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Assignment Coversheet

Program : BACHELOR OF AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY


(MECHANICAL)
Subject : THEORY OF FLIGHT AND CONTROL
Due date : 28 SEPTEMBER 2017
Class : 4BME1
Groups name : BOEING 777

No Student Name Remark Marks(%)

01 KAMAL AMIR BIN KAMARUL


ZAMAN

02 MOHD EQMAL NIZAM BIN MAHAR


ZEMI

03 MOHAMAD YASSER BIN ZUBAIDI

Office Receipt Student Receipt


Date of Submission : 28 SEPTEMBER Date of Submission : 28 SEPTEMBER
2017 2017
Assignment Title : BOEING 777 Group's Name : BOEING 777
PRIMARY FLIGHT Assignment Title : BOEING 777
CONTROL PRIMARY FLIGHT
Lecturer's Name : Mohammad Anuar CONTROL
Yusof

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CONTENT PAGE

BOEING 777 PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL

PAGE NO ITEM

3 INTRODUCTION OF BOEING 777 AIRCRAFT

3 INTRODUCTION TO PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL

4-9 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BOEING 777 PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS

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1) INTRODUCTION OF BOEING 777 AIRCRAFT

The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed
and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and
has a typical seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555
nautical miles (9,704 to 15,844 km). Commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven", its
distinguishing features include the largest-diameter turbofan engines of any aircraft, six
wheels on each main landing gear, fully circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-
shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was
designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between
Boeing's 767 and 747. As Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated
controls. It was also the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-
aided design.

Ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_777

2) INTRODUCTION TO PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROL

Aircraft flight controls are the means by which a pilot controls the direction and attitude of
an aircraft in flight.

Flight control systems are subdivided into what are referred to as primary and secondary
flight controls. Primary flight controls are required to safely control an aircraft during flight
and consist of ailerons, elevators (or, in some installations, stabilator) and rudder.
Movement of any of the primary flight controls causes the aircraft to rotate around the
axis of rotation associated with the control surface. The ailerons control motion around
the longitudinal axis (roll), the elevator controls rotation around the lateral axis (pitch) and
the rudder controls movement around the vertical axis (yaw).

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3) GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BOEING 777 PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS

General
The flight controls keep the airplane at the desired attitude during flight. They consist of
movable surfaces on the wing and the empennage. The flight controls change the lift of
the wing and the empennage. There are two types of flight controls: the primary flight

control system and the high lift control system.

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Primary Flight Control System
The primary flight control system (PFCS) uses a fly-by-wire control system with digital
and analog electronic equipment. It receives commands from the flight crew and the
autopilot and causes the control surfaces to move. The PFCS controls the attitude of the
airplane during flight. The control surfaces operated by the PFCS are:

One aileron on each wing


One flaperon on each wing
Seven spoilers on each wing
One horizontal stabilizer
One elevator on each side of the horizontal stabilizer
One tabbed rudder.

Purpose
The primary flight control system (PFCS) controls the airplane flight attitude in relation to
the three basic axes:

Longitudinal
Lateral
Vertical.

Roll Control
The roll control uses the ailerons, flaperons, and spoilers to control the airplane attitude
about the longitudinal axis. During a bank of the airplane, the aileron and flaperon on one
wing move in an opposite direction from the aileron and flaperon on the other wing. The
spoilers move up only on the down wing and do not move on the up wing.

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Pitch Control
The pitch control uses the horizontal stabilizer and the elevator to control the airplane
attitude about the lateral axis. The stabilizer controls long term pitch changes. The
elevator supplies short term pitch control.

Yaw Control
The yaw control uses the rudder to control the airplane attitude about the vertical axis.
The rudder has a tab which moves to increase the effectiveness of the rudder.

Manual Operation
One, two or three PCUs operate each control surface. One PCU controls each spoiler,
two PCUs control each aileron, flaperon, and elevator, and three PCUs control the rudder.
The PCUs contain a hydraulic actuator, an electrohydraulic servo valve, and a position
feedback transducer.

Hydraulic Power Distribution


All three hydraulic systems supply power to operate the PCUs of the primary flight
controls. The hydraulic distribution is:

The left aileron: L and C

The right elevator: R and L

The left elevator: L and C

The right aileron: C and L

The rudder: L, C and R

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ACE Distribution
Purpose
The actuator control electronics (ACE) supplies interfaces between the pilot controls and
the ARINC 629 buses. The ACE controls the power control units (PCU) for the ailerons,
flaperons, spoilers/speedbrakes, elevators and rudder. The ACE controls the stabilizer
through two stabilizer trim control modules (STCM). The ACE also controls the rudder
trim actuator and the elevator feel actuator.

In the primary mode, hydraulic power moves the flaps and slats. In the secondary and
alternate modes, electrical power moves the flaps and slats. In the primary and secondary
modes, the control is closed-loop. Closed-loop control stops the command when a
feedback signal equals the command. In the alternate mode, the control is openloop.
Open-loop control stops the commands only when you stop the input or when the surfaces
are at a limit.

Flap Operation
The flaps operate in sequence with the slats. At cruise speed and altitude, flap extension
is inhibited. The load relief function retracts the flaps to prevent structural damage to the
flaps at high airspeeds. The flaps are monitored for skew or asymmetry. When the system
detects a skew or asymmetry, the flap drive shuts down.

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General
The trailing edge (TE) flaps improve the takeoff and landing performance of the airplane.
When the flaps extend, they increase the lift of the wing. They also help to decrease the
airspeed during landings and approaches. The flaps are part of the high lift control system
(HLCS). The HLCS electrically controls the flaps with a fly-by-wire system. During takeoff
and landing, the pilots use the flap lever to command the flaps to move to an extended
position. During cruise, the pilots command the flaps to retract to the up position. Each
wing has an inboard flap and an outboard flap. The inboard flap is double-slotted and has
a main flap and an aft flap. The outboard flap is single-slotted and is one piece.

Flap Operation
The flaps operate in sequence with the slats. At cruise speed and altitude, flap extension
is inhibited. The load relief function retracts the flaps to prevent structural damage to the
flaps at high airspeeds. The flaps are monitored for skew or asymmetry. When the system
detects a skew or asymmetry, the flap drive shuts down.

(Ref: Boeing 777 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL Part 1 27-00-00 Page 1)