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Upon completion of this course, students
should be able to:
1. Solve problem using Rydberg Equation
2. Determine the Quantum Numbers for orbital
3. Explain the meaning of orbital symbols
4. Draw and write orbital diagram and electronic
configuration using correct principle
1. Subatomic particles

v Proton

v Neutron

v Electron

2. Atomic symbol

v Element symbol

v Atomic number

v Mass number

3. Isotope
v Visible and invisible light (or radiation) are all known as
electromagnetic radiation

v Electromagnetic (EM) radiation travel in waves and

described by their wavelength () and frequency ()

c= c = speed of light
= 3.0 x 108 ms-1

v Radiation with a high frequency has a short wavelength, vice

v Frequency (v) is the number
of cycles the wave
undergoes per second. Unit
is 1/second or s-1(hertz)

v Wavelength () is the
distance the wave travels
during one cycle. Units is
nanometer (nm), picometer
(pm) or Armstrong ()
Regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.



v Invisible light (cannot be seen with the naked eye) include
gamma rays, X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red and microwave

v Visible light such as white light, separates into a continuous

spectrum of colors when it passes through a prism. Exist at
= 400-750 nm)
The wavelength of the green light from a traffic light signal
is centered at 522 nm. What is the frequency?
What is the wavelength (in meters) of an electromagnetic
wave whose frequency is 3.64x107 Hz
v When elements (e.g. Na, He) are used as a source of light, a
characteristic line spectrum is observed

v Quantum theory states that light is emitted in the form of a

discrete or definite packet called quantum

v The frequency of light, is proportional to the energy, E.

E = h
whereby h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s (Planck constant)
Niels Bohrs Atomic Model (1913)

v Electrons exist in a series of shells and has specific

energy levels

v Orbit about the nucleus much like the way planets orbit
the sun

v Energies of electrons are quantised

v Energy of an electron in a given shell:

En = RH 2
v Electron nearest to nucleus has the lowest energy and most
stable state = ground state
v Electron absorb energy (absorption) the electron is
elevated to a higher energy level (excitation) excited state
v Electron releases energy (emission) the electron falls
from its excited state to ground state of a lower energy level.
Energy released shows up as line spectrum
v Characteristics of line spectra used to determine the
electronic structure of atom
Line Spectrum of Atomic Spectrum
v Line spectrum consist of discrete lines of different wavelengths
(discontinuous spectrum)
v Emission spectrum
v Produced by heating atomic vapour electron excited
unstable falls to lower energy level light emit pass
through prism series of wavelength lines
v Absorption spectrum
v Produced by passing the white light from a source through
the unexcited sample that absorbs certain wavelength of
light dark lines appear on the continuous bright
Line Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom
v An electric discharge is passed through a gas discharge tube
containing hydrogen

v The high energy electrons from the negative electrode to

positive electrode collide with the H2 molecules

v This causes the H2 molecules to dissociate into H atoms and

the tube emits light

v When the emitted light is passed through a prism, the light is

dispersed and separated into its components
v Transitions of electrons between two energy levels produce

v There are several emission series of lines obtained during the

transition and are classified according to which level the
electrons drop to

Series n1 n2 Spectrum region

Lyman 1 2,3,4 Ultraviolet
Balmer 2 3,4,5 Visible
Paschen 3 4,5,6 Infrared
Brackett 4 5,6,7 Infrared
Pfund 5 6,7,8 Infrared
Transitions of electrons (from n1 to n2) which produce the
lines in each series
Rydberg Equation (energy)

vThe difference in energy (E) is given by the equation:

E = E2 E1= h = h

Rydberg Equation (wavelength)

vThe wavelength ( ) of every line in the hydrogen

spectrum is determine by equation:

1 1 1
= RH ( 2 2 )
n2 n1

= wavelength
RH = Rydbergs constant (1.097x 107 m-1)
n = energy levels (n2>n1)
If the electron of hydrogen atom had initially been in its 6th Bohrs orbit,
determine the frequency of the EM radiation emitted if it forms a line spectrum
in the Paschen series.
A hydrogen atom absorbs a photon of visible light and its electron enters the n
= 4 energy level. Calculate
(a) the change in energy of the atom
(b) wavelength and convert to nm

Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals
An atomic orbital is specified by FOUR quantum

n the principal quantum number - a positive integer

l the angular momentum quantum number - an integer from 0 to n-1

ml the magnetic moment quantum number - an integer from -l to +l

Three quantum numbers are required to describe the distribution of electrons in

hydrogen and other atoms.

S , electron spin
The Principle Quantum Number (n)
The Angular Momentum
Quantum Number, l
The Magnetic Quantum Number, (m l )
The Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms)
Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms

Name Symbol Permitted Values Property

principal n positive integers(1,2,3,) orbital energy (size)

angular l integers from 0 to n-1 orbital shape (The l values

momentum 0, 1, 2, and 3 correspond to
s, p, d, and f orbitals,
magnetic ml integers from -l to 0 to +l orbital orientation

spin ms +1/2 or -1/2 direction of e- spin

Quantum number for the first four levels of Orbitals:

n l m l Orbital No. of
designation orbitals
1 0 0 1s 1
2 0 0 2s 1
1 -1,0,+1 2p 3
3 0 0 3s 1
1 -1,0,+1 3p 3
2 -2,-1,0,+1,+2 3d 5
PROBLEM: Give the name, magnetic quantum numbers, and
number of orbitals for each sublevel with the following
quantum numbers:
(a) n = 3, l = 2 (b) n = 2, l = 0 (c) n = 5, l = 1 (d) n = 4, l = 3
Arrangement of electrons
(Important rules)
Three rules for assigning electrons
Aufbau Principle
Pauli Exclusion principle
Hunds Rule

1. Aufbau principle
Electrons fill the lowest energy level subshell first
before moving to the next level
The energy of orbitals 1s
increase as follows:
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f
6s 6p 6d
7s 7p
Order for filling energy sublevels with

Illustrating Orbital Occupancies

The electron configuration

# of electrons in the sublevel

Electron n l
energy as s,p,d,f
sublevels in
the order of
The orbital diagram (box or circle)
2. Pauli s Exclusion Principle
3. Hund's Rule:
The rule states that when entering orbitals of identical
energy, electrons initially occupy them singly and with
the same spins, that is, with parallel spins

Once all the orbitals are singly occupied, subsequent

electron occupation will start to result in them pairing
PROBLEM: Write a set of quantum numbers for the third electron and a set
for the eighth electron of the F atom.
PROBLEM: Give the full and condensed electrons configurations, partial orbital
diagrams showing valence electrons, and number of inner electrons
for the following elements:

(a) potassium (K: Z = 19) (b) molybdenum (Mo: Z = 42) (c) lead (Pb: Z = 82)
Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
Paramagnetic substance
Those that contain net unpaired spins and are
attracted by a magnet

Diamagnetic substance
Those that do not contain net unpaired spins are
slightly repelled by a magnet
Electron spins are paired, or antiparallel to each
other, () or ()
Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
Use condensed electron configurations to write the
formation of each transition metal ion, and predict whether
the ion is paramagnetic or diamagnetic
(a) Mn2+ (Z=25)
(b) Cr3+ (Z=24)
(c) Hg2+ (Z=80)