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Chapter 16

Apply It 16.1 2.5


2.5 1 ( x + 1)2
b. P( X < 2.5) = ( x + 1)dx =
1. The uniform density function is given by 1 6 12
1
1 , if 0 x 60
f ( x) = 60 =
49 4 11
= = 0.6875
0, otherwise. 48 12 16
The probability of waiting between 25 and 45
minutes is 3
3 3 1 ( x + 1)2
45 1 x
45 c. P X = ( x + 1)dx =
P(25 X 45) = dx = 2 3/ 2 6 12
25 60 60 25 3/ 2
16 25 13
45 25 20 1 = = = 0.8125
= = = . 12 48 16
60 60 3
c1 1
2. The exponential density function is given d. 1 6 ( x + 1)dx = 2
1 10x
e , if x 0
by f ( x) = 10 ( x + 1)2
c
1
0, if x < 0. =
12 2
The probability that the break pads will break 1
2
down after the warranty period is (c + 1) 1 1
P(5 < X) = 1 P(0 X 5) =
12 3 2
5 1 x x 5
= 1 e 10 dx = 1 e 10 (c + 1)2 4 = 6
0 10
0
(c + 1)2 = 10
5 1 1
= 1 e 10 + e0 = 1 + e 2 1 = e 2 0.607 c + 1 = 10

c = 1 10
3. The exponential density function is given by We choose c = 1 + 10 since 1 < c < 3.
0.2e 0.2 x , for x 0
f ( x) = 2000 1000
0, otherwise. 2. a. P(1000 < X < 2000) = dx
1000 x2
1 1 2000
The mean is given by = = = 5. 1000 1 1
k 0.2 = = (1) =
x 1000 2 2
The standard deviation is given by
1 1
= = = 5. 1000
k 0.2 b. P( X > 5000) = dx
5000 x2
Problems 16.1 r 1000
= lim
r 5000 x2
dx
2 2
21 ( x + 1) r
1000 1 1
1. a. P(1 < X < 2) = ( x + 1)dx = = lim
1000
= lim + =
1 6 12
1 r x 5000 r r 5 5
9 4 5
= =
12 12 12

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.1

1 , if 1 x 4 x1 t
x
x 1
3. a. f ( x) = 3 j. If 1 x 4, F ( x) = dt = = .
1 3 31 3
0, otherwise
f(x) 0, if x < 1
x 1
1 Thus F ( x) = , if 1 x 4
3
1, if x > 4.
1
3 x 2 1 1
P( X < 2) = F (2) = =
1 4 3 3
2 2
73 P(1 < X < 3) = F (3) F (1) = 0 =
3 7 2 3 3
b. P < X < = 2 2 = F(x)
2 2 4 1 3
3

1 2
c. P(0 < X < 1) = 0 dx = 0
0 1

d. P( X 3.5) = P(1 X 3.5) 2 4 6


x

3.5 1 2.5 5
= = =
4 1 3 6 1 , if 0 x 5
4. a. f ( x) = 5
0, otherwise
43 1
e. P( X > 3) = P(3 < X 4) = = f(x)
4 1 3 1

f. P(X = 2) = 0
1
4 1 5 x
g. P( X < 5) = P (1 X 4) = =1
4 1 5

4 3 1 2
4 1 x2 16 1 5 b. =
h. = x dx = = = 50 5
1 3 6
1
6 6 2
5 4.5 0.5 1
c. = =
4 21 50 5 10
i. =2
x dx 2
1 3
4 2 d. P(X = 4) = 0
x3 5
=
9 2 52 3
1 e. P( X > 2) = P(2 < X 5) = =
64 1 25 50 5
=
9 9 4
50
25 f. P( X < 5) = P(0 X 5) = =1
= 7 50
4
3
=
4 g. P( X > 5) = 0dx = 0
5
3 3
Thus, = = .
4 2 5
5 1 x2 25 5
h. = x dx = = 0 =
0 5 10 10 2
0

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

5 b 1
2 = x2
2
5 2 1 x3 5 c. dx
2
i. =2
x dx 2 = a b a
0 5 15
0
2
b 2
125 25 25 25 25 x3 a+b
= 0 = = =
3(b a ) 2
15 4 3 4 12 a
25 5 5 3 b3 a 3 ( a + b) 2
Thus = = = . =
12 12 6 3(b a) 4
b2 + ab + a 2 a 2 + 2ab + b 2
x1 t
x
x =
j. If 0 x 5, F ( x) = dt = = 3 4
0 5 50 5
b 2 2ab + a 2 (b a)2
0, if x < 0 = =
12 12

Thus F ( x) = 5x , if 0 x 5 ba
Thus = .

1, if x > 5 12
3.5 1
P(1 < X < 3.5) = F (3.5) F (1) = b
5 5 6. a. a k dx = 1
1 b
kx a = 1
=
2 k (b a) = 1
F(x)
1 1
k=
ba
Thus X is uniformly distributed.
x b. If a x b
5 x
x 1 1 xa
F ( x) = dt = t =
a ba ba a ba
1 , if a x b
5. a. f ( x) = b a 0, if x < a
0, otherwise
Thus F ( x) = bx aa if a x b

b
1 if x > b
b 1 x2
b. = x dx =
a ba 2(b a)
a
2e2 x , if x 0
b a2 2
a+b 7. f ( x) =
= = 0, if x < 0
2(b a ) 2
2
a. P(1 < X < 2) = 2e2 x dx
1
2
= e2 x
1
= e4 + e2
0.11702

3
b. P( X < 3) = 2e 2 x dx
0
3
= e 2 x
0
6
= e + 1
0.99752

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.1

c. P( X > 5) = 1 P( X 5) 1
5
e. P (0 < X < c ) =
2 x
= 1 2e dx 2
0 c 0.5 x 1
5
= 1 e 2 x
0 0.5e dx =
2
0
e0.5 x
c
=
1
10
= 1 ( e + 1) 0 2
1
= e10 0.00005 e0.5c + 1 =
2
1
1 1 e 0.5c =
d. From the text, = = = . 2
k 2 1
0.5c = ln
1 3 2
P( 2 < X < + 2 ) = P < X <
2 2 0.5c = ln 2
3/2 c = 2 ln 2
= 2e2 x dx
0
3/2
= e 2 x
4
0
9. a. 0 kx dx = 1
= e 3 + 1 4
kx 2
0.95021 =1
2
0
e. F ( x) = P( X x) =
x
f (t ) dt 8k = 1
1
If x 0, k=
8
x x
F ( x) = 2e2t dt = e2t = e 2 x + 1.
0 0 3
x2 3x 9 4
0 if x<0 b. P(2 < X < 3) = dx = =
Thus F ( x) = 2 x 28 16 16 16
e + 1 if x0 2
5
=
0.5e0.5 x , if x 0 16
8. f ( x) =
0, if x < 0 4
x 4x2
c. P( X > 2.5) = dx =
4 2.5 8 16
0.5 x
a. P( X > 4) = 1 P( X 4) = 1 0.5e dx 2.5
0
25 39
= 1 = 0.609
( ) 0 = 1 ( e )
4
0.5 x 2 2 64 64
= 1 e +1 = e 0.135
d. P(X > 0) = P(0 X 4) = 1
2.6 0.5 x
b. P(0.5 < X < 2.6) = 0.5e dx 4
0.5
4 x x3 64 8
2.6 e. = x dx = = 0 =
= e0.5 x = e1.3 + e0.25 0.506 0 8 24
0
24 3
0.5

5 4 2
5
P( X < 5) = 0.5e0.5 x dx = e0.5 x 4 2 x x4 8
c.
0 0
f. =
2
x dx 2 =
0 8 32 3
2.5 0
= e + 1 0.918
64 8
= 8 =
d. P(X = 4) = 0 9 9
8 8 2 2
Thus = = =
9 3 3

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1 10 / 3 x
g. P( X < c) = d. P(2 < X < ) = 1 dx
2 2 2
cx 1 10 / 3
0 8 dx = 2 x2
=

x
4
c 2
x2 1
= 25 10 4
16
0
2 = (1 2) =
2
9 3 9
c 1
=
16 2 7
7 1 x 7
2 11. P( X 7) = dx = =
c =8 0 10 10 0 10
c = 2 2 10
10 1 x2
We choose c = 2 2 since 0 < c < 4. E( X ) = x dx = = 5 min
0 10 20
0
4 x
h. P(3 < X < 5) = P(3 < X < 4) = dx
3 8 12 11.92 0.08 1
12. P( X < 12) = = =
2 4 12.08 11.92 0.16 2
x 16 9 7
= = = P(X = 12) = 0
16 16 16 16 12.08 1
3
E( X ) =
11.92 12.08 11.92
x dx
10. a. P(2 X 4) = 1 12.08 x
4 x = dx
2 2 + k dx = 1 11.92 0.16
12.08
4 x2
x2 = = 12 oz
+ kx = 1 0.32
4 11.92
2
(4 + 4k ) (1 + 2k ) = 1 13. P(X > 1) = 1 P(X 1)
2k = 2
( )0
1 1
k = 1 = 1 3e3 x dx = 1 e3 x
0

b. P(X 2.5) = P(2.5 X 4)


4
( )
= 1 e3 + 1 0.050
4 x x
2
= 1 dx = x 3
2.5 2 3 2 2 x 52 x
4 2.5 14. P( X 3) = 5 e dx = e
0 5 0
25 5 15 65
= (4 4) = = 0.9375 = e + 1 0.699
16 2 16
5 2 2 x
P( X > 5) = 1 P( X 5) = 1 5 e dx
x
4 4 x2 0 5
c. = x 1 dx = x dx 5
2 2 2 2 2 x
= 1 e 5 = 1 (e2 + 1)
4 0
x3 x 2 0.135
=
6 2
2 Problems 16.2
32 4 10
= 8 2 =
3 3 3 1. a. P(0 < Z < 1.7) = A(1.7) = 0.4554

b. P(0.43 < Z < 2.89) = A(2.89) A(0.43)


= 0.4981 0.1664
= 0.3317

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.2

c. P( Z > 1.23) = 0.5 + A(1.23) = 0.5 + 0.3907 5. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.8599


= 0.8907 0.5 + A ( z0 ) = 0.8599
A( z0 ) = 0.3599
d. P( Z 2.91) = 0.5 + A(2.91) = 0.5 + 0.4982 z0 = 1.08
= 0.9982 z0 = 1.08
e. P(2.51 < Z 1.3) = A(2.51) + A(1.3)
6. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.4129
= 0.4940 + 0.4032
= 0.8972 0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.4129
A( z0 ) = 0.0871
f. P( Z > 0.03) = 0.5 A(0.03) = 0.5 0.0120 z0 = 0.22
= 0.4880
7. P ( z0 < Z < z0 ) = 0.2662
2. a. P(1.96 < Z < 1.96) = 2 A(1.96) 2 A ( z0 ) = 0.2662
= 2(0.4750) A( z0 ) = 0.1331
= 0.9500 z0 = 0.34

b. P(2.11 < Z < 1.35) = A(2.11) A(1.35) 8. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.0456


= 0.4826 0.4115
= 0.0711 0.0456
P( Z > z0 ) = = 0.0228
2
c. P( Z < 1.05) = 0.5 A(1.05) 0.5 A( z0 ) = 0.0228
= 0.5 0.3531 A( z0 ) = 0.4772
= 0.1469 z0 = 2.00

d. P( Z > 3 ) = P( Z > 3) = 0.5 A(3) 27 16


9. a. P( X < 27) = P Z <
= 0.5 0.4987 4
= 0.0013 = P( Z < 2.75) = 0.5 + A(2.75)
= 0.5 + 0.4970 = 0.9970
e. P ( Z > 2 ) = P( Z < 2) + P ( Z > 2)
= 2[0.5 A(2)] 10 16
b. P( X < 10) = P Z <
= 2[0.5 0.4772] 4
= 0.0456 = P( Z < 1.5) = 0.5 A(1.5)
= 0.5 0.4332 = 0.0668
1 1 1 1
f. P Z < = P < Z < = 2 A
2 2 2 2 c. P(10.8 < X < 12.4)
= 2(0.1915) 10.8 16 12.4 16
= 0.3830 = P <Z<
4 4
= P(1.3 < Z < 0.9) = A(1.3) A(0.9)
3. P ( Z < z0 ) = 0.6368 = 0.4032 0.3159 = 0.0873
0.5 + A ( z0 ) = 0.6368
A( z0 ) = 0.1368 150 200
10. a. P( X > 150) = P Z >
z0 = 0.35 40
= P(Z > 1.25) = 0.5 + A(1.25)
4. P ( Z < z0 ) = 0.0668 = 0.5 + 0.3944 = 0.8944
0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.0668
A( z0 ) = 0.4332
z0 = 1.5
z0 = 1.5

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

b. P(210 < X < 250) 16. Case 1. Suppose x0 > 16 . Then


210 200 250 200 x 16
= P <Z< P (16 < X < x0 ) = P 0 < Z < 0
40 40 2.25
= P(0.25 < Z < 1.25) = A(1.25) A(0.25)
x 16
= 0.3944 0.0987 = 0.2957 = A 0 = 0.4641 . Thus
2.25
2 (3) x0 16
11. P( X > 2) = P Z > = 1.8 , so x0 = 20.05 .
2 2.25
1 1
= P Z > = 0.5 A Case 2. Suppose x0 < 16 . Then
2 2
x 16
= 0.5 0.1915 = 0.3085 P ( x0 < X < 16 ) = P 0 < Z < 0
2.25
30
12. P( X < 3) = P Z < = P ( Z < 2) x 16
1.5 = A 0 = 0.4641 . Thus
2.25
= 0.5 + A(2) = 0.5 + 0.4772 = 0.9772
x 16
0 = 1.8 , so x0 = 11.95 .
2.25
13. Since 2 = 100 , = 10. Thus
50 = 60 10 =
Therefore, x0 can be either 11.95 or 20.05.
75 = 60 + 15 = + 1.5
Thus P(50 < X 75) = P ( < X + 1.5 ). 17. Let X be score on test. Then the probability that
P(1 < Z 1.5) = A(1) + A(1.5) X lies within 2 = 2(100) = 200 points of 500 is
= 0.3413 + 0.4332 0.95. Thus, 95% of those who took the test had
= 0.7745 scores between 300 and 700.

18. Let X be a score on the test and let x0 be the


7 8
14. P( X > ) = P ( X > 7) = P Z > greatest score a person could get and yet score in
1 about the bottom 10%.
= P(Z > 1) = 0.5 + A(1) x 55
P( X x0 ) = P Z 0
10
= 0.5 + 0.3413 = 0.8413

15. P( X > 54) = P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.0401 55 x0
= PZ
0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.0401 10
= 0.10.
A ( z0 ) = 0.4599
55 x0
z0 = 1.75 Thus 0.5 A = 0.10 or
10
54 40
Since = 1.75 55 x0
A = 0.4.
10
14
= 1.75 55 x0
Hence 1.28. So x0 42.2 42.
10
14
so = =8.
1.75 19. Let X be height of an adult. Then
72 68
P( X < 72) = P Z < = P(Z < 1.33)
3
= 0.5 + A(1.33) = 0.5 + 0.4082 = 0.9082
90.82% are over 6 feet.

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.3

20. Let X be the yearly income (in dollars) of a Apply It 16.3


person in the group.
4. X is the number of winners and X is binomial
46,000 60, 000 1
a. P( X < 46, 000) = P Z < with n = 60 and p = . To find
5000 4
= P( Z < 2.8) P(X = 20), use the normal approximation to the
= 0.5 A(2.8) 1
binomial distribution with = np = 60 = 15
= 0.5 0.4974 4
= 0.0026
1 3 45
0.0026(10,000) = 26 people have yearly and = npq = 60 = 3.35 .
incomes less than $46,000. 4 4 4
Converting the correct X-values 19.5 and 20.5 to
75, 000 60, 000 Z-values gives
b. P( X > 75, 000) = P 19.5 15
5000 z1 = 1.34
= P( Z > 3) 45
4
= 0.5 A(3)
= 0.5 0.4987 20.5 15
z2 = 1.64
= 0.0013 45
4
0.0013(10,000) = 13 people have yearly Thus P(X = 20) P(1.34 Z 1.64)
incomes over $75,000. = A(1.64) A(1.34) = 0.4495 0.4099 = 0.0396
The probability of 20 winners out of 60
21. Let X be IQ of a child in population. contestants is 0.0396.
125 100.4 Problems 16.3
a. P( X > 125) = P Z >
11.6
= P(Z > 2.12) = 0.5 A(2.12) 1. n = 150, p = 0.4, q = 0.6,
= 0.5 0.4830 = 0.0170. = np = 150(0.4) = 60,
Thus 1.7% of the children have IQs greater = npq = 150(0.4)(0.6) = 36 = 6
than 125.
P( X 52) = P ( X < 52.5)
b. If x0 is the value, then P ( X > x0 ) = 0.90 . 52.5 60
z= = 1.25
6
x 100.4
Thus P Z > 0 = 0.90 or P(X 52) = P(X 52.5)
11.6 P(Z 1.25) = 0.5 A(1.25)
x 100.4 = 0.5 0.3944 = 0.1056
0.5 + A 0 = 0.90 . Hence
11.6
P(X 74) = P(X 73.5) P Z
73.5 60

6
x 100.4
A 0 = 0.4 , so = P(Z 2.25)
11.6 = 0.5 A(2.25)
x 100.4 = 0.5 0.4878 = 0.0122
0 = 1.28 or x0 = 85.552 85.6 .
11.6
2. n = 50, p = 0.3, q = 0.7, = np = 50(0.3) = 15,
22. Since P (4 < X < 16) = P( 3 < X < + 3 ) = npq = 50(0.3)(0.7) = 10.5 3.24
= 0.25 0.997, X cannot be normally P( X = 19) = P (18.5 X 19.5)
distributed. 18.5 15 19.5 15
P Z
10.5 10.5
= P (1.08 Z 1.39)
= A(1.39) A(1.08)
= 0.4177 0.3599
= 0.0578

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

P( X 18) = P( X 18.5) P(45 X 60) = P(44.5 X 60.5)


18.5 15
P Z 44.5 50 60.5 50
10.5
P Z
125 125
= P( Z 1.08) 3 3
= 0.5 + A(1.08) = P(0.85 Z 1.63) = A(0.85) + A(1.63)
= 0.5 + 0.3599 = 0.3023 + 0.4484 = 0.7507
= 0.8599
6. Let X = no. of heads that occurs. Then X is
3. n = 200, p = 0.6, q = 0.4, binomial with n = 200, p = 0.4, q = 0.6,
= np = 200(0.6) = 120 = np = 80, = npq = 48 6.93 .
= npq = 200(0.6)(0.4) = 48 6.93 P(90 X 100) = P(89.5 X 100.5)
P( X = 125) = P(124.5 X 125.5) 89.5 80 100.5 80
P Z
124.5 120 125.5 120 48 48
P Z
48 48 = P(1.37 Z 2.96) = A(2.96) A(1.37)
= P(0.65 Z 0.79) = 0.4985 0.4147 = 0.0838
= A(0.79) A(0.65)
= 0.2852 0.2422 7. Let X = no. of trucks out of service. Then X can
= 0.0430 be considered binomial with n = 60, p = 0.1,
P (110 X 135) q = 0.9, = np = 6, = npq = 5.4 2.32
= P (109.5 X 135.5) 6.5 6
P( X 7) = P ( X 6.5) P Z
109.5 120 135.5 120 5.4
P Z
48 48 = P(Z 0.22) = 0.5 A(0.22)
= P (1.52 Z 2.24) = 0.5 0.0871 = 0.4129
= A(1.52) + A(2.24)
8. Let X = no. of defective items in sample. Then X
= 0.4357 + 0.4875
is binomial with n = 200, p = 0.05, q = 0.95,
= 0.9232
= 200(0.05) = 10, = npq = 9.5 3.08
4. n = 50, p = 0.20, q = 0.80, P(X 7) = P(X 6.5)
= np = 50(0.20) = 10, 6.5 10
z= 1.14
= npq = 50(0.20)(0.80) = 8.0 2.83 9.5
P( X 10) = P( X 9.5) P( X 7) = P( X 6.5) P( Z 1.14)
9.5 10 = 0.5 + A(1.14) = 0.5 + 0.3729 = 0.8729
PZ
8
= P( Z 0.18) 9. Let X = no. of correct answers. Then X is
binomial and p = 0.5, q = 0.5. If n = 50, then
= P( Z 0.18)
= np = 50(0.5) = 25,
= 0.5 + A(0.18)
= 0.5 + 0.0714 = npq = 50(0.5)(0.5) = 12.5 3.54 and
= 0.5714 P( X 25) = P( X 24.5)
24.5 25
PZ
5. Let X = no. of times 5 occurs. Then X is 12.5
1
binomial with n = 300, p = , q = ,
5 = P( Z 0.14)
6 6 = 0.5 + A(0.14)
125 = 0.5 + 0.0557
= np = 50, = npq = 6.45 . = 0.5557
3
If n = 100, then = 100(0.5) = 50,
= npq = 100(0.5)(0.5) = 25 = 5

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 16 Review

P( X 50) = P( X 49.5) Chapter 16 Review Problems


49.5 50
= PZ 1. a. P(0 X 1) = 1
5
= P( Z 0.1) 1 1 2
= 0.5 + A(0.1)
0 3 + kx dx = 1

= 0.5 + 0.0398 1
x kx3
= 0.5398 + =1
3 3
0
10. Let X = no. of correct answers on last 20
1 k
questions. Then X is binomial with n = 20, + =1
p = 0.25, q = 0.75, = np = 20(0.25) = 5, 3 3
= npq = 20(0.25)(0.75 = 3.75 1.94 k 2
=
P( X 10) = P( X 9.5) 3 3
k=2
9.5 5
PZ
3.75 1 3 3/ 4 1
P < X < = + 2 x 2 dx
1/ 2 3
= P( Z 2.32) b.
2 4
= 0.5 A(2.32) 3/ 4
= 0.5 0.4898 x 2 x3 3/ 4

= 0.0102
= +
3 3

1
= x + 2 x3
3
( )
1/ 2 1/ 2

11. Let X = no. of deals consisting of three cards of 1 3 27 1 1 9


= + + =
one suit and two cards of another suit. Then X is 3 4 32 2 4 32
binomial with n = 100, p = 0.1, q = 0.9,
= np = 10, = npq = 9 = 3 . 1 1 1
c. P X = + 2 x 2 dx
P( X 16) = P( X 15.5) 2 1/ 2 3
15.5 10 1
PZ x 2 x3 1

= P( Z 1.83)
3 = +
3 3

1
= x + 2 x3
3
( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
= 0.5 A(1.83)
1 1 1 3
= 0.5 0.4664 = (1 + 2) + =
= 0.0336 3 2 4 4

12. Let X = the number of subjects that choose the x 1


d. If 0 x 1, F ( x) = + 2t 2 dt
cola from the sponsoring company. Then X is 0 3
binomial with n = 35, p = 0.5, q = 0.5, x
= np = 17.5, = npq = 8.75 2.96 t 2t 3 x 2 x3
= + = +
3 3
P( X 25) = P( X 24.5) 0 3 3
24.5 17.5 0, if x < 0
= PZ
8.75 3

= P( Z 2.37) Therefore, F ( x) = 3 + 3 , if 0 x 1
x 2 x

= 0.5 A(2.37) = 0.5 0.4911 1, if x > 1
= 0.0089

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Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1 e(1/ 3) x , if x 0 23 20
2. f ( x) = 3 9. P( X < 23) = P Z <
4
0, if x < 0
= P( Z < 0.75) = 0.5 + A(0.75)
2 1 (1/ 3) x
P( X > 2) = 1 P( X 2) = 1 e dx = 0.5 + 0.2734 = 0.7734
0 3
1/ 3 x 2 21 20 31 20
= 1 e ( ) = 1 e2 / 3 + 1 10. P(21 < X < 31) = P <Z<
4 4
0
= P (0.25 < Z < 2.75)
= e2 / 3 0.513
= A(2.75) A(0.25)
5 = 0.4970 0.0987
5 2 2 x3 10 = 0.3983
3. a. = x x dx = =
0 25 75 3
0
11. n = 100, p = 0.35, q = 0.65, = np = 35,
5 2 = npq = 22.75 4.77
b. 2 = x 2 x dx 2 P(25 X 47) = P(24.5 X 47.5)
0 25
5 24.5 35 47.5 35
x4 10
2 P Z
= 22.75 22.75
50
0
3 = P(2.20 Z 2.62) = A(2.20) + A(2.62)
625 100 25 = 0.4861 + 0.4956 = 0.9817
= =
50 9 18
12. n = 100, p = 0.35, q = 0.65, = np = 35,
25
Thus = 1.18. = npq = 22.75 4.77
18
P(X = 48) = P(47.5 X 48.5)
5 47.5 35 48.5 35
5 1 51 x P Z
4. P( X < 5) = dx = dx = 22.75 22.75
2 62 2 4 42
= P(2.62 Z 2.83) = A(2.83) A(2.62)
5 2 3 = 0.4977 0.4956 = 0.0021
= =
4 4 4
13. Let X = height of an individual. X is normally
25 20 distributed with = 68 and = 2.
5. P( X > 25) = P Z >
4 72 68
P( X > 72) = P Z >
= P( Z > 1.25) = 0.5 A(1.25) 2
= 0.5 0.3944 = 0.1056 = P( Z > 2) = 0.5 A(2)
= 0.5 0.4772 = 0.0228
21 20
6. P( X < 21) = P Z <
4 14. Let X = number of heads that occurs. X is
binomial with n = 500, p = 0.5, q = 0.5,
= P( Z < 0.25) = 0.5 + A(0.25)
= 0.5 + 0.0987 = 0.5987
= np = 250, = npq = 125 11.18.
P( X 215) = P ( X 214.5)
14 20 18 20 214.5 250
7. P(14 < X < 18) = P <Z< PZ
4 4 125
= P(1.5 < Z < 0.5) = P ( Z 3.18) = 0.5 + A(3.18)
= A(1.5) A(0.5) = 0.4332 0.1915 = 0.2417 = 0.5 + 0.4993 = 0.9993

10 20
8. P( X > 10) = P Z >
4
= P( Z > 2.5) = 0.5 + A(2.5)
= 0.5 + 0.4938 = 0.9938

676
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Explore and ExtendChapter 16

Explore and ExtendChapter 16

1. The result should correspond to the known


distribution function.

2. The derivative of the logistic function should


roughly coincide with the normal probability
density function used to generate the values.

3. The list of earthquake magnitudes will appear to


have a normal density function. This is
surprising, since one would expect something
more like an exponential density function, with
most earthquakes being very low-magnitude.
Presumably, the explanation for the normal
density function is that as magnitude declines,
the likelihood of a quakes being reported and
thus appearing on the list also goes down.

677
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.