of Radio Signals

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Updates to all the radio signals are given in section 6 .


Updates should be cut out and pasted into the appropriate volumes.
SECTION 7: Miscellaneous Publication Updates
Miscellaneous Publication Includes:
1. Mariner handbook.
2. Admiralty tide table.
3. Admiralty distance table.
4. Ocean passage for the world.
5. Nautical almanac publication.
6. IALA maritime buoyage system.
7. Symbols and abbreviations used on admiralty paper/charts.
8. Admiralty guide to ENC symbol used in ECDIS..
9. How to keep your admiralty products updates.
10. Paper chart maintenance record (NP133A)
SECTION 8 : Admiralty Digital Products And Services.
Information relevant to admiralty digital products and services.

What is Cumulative List of Admiralty Notices to Mariners (NP234) ?

The Cumulative List of Admiralty Notices to Mariners(NP 234 A/B) records the date of issue of
the current edition of each navigational chart and of subsequent relevant Notices to Mariners
issued since last published cumulative list of admiralty notices to mariners i.e ( issued date is
clearly mentioned on the first page).
Chart numbers refer to navigational charts in the Admiralty series, including adopted
Australian, New Zealand and Japanese charts (indicated by the prefixes AUS, NZ and JP
respectively).
The edition date quoted indicates the month and year of publication of the current edition of
navigational charts; that publication may have been in the form of a new chart or a new

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edition (the relevant date is given in the bottom outside margin of the chart). A chart carrying
an earlier edition date than that quoted in this list is no longer valid and should be replaced.
The Cumulative List of Admirality Notices to Mariners (NP234 A/B) assists users who wish to
identify outstanding NMs and audit trails for a particular chart or charts. The list is published
annually, with Part A in January and Part B in July. The Cumulative List of Admiralty Notices
to Mariners is available without subscription from Admiralty Distributors.

Cumulative List of Admiralty Notices to Mariners records the date of issue of the current
edition of each navigational chart and of subsequent relevant Notices to Mariners issued
since
1. Published in January and June/ July of each year .
2. A list of all nautical charts available and a complete list of all notice to mariners
affecting them during the previous two years.

When Should Officer on Watch (OOW) Call the Ships Master?


The Officer on Watch (OOW) when on duty is in charge of the ships navigation and safety.
While on the bridge, he is the representative of the ships master and must carry out all the
orders as put forth by the latter.

While navigating the ship, the officer in charge has to take independent decisions to ensure a
smooth passage of the ship. However, every shipping company provides a list of situations,
wherein the officer on watch must call the ships master to the bridge to avoid any kind of
danger for the ship.

These instructions are given in the shipboard operational procedures, and it is imperative for
every OOW to follow them.
Below is the checklist of situations, wherein the officer on watch should call the ships master
Danger to the ship because of traffic or movement of other ships
Danger to ship or ships stability because of heavy weather
Malfunctioning of alarms or signalling equipment
On encountering restricted visibility

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Difficulty in maintaining a proper course


Breakdown of propulsion system, steering gear, or machinery
Malfunctioning of radio equipment
During manoeuvring
On sighting land or navigation mark that can turn out to be dangerous
Breakdown of essential navigational equipment
On encountering navigational hazards such as rocks, icebergs, or shipwrecks
Failure to sight land or navigation mark
Sudden change in sounding or readings at inappropriate time
On encountering suspicious ship or boat heading towards the ship
On receiving emergency or important message from nearby port or ship
On encountering any suspicious floating object in piracy affected area

Apart from the above mentioned situations, the officer in charge should always call the master
in case of an emergency or when in doubt about a particular situation.
Once on the ship, the master would take the control of the ship. This has to be recorded in the
ships logbook.

What is Continuous Synopsis Record (CSR) of Ships?


Continuous synopsis record is a special measure under Safety of life at sea (SOLAS) for
enhancing the maritime security at the sea. According to SOLAS chapter i, all passenger
and cargo ships of 500 gross-tonnage and above must have a continuous synopsis record on
board.
The continuous synopsis record provides an onboard record of the history of the ship with
respect to the information recorded therein.

Continuous synopsis record (CSR) is issued by the administration of the ship, which would fly its
flag.
Following details should be present in the continuous synopsis record (CSR)

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Name of the ship


The port at which the ship is registered
Ships identification number
Date on which ship was registered with the state
Name of the state whose flag the ship is flying
Name of registered owner and the registered address
Name of registered bareboat charterers and their registered addresses
Name of the classification society with which the ship is classed
Name of the company, its registered address and the address from where safety
management activities are carried out
Name of the administration or the contracting government or the recognized
organization which has issued the document of compliance, specified in the ISM code,
to the company operating the ship.
Name of the body which has carried out the audit to issue the document of compliance

Name of the administration or the contracting government or the recognized


organization which has issued the safety management certificate (SMC) to the ship and
the name of the body which has issued the document
Name of the administration or the contracting government or the recognized
organization which has issued the international ship security certificate, specified in
the ISPS code, to the ship and the name of the body which has carried out the
verification on the basis of which the certificate was issued
The date of expiry of the ships registration with the state
Any changes made related to the above mentioned points should be mentioned in the
continuous synopsis record. Officially, the record should be in English, Spanish, or French
language; however, a translation in the language of the administration may be provided.
The continuous synopsis record shall always be kept on board ship and shall be available for
inspection all the time.
The Continuous Synopsis Record (CSR) is mentioned in SOLAS Chapter XI-1.

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What is Chain Register and its contents ?


It is a booklet called form 99, in an approved format which is to be maintained upto date as
per requirement of the dock safety regulation and endorsed & signed by a competent
person as required. It contains certificate of tests and registers all reports of examination of
load bearing machinery, chains and wire ropes before they are put in use.
The tests, examinations and inspections indicated in this register are based on the
requirements of ILO Convention. They are intended to ensure that ships having lifting
appliances are initially certified by a competent person, and to establish periodically that they
continue to be in safe working order to the satisfaction of a
Cover:
1. Name of Ship
2. Official Number
3. Call Sign
4. Port of Registry
5. Name of Owner
6. Register Number
7. Date of Issue
8. Issued by
9. Signature and Stamp
Part I: Entries concerning four yearly examinations and annual examinations.
Part II: Contains entries concerning thorough annual examinations of cranes, winches and
hoists. Accessory gear other than derricks is also included.
Part III: For entries concerning the thorough annual examination of gear exempted from
annealing.
Part IV: For entries concerning the annealing of gear.
The last page contains some recommended factors of safety. e.g.
Chain/Wire = 5
Rope = 6

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Derrick = 9
Test certificates are attached to the register by means of gummed strips provided on
the inside of the cover.

The register is designed by the dockyard for 8 years and must be retained on board for
a period of four more years after the new one comes into force.
Definitions
The term competent person means a person possessing the knowledge and experience
required for the performance of thorough examinations and tests of lifting appliances and
loose gear and who is acceptable to the competent authority.
The term competent authority means a minister, government department or other
authority empowered to issue regulations, orders or other instructions having the force of
law.

The term responsible person means a person appointed by the master of the ship or the
owner of the gear to be responsible for the performance of inspections and has sufficient
knowledge and experience to undertake such inspections.

The term thorough examination means a detailed visual examination by a competent


person, supplemented if necessary by other suitable means or measures in order to arrive at a
reliable conclusion as to the safety of the lifting appliance or item of loose gear examined.

The term inspection means a visual inspection carried out by a responsible person to
decided whether, so far as can be ascertained in such manner, the loose gear or sling is safe
for continued use.
The term lifting appliance covers all stationary or mobile cargo-handling appliances used on
board ship for suspending, raising or lowering loads or moving them from one position to
another while suspended or supported.

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