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# Chapter 16

## Apply It 16.1 2.5

2.5 1 ( x + 1)2
b. P( X < 2.5) = ( x + 1)dx =
1. The uniform density function is given by 1 6 12
1
1 , if 0 x 60
f ( x) = 60 =
49 4 11
= = 0.6875
0, otherwise. 48 12 16
The probability of waiting between 25 and 45
minutes is 3
3 3 1 ( x + 1)2
45 1 x
45 c. P X = ( x + 1)dx =
P(25 X 45) = dx = 2 3/ 2 6 12
25 60 60 25 3/ 2
16 25 13
45 25 20 1 = = = 0.8125
= = = . 12 48 16
60 60 3
c1 1
2. The exponential density function is given d. 1 6 ( x + 1)dx = 2
1 10x
e , if x 0
by f ( x) = 10 ( x + 1)2
c
1
0, if x < 0. =
12 2
The probability that the break pads will break 1
2
down after the warranty period is (c + 1) 1 1
P(5 < X) = 1 P(0 X 5) =
12 3 2
5 1 x x 5
= 1 e 10 dx = 1 e 10 (c + 1)2 4 = 6
0 10
0
(c + 1)2 = 10
5 1 1
= 1 e 10 + e0 = 1 + e 2 1 = e 2 0.607 c + 1 = 10

c = 1 10
3. The exponential density function is given by We choose c = 1 + 10 since 1 < c < 3.
0.2e 0.2 x , for x 0
f ( x) = 2000 1000
0, otherwise. 2. a. P(1000 < X < 2000) = dx
1000 x2
1 1 2000
The mean is given by = = = 5. 1000 1 1
k 0.2 = = (1) =
x 1000 2 2
The standard deviation is given by
1 1
= = = 5. 1000
k 0.2 b. P( X > 5000) = dx
5000 x2
Problems 16.1 r 1000
= lim
r 5000 x2
dx
2 2
21 ( x + 1) r
1000 1 1
1. a. P(1 < X < 2) = ( x + 1)dx = = lim
1000
= lim + =
1 6 12
1 r x 5000 r r 5 5
9 4 5
= =
12 12 12

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.1

1 , if 1 x 4 x1 t
x
x 1
3. a. f ( x) = 3 j. If 1 x 4, F ( x) = dt = = .
1 3 31 3
0, otherwise
f(x) 0, if x < 1
x 1
1 Thus F ( x) = , if 1 x 4
3
1, if x > 4.
1
3 x 2 1 1
P( X < 2) = F (2) = =
1 4 3 3
2 2
73 P(1 < X < 3) = F (3) F (1) = 0 =
3 7 2 3 3
b. P < X < = 2 2 = F(x)
2 2 4 1 3
3

1 2
c. P(0 < X < 1) = 0 dx = 0
0 1

## d. P( X 3.5) = P(1 X 3.5) 2 4 6

x

3.5 1 2.5 5
= = =
4 1 3 6 1 , if 0 x 5
4. a. f ( x) = 5
0, otherwise
43 1
e. P( X > 3) = P(3 < X 4) = = f(x)
4 1 3 1

f. P(X = 2) = 0
1
4 1 5 x
g. P( X < 5) = P (1 X 4) = =1
4 1 5

4 3 1 2
4 1 x2 16 1 5 b. =
h. = x dx = = = 50 5
1 3 6
1
6 6 2
5 4.5 0.5 1
c. = =
4 21 50 5 10
i. =2
x dx 2
1 3
4 2 d. P(X = 4) = 0
x3 5
=
9 2 52 3
1 e. P( X > 2) = P(2 < X 5) = =
64 1 25 50 5
=
9 9 4
50
25 f. P( X < 5) = P(0 X 5) = =1
= 7 50
4
3
=
4 g. P( X > 5) = 0dx = 0
5
3 3
Thus, = = .
4 2 5
5 1 x2 25 5
h. = x dx = = 0 =
0 5 10 10 2
0

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

5 b 1
2 = x2
2
5 2 1 x3 5 c. dx
2
i. =2
x dx 2 = a b a
0 5 15
0
2
b 2
125 25 25 25 25 x3 a+b
= 0 = = =
3(b a ) 2
15 4 3 4 12 a
25 5 5 3 b3 a 3 ( a + b) 2
Thus = = = . =
12 12 6 3(b a) 4
b2 + ab + a 2 a 2 + 2ab + b 2
x1 t
x
x =
j. If 0 x 5, F ( x) = dt = = 3 4
0 5 50 5
b 2 2ab + a 2 (b a)2
0, if x < 0 = =
12 12

Thus F ( x) = 5x , if 0 x 5 ba
Thus = .

1, if x > 5 12
3.5 1
P(1 < X < 3.5) = F (3.5) F (1) = b
5 5 6. a. a k dx = 1
1 b
kx a = 1
=
2 k (b a) = 1
F(x)
1 1
k=
ba
Thus X is uniformly distributed.
x b. If a x b
5 x
x 1 1 xa
F ( x) = dt = t =
a ba ba a ba
1 , if a x b
5. a. f ( x) = b a 0, if x < a
0, otherwise
Thus F ( x) = bx aa if a x b

b
1 if x > b
b 1 x2
b. = x dx =
a ba 2(b a)
a
2e2 x , if x 0
b a2 2
a+b 7. f ( x) =
= = 0, if x < 0
2(b a ) 2
2
a. P(1 < X < 2) = 2e2 x dx
1
2
= e2 x
1
= e4 + e2
0.11702

3
b. P( X < 3) = 2e 2 x dx
0
3
= e 2 x
0
6
= e + 1
0.99752

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.1

c. P( X > 5) = 1 P( X 5) 1
5
e. P (0 < X < c ) =
2 x
= 1 2e dx 2
0 c 0.5 x 1
5
= 1 e 2 x
0 0.5e dx =
2
0
e0.5 x
c
=
1
10
= 1 ( e + 1) 0 2
1
= e10 0.00005 e0.5c + 1 =
2
1
1 1 e 0.5c =
d. From the text, = = = . 2
k 2 1
0.5c = ln
1 3 2
P( 2 < X < + 2 ) = P < X <
2 2 0.5c = ln 2
3/2 c = 2 ln 2
= 2e2 x dx
0
3/2
= e 2 x
4
0
9. a. 0 kx dx = 1
= e 3 + 1 4
kx 2
0.95021 =1
2
0
e. F ( x) = P( X x) =
x
f (t ) dt 8k = 1
1
If x 0, k=
8
x x
F ( x) = 2e2t dt = e2t = e 2 x + 1.
0 0 3
x2 3x 9 4
0 if x<0 b. P(2 < X < 3) = dx = =
Thus F ( x) = 2 x 28 16 16 16
e + 1 if x0 2
5
=
0.5e0.5 x , if x 0 16
8. f ( x) =
0, if x < 0 4
x 4x2
c. P( X > 2.5) = dx =
4 2.5 8 16
0.5 x
a. P( X > 4) = 1 P( X 4) = 1 0.5e dx 2.5
0
25 39
= 1 = 0.609
( ) 0 = 1 ( e )
4
0.5 x 2 2 64 64
= 1 e +1 = e 0.135
d. P(X > 0) = P(0 X 4) = 1
2.6 0.5 x
b. P(0.5 < X < 2.6) = 0.5e dx 4
0.5
4 x x3 64 8
2.6 e. = x dx = = 0 =
= e0.5 x = e1.3 + e0.25 0.506 0 8 24
0
24 3
0.5

5 4 2
5
P( X < 5) = 0.5e0.5 x dx = e0.5 x 4 2 x x4 8
c.
0 0
f. =
2
x dx 2 =
0 8 32 3
2.5 0
= e + 1 0.918
64 8
= 8 =
d. P(X = 4) = 0 9 9
8 8 2 2
Thus = = =
9 3 3

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1 10 / 3 x
g. P( X < c) = d. P(2 < X < ) = 1 dx
2 2 2
cx 1 10 / 3
0 8 dx = 2 x2
=

x
4
c 2
x2 1
= 25 10 4
16
0
2 = (1 2) =
2
9 3 9
c 1
=
16 2 7
7 1 x 7
2 11. P( X 7) = dx = =
c =8 0 10 10 0 10
c = 2 2 10
10 1 x2
We choose c = 2 2 since 0 < c < 4. E( X ) = x dx = = 5 min
0 10 20
0
4 x
h. P(3 < X < 5) = P(3 < X < 4) = dx
3 8 12 11.92 0.08 1
12. P( X < 12) = = =
2 4 12.08 11.92 0.16 2
x 16 9 7
= = = P(X = 12) = 0
16 16 16 16 12.08 1
3
E( X ) =
11.92 12.08 11.92
x dx
10. a. P(2 X 4) = 1 12.08 x
4 x = dx
2 2 + k dx = 1 11.92 0.16
12.08
4 x2
x2 = = 12 oz
+ kx = 1 0.32
4 11.92
2
(4 + 4k ) (1 + 2k ) = 1 13. P(X > 1) = 1 P(X 1)
2k = 2
( )0
1 1
k = 1 = 1 3e3 x dx = 1 e3 x
0

## b. P(X 2.5) = P(2.5 X 4)

4
( )
= 1 e3 + 1 0.050
4 x x
2
= 1 dx = x 3
2.5 2 3 2 2 x 52 x
4 2.5 14. P( X 3) = 5 e dx = e
0 5 0
25 5 15 65
= (4 4) = = 0.9375 = e + 1 0.699
16 2 16
5 2 2 x
P( X > 5) = 1 P( X 5) = 1 5 e dx
x
4 4 x2 0 5
c. = x 1 dx = x dx 5
2 2 2 2 2 x
= 1 e 5 = 1 (e2 + 1)
4 0
x3 x 2 0.135
=
6 2
2 Problems 16.2
32 4 10
= 8 2 =
3 3 3 1. a. P(0 < Z < 1.7) = A(1.7) = 0.4554

## b. P(0.43 < Z < 2.89) = A(2.89) A(0.43)

= 0.4981 0.1664
= 0.3317

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.2

## c. P( Z > 1.23) = 0.5 + A(1.23) = 0.5 + 0.3907 5. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.8599

= 0.8907 0.5 + A ( z0 ) = 0.8599
A( z0 ) = 0.3599
d. P( Z 2.91) = 0.5 + A(2.91) = 0.5 + 0.4982 z0 = 1.08
= 0.9982 z0 = 1.08
e. P(2.51 < Z 1.3) = A(2.51) + A(1.3)
6. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.4129
= 0.4940 + 0.4032
= 0.8972 0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.4129
A( z0 ) = 0.0871
f. P( Z > 0.03) = 0.5 A(0.03) = 0.5 0.0120 z0 = 0.22
= 0.4880
7. P ( z0 < Z < z0 ) = 0.2662
2. a. P(1.96 < Z < 1.96) = 2 A(1.96) 2 A ( z0 ) = 0.2662
= 2(0.4750) A( z0 ) = 0.1331
= 0.9500 z0 = 0.34

## b. P(2.11 < Z < 1.35) = A(2.11) A(1.35) 8. P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.0456

= 0.4826 0.4115
= 0.0711 0.0456
P( Z > z0 ) = = 0.0228
2
c. P( Z < 1.05) = 0.5 A(1.05) 0.5 A( z0 ) = 0.0228
= 0.5 0.3531 A( z0 ) = 0.4772
= 0.1469 z0 = 2.00

## d. P( Z > 3 ) = P( Z > 3) = 0.5 A(3) 27 16

9. a. P( X < 27) = P Z <
= 0.5 0.4987 4
= 0.0013 = P( Z < 2.75) = 0.5 + A(2.75)
= 0.5 + 0.4970 = 0.9970
e. P ( Z > 2 ) = P( Z < 2) + P ( Z > 2)
= 2[0.5 A(2)] 10 16
b. P( X < 10) = P Z <
= 2[0.5 0.4772] 4
= 0.0456 = P( Z < 1.5) = 0.5 A(1.5)
= 0.5 0.4332 = 0.0668
1 1 1 1
f. P Z < = P < Z < = 2 A
2 2 2 2 c. P(10.8 < X < 12.4)
= 2(0.1915) 10.8 16 12.4 16
= 0.3830 = P <Z<
4 4
= P(1.3 < Z < 0.9) = A(1.3) A(0.9)
3. P ( Z < z0 ) = 0.6368 = 0.4032 0.3159 = 0.0873
0.5 + A ( z0 ) = 0.6368
A( z0 ) = 0.1368 150 200
10. a. P( X > 150) = P Z >
z0 = 0.35 40
= P(Z > 1.25) = 0.5 + A(1.25)
4. P ( Z < z0 ) = 0.0668 = 0.5 + 0.3944 = 0.8944
0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.0668
A( z0 ) = 0.4332
z0 = 1.5
z0 = 1.5

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

## b. P(210 < X < 250) 16. Case 1. Suppose x0 > 16 . Then

210 200 250 200 x 16
= P <Z< P (16 < X < x0 ) = P 0 < Z < 0
40 40 2.25
= P(0.25 < Z < 1.25) = A(1.25) A(0.25)
x 16
= 0.3944 0.0987 = 0.2957 = A 0 = 0.4641 . Thus
2.25
2 (3) x0 16
11. P( X > 2) = P Z > = 1.8 , so x0 = 20.05 .
2 2.25
1 1
= P Z > = 0.5 A Case 2. Suppose x0 < 16 . Then
2 2
x 16
= 0.5 0.1915 = 0.3085 P ( x0 < X < 16 ) = P 0 < Z < 0
2.25
30
12. P( X < 3) = P Z < = P ( Z < 2) x 16
1.5 = A 0 = 0.4641 . Thus
2.25
= 0.5 + A(2) = 0.5 + 0.4772 = 0.9772
x 16
0 = 1.8 , so x0 = 11.95 .
2.25
13. Since 2 = 100 , = 10. Thus
50 = 60 10 =
Therefore, x0 can be either 11.95 or 20.05.
75 = 60 + 15 = + 1.5
Thus P(50 < X 75) = P ( < X + 1.5 ). 17. Let X be score on test. Then the probability that
P(1 < Z 1.5) = A(1) + A(1.5) X lies within 2 = 2(100) = 200 points of 500 is
= 0.3413 + 0.4332 0.95. Thus, 95% of those who took the test had
= 0.7745 scores between 300 and 700.

## 18. Let X be a score on the test and let x0 be the

7 8
14. P( X > ) = P ( X > 7) = P Z > greatest score a person could get and yet score in
= P(Z > 1) = 0.5 + A(1) x 55
P( X x0 ) = P Z 0
10
= 0.5 + 0.3413 = 0.8413

15. P( X > 54) = P ( Z > z0 ) = 0.0401 55 x0
= PZ
0.5 A ( z0 ) = 0.0401 10
= 0.10.
A ( z0 ) = 0.4599
55 x0
z0 = 1.75 Thus 0.5 A = 0.10 or
10
54 40
Since = 1.75 55 x0
A = 0.4.
10
14
= 1.75 55 x0
Hence 1.28. So x0 42.2 42.
10
14
so = =8.
1.75 19. Let X be height of an adult. Then
72 68
P( X < 72) = P Z < = P(Z < 1.33)
3
= 0.5 + A(1.33) = 0.5 + 0.4082 = 0.9082
90.82% are over 6 feet.

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Section 16.3

## 20. Let X be the yearly income (in dollars) of a Apply It 16.3

person in the group.
4. X is the number of winners and X is binomial
46,000 60, 000 1
a. P( X < 46, 000) = P Z < with n = 60 and p = . To find
5000 4
= P( Z < 2.8) P(X = 20), use the normal approximation to the
= 0.5 A(2.8) 1
binomial distribution with = np = 60 = 15
= 0.5 0.4974 4
= 0.0026
1 3 45
0.0026(10,000) = 26 people have yearly and = npq = 60 = 3.35 .
incomes less than \$46,000. 4 4 4
Converting the correct X-values 19.5 and 20.5 to
75, 000 60, 000 Z-values gives
b. P( X > 75, 000) = P 19.5 15
5000 z1 = 1.34
= P( Z > 3) 45
4
= 0.5 A(3)
= 0.5 0.4987 20.5 15
z2 = 1.64
= 0.0013 45
4
0.0013(10,000) = 13 people have yearly Thus P(X = 20) P(1.34 Z 1.64)
incomes over \$75,000. = A(1.64) A(1.34) = 0.4495 0.4099 = 0.0396
The probability of 20 winners out of 60
21. Let X be IQ of a child in population. contestants is 0.0396.
125 100.4 Problems 16.3
a. P( X > 125) = P Z >
11.6
= P(Z > 2.12) = 0.5 A(2.12) 1. n = 150, p = 0.4, q = 0.6,
= 0.5 0.4830 = 0.0170. = np = 150(0.4) = 60,
Thus 1.7% of the children have IQs greater = npq = 150(0.4)(0.6) = 36 = 6
than 125.
P( X 52) = P ( X < 52.5)
b. If x0 is the value, then P ( X > x0 ) = 0.90 . 52.5 60
z= = 1.25
6
x 100.4
Thus P Z > 0 = 0.90 or P(X 52) = P(X 52.5)
11.6 P(Z 1.25) = 0.5 A(1.25)
x 100.4 = 0.5 0.3944 = 0.1056
0.5 + A 0 = 0.90 . Hence
11.6
P(X 74) = P(X 73.5) P Z
73.5 60

6
x 100.4
A 0 = 0.4 , so = P(Z 2.25)
11.6 = 0.5 A(2.25)
x 100.4 = 0.5 0.4878 = 0.0122
0 = 1.28 or x0 = 85.552 85.6 .
11.6
2. n = 50, p = 0.3, q = 0.7, = np = 50(0.3) = 15,
22. Since P (4 < X < 16) = P( 3 < X < + 3 ) = npq = 50(0.3)(0.7) = 10.5 3.24
= 0.25 0.997, X cannot be normally P( X = 19) = P (18.5 X 19.5)
distributed. 18.5 15 19.5 15
P Z
10.5 10.5
= P (1.08 Z 1.39)
= A(1.39) A(1.08)
= 0.4177 0.3599
= 0.0578

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Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

## P( X 18) = P( X 18.5) P(45 X 60) = P(44.5 X 60.5)

18.5 15
P Z 44.5 50 60.5 50
10.5
P Z
125 125
= P( Z 1.08) 3 3
= 0.5 + A(1.08) = P(0.85 Z 1.63) = A(0.85) + A(1.63)
= 0.5 + 0.3599 = 0.3023 + 0.4484 = 0.7507
= 0.8599
6. Let X = no. of heads that occurs. Then X is
3. n = 200, p = 0.6, q = 0.4, binomial with n = 200, p = 0.4, q = 0.6,
= np = 200(0.6) = 120 = np = 80, = npq = 48 6.93 .
= npq = 200(0.6)(0.4) = 48 6.93 P(90 X 100) = P(89.5 X 100.5)
P( X = 125) = P(124.5 X 125.5) 89.5 80 100.5 80
P Z
124.5 120 125.5 120 48 48
P Z
48 48 = P(1.37 Z 2.96) = A(2.96) A(1.37)
= P(0.65 Z 0.79) = 0.4985 0.4147 = 0.0838
= A(0.79) A(0.65)
= 0.2852 0.2422 7. Let X = no. of trucks out of service. Then X can
= 0.0430 be considered binomial with n = 60, p = 0.1,
P (110 X 135) q = 0.9, = np = 6, = npq = 5.4 2.32
= P (109.5 X 135.5) 6.5 6
P( X 7) = P ( X 6.5) P Z
109.5 120 135.5 120 5.4
P Z
48 48 = P(Z 0.22) = 0.5 A(0.22)
= P (1.52 Z 2.24) = 0.5 0.0871 = 0.4129
= A(1.52) + A(2.24)
8. Let X = no. of defective items in sample. Then X
= 0.4357 + 0.4875
is binomial with n = 200, p = 0.05, q = 0.95,
= 0.9232
= 200(0.05) = 10, = npq = 9.5 3.08
4. n = 50, p = 0.20, q = 0.80, P(X 7) = P(X 6.5)
= np = 50(0.20) = 10, 6.5 10
z= 1.14
= npq = 50(0.20)(0.80) = 8.0 2.83 9.5
P( X 10) = P( X 9.5) P( X 7) = P( X 6.5) P( Z 1.14)
9.5 10 = 0.5 + A(1.14) = 0.5 + 0.3729 = 0.8729
PZ
8
= P( Z 0.18) 9. Let X = no. of correct answers. Then X is
binomial and p = 0.5, q = 0.5. If n = 50, then
= P( Z 0.18)
= np = 50(0.5) = 25,
= 0.5 + A(0.18)
= 0.5 + 0.0714 = npq = 50(0.5)(0.5) = 12.5 3.54 and
= 0.5714 P( X 25) = P( X 24.5)
24.5 25
PZ
5. Let X = no. of times 5 occurs. Then X is 12.5
1
binomial with n = 300, p = , q = ,
5 = P( Z 0.14)
6 6 = 0.5 + A(0.14)
125 = 0.5 + 0.0557
= np = 50, = npq = 6.45 . = 0.5557
3
If n = 100, then = 100(0.5) = 50,
= npq = 100(0.5)(0.5) = 25 = 5

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ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Chapter 16 Review

## P( X 50) = P( X 49.5) Chapter 16 Review Problems

49.5 50
= PZ 1. a. P(0 X 1) = 1
5
= P( Z 0.1) 1 1 2
= 0.5 + A(0.1)
0 3 + kx dx = 1

= 0.5 + 0.0398 1
x kx3
= 0.5398 + =1
3 3
0
10. Let X = no. of correct answers on last 20
1 k
questions. Then X is binomial with n = 20, + =1
p = 0.25, q = 0.75, = np = 20(0.25) = 5, 3 3
= npq = 20(0.25)(0.75 = 3.75 1.94 k 2
=
P( X 10) = P( X 9.5) 3 3
k=2
9.5 5
PZ
3.75 1 3 3/ 4 1
P < X < = + 2 x 2 dx
1/ 2 3
= P( Z 2.32) b.
2 4
= 0.5 A(2.32) 3/ 4
= 0.5 0.4898 x 2 x3 3/ 4

= 0.0102
= +
3 3

1
= x + 2 x3
3
( )
1/ 2 1/ 2

## 11. Let X = no. of deals consisting of three cards of 1 3 27 1 1 9

= + + =
one suit and two cards of another suit. Then X is 3 4 32 2 4 32
binomial with n = 100, p = 0.1, q = 0.9,
= np = 10, = npq = 9 = 3 . 1 1 1
c. P X = + 2 x 2 dx
P( X 16) = P( X 15.5) 2 1/ 2 3
15.5 10 1
PZ x 2 x3 1

= P( Z 1.83)
3 = +
3 3

1
= x + 2 x3
3
( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
= 0.5 A(1.83)
1 1 1 3
= 0.5 0.4664 = (1 + 2) + =
= 0.0336 3 2 4 4

## 12. Let X = the number of subjects that choose the x 1

d. If 0 x 1, F ( x) = + 2t 2 dt
cola from the sponsoring company. Then X is 0 3
binomial with n = 35, p = 0.5, q = 0.5, x
= np = 17.5, = npq = 8.75 2.96 t 2t 3 x 2 x3
= + = +
3 3
P( X 25) = P( X 24.5) 0 3 3
24.5 17.5 0, if x < 0
= PZ
8.75 3

= P( Z 2.37) Therefore, F ( x) = 3 + 3 , if 0 x 1
x 2 x

= 0.5 A(2.37) = 0.5 0.4911 1, if x > 1
= 0.0089

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Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
Chapter 16: Continuous Random Variables ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

1 e(1/ 3) x , if x 0 23 20
2. f ( x) = 3 9. P( X < 23) = P Z <
4
0, if x < 0
= P( Z < 0.75) = 0.5 + A(0.75)
2 1 (1/ 3) x
P( X > 2) = 1 P( X 2) = 1 e dx = 0.5 + 0.2734 = 0.7734
0 3
1/ 3 x 2 21 20 31 20
= 1 e ( ) = 1 e2 / 3 + 1 10. P(21 < X < 31) = P <Z<
4 4
0
= P (0.25 < Z < 2.75)
= e2 / 3 0.513
= A(2.75) A(0.25)
5 = 0.4970 0.0987
5 2 2 x3 10 = 0.3983
3. a. = x x dx = =
0 25 75 3
0
11. n = 100, p = 0.35, q = 0.65, = np = 35,
5 2 = npq = 22.75 4.77
b. 2 = x 2 x dx 2 P(25 X 47) = P(24.5 X 47.5)
0 25
5 24.5 35 47.5 35
x4 10
2 P Z
= 22.75 22.75
50
0
3 = P(2.20 Z 2.62) = A(2.20) + A(2.62)
625 100 25 = 0.4861 + 0.4956 = 0.9817
= =
50 9 18
12. n = 100, p = 0.35, q = 0.65, = np = 35,
25
Thus = 1.18. = npq = 22.75 4.77
18
P(X = 48) = P(47.5 X 48.5)
5 47.5 35 48.5 35
5 1 51 x P Z
4. P( X < 5) = dx = dx = 22.75 22.75
2 62 2 4 42
= P(2.62 Z 2.83) = A(2.83) A(2.62)
5 2 3 = 0.4977 0.4956 = 0.0021
= =
4 4 4
13. Let X = height of an individual. X is normally
25 20 distributed with = 68 and = 2.
5. P( X > 25) = P Z >
4 72 68
P( X > 72) = P Z >
= P( Z > 1.25) = 0.5 A(1.25) 2
= 0.5 0.3944 = 0.1056 = P( Z > 2) = 0.5 A(2)
= 0.5 0.4772 = 0.0228
21 20
6. P( X < 21) = P Z <
4 14. Let X = number of heads that occurs. X is
binomial with n = 500, p = 0.5, q = 0.5,
= P( Z < 0.25) = 0.5 + A(0.25)
= 0.5 + 0.0987 = 0.5987
= np = 250, = npq = 125 11.18.
P( X 215) = P ( X 214.5)
14 20 18 20 214.5 250
7. P(14 < X < 18) = P <Z< PZ
4 4 125
= P(1.5 < Z < 0.5) = P ( Z 3.18) = 0.5 + A(3.18)
= A(1.5) A(0.5) = 0.4332 0.1915 = 0.2417 = 0.5 + 0.4993 = 0.9993

10 20
8. P( X > 10) = P Z >
4
= P( Z > 2.5) = 0.5 + A(2.5)
= 0.5 + 0.4938 = 0.9938

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Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.
ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis Explore and ExtendChapter 16

## 1. The result should correspond to the known

distribution function.

## 2. The derivative of the logistic function should

roughly coincide with the normal probability
density function used to generate the values.

## 3. The list of earthquake magnitudes will appear to

have a normal density function. This is
surprising, since one would expect something
more like an exponential density function, with
most earthquakes being very low-magnitude.
Presumably, the explanation for the normal
density function is that as magnitude declines,
the likelihood of a quakes being reported and
thus appearing on the list also goes down.

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Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.