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Vers THE PASSIVE 31 The passive: Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple * Passive sentences describe what happens to people or things, often as a result of action by other people or things. Passive sentences often indicate that what happens is more important than who is responsible. For example: Active Simon has painted the house. ‘The speaker is talking about Simon and the house. Passive The house has been painted. Only the house is being discussed and not the person who painted it. FORM Present noun/pronoun + is/are + past participle The cars are taken abroad. Past noun/pronoun + was/were + past participle The cars were taken abroad. Present | noun/pronoun + has/have been + past participle Perfect. | The cars have been taken abroad. © The rules for choice of tense are the sa sentences me in the passive as they are for active > Exercise 32 for passives in all tenses. Practice Rewrite these sentences, putting the verbs in the passive. Keep them in the same tense, and remove they, we, someone, etc. 1 We clean the garages every day. The garages are cleaned every day. 2. Someone has given him a lot of money. He has been given a lot of money. 3. The police arrested two hundred people. Two hundred people were arrested. 4 We check every car engine thoroughly. 5 We export this computer to seventy different countries. 43 Verbs 6 They have cancelled the meeting. 7 We opened the factory at nine o'clock. 8 They send two million books to America every year. 9 We have invited all the students in the school. 10 We have told him not to be late again, Il They posted alll the letters yesterday. 12 The machine wraps the bread automatically. 13 They paid me a lot of money to do the job. 14 Fortunately, they didn’t damage the machinery. 15 We send the newspapers to Scotland by train. 32 The passive: all tenses, simple and continuous FORM Present Simple: is/are + past participle The letters are delivered here. Continuous: is/are being + past participle He’s being interviewed at the moment. Past | Stmple: — was/were + past participle They were sent by train. | Continuous*as/were being + past participle My suit was being cleaned at the time. 44 Verbs Present Simple: has/have been + past participle | Perfect All the tickets have been sold. l Continuous: — Past Perfect | Simple: had been + past participle ] | I was too late: the papers had been removed. | | Continuous: - | Future | Simple: will be + past participle | You will be met at the station. Continuous: - Infinitive | (to) be + past participle Gerund | He doesn’t like | Ldon’t want to be arrested. | being told [_We shouldn't be arrested. | what to do. Notes * The passive is frequently used to describe scientific or mechanical processes, or in formal explanations: The passive és frequently used © It is not essential to repeat the auxiliary verb to be in a list of processes: The cars are washed, cleaned, checked, and then driven to the ports. Practice 32a Underline all the passives. Acid rain is caused by burning coal or oil. When either fuel is burned, it releases poisonous gases which are carried up into the atmosphere and sometimes transported long distances, Over 3,000 research projects have been carried out to look into acid rain, and a decision to tackle the problem has been taken in most of the western European countries, Measures have been taken in Scandinavia and in Central Europe to stop the pollution before it is dumped on the environment, and a diplomatic campaign has been launched to convince other countries that the problem has to be considered as a major ecological threat. ‘Five years ago this issue was not being treated seriously’ says one leading environmental group, ‘but now that damage has been reported in large areas of forest and lakeland, our politicians are being forced to take action. This problem must be solved quickly: if governments do nothing, they will be faced in two or three years’ time with the accusation that they have allowed our forests to die? A major international initiative to combat acid rain is expected in the near future. 45 Verbs 32b Rewrite these sentences in the passive. The subject of the active sentence can usually be omitted; you should include it in the passive sentence only if it is necessary. 1 10 n 12 1B Someone's interviewing Dr Johnson at the moment Dr Johnson 2. being, atthe. moment, You mustn’t use this machine after 5.30 p.m. This machine ”U9#"'f. We had warned him the day before not to go too near the canal. He They were painting the outside of the ship when the accident happened, The outside of the ship You must clean this machine every time you use it. This machine .. You should keep the flowers in a warm sunny place. The flowers They're mending your shoes at the moment. Your shoes Someone will drive your car to Edinburgh on Tuesday. Your car .. We don’t allow smoking in this restaurant. Smoking «0... You should pay your bill before you leave the hotel Your bill .... Thave told the children about the party. The children About thirty million people are watching this programme. This programme We expect students not to talk during the examination Students .... 33 14 You mustn't touch this button while the experiment is in progress. This button eneane sneneeeess = 15 Someone will blow a whistle if there is an emergency. A whistle 16 Someone was carrying the bomb to a safe place when it exploded. The bomb ... 17 Someone's moved my chair! My chair .. 18 The police are questioning Mr and Mrs Davidson. Mr and Mrs Davidson 19 Someone checks the water level every week. ‘The water level 20 We invited two hundred people to the wedding ‘Two hundred people .... to have something done FORM subject + has/have + object + past participle James has his car cleaned every week. USE © To describe an action which I (or you, he, she, etc.) arrange but do not do myself: Thad my suit cleaned last week. She's going to have her house repaired by the Council Notes + All tenses are possible: I'm having my house painted at the moment. (present continuous) Ive had the car fixed. (present perfect) PU have your coat cleaned for you. (future) Verbs a7 Verbs * Note the word order. The object goes before the past participle - there is a difference between: He had his car cleaned. and He had cleaned his car. * Get can be used in the same way as have She's going to get her house repaired by the Council * Note the colloquial use: Thad my bag stolen last week This is not an arranged action. Practice In your notebook, rewrite these sentences using have + object + past participle and changing some words if necessary. 1 Someone delivers the newspapers. (We) We have the newspapers delivered. 2. Someone cleaned the carpets every year. (1) i had the carpets cleaned every year. 3 Their house needs painting. (They're going to) They're going to have their house painted. 4 We ask someone to check the accounts every month. (We) 5 Someone sends the money to my bank account in London. (1) 6 My stereo isn’t working properly. It needs cleaning. (I'm going to) 7 8 My camera’s being repaired at the moment. (I'm) He spilt coffee on my jacket so he took it away for cleaning. (He spilt coffee on my jacket so he) 9 [think it’s time to service the car. (It's time to) 10 I don't like the office curtains. It’s time to change them. (1 think I'll) 1 There’s flat: he) 13 The computer's no good: we're changing it. (We) 14 I send the films to England: they are processed there. (I) 15 | didn’t want to eat in the hotel dining-room, so | asked them to send a meal up to my room. (I didn’t want to eat in the hotel dining-room, so 1) MISCELLANEOUS 34 «wish 48 * wish can be followed by several different tenses: wish + past simple, wish + past perfect, and wish + would + infinitive, a) wish + past simple wish + past simple past now future I wish things were different now. omething wrong with the typewriter. It needs repairing. (I think I'l) 12 We coulldn’t go to Jack’s flat: it was being painted. (We couldn't go to Jack’s