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You are on page 1of 12

2.5 1 ( x + 1)2

b. P( X < 2.5) = ( x + 1)dx =

1. The uniform density function is given by 1 6 12

1

1 , if 0 x 60

f ( x) = 60 =

49 4 11

= = 0.6875

0, otherwise. 48 12 16

The probability of waiting between 25 and 45

minutes is 3

3 3 1 ( x + 1)2

45 1 x

45 c. P X = ( x + 1)dx =

P(25 X 45) = dx = 2 3/ 2 6 12

25 60 60 25 3/ 2

16 25 13

45 25 20 1 = = = 0.8125

= = = . 12 48 16

60 60 3

c1 1

2. The exponential density function is given d. 1 6 ( x + 1)dx = 2

1 10x

e , if x 0

by f ( x) = 10 ( x + 1)2

c

1

0, if x < 0. =

12 2

The probability that the break pads will break 1

2

down after the warranty period is (c + 1) 1 1

P(5 < X) = 1 P(0 X 5) =

12 3 2

5 1 x x 5

= 1 e 10 dx = 1 e 10 (c + 1)2 4 = 6

0 10

0

(c + 1)2 = 10

5 1 1

= 1 e 10 + e0 = 1 + e 2 1 = e 2 0.607 c + 1 = 10

c = 1 10

3. The exponential density function is given by We choose c = 1 + 10 since 1 < c < 3.

0.2e 0.2 x , for x 0

f ( x) = 2000 1000

0, otherwise. 2. a. P(1000 < X < 2000) = dx

1000 x2

1 1 2000

The mean is given by = = = 5. 1000 1 1

k 0.2 = = (1) =

x 1000 2 2

The standard deviation is given by

1 1

= = = 5. 1000

k 0.2 b. P( X > 5000) = dx

5000 x2

Problems 16.1 r 1000

= lim

r 5000 x2

dx

2 2

21 ( x + 1) r

1000 1 1

1. a. P(1 < X < 2) = ( x + 1)dx = = lim

1000

= lim + =

1 6 12

1 r x 5000 r r 5 5

9 4 5

= =

12 12 12

666

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.1

1 , if 1 x 4 x1 t

x

x 1

3. a. f ( x) = 3 j. If 1 x 4, F ( x) = dt = = .

1 3 31 3

0, otherwise

f(x) 0, if x < 1

x 1

1 Thus F ( x) = , if 1 x 4

3

1, if x > 4.

1

3 x 2 1 1

P( X < 2) = F (2) = =

1 4 3 3

2 2

73 P(1 < X < 3) = F (3) F (1) = 0 =

3 7 2 3 3

b. P < X < = 2 2 = F(x)

2 2 4 1 3

3

1 2

c. P(0 < X < 1) = 0 dx = 0

0 1

x

3.5 1 2.5 5

= = =

4 1 3 6 1 , if 0 x 5

4. a. f ( x) = 5

0, otherwise

43 1

e. P( X > 3) = P(3 < X 4) = = f(x)

4 1 3 1

f. P(X = 2) = 0

1

4 1 5 x

g. P( X < 5) = P (1 X 4) = =1

4 1 5

4 3 1 2

4 1 x2 16 1 5 b. =

h. = x dx = = = 50 5

1 3 6

1

6 6 2

5 4.5 0.5 1

c. = =

4 21 50 5 10

i. =2

x dx 2

1 3

4 2 d. P(X = 4) = 0

x3 5

=

9 2 52 3

1 e. P( X > 2) = P(2 < X 5) = =

64 1 25 50 5

=

9 9 4

50

25 f. P( X < 5) = P(0 X 5) = =1

= 7 50

4

3

=

4 g. P( X > 5) = 0dx = 0

5

3 3

Thus, = = .

4 2 5

5 1 x2 25 5

h. = x dx = = 0 =

0 5 10 10 2

0

667

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

5 b 1

2 = x2

2

5 2 1 x3 5 c. dx

2

i. =2

x dx 2 = a b a

0 5 15

0

2

b 2

125 25 25 25 25 x3 a+b

= 0 = = =

3(b a ) 2

15 4 3 4 12 a

25 5 5 3 b3 a 3 ( a + b) 2

Thus = = = . =

12 12 6 3(b a) 4

b2 + ab + a 2 a 2 + 2ab + b 2

x1 t

x

x =

j. If 0 x 5, F ( x) = dt = = 3 4

0 5 50 5

b 2 2ab + a 2 (b a)2

0, if x < 0 = =

12 12

Thus F ( x) = 5x , if 0 x 5 ba

Thus = .

1, if x > 5 12

3.5 1

P(1 < X < 3.5) = F (3.5) F (1) = b

5 5 6. a. a k dx = 1

1 b

kx a = 1

=

2 k (b a) = 1

F(x)

1 1

k=

ba

Thus X is uniformly distributed.

x b. If a x b

5 x

x 1 1 xa

F ( x) = dt = t =

a ba ba a ba

1 , if a x b

5. a. f ( x) = b a 0, if x < a

0, otherwise

Thus F ( x) = bx aa if a x b

b

1 if x > b

b 1 x2

b. = x dx =

a ba 2(b a)

a

2e2 x , if x 0

b a2 2

a+b 7. f ( x) =

= = 0, if x < 0

2(b a ) 2

2

a. P(1 < X < 2) = 2e2 x dx

1

2

= e2 x

1

= e4 + e2

0.11702

3

b. P( X < 3) = 2e 2 x dx

0

3

= e 2 x

0

6

= e + 1

0.99752

668

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.1

c. P( X > 5) = 1 P( X 5) 1

5

e. P (0 < X < c ) =

2 x

= 1 2e dx 2

0 c 0.5 x 1

5

= 1 e 2 x

0 0.5e dx =

2

0

e0.5 x

c

=

1

10

= 1 ( e + 1) 0 2

1

= e10 0.00005 e0.5c + 1 =

2

1

1 1 e 0.5c =

d. From the text, = = = . 2

k 2 1

0.5c = ln

1 3 2

P( 2 < X < + 2 ) = P < X <

2 2 0.5c = ln 2

3/2 c = 2 ln 2

= 2e2 x dx

0

3/2

= e 2 x

4

0

9. a. 0 kx dx = 1

= e 3 + 1 4

kx 2

0.95021 =1

2

0

e. F ( x) = P( X x) =

x

f (t ) dt 8k = 1

1

If x 0, k=

8

x x

F ( x) = 2e2t dt = e2t = e 2 x + 1.

0 0 3

x2 3x 9 4

0 if x<0 b. P(2 < X < 3) = dx = =

Thus F ( x) = 2 x 28 16 16 16

e + 1 if x0 2

5

=

0.5e0.5 x , if x 0 16

8. f ( x) =

0, if x < 0 4

x 4x2

c. P( X > 2.5) = dx =

4 2.5 8 16

0.5 x

a. P( X > 4) = 1 P( X 4) = 1 0.5e dx 2.5

0

25 39

= 1 = 0.609

( ) 0 = 1 ( e )

4

0.5 x 2 2 64 64

= 1 e +1 = e 0.135

d. P(X > 0) = P(0 X 4) = 1

2.6 0.5 x

b. P(0.5 < X < 2.6) = 0.5e dx 4

0.5

4 x x3 64 8

2.6 e. = x dx = = 0 =

= e0.5 x = e1.3 + e0.25 0.506 0 8 24

0

24 3

0.5

5 4 2

5

P( X < 5) = 0.5e0.5 x dx = e0.5 x 4 2 x x4 8

c.

0 0

f. =

2

x dx 2 =

0 8 32 3

2.5 0

= e + 1 0.918

64 8

= 8 =

d. P(X = 4) = 0 9 9

8 8 2 2

Thus = = =

9 3 3

669

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1 10 / 3 x

g. P( X < c) = d. P(2 < X < ) = 1 dx

2 2 2

cx 1 10 / 3

0 8 dx = 2 x2

=

x

4

c 2

x2 1

= 25 10 4

16

0

2 = (1 2) =

2

9 3 9

c 1

=

16 2 7

7 1 x 7

2 11. P( X 7) = dx = =

c =8 0 10 10 0 10

c = 2 2 10

10 1 x2

We choose c = 2 2 since 0 < c < 4. E( X ) = x dx = = 5 min

0 10 20

0

4 x

h. P(3 < X < 5) = P(3 < X < 4) = dx

3 8 12 11.92 0.08 1

12. P( X < 12) = = =

2 4 12.08 11.92 0.16 2

x 16 9 7

= = = P(X = 12) = 0

16 16 16 16 12.08 1

3

E( X ) =

11.92 12.08 11.92

x dx

10. a. P(2 X 4) = 1 12.08 x

4 x = dx

2 2 + k dx = 1 11.92 0.16

12.08

4 x2

x2 = = 12 oz

+ kx = 1 0.32

4 11.92

2

(4 + 4k ) (1 + 2k ) = 1 13. P(X > 1) = 1 P(X 1)

2k = 2

( )0

1 1

k = 1 = 1 3e3 x dx = 1 e3 x

0

4

( )

= 1 e3 + 1 0.050

4 x x

2

= 1 dx = x 3

2.5 2 3 2 2 x 52 x

4 2.5 14. P( X 3) = 5 e dx = e

0 5 0

25 5 15 65

= (4 4) = = 0.9375 = e + 1 0.699

16 2 16

5 2 2 x

P( X > 5) = 1 P( X 5) = 1 5 e dx

x

4 4 x2 0 5

c. = x 1 dx = x dx 5

2 2 2 2 2 x

= 1 e 5 = 1 (e2 + 1)

4 0

x3 x 2 0.135

=

6 2

2 Problems 16.2

32 4 10

= 8 2 =

3 3 3 1. a. P(0 < Z < 1.7) = A(1.7) = 0.4554

= 0.4981 0.1664

= 0.3317

670

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.2

= 0.8907 0.5 + A ( z0 ) = 0.8599

A( z0 ) = 0.3599

d. P( Z 2.91) = 0.5 + A(2.91) = 0.5 + 0.4982 z0 = 1.08

= 0.9982 z0 = 1.08

e. P(2.51 < Z 1.3) = A(2.51) + A(1.3)

6. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.4129

= 0.4940 + 0.4032

= 0.8972 0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.4129

A( z0 ) = 0.0871

f. P( Z > 0.03) = 0.5 A(0.03) = 0.5 0.0120 z0 = 0.22

= 0.4880

7. P ( z0 < Z < z0 ) = 0.2662

2. a. P(1.96 < Z < 1.96) = 2 A(1.96) 2 A ( z0 ) = 0.2662

= 2(0.4750) A( z0 ) = 0.1331

= 0.9500 z0 = 0.34

= 0.4826 0.4115

= 0.0711 0.0456

P( Z > z0 ) = = 0.0228

2

c. P( Z < 1.05) = 0.5 A(1.05) 0.5 A( z0 ) = 0.0228

= 0.5 0.3531 A( z0 ) = 0.4772

= 0.1469 z0 = 2.00

9. a. P( X < 27) = P Z <

= 0.5 0.4987 4

= 0.0013 = P( Z < 2.75) = 0.5 + A(2.75)

= 0.5 + 0.4970 = 0.9970

e. P ( Z > 2 ) = P( Z < 2) + P ( Z > 2)

= 2[0.5 A(2)] 10 16

b. P( X < 10) = P Z <

= 2[0.5 0.4772] 4

= 0.0456 = P( Z < 1.5) = 0.5 A(1.5)

= 0.5 0.4332 = 0.0668

1 1 1 1

f. P Z < = P < Z < = 2 A

2 2 2 2 c. P(10.8 < X < 12.4)

= 2(0.1915) 10.8 16 12.4 16

= 0.3830 = P <Z<

4 4

= P(1.3 < Z < 0.9) = A(1.3) A(0.9)

3. P ( Z < z0 ) = 0.6368 = 0.4032 0.3159 = 0.0873

0.5 + A ( z0 ) = 0.6368

A( z0 ) = 0.1368 150 200

10. a. P( X > 150) = P Z >

z0 = 0.35 40

= P(Z > 1.25) = 0.5 + A(1.25)

4. P ( Z < z0 ) = 0.0668 = 0.5 + 0.3944 = 0.8944

0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.0668

A( z0 ) = 0.4332

z0 = 1.5

z0 = 1.5

671

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

210 200 250 200 x 16

= P <Z< P (16 < X < x0 ) = P 0 < Z < 0

40 40 2.25

= P(0.25 < Z < 1.25) = A(1.25) A(0.25)

x 16

= 0.3944 0.0987 = 0.2957 = A 0 = 0.4641 . Thus

2.25

2 (3) x0 16

11. P( X > 2) = P Z > = 1.8 , so x0 = 20.05 .

2 2.25

1 1

= P Z > = 0.5 A Case 2. Suppose x0 < 16 . Then

2 2

x 16

= 0.5 0.1915 = 0.3085 P ( x0 < X < 16 ) = P 0 < Z < 0

2.25

30

12. P( X < 3) = P Z < = P ( Z < 2) x 16

1.5 = A 0 = 0.4641 . Thus

2.25

= 0.5 + A(2) = 0.5 + 0.4772 = 0.9772

x 16

0 = 1.8 , so x0 = 11.95 .

2.25

13. Since 2 = 100 , = 10. Thus

50 = 60 10 =

Therefore, x0 can be either 11.95 or 20.05.

75 = 60 + 15 = + 1.5

Thus P(50 < X 75) = P ( < X + 1.5 ). 17. Let X be score on test. Then the probability that

P(1 < Z 1.5) = A(1) + A(1.5) X lies within 2 = 2(100) = 200 points of 500 is

= 0.3413 + 0.4332 0.95. Thus, 95% of those who took the test had

= 0.7745 scores between 300 and 700.

7 8

14. P( X > ) = P ( X > 7) = P Z > greatest score a person could get and yet score in

1 about the bottom 10%.

= P(Z > 1) = 0.5 + A(1) x 55

P( X x0 ) = P Z 0

10

= 0.5 + 0.3413 = 0.8413

15. P( X > 54) = P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.0401 55 x0

= PZ

0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.0401 10

= 0.10.

A ( z0 ) = 0.4599

55 x0

z0 = 1.75 Thus 0.5 A = 0.10 or

10

54 40

Since = 1.75 55 x0

A = 0.4.

10

14

= 1.75 55 x0

Hence 1.28. So x0 42.2 42.

10

14

so = =8.

1.75 19. Let X be height of an adult. Then

72 68

P( X < 72) = P Z < = P(Z < 1.33)

3

= 0.5 + A(1.33) = 0.5 + 0.4082 = 0.9082

90.82% are over 6 feet.

672

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.3

person in the group.

4. X is the number of winners and X is binomial

46,000 60, 000 1

a. P( X < 46, 000) = P Z < with n = 60 and p = . To find

5000 4

= P( Z < 2.8) P(X = 20), use the normal approximation to the

= 0.5 A(2.8) 1

binomial distribution with = np = 60 = 15

= 0.5 0.4974 4

= 0.0026

1 3 45

0.0026(10,000) = 26 people have yearly and = npq = 60 = 3.35 .

incomes less than $46,000. 4 4 4

Converting the correct X-values 19.5 and 20.5 to

75, 000 60, 000 Z-values gives

b. P( X > 75, 000) = P 19.5 15

5000 z1 = 1.34

= P( Z > 3) 45

4

= 0.5 A(3)

= 0.5 0.4987 20.5 15

z2 = 1.64

= 0.0013 45

4

0.0013(10,000) = 13 people have yearly Thus P(X = 20) P(1.34 Z 1.64)

incomes over $75,000. = A(1.64) A(1.34) = 0.4495 0.4099 = 0.0396

The probability of 20 winners out of 60

21. Let X be IQ of a child in population. contestants is 0.0396.

125 100.4 Problems 16.3

a. P( X > 125) = P Z >

11.6

= P(Z > 2.12) = 0.5 A(2.12) 1. n = 150, p = 0.4, q = 0.6,

= 0.5 0.4830 = 0.0170. = np = 150(0.4) = 60,

Thus 1.7% of the children have IQs greater = npq = 150(0.4)(0.6) = 36 = 6

than 125.

P( X 52) = P ( X < 52.5)

b. If x0 is the value, then P ( X > x0 ) = 0.90 . 52.5 60

z= = 1.25

6

x 100.4

Thus P Z > 0 = 0.90 or P(X 52) = P(X 52.5)

11.6 P(Z 1.25) = 0.5 A(1.25)

x 100.4 = 0.5 0.3944 = 0.1056

0.5 + A 0 = 0.90 . Hence

11.6

P(X 74) = P(X 73.5) P Z

73.5 60

6

x 100.4

A 0 = 0.4 , so = P(Z 2.25)

11.6 = 0.5 A(2.25)

x 100.4 = 0.5 0.4878 = 0.0122

0 = 1.28 or x0 = 85.552 85.6 .

11.6

2. n = 50, p = 0.3, q = 0.7, = np = 50(0.3) = 15,

22. Since P (4 < X < 16) = P( 3 < X < + 3 ) = npq = 50(0.3)(0.7) = 10.5 3.24

= 0.25 0.997, X cannot be normally P( X = 19) = P (18.5 X 19.5)

distributed. 18.5 15 19.5 15

P Z

10.5 10.5

= P (1.08 Z 1.39)

= A(1.39) A(1.08)

= 0.4177 0.3599

= 0.0578

673

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

18.5 15

P Z 44.5 50 60.5 50

10.5

P Z

125 125

= P( Z 1.08) 3 3

= 0.5 + A(1.08) = P(0.85 Z 1.63) = A(0.85) + A(1.63)

= 0.5 + 0.3599 = 0.3023 + 0.4484 = 0.7507

= 0.8599

6. Let X = no. of heads that occurs. Then X is

3. n = 200, p = 0.6, q = 0.4, binomial with n = 200, p = 0.4, q = 0.6,

= np = 200(0.6) = 120 = np = 80, = npq = 48 6.93 .

= npq = 200(0.6)(0.4) = 48 6.93 P(90 X 100) = P(89.5 X 100.5)

P( X = 125) = P(124.5 X 125.5) 89.5 80 100.5 80

P Z

124.5 120 125.5 120 48 48

P Z

48 48 = P(1.37 Z 2.96) = A(2.96) A(1.37)

= P(0.65 Z 0.79) = 0.4985 0.4147 = 0.0838

= A(0.79) A(0.65)

= 0.2852 0.2422 7. Let X = no. of trucks out of service. Then X can

= 0.0430 be considered binomial with n = 60, p = 0.1,

P (110 X 135) q = 0.9, = np = 6, = npq = 5.4 2.32

= P (109.5 X 135.5) 6.5 6

P( X 7) = P ( X 6.5) P Z

109.5 120 135.5 120 5.4

P Z

48 48 = P(Z 0.22) = 0.5 A(0.22)

= P (1.52 Z 2.24) = 0.5 0.0871 = 0.4129

= A(1.52) + A(2.24)

8. Let X = no. of defective items in sample. Then X

= 0.4357 + 0.4875

is binomial with n = 200, p = 0.05, q = 0.95,

= 0.9232

= 200(0.05) = 10, = npq = 9.5 3.08

4. n = 50, p = 0.20, q = 0.80, P(X 7) = P(X 6.5)

= np = 50(0.20) = 10, 6.5 10

z= 1.14

= npq = 50(0.20)(0.80) = 8.0 2.83 9.5

P( X 10) = P( X 9.5) P( X 7) = P( X 6.5) P( Z 1.14)

9.5 10 = 0.5 + A(1.14) = 0.5 + 0.3729 = 0.8729

PZ

8

= P( Z 0.18) 9. Let X = no. of correct answers. Then X is

binomial and p = 0.5, q = 0.5. If n = 50, then

= P( Z 0.18)

= np = 50(0.5) = 25,

= 0.5 + A(0.18)

= 0.5 + 0.0714 = npq = 50(0.5)(0.5) = 12.5 3.54 and

= 0.5714 P( X 25) = P( X 24.5)

24.5 25

PZ

5. Let X = no. of times 5 occurs. Then X is 12.5

1

binomial with n = 300, p = , q = ,

5 = P( Z 0.14)

6 6 = 0.5 + A(0.14)

125 = 0.5 + 0.0557

= np = 50, = npq = 6.45 . = 0.5557

3

If n = 100, then = 100(0.5) = 50,

= npq = 100(0.5)(0.5) = 25 = 5

674

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 16 Review

49.5 50

= PZ 1. a. P(0 X 1) = 1

5

= P( Z 0.1) 1 1 2

= 0.5 + A(0.1)

0 3 + kx dx = 1

= 0.5 + 0.0398 1

x kx3

= 0.5398 + =1

3 3

0

10. Let X = no. of correct answers on last 20

1 k

questions. Then X is binomial with n = 20, + =1

p = 0.25, q = 0.75, = np = 20(0.25) = 5, 3 3

= npq = 20(0.25)(0.75 = 3.75 1.94 k 2

=

P( X 10) = P( X 9.5) 3 3

k=2

9.5 5

PZ

3.75 1 3 3/ 4 1

P < X < = + 2 x 2 dx

1/ 2 3

= P( Z 2.32) b.

2 4

= 0.5 A(2.32) 3/ 4

= 0.5 0.4898 x 2 x3 3/ 4

= 0.0102

= +

3 3

1

= x + 2 x3

3

( )

1/ 2 1/ 2

= + + =

one suit and two cards of another suit. Then X is 3 4 32 2 4 32

binomial with n = 100, p = 0.1, q = 0.9,

= np = 10, = npq = 9 = 3 . 1 1 1

c. P X = + 2 x 2 dx

P( X 16) = P( X 15.5) 2 1/ 2 3

15.5 10 1

PZ x 2 x3 1

= P( Z 1.83)

3 = +

3 3

1

= x + 2 x3

3

( )

1/ 2 1/ 2

= 0.5 A(1.83)

1 1 1 3

= 0.5 0.4664 = (1 + 2) + =

= 0.0336 3 2 4 4

d. If 0 x 1, F ( x) = + 2t 2 dt

cola from the sponsoring company. Then X is 0 3

binomial with n = 35, p = 0.5, q = 0.5, x

= np = 17.5, = npq = 8.75 2.96 t 2t 3 x 2 x3

= + = +

3 3

P( X 25) = P( X 24.5) 0 3 3

24.5 17.5 0, if x < 0

= PZ

8.75 3

= P( Z 2.37) Therefore, F ( x) = 3 + 3 , if 0 x 1

x 2 x

= 0.5 A(2.37) = 0.5 0.4911 1, if x > 1

= 0.0089

675

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1 e(1/ 3) x , if x 0 23 20

2. f ( x) = 3 9. P( X < 23) = P Z <

4

0, if x < 0

= P( Z < 0.75) = 0.5 + A(0.75)

2 1 (1/ 3) x

P( X > 2) = 1 P( X 2) = 1 e dx = 0.5 + 0.2734 = 0.7734

0 3

1/ 3 x 2 21 20 31 20

= 1 e ( ) = 1 e2 / 3 + 1 10. P(21 < X < 31) = P <Z<

4 4

0

= P (0.25 < Z < 2.75)

= e2 / 3 0.513

= A(2.75) A(0.25)

5 = 0.4970 0.0987

5 2 2 x3 10 = 0.3983

3. a. = x x dx = =

0 25 75 3

0

11. n = 100, p = 0.35, q = 0.65, = np = 35,

5 2 = npq = 22.75 4.77

b. 2 = x 2 x dx 2 P(25 X 47) = P(24.5 X 47.5)

0 25

5 24.5 35 47.5 35

x4 10

2 P Z

= 22.75 22.75

50

0

3 = P(2.20 Z 2.62) = A(2.20) + A(2.62)

625 100 25 = 0.4861 + 0.4956 = 0.9817

= =

50 9 18

12. n = 100, p = 0.35, q = 0.65, = np = 35,

25

Thus = 1.18. = npq = 22.75 4.77

18

P(X = 48) = P(47.5 X 48.5)

5 47.5 35 48.5 35

5 1 51 x P Z

4. P( X < 5) = dx = dx = 22.75 22.75

2 62 2 4 42

= P(2.62 Z 2.83) = A(2.83) A(2.62)

5 2 3 = 0.4977 0.4956 = 0.0021

= =

4 4 4

13. Let X = height of an individual. X is normally

25 20 distributed with = 68 and = 2.

5. P( X > 25) = P Z >

4 72 68

P( X > 72) = P Z >

= P( Z > 1.25) = 0.5 A(1.25) 2

= 0.5 0.3944 = 0.1056 = P( Z > 2) = 0.5 A(2)

= 0.5 0.4772 = 0.0228

21 20

6. P( X < 21) = P Z <

4 14. Let X = number of heads that occurs. X is

binomial with n = 500, p = 0.5, q = 0.5,

= P( Z < 0.25) = 0.5 + A(0.25)

= 0.5 + 0.0987 = 0.5987

= np = 250, = npq = 125 11.18.

P( X 215) = P ( X 214.5)

14 20 18 20 214.5 250

7. P(14 < X < 18) = P <Z< PZ

4 4 125

= P(1.5 < Z < 0.5) = P ( Z 3.18) = 0.5 + A(3.18)

= A(1.5) A(0.5) = 0.4332 0.1915 = 0.2417 = 0.5 + 0.4993 = 0.9993

10 20

8. P( X > 10) = P Z >

4

= P( Z > 2.5) = 0.5 + A(2.5)

= 0.5 + 0.4938 = 0.9938

676

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Explore and ExtendChapter 16

distribution function.

roughly coincide with the normal probability

density function used to generate the values.

have a normal density function. This is

surprising, since one would expect something

more like an exponential density function, with

most earthquakes being very low-magnitude.

Presumably, the explanation for the normal

density function is that as magnitude declines,

the likelihood of a quakes being reported and

thus appearing on the list also goes down.

677

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

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