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HBRC Journal (2017) 13, 2538

Housing and Building National Research Center

HBRC Journal

http://ees.elsevier.com/hbrcj

Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis


of concrete deep beam reinforced with GFRP bars
Ibrahim M. Metwally

Concrete Structures Research Inst., Housing & Building Research Centre, P.O. Box 1770, Cairo, Egypt

Received 20 June 2014; revised 2 November 2014; accepted 19 February 2015

KEYWORDS Abstract The efcient use of FRP reinforcement in deep members has been hindered due to a lack
Deep beam; of knowledge on the behavior of such members. Till now, most of researches have mainly focused
GFRP bars; on the exural or shear behavior of shallow members longitudinally reinforced with FRP and most
Finite element; of them used testing at small scales. This paper presents numerical investigation of twelve large-
ABAQUS scale concrete deep beams internally reinforced with GFRP bars without web reinforcement failed
in shear which were experimentally tested and collected from literature. The collected specimens
cover several parameters which usually inuenced strength and behavior of deep beams as shear
span/depth ratio, the reinforcement ratio, the effective depth, and the concrete strength.
Concrete deep beams are generally analyzed using conventional methods such as empirical equa-
tions or strut and tie models. These methods however do not take into account the redistribution
of forces resulting from non-linear materials behaviors. To address this issue, non-linear nite ele-
ment analysis that incorporates non-linear material behavior as ABAQUS package is used. It was
found efcient in handling such analysis; the proposed simulation of the material in the present
study is capable of predicting the real behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam reinforced with
GFRP bars in terms of loaddeection behavior, failure load, failure mode, crack propagation,
GFRP reinforcement strain, and concrete strain distribution, similar to the tested large scale deep
beams.
2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research
Center. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/
by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Introduction

Corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete structures leads to


cracking and spalling of concrete, resulting in costly mainte-
E-mail address: dr_ibrahimmetwally@yahoo.com
nance and repair. An innovative solution to such a problem
Peer review under responsibility of Housing and Building National
can be provided by using ber-reinforced polymer (FRP) as
Research Center.
an alternative to steel reinforcement. FRPs are corrosion-free
materials and have recently shown a great potential for use
in structural applications because of their high strength-to-
Production and hosting by Elsevier weight ratio. Therefore, replacing the steel reinforcement with
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.02.006
1687-4048 2015 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research Center.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
26 I.M. Metwally

the non-corrosive FRP reinforcement eliminates the potential concrete structures and, therefore, they must be taken into
of corrosion and the associated deterioration. Extensive account in predicting their ultimate load capacity as well as
research programs have been conducted to investigate the service behavior. Failure to do so simply means that the redis-
exural and shear behavior of slender (shallow) concrete mem- tribution of stresses in the structure is not taken into account
bers reinforced with FRP reinforcement [1]. Very little experi- [4]. Thus, the development of an alternative analysis method
mental data and nearly no nite element analysis exist for by FE is needed to understand its behavior. As reported by
FRP-reinforced concrete deep beams. So, shear behavior of Enem et al. [4], nite element method (FEM) offers a powerful
them has not been sufciently understood. and general analytical tool for studying the behavior of rein-
The shear capacity of deep beams is a major issue in their forced concrete deep beams. Finite element method as a tool
design. The behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams is dif- can provide realistic and satisfactory solutions for linear and
ferent from that of slender beams because of their relatively nonlinear behavior of deep beam structural elements.
larger magnitude of shearing and normal stresses. Unlike slen- Accordingly, it is very needed to generate reliable FE models
der beams, deep beams transfer shear forces to supports that can be utilized to enhance the understanding of the
through compressive stresses rather than shear stresses. fundamental structural response of the FRP-reinforced deep
There are two kinds of cracks that typically develop in deep beams and hence optimize its design.
beams: exural cracks and diagonal cracks. Diagonal cracks The main objective of this study was to investigate capabili-
eliminate the inclined principal tensile stresses required for ties of the nite element simulation for further study on
beam action and lead to a redistribution of internal stresses GFRP-reinforced concrete deep beam behavior instead of con-
so that the beam acts as a tied arch. The arch action is a func- ducting expensive time consuming experimental works of
tion of a/d (shear span/depth) and the concrete compressive large-scale structural elements.
strength, in addition to the properties of the longitudinal
reinforcement. It is expected that the arch action in FRP rein-
forced concrete would be as signicant as that in steel rein- Experimental technique
forced concrete and that the shear strength of FRP-
reinforced concrete beams having a/d less than 2.5 would be Characteristics of tested deep beams
higher than that of beams having a/d of more than 2.5 [2].
The application of the reinforced concrete deep beams within Twelve concrete deep beams internally reinforced with GFRP
structural engineering practice has risen substantially over bras were collected from literature [1]. They were constructed
the last few decades. More specially, there has been an and tested to failure. The primary test variables included the
increased practice of including deep beams in the design of tall a/d, the reinforcement ratio q, the effective depth d, and the
buildings, offshore structures, wall tanks and foundations. concrete strength fc0 . The objective of the test program was
They differ from shallow beams in that they have a relatively to assess the design parameters that inuence the strength
larger depth compared to the span length. As a result the strain and behavior of FRP-reinforced concrete deep beams without
distribution across the depth is non-linear and cannot be web reinforcement. The conguration of the specimens is given
described in terms of uni-axial stress strain characteristics [3]. in Table 1 and Fig. 1. The a/d of the specimens were selected to
Prediction of behavior of deep beams by design codes which cover a wide range of the deep beam category at the ultimate
contain empirical equations derived from experimental tests and equivalent serviceability limit states and to ll gaps in
has some limitations. They are only suitable for the tests con- the limited experimental data available on FRP-reinforced
ditions they were derived from, and most importantly, they fail concrete deep beams. Specimens were grouped into three series
to provide information on serviceability requirements such as having nominal heights h of 300, 600, and 1000 mm. To study
structural deformations and cracking. Likewise, the strut and the effect of concrete strength on the shear capacity, both nor-
tie model, although based on equilibrium solutions thus pro- mal- and high-strength concretes were used. The reinforcement
viding a safe design, does not take into account the non-linear in all specimens consisted of GFRP bars, as this is the most
material behavior and hence also fails to provide information commonly used FRP in the industry. The reinforcement ratios
on serviceability requirements. Cracking of concrete and were selected such that the stress level in the FRP would not
yielding of steel are essential features of the behavior of exceed approximately 25% of the specied tensile strength

Table 1 Characteristics of GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams.


Specimen q, % Height (h), mm Width (bw), mm Shear span (a), mm a/d Overhang length, mm* fc0 , MPa
A1N 1.49 306 310 276 1.07 874 40.2
A2N 1.47 310 310 376 1.44 874 45.4
A3N 1.47 310 310 527 2.02 874 41.3
A4H 1.47 310 310 527 2.02 623 64.6
B1N 1.70 608 300 545 1.08 605 40.5
B2N 1.71 606 300 743 1.48 605 39.9
B3N 1.71 607 300 1040 2.07 605 41.2
B4N 2.13 606 300 736 1.48 814 40.7
B5H 2.12 607 300 736 1.48 614 66.4
B6H 1.70 610 300 1040 2.06 460 68.5
C1N 1.58 1003 301 974 1.10 826 51.6
C2N 1.56 1005 304 1329 1.49 821 50.7
Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis 27

Fig. 1 Test setup and specimen geometry.

(fFRPu) of the GFRP bar under the equivalent serviceability Constitutive models
limit state loads [1]. Note that ACI 440.1R-06 [5] limits the ser-
vice stress level in the GFRP to 0.20 fFRPu. Overhang lengths Concrete model
were provided beyond the supports in all specimens to allow The damaged plasticity model for concrete available in the
for anchorage of the FRP reinforcement [1]. ABAQUS material library was adopted to model concrete
response, since it has been shown to perform satisfactorily in
Testing setup similar applications [7]. The mechanical properties of the used
concrete were measured experimentally for all specimens under
Deep beams were tested in a 6600 kN capacity testing frame both compression and tension as shown in Table 2.
under four-point loading as a simple beam. Five linear variable
differential transformers (LVDTs) were mounted along the
GFRP reinforcement
bottom of the specimens to measure vertical deection at the
supports, quarter-spans, and mid-span. Electrical resistance GFRP rebars were simulated as elastic isotropic one dimen-
strain gauges were applied to the FRP bars to measure the sional material until failure as recommended by Al-
strain during the test. Each specimen was loaded in ve to Musallam et al. [8], and the test results of them are tabulated
10 increments. After each increment, the deection was held in Table 3.
while the crack patterns were photographed. Data from the
instrumentation were recorded continuously until specimen Elements
failure [1].
The ABAQUS element library provides a complete geometric
Finite element study modeling capability. For this reason any combination of ele-
ments can be used to make up the model. All elements use
The general purpose FE software ABAQUS [6] was employed numerical integration to allow complete generality in material
to generate FE models to simulate numerically the structural behavior. Element properties can be dened as general section
response of the previously described concrete deep beams rein- behaviors, or each cross-section of the element can be inte-
forced with GFRP bars. The generated models were validated grated numerically, so that nonlinear response can be tracked
against all respective experimental results. accurately when needed.
28 I.M. Metwally

Table 2 Experimentally Measured Concrete Properties.


Beam Ultimate compressive Youngs Strain at ultimate Strain at end of Ultimate tensile Poissons
code strength, MPa modulus, MPa strength softening curve strength, MPa ratio
A1N 40.2 23,020 0.0027 0.0039 2.10 0.2
A2N 45.4 22,850 0.0028 0.0040 2.22 0.2
A3N 41.3 24,150 0.0026 0.0040 2.12 0.2
A4H 64.6 22,450 0.0032 0.0040 2.65 0.2
B1N 40.5 23,320 0.0024 0.0038 2.10 0.2
B2N 39.9 23,210 0.0025 0.0031 2.08 0.2
B3N 41.2 23,680 0.0027 0.0030 2.12 0.2
B4N 40.7 24,290 0.0025 0.003096 2.10 0.2
B5H 66.4 24,140 0.0034 0.0042 2.70 0.2
B6H 68.5 24,010 0.0033 0.0036 2.73 0.2
C1N 51.6 26,870 0.0026 0.0040 2.37 0.2
C2N 50.7 25,260 0.0027 0.0040 2.35 0.2

Table 3 Experimental tension test results of the used GFRP bars.


Bar no. Bar diameter, mm Area, mm2 Failure stress, Modulus of Rupture Poissons
(ffu), MPa elasticity, (Ef), MPa strain, % ratio (t)
#6 19 322 765 37,900 1.8 0.26
#7 22 396 709 41,100 1.7 0.26
#8 25 528 938 42,300 2 0.26

Solid element Meshing


The solid (or continuum) elements in ABAQUS can be used
for linear analysis and for complex nonlinear analyses involv- In order to obtain accurate results from the FE model, all the
ing contact, plasticity, and large deformations. Regarding the elements in the model were purposely assigned the same mesh
nite element models introduced in this work, three dimen- size to ensure that each of two different materials shares the
sional 8-node rst order fully integration continuum elements same node. The type of mesh selected in the model is struc-
(C3D8 Bricks) are used to model the concrete deep beams tured. The mesh element for modeling of concrete and steel
and loading and bearing plates. The mentioned abbreviation loading and bearing plates is 8-node brick element with three
stands for translation degrees of freedom at each node (C3D8).
Discrete GFRP rebar can be dened only by truss element
which is called T3D2 (3Dimensional-2Node truss element).
Andermatt and Lubell [1] reported in their experimental work
that the used GFRP bars were coated with sand layer which
achieved a higher bond. Consequently, full bond was consid-
ered between GFRP bars and surrounding concrete in the

Truss element
The other basic components in this study are the reinforcing
bars for longitudinal reinforcement. The reinforcing bars have
mainly the task to transfer normal forces. For that purpose,
reinforcing bars modeled as three-dimensional truss elements
are sufcient for the purpose. Three dimensional 2-node rst
order truss elements (T3D2 Truss) are used to model the
reinforcing bars in the FE model of concrete beam specimens.
The mentioned abbreviation stands for

Fig. 2 3-D meshing of concrete deep beam model in ABAQUS.


Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis 29

FE model. Fig. 2 shows the typical mesh of the FE model of of the deep beams reinforced with GFRP bars is shown in
deep beam specimens. Modeling and mesh generation are Fig. 3. It shows that the nite element load deection curves
developed using same techniques for all specimens. are somewhat stiffer than the experimental plots. After rst
cracking, the stiffness of the nite element models is again
higher than that of the experimental beams. There are several
Numerical analysis: verication of FE model effects that may cause the higher stiffness in the nite element
models. The most important is microcracks which are present
Loaddeection responses in the concrete for the experimental deep beams, and could be
produced by drying shrinkage in the concrete and/or handling
To verify the proposed FE model, a comparison of loadmid- of the deep beams. On the other hand, the nite element mod-
span deection response acquired from test results is demon- els do not include the microcracks. As well known that the
strated. The comparison between experimental and the microcracks reduce the stiffness of the experimental deep
numerical loaddeection curves for the mid span deection beams, for all specimens, good agreement is in loaddeection

900
500
800 450
700 400
600 350
Load, kN

Load, kN
500 300
a/d=1.1
a/d=1.4
=1.5% 250
400 =1.5%
fc = 40 MPa 200 fc = 45 MPa
300 h=300 mm
h=300 mm
150
200
100
A1N(EXP) A2N(EXP)
100 50
A1N(FEA) A2N(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

300 250

250 200

200
Load, kN
Load, kN

150
a/d=2 a/d=2
150
=1.5% =1.5%
100
fc = 41 MPa fc = 65 MPa
100 h=300 mm h=300 mm
50
50 A3N(EXP) A4H(EXP)
A3N(FEA) A4H(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

1400 900
800
1200
700
1000
Load, kN

600
Load, kN

800 500
a/d=1.08 a/d=1.48
=1.7% 400 =1.71%
600
fc = 40 MPa fc = 40 MPa
h=600 mm 300 h=600 mm
400
200
200 B1N(EXP) B2N(EXP)
B1N(FEA) 100 B2N(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

Fig. 3 FE versus experimental loaddeection curves of the studied deep beams.


30 I.M. Metwally

900
500
800
450
400 700

350 600

Load, kN
Load, kN
300 500 a/d=1.48
a/d=2.07
250 =1.71% =2.13%
400
fc = 40 MPa fc = 40 MPa
200
h=600 mm 300 h=600 mm
150
200
100
B3N(EXP) B4N(EXP)
50 100
B3N(FEA) B4N(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

1200 450
400
1000
350
800 300
Load, kN

Load, kN
a/d=1.48 250 a/d=2.06
600 =2.12%
200 =1.7%
fc = 67 MPa fc = 67 MPa
400 h=600 mm 150 h=600 mm
100
200 B5H(EXP) B6H(EXP)
50 B6H(FEA)
B5H(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

2400 1400
2200
1200
2000
1800 1000
1600 a/d=1.10
Load, kN
Load, kN

1400 =1.58% 800 a/d=1.49


1200 fc = 51 MPa =1.56%
h=1000 mm 600 fc = 51 MPa
1000
h=1000 mm
800
400
600
400 C1N(EXP) 200 C2N(EXP)
200 C1N(FEA) C2N(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

Fig. 3 (continued)

relation prior to failure load. For each of the test deep beams, Diagonal cracking load and reserve capacity
the predicted and the measured maximum loads and
deections were in good agreement. The values given by all Prior to cracking of the concrete, an elastic stress exists in deep
specimens were similar to the analytical results; comparative members.
data are summarized in Table 4. The mean ratios of Cracking disrupts the stress distribution and a major
experimental-to-numerical ultimate load (predicted by reorientation of the internal forces occurs such that forces
ABAQUS) were 1.01 at a standard deviation of 0.05. Also, tend to ow directly from the loading points to the supports.
nite element analysis gives accurate values of mid-span deec- Arch action involves the formation of compression struts to
tion for deep beams, the average ratios of experimental to pre- directly transmit the load to the supports while the exural
dicted deection at ultimate load equal to 0.98 with standard reinforcement acts as a tie holding the base of the arch
deviation equal to 0.07. In general, the loaddeection curve together. Unlike slender members with no web reinforcement,
from the experiment and the FEM analysis were in very good deep members have substantial reserve capacity after diago-
agreement. This indicates that the constitutive models used for nal cracking as reported by Wight and MacGregor [9]. The
concrete and GFRP bars able to capture the fracture behavior diagonal-cracking strength is dened as the strength at which
of GFRP-reinforced deep beam accurately. the rst fully developed major diagonal tension crack appears
Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis 31

Table 4 Experimental and predicted ultimate load capacity (Pu), deection at Pu, diagonal cracking load (Pc), and reserve capacity of
GFRP-reinforced concrete deep beams.
Specimen Experimental Exp/FEA(ABAQUS) Failure mode*
Pu, kN Du, mm Pc, kN Reserve capacity (Pc/Pu) Pu Du Pc Reserve capacity
A1N 814 12.4 312 0.38 0.97 1.17 0.99 1.02 FC
A2N 471 11.3 187 0.40 1.02 0.93 0.96 0.96 SC
A3N 243 10.9 143 0.59 1.03 0.97 0.92 0.90 SC
A4H 192 9.5 163 0.85 0.93 0.99 1.05 1.13 DT
B1N 1273 9.1 387 0.30 1.04 0.93 0.94 0.89 FC
B2N 799 13.1 287 0.36 1.04 0.95 1.02 0.98 SC
B3N 431 15.3 237 0.55 0.98 0.98 1.05 1.07 SC
B4N 830 11.5 412 0.50 1.05 0.97 1.1 1.05 SC
B5H 1062 14.2 387 0.36 1.09 0.99 0.94 0.85 S
B6H 376 12.9 212 0.56 0.92 1.06 0.94 1.02 DT
C1N 2269 15.9 613 0.27 1.03 0.88 0.99 0.96 SC
C2N 1324 18.3 413 0.31 1.02 0.99 1.01 0.98 S
Mean 1.01 0.98 0.99 0.98
Standard deviation 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.08
*
DT diagonal concrete tension failure, FC exural compression failure, SC shear compression failure, and S compression strut failure.

in the shear span. The diagonal tension cracking strength was formation of arch action after inclined cracking occurred,
observed to be considerably less than the ultimate strength. and this veries through matching the experimental results
Many mechanisms may be responsible for such behavior. with F.E. analysis. The mean ratio of experimental-to-pre-
However, the major phenomenon is attributed to the arch dicted (by ABAQUS) of diagonal cracking load is 0.99 at a
action mechanism. Deep RC beams exhibited signicantly standard deviation of 0.05, and mean ratio of experimental-
enhanced shear resistance after rst diagonal cracking as a to-predicted reserve capacity is 0.98 at a standard deviation
result of strong strut action of concrete in compression. of 0.08 (Table 4). On the other hand, as reported by
The Pc/Pu (diagonal cracking load/ultimate load) ratio serves Andermatt and Lubell in their study [10] the strut-and-tie
as a measure of the reserve load capacity after the formation model in Canadian code (CSA A 23.3-04) [11] gives an aver-
of the rst inclined crack. The reserve load capacity was ana- age ratio of experimental ultimate capacities to predicted
lyzed from the experimental observations and F.E. results for ones equal to 0.81, with a standard deviation of 0.16 and
all beams (Table 4). The ratio Pc/Pu (reserve capacity) in all the strut-and-tie model in American code (ACI 318-08) [12]
deep beams lies in the range between 0.27 and 0.85 from and Egyptian code (ECP 203-07) [13] gives the mean of test
experimental results and the same ratio lies in the range to predicted values equal to 0.60 with standard deviation of
between 0.28 and 0.75 as obtained from F.E. (Table 4). 0.2. This conrms that the nite element analysis attained a
Andermatt and Lubell [9] pointed out in their paper that higher accuracy for predicting both ultimate load failure
the low or high reserve load capacity was indicative of the and diagonal cracking load than these codes.

Fig. 4 Experimental and nite element pattern of diagonal concrete tension failure (DT) for specimen B6H.
32 I.M. Metwally

Failure mechanisms 3. Shear compression failure (SC): it was the most common
failure mode, occurring in six of the specimens (Table 4).
Table 4 contains four types of failure mechanisms that were Shear compression failure was characterized by the crush-
observed experimentally by Andermatt and Lubell [1]; these ing of the concrete in the exural compression zone at the
types are tip of the main diagonal crack. The main diagonal crack
extended from the inside edge of the support plate toward
1. Diagonal concrete tension failure (DT) or splitting failure: the inside edge of the loading plate, into the exural com-
it occurred in specimens A4H and B6H. The diagonal crack pression zone. In this type of failure, the specimens would
formed in each shear span from the inside edge of the reac- fail suddenly with almost no warning and movement would
tion plate toward the inside edge of the loading plate. The occur along the diagonal crack. Fig. 6 shows a typical shear
diagonal crack extended above the diagonal line between compression failure.
the centerlines of the loading and support plates as shown 4. Compression strut failure (S): failure of the diagonal
in Fig. 4. compression struts occurred in specimens B5H and
2. Flexural compression failure (FC): it occurred in specimens C2N. In both specimens, one of the diagonal compres-
A1N and B1N. This type of failure was characterized by the sion struts would fail in a very brittle and noisy manner.
crushing of the concrete in the exural compression zone Fig. 7 shows the diagonal compression strut failure in
between the two loading plates as shown in Fig. 5. specimen B5H.

Fig. 5 Experimental and nite element pattern of exural compression failure (FC) for specimen A1N.

Fig. 6 Experimental and nite element pattern of shear compression failure (SC) for specimen A2N.
Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis 33

Fig. 7 Experimental and nite element pattern of compression strut failure (S) for specimen B5H.

In cases where the specimen failed in shear-compression 1.40E-02 1200 kN (EXP)


(SC), the load decreased abruptly upon reaching the ultimate 1100 kN (EXP)
Strain in bottom GFRP layer B1N 1000 kN (EXP)
value and failure was brittle. On the other hand, for specimens 1.20E-02 900 kN (EXP)
800 kN (EXP)
that failed in exure (FC), the load remained almost constant 700 kN (EXP)
with increasing deection at ultimate, indicating ductile speci- 1.00E-02 600 kN (EXP)
500 kN (EXP)
men behavior. In all specimens, the cracks propagated toward 400 kN (EXP)
300 kN (EXP)
8.00E-03
the loading point as the load was increased. This was accom- 200 kN (EXP)
100 kN (EXP)
panied by more exural-shear cracks along the specimen shear
6.00E-03
spans. Specimens that did not fail in exure also experienced
diagonal splitting, which eventually led to a shear-compression 4.00E-03
failure resulting in the crushing of concrete in the compression
zone of deep beams. The failure of specimens was sudden and 2.00E-03
explosive and most of specimens failed in shear compression as
mentioned by Andermatt and Lubell [1]. ABAQUS can moni- 0.00E+00
0.00E+00 5.00E+02 1.00E+03 1.50E+03 2.00E+03 2.50E+03 3.00E+03
tor and capture the shape and propagation of cracks during Location along beam length, mm
loading till failure. The prediction of the failure modes of all
the beams by nite element agrees with the experimental obser- Fig. 8 Experimental reinforcement strain distribution along the
vations (Figs. 47). bottom layer of reinforcement as the load increased for beam B1N
[1].
GFRP bars reinforcement strains

Importance of showing tensile reinforcement strains, is consid- 0.007


100 kN (FEA)
ered as an indicator of whether and to what extent a tied arch 200 kN (FEA)
0.006 B1N
mechanism formed in the specimens. In a fully developed tied 300 kN (FEA)
Strain in bottom GFRP layer

400 kN (FEA)
arch mechanism, the strain level in the reinforcement is
0.005 500 kN (FEA)
expected to be approximately uniform from support to sup- 600 kN (FEA)
port for both experimental and FE results as shown in 700 kN (FEA)
0.004 800 kN (FEA)
Figs. 810. Andermatt and Lubell [1] reported in their experi-
900 kN (FEA)
mental study that for all specimens, the strain distribution 0.003 1000 kN (FEA)
between the supports at peak load was approximately constant 1100 kN (FEA)
1200 kN (FEA)
indicating an arch mechanism had developed. The experimen- 0.002
tal strain distribution along the bottom layer of GFRP
reinforcement of B1N as the load increased is shown in 0.001

Fig. 8 and the anticipated strains by FE are shown in Fig. 9,


both patterns are typical for all specimens. In the majority of 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
the specimens, the strain in the GFRP at the center of the sup- Location along beam length, mm
port was signicantly lower than the strain whether read
(experimentally) or predicted (by FE) at mid-span. The strain Fig. 9 Predicted reinforcement strain distribution along the
readings of the bottom bar increased rapidly in the vicinity of bottom layer of reinforcement as the load increased for beam B1N
the rst crack, usually in the constant moment region by ABAQUS.
34 I.M. Metwally

0.005
100 kN (FEA)
0.0045 200 kN (FEA)
300 kN (FEA)
0.004
Strain in top GFRP layer

400 kN (FEA)
500 kN(FEA)
0.0035 600 kN (FEA)
700 kN (FEA)
0.003
800 kN (FEA)
900 kN (FEA)
0.0025
1000 kN (FEA)
0.002 1100 kN (FEA)
1200 kN (FEA)
0.0015

0.001

0.0005

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Fig. 11 Simulated locations of strain gauges along the height of
Location along beam length, mm
deep beam and compression strut by nite element.
Fig. 10 Predicted reinforcement strain distribution along the top
layer of reinforcement as the load increased for beam B1N by
ABAQUS.
failure. The number of neutral axes decreases with incremental
loads and at ultimate stage only one neutral axis is present.
The compression strain in the top ber of the mid-span section
(mid-span). As more cracks formed closer to the supports, the increases as the load increases, but in the tension area, the
measured strains in the GFRP reinforcement would also strain predictions were disturbed by the cracks in this area.
increase closer to the support. In the un-cracked regions, strain As shown in Fig. 12, at the ultimate load state, the compressive
readings showed minimal strain changes in the GFRP. As strain distribution in the concrete is nonlinear as it no longer
loading progressed, the strains in the reinforcement became follows the parabolic shape or intensity linearity of normal
similar between the supports indicating the formation of a tied (shallow) beams. This condition is due to the predominant
arch mechanism. The strain level in the bottom reinforcement effect of the horizontal bar post-cracking, the reduction in
layer outside of the span of specimen B1N is relatively high at the concretes compression area and the shear deformation
the nal failure load of 1273 kN. The splitting crack that had that is prevalent in deep beams. CSA design code provision
been formed near the location of the bottom reinforcement [11] states that the maximum compression strain for steel-rein-
was caused by increase in the GFRP reinforcement strain level. forced deep beam design is 0.002, which is lower than for a
The strain of longitudinal reinforcement in all specimens did normal beam (0.003). Till now, it has no provision for FRP-
not reach 60% of ultimate tensile strain of GFRP bars reinforced deep beams. Fig. 12 shows that compression strains
(Table 3) throughout the tests. Fig. 10 shows that the F.E. of most deep beams range from 0.001 to 0.002 much lower
results of generated strain in top layer of GFRP reinforcement than those of normal beams reinforced with FRP bars which
are lower than the generated one in bottom layer, and this phe- also equal to 0.003 [5] as steel-reinforced shallow beams.
nomenon is due to that the bottom GFRP reinforcement This observation should be taken into consideration when
anchored a grater amount of force than the upper layers. designing a deep beam, since the maximum strain at the
Consequently, different design codes which incorporated strut extreme compression ber is comparatively small. The differ-
and tie method for analysis as Canadian code (CSA A 23.3-04) ence in the maximum compression strain in the extreme com-
[11], American code (ACI 318-08) [12], and Egyptian code pression ber in shallow and deep beams is due to reasons such
(ECP 203-07) [13] are not valid for analysis and design of deep as the size effect and the load transferring mechanism. The
beam reinforced with FRP bars, because they are assumed that other reason was the concrete strength. In a high strength con-
all layers of reinforcement carry the same tensile stress and so crete (HSC) beam section, a shallower compressive stress block
the same strain. However, this is only true when all reinforce- is required to equilibrate the tension zone forces. Therefore the
ment has yielded (as in the case of steel bars), which is not the neutral axis in a HSC beam is closer to the extreme compres-
case with the fully linear elastic material as FRP bars. sion ber compared to an normal concrete strength (NSC)
beam with the same reinforcement ratio. The lower neutral
Concrete strain distribution axis depth is expected to result in higher plastic strains in the
tension reinforcement, leading to ductile behavior. All these
Distribution of strains along the concrete surface of beam aforementioned reasons justify the fact that GFRP-reinforced
height at mid-span and compression strut were modeled by deep beams exhibit a lower ultimate strain in the extreme com-
nite element analysis using ABAQUS, and the various loca- pression ber. Furthermore, since deep beams have more than
tions of strain gauges to monitor the strains are shown in one neutral axis before the ultimate load, the section design
Fig. 11. Plots of the strain variations determined by the FE equation for FRP-reinforced normal (shallow) beams is not
analysis along the section height at the mid length and neutral valid for deep beams. In addition, it is important to consider
axis depth variations of all beams under rst crack load and the nonlinear behavior of GFRP-reinforced deep beams in
ultimate load are shown in Fig. 12. It shows that the strain dis- the strain and stress distribution. GFRP-reinforced deep
tribution in GFRP-reinforced concrete deep beams is nonlin- beams do not conform to Bernoullis assumptions for strain
ear. The number of neutral axis (N.A.) at ultimate load is and stress distribution. Bernoullis hypothesis facilitates the
one, while there are more than one neutral axes before ultimate exural design of reinforced concrete structures by allowing
Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis 35

350 350

A1N 300 A2N 300


at ultimate load
Section height, mm

section height, mm
at ultimate load 250 250
at first crack load
at first crack load
200 200

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0
-0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0 0.002 0.004 -0.004 -0.002 0 0.002 0.004
Strain Strain
350 350

A3N A4H
300 300

Section height, mm
Section height, mm

at ultimate load at ultimate load


250 at first crack load 250
at first crack load
200 200

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0
-0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002

Strain Strain
700 700

B1N B2N
600 600
Section height, mm
Section height, mm

at ultimate load at ultimate load


500 at first crack load 500
at first crack load
400 400

300 300

200 200

100 100

0 0
-0.004 -0.002 0 0.002 0.004 -0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002
strain Strain

Fig. 12 Concrete strain distributions and neutral axis depth variations along the section height at mid-span of all studied GFRP-
reinforced deep beams under rst crack load and ultimate load using FE modeling.

a linear strain distribution. Fig. 12 shows that GFRP-rein- mid height of these beams and may not occur in the compres-
forced deep beams are far from being linearly elastic when sion strut trajectory line. This has an important implication in
the ultimate load is reached. This nonlinearity of strain the design of GFRP-reinforced deep beams, particularly when
distribution is due to the shear deformations that are often using the Canadian code.
less obvious in FRP-reinforced shallow beams, but that
are signicant in GFRP-reinforced deep beams. Thus the 6- Inuence of FRP bar type on behavior of deep beam
internal stresses and behavior of GFRP-reinforced deep
beams cannot be determined using ordinary beam theory. This section discusses the difference between behavior of
This reiterates that deep beams do not conform to the common GFRP-reinforced deep beam and CFRP-reinforced deep
hypothesis for shallow beams that plane sections remain plane beam. To achieve this purpose, FE models were constructed
after bending. by ABAQUS for some selected specimens as A2N, A4H,
The compressive strains along the strut with the highest B1N, B6H, and C1N with replacing GFRP bars by CFRP bars
measured strain are around 0.0008. This is lower than sug- which were modeled as elastic isotropic one dimensional mate-
gested by the Canadian code (0.002) [11]. As seen in Table 5, rial until failure as recommended by Al-Musallam et al. [8],
the maximum compressive strain has occurred around of with a common properties (Ef = 120,000 MPa, ffu = 1600
36 I.M. Metwally

700 700

B3N 600 600

Section height, mm
Section height, mm
B4N
at ultimate load 500 at ultimate load 500
at first crack load
at first crack load
400 400

300 300

200 200

100 100

0 0
-0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002
Strain Strain

700
700
B6H
B5H 600
600

Section height, mm
at ultimate
Section height, mm

laod
500 at first crack 500
at ultimate load load
at first crack load 400
400

300 300

200 200

100 100

0 0
-0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 -0.004 -0.002 0 0.002 0.004 0.006
Strain Strain

1100 1100
C1N 1000 1000
C2N
900 900
Section height, mm

Section height, mm

at ultimate load
at ultimate load 800 800
at first crack load
at first crack load 700 700
600 600
500 500
400 400
300 300
200 200
100 100
0 0
-0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 -0.0075 -0.005 -0.0025 0 0.0025 0.005
Strain Strain

Fig. 12 (continued)

MPa, and t = 0.2) as specied by Farghaly and Benmokrane


Table 5 Maximum compressive strain along mid-span loca-
[14]. Fig. 13 shows the comparison between results, and it can
tions and compression strut line.
be seen that deep beams reinforced with GFRP bars exhibit a
Specimen ecu at mid-span ecu along the strut line signicant reduction in stiffness after the initiation of the rst
A1N 0.00346 0.000713 crack in comparison with the same beam reinforced with
A2N 0.00273 0.000794 CFRP reinforcement. At the ultimate load, the mid-span
A3N 0.00180 0.000642 deection of GFRP-reinforced deep beams as A2N, A4H,
A4H 0.00115 0.000546 B1N, B6H, and C1N was about 3.5, 2.5, 2.4, 3.6, and 1.7 times
B1N 0.00185 0.000574 more than the CFRP-reinforced ones respectively. This behav-
B2N 0.00133 0.000606 ior is attributed to the low elastic modulus of the GFRP bars
B3N 0.001275 0.000532
(40,000 MPa) compared to that of the CFRP bars
B4N 0.00111 0.000632
B5H 0.00138 0.000591 (120,000 MPa). The low modulus of elasticity of the GFRP
B6H 0.005195 0.000509 bars affects the ability of these bars to control concrete crack-
C1N 0.00197 0.000669 ing. This decreases the tension stiffening effect for concrete
C2N 0.00335 0.000645 between cracks leading to a reduced effective moment of iner-
tia and hence large deections, as was experimentally con-
ecu: concrete compressive strain at ultimate load.
rmed by Farghaly and Benmokrane [14].
Three-dimensional nonlinear nite element analysis 37

250
500
450 A4H
A2N
400 200

350
a/d=2

Load, kN
Load, kN

300 150
=1.5%
a/d=1.4
250 fc = 65 MPa
=1.5%
100 h=300 mm
200 fc = 45 MPa
150 h=300 mm
GFRP(EXP)
100 GFRP(EXP) 50 GFRP(FEA)
GFRP(FEA)
50 CFRP(FEA)
CFRP(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

1400 450
B1N 400 B6H
1200
350
1000
300

Load, kN
Load, kN

800 a/d=2.06
250
a/d=1.08 =1.7%
=1.7% 200 fc = 67 MPa
600
fc = 40 MPa h=600 mm
150
400 h=600 mm
GFRP(EXP)
GFRP(EXP) 100
GFRP(FEA)
200 GFRP(FEA)
50 CFRP(FEA)
CFRP(FEA)
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Central deflection, mm Central deflection, mm

2500

C1N
2000

a/d=1.10
Load, kN

1500
=1.58%
fc=51 Mpa
1000 h=1000 mm

GFRP(EXP)
500 CFRP(FEA)
GFRP(FEA)

0
0 5 10 15 20
Central deflection, mm

Fig. 13 Effect of FRP bar type on loaddeection response of deep beams.

Conclusions different load stages, failure modes and mechanisms,


GFRP bars strains and concrete strains. All these indi-
cate that the constitutive models used for concrete and
In this paper, the nonlinear nite element analysis by
GFRP bars by ABAQUS are able to capture the frac-
ABAQUS was used to predict the behavior and strength of
ture behavior of GFRP-reinforced deep beam accu-
concrete deep beams reinforced with GFRP bars in large scale.
rately. Consequently, this method may be used for the
The agreement between the numerical simulations and experi-
nonlinear analysis and design of such elements very
mental ndings demonstrates the overall accuracy and reliabil-
efciently.
ity of the analytical models in predicting the response of this
2. Based on the present research, for the studied cases the
new type of structural elements. Based on the results of the
experiment results of GFRP-reinforced concrete deep
numerical simulations and comparisons with experimental
beams and the FEM analysis by ABAQUS were in very
data, the following conclusions were reached:
good agreement, The mean ratios of experimental-to-
predicted values for: ultimate load capacities equal to
1. The results from the nite element simulation agree very
1.01 with standard deviation of 0.05, mid-span deec-
well with the experimental observations, especially with
tion at ultimate load equal to 0.98 with standard
regard to loaddeection response, crack patterns at
38 I.M. Metwally

deviation of 0.07, diagonal cracking load equal to 0.99 12. Deep beam reinforced with GFRP bars showed different
with standard deviation of 0.05, and reserve capacity behavior than that of beam reinforced with CFRP bars
equal to 0.98 with standard deviation of 0.08. due to the low elastic modulus of GFRP bars. At ulti-
3. The present nite element study which has been veried mate load level, the deection of the GFRP-reinforced
through the experimental results demonstrated, that the deep concrete beam was in the range of 24 times more
abundant reserve capacity was available after the forma- than the CFRP-reinforced deep beam resulting from the
tion of the main diagonal cracks, indicated that GFRP- low elastic modulus of the GFRP bars. Thus, the deec-
reinforced concrete deep beams were able to redistribute tion, instead of strength will govern the design for con-
the internal forces and develop an arch mechanism. crete deep beam reinforced with FRP bars.
4. ABAQUS can monitor and capture the shape and prop- 13. Future work must include the formulation of a con-
agation of cracks during loading till failure. The predic- stitutive model for time dependent effects such as concrete
tions of the failure modes of all the beams by nite creep, shrinkage and re exposure. Also, experimental
element agree well with the experimental observations. testing and nite element analysis of continuous deep
5. Finite element analysis and experimental results show beams reinforced with FRP bars must be investigated.
that, as loading progressed, the strain distribution in
the longitudinal GFRP reinforcement became approxi- Conict of interest
mately uniform between the supports indicating the for-
mation of a tied arch mechanism.
6. FE analysis in this research shows that the dependence None declared.
on the current design codes as ACI 318-08, CSA A
23.3-04 and ECP-203-07 in analysis and design of References
FRP-reinforced concrete deep beams is not accurate
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[2] E.G. Nawy, Reinforced Concrete: A Fundamental Approach,
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case of steel bars), which is not the case with the fully lin- [3] S. Islam, A. Khennane, Experimental Verication of Automated
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