You are on page 1of 6

IEEE PEDS 2011, Singapore, 5 - 8 December 2011

A Novel ZVS-ZCS Bi-directional Flyback DC-DC

Converter For Low power Application


Research scholar, EEE department, Professor, EEE Department. Research scholar,
Bharath University, Jerusalem College of engineering EEE Department
Chennai, India. Chennai,India Bharath University, Chennai, India

Abstract A new ZVS-ZCS bidirectional flyback DC-DC circuit. In recent years, there is a lot of investigation on
converter is proposed, which provides low output voltages 24V- flyback bidirectional dc-dc converters using soft switching
60V. With proposed ZVS-ZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation (ZVS/ZCS) are investigated separately.
results of the applications to a battery application have been In this paper a novel soft switching (ZVS-ZCS) DC-DC
obtained and compared with those of ZCS flyback bidirectional converter was investigated and also developed by using
converter. In addition to this an experimental setup has been advance techniques. The proposed system should be efficient
developed. Experimental results are compared with simulation to improve the range of performance of the battery operated
systems or low power applications. in addition to the power
Keywords-component; ZVS,ZCS,ZVS-ZCS,DC-DC converter,.
semiconductor devices, controllers, there are several
I. INTRODUCTION components such as capacitors, flyback transformer provides
electrical isolation transformers form a major portion of the
In recent years, there is an increasing demand of bidirectional
proposed system. The soft switching converters have the
dc/dc converters in applications as uninterruptible power
advantage of lower switching stresses and lower switching
supplies, battery chargers, multiplexed-battery systems,
aerospace systems, computer systems and motor drives. losses.
Flyback derived converters have been popular choices among In this paper a new ZVS-ZCS bidirectional flyback
various converter configurations in many low power DC-DC converter is presented. The following section is about
power stage description, III section is about simulation
applications. It is mainly due to its single power conversion
evolution of proposed converter and IV section is about
step, low component count, and cost-effective structure as
experimental setup of proposed converter.
well as its good transient response. However, because of the
leakage inductance in the coupled inductor, a flyback
converter generally suffers from considerable switching loss II POWER STAGE DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
and voltage or current stresses on the switching devices and
weak cross regulation. A. power stage description
In order to achieve the lower switching losses and to The proposed ZVS-ZCS flyback bi-directional DC-
reduce voltage or current stresses, novel technique needs to be DC converter for low power applications is shown in fig.2. In
investigated. This proposed converter it has more advantages the ZCS flyback bidirectional DC-DC converter [1] using
over ZCS and ZVS converters. In ZCS bidirectional flyback turns ratio of the primary, secondary and auxiliary windings is
DC-DC converter[1] there is a major drawback voltage n1:n2:n3.Where as in the proposed ZVS-ZCS flyback
stresses in theses circuits are high because of resonant bidirectional DC-DC converter, using turns ratio of the
operation. The zero voltage/zero current switching can be primary and secondary and auxiliary windings is n1:n2 and the
effectively improved the efficiency of the converter. In zero no of switches are same as ZCS with adding the auxiliary
voltage switching there is a major advantage is reducing the switch in secondary side acting as to turnoff of the main
voltage stresses across switches, if that converter produces low switch in secondary side. By adding auxiliary switch, inductor,
voltage to high voltage. To reduce the switching losses and diode, capacitor series with main switches (S1 & S2) in
eliminate sudden rising in currents through switches, stresses primary and secondary sides of transformer, the ZCS
on MOSFETS, a novel technique needs to be investigated. The bidirectional flyback converter design is converted into a
zero current switching removes the turnoff current tail of main ZVS-ZCS. The technique utilizes the leakage inductance in
switch in order to eliminate the turn-off of the main switch. the coupled inductor to achieve the ZVS of main switches S1
The main switch still has the turn-on loss and even encounters & S2 in both power flow directions. ZCS bidirectional flyback
an additional serious high current peak during turn-on converter suffers from the problems of severe voltage stresses
transition time due to energy stored in L-C components in and switching losses on switching devices due to the inherent

978-1-4577-0001-9/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE 507

flyback transformer leakage inductance. ZVS and ZCS B. Description of operating stages
conditions to reduce the switching loss and stress of power Fig. 2. Illustrates the proposed converter topology and ZCS is
electronic devices by using resonant circuit and an auxiliary achieved by auxiliary switch used in secondary side. The
switch Sa. The ZCS principle turns the auxiliary switch on just proposed converter mainly operates in boost mode and buck
before the main switch S2 is turned off, while the capacitor mode. The circuit operation that is significant for the
and leakage inductance in flyback transformer turns on the development of the state space model. Fig 2 is the proposed
main switch S2 is turned on in ZVS condition. circuit. Fig. 3 presents the voltage and current waveforms of
the transformer during one switching period. In low power
applications, when power flows from the low voltage side to
high voltage side, the circuit works in boost mode. In other
direction of power flow, the circuit works in buck mode to
absorb regenerated energy. Fig.3 shows the equivalent circuit
of the proposed converter in forward mode. Based on the
converter there are five operation modes in one switching

1. Boost mode:
Fig 5 describes the pulses generated in the operation
during in boost mode. The converter operation is repetitive in
the switching cycle. In boost mode of operation two switches
are in conducting state by zero voltage switching technique.
Operating stages divided into three stages. To aid in
understanding each step, a set of corresponding annotated
Fig.1. ZCS flyback bidirectional DC-DC converter circuit diagrams is given in Fig. 4(a,b,c) with a brief
description and the transformer current of each mode can be
calculated as follows:

Mode1 : ir = v1-(v2-v3) + ir (0) (1)

Mode2 : ir = (v1+v3-v2) + ir (t1) (2)
Mode3 : ir = (-v1+v3-v2) + ir (t2) (3)

Fig.2. ZVS-ZCS flyback bidirectional DC-DC converter Fig. 4 a. First stage

First stage: This stage starts at switch S1 switching on due to
the resonant capacitor Cr1 , the voltage across S1 is becomes
zero. During this stage Da, L1,D3,D2 forms the loop.

Fig.3. Equivalent circuit of the converter in the forward mode

Fig. 4 b. Second stage in Boost mode

Second stage: This stage starts at switching on S2 due to the First stage: In this stage starts to when S3 switching on with
resonant capacitor Cr2, voltage across S2 becomes zero. During ZCS.whenever S3 is turned on then the switch S2 is turned off
this stage S1, S2 both are in conducting state, C1, C2 are in with ZCS. This stage ends when S2 is becomes switched off.
charging state.

Fig. 5 b. Second stage in Buck mode

Fig. 4 c. Third stage in Boost mode
Second stage: In this stage switch S3 is still conducting, S2 is
Third stage: In this stage S1 becomes turn off , body diode D1 turned off, at the end of this stage diode D2 is starts to conduct.
of S1 starts to conduct. This stage ends at D1 stops conduction. S3 is turned off with ZCS at the end of this stage.
Capacitors C1,C2 are in discharging.
Due to the reversed power-flow direction, the phase of the
secondary is same as primary. The inductor current LS is
reversed. The buck mode only operates under both ZVS and
ZCS condition. This mode of operation can be divided into
two steps. In this mode the switch S2 turned off and S3 turned
on at zero current due to the L1, C2 resonant capacitors Cr3,
Cr4.Body diode of the switch S1 acts as rectification.


A. Simulation results

The detailed circuit model is built using Matlab/Simulink. The

Fig. 5 a. Fourth stage in Boost mode. simulated results are compared with ZCS-Flyback
bidirectional DC-DC converter to show the performance of
proposed converter.
2. Buck mode
Buck mode of operation is not similar to boost mode. Boost 1. Boost mode: The following parameters are selected
mode of operation is using zero voltage switching technique. In according to a 100W for low power applications.
this buck mode of operation the main switch S2 S3 are turned Vb =12V, R b=1, D = 60%, fs=60 kHz, L1= 5mH,. Vo= 60V.
off with ZCS. The stage of buck mode shown in Fig.5(a,b).The The simulations revealed modes of operation where the
transformer current of each mode can be calculated as follows: primary side switches operate under ZVS condition. The
simulation results are the switching pulses S1 S2 shown in Fig
Mode 1 : ir = (v2+v3) v1 + ir(0) 6 and Fig. 7 shows that load voltage. Fig.8 shows that voltages
Mode 2 : ir = (v2-v3) v1 + ir(t) through primary and secondary.
In the buck mode S2,S3 switches are in conducting state. S1
remains off in buck mode. Because of the auxiliary switch in
primary the two sides are asymmetrical; the operation 2. Buck mode: Similarly, the buck mode can also be simulated
principles in buck mode are not similar to those in boost using same parameters as boost mode. Simulations of the
mode. In the boost mode all the switches are turned on and off proposed converter waveforms are presented in Fig. 9. shown
under ZVS. In the buck mode the switches S2 turned off under are the voltage through primary side and secondary side.
ZCS and S3 is turned on and off with ZCS. Fig.10 shows that output voltage. The simulations revealed

modes of operation where the switches S2 S3 operate under
ZVS and ZCS conditions.

Fig. 6 Switching pulses in boost mode

Fig.9. Voltages through primary and secondary in Buck mode


Fig. 7. Load voltage in Boost mode

Fig. 10. Voltages through primary and secondary in Boost mode


An experimental prototype of the proposed converter has

been built to verify the principle of operation. It was operated
with both buck mode with a ZVS-ZCS and boost mode with
the ZVS technique. The experimental setup is pictured in Fig.
11. The specifications are as follows.
Rated output power : PO = 100W
Input voltage: Vin = 12V
Output voltage: VO = 60V
Fig. 8. Load voltage in Buck mode Switching frequency: fs = 20kHz
Maximum duty cycle: Dmax = 0.6
Transformer turns ratio: N1:N2 = 1:2

The 100W converter which was tested in the laboratory number of capacitors is increased due to ZVS. This proposed
was designed with a output voltage 60V and was driven from converter for low power applications like battery and battery
two switches in primary and secondary sides operated vehicles, with high power density. Excellent dynamic
The oscillogram in Fig. 12 shows the zero voltage performance is obtained because the auxiliary circuit used in
switching across a switch S1. The converter did not behave as one of half bridge.
expected due to the circuit layout and component selection.
The rated input voltage is 12V and output voltage 60 V / ACKNOWLEDGMENT
100W is due to a 1:2 turns ratio for the transformer. IRF 840 The author wishes to thank Mr. P.Muthu for his help
MOSFETs are used in this proposed circuit. An additional in fabrication at the initial stages.
advantage of the auxiliary circuit is that switching losses of S1
& S2 is reduced.
[1] H.Chung et al., A ZCS bidirectional flyback dc-dc converter, IEEE
Trans. Power Electron, vol. 19,No. 6, Nov 2004, pp 1426-1434.
[2].G.Chen,Y.Lee,S.Hui, Actively clamped bidirectional flyback converter
IEEE trans.Power electron, vol.47, Aug 2000.
[3].K.Ma and Y.Lee, An integrated flyback converter for uninterruptible
power supplies, IEEE Trans.Power electron., vol 15, Mar 1996.
[4]. H.chung, S.Y.R.Hui and, A zero current switching PWM
flyback converter with a simple auxiliary switch, IEEE Trans.Power
Electron, vol 14, Mar 1999
[5].R.Watson,F.Lee and G.Hua, Utilization of an clamp circuit to achieve
softswitching in flyback converters IEEE Trans.Power Electron.,Vol.11,Jan
[6] L.C.Freitas, D. F. Cruz, and V.J. Farias, A novel ZCS-ZVS PWM dc-dc
converter for high switching frequency: analysis,simulation and experimental
Fig. 11 Experimental setup of proposed converter results, in proc.IEEE APEC93,San Diego,CA,1993, pp 693-699.
[7] F.Carichhi, F.Crescimbini, F.G.Capponi, and L.Solero, Study of
bidirectional buck-boost converter topologies for application in electrical
vehicle motor drives, in proc. IEEE applied power electronics specialists
conf. Expo, 1998, pp. 287-293.
[8] S.Hamada et al., A novel zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM
dc-dc converter with reduced conduction losses, IEEE Trans. Power
electron., vol. 17, pp. 413-419, May 2002.
[9] Z.R.Martinez and B.Ray, Bidirectional dc/dc power conversion using
constant frequency multi-resonant topology, in Proc. APEC94, 1994, pp.
[10] D.Makasimovic, S.Cuk, A general approach to synthesis and analysis
of quasi-resonant converters, IEEE Trans.Power Electron., vol. 6,No. 1,Jan
Fig driving pulses 1991, pp. 127-140.
[11] R. L. Lin, Fred C.Lee,Novel zero-current switching-zero-voltage
switching converters, in proc. IEEE PESC96, pp. 438-442.
[12] R. W. DeDonker, D. M. Divan, and M.H.Kheraluwala, A Three-phase
soft-switched high power density dc-dc converter for high power
applications, IEEE Trans. Ind.Applicat.,vol. 27,pp.. 63-73,Jan./Feb.1991.
Fig. 12 Zero voltage switching across a switch S1

V CONCLUSION BHAJANA received his B.E. degree in
A novel ZVS-ZCS Flyback bi-directional DC-DC Electronics and Communication enginnering
from Sapthagiri college of engineering
converter has been presented in this paper. The operation, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India (University
Simulation and experimental results were illustrated. Of Madras), in 2000 and there after, he did
Simulation results are compared with the experimental results his M.E degree from the P.S.N.A College of
to verify the operation principle. It is shown that ZVS in one engineering and Technology, Dindigul,
Tamilnadu, India under Anna University,
direction of power flow is achieved in boost mode with no Chennai in the year 2005. He is presently a
switching losses involved and other direction of power flow research scholar at Bharath University
involves ZVS-ZCS with no switching losses. Due to the Chennai, India. His key areas of interest is
simultaneous boost conversion and inversion provided by the Power Electronics engineering, which
includes soft switching DC to DC converters
higher voltage side, current stresses on the switching devices and their applications.
and transformer are reduced by switching an auxiliary switch
in primary side i.e. ZVS- ZCS condition(buck mode). The
advantages of the proposed circuit are, current stresses are
reduced, high efficiency which is achieved due to the ZCS
operation. The major drawbacks of this proposed converter is

S.RAMA REDDY is professor of electrical
department, Jerusalem engineering college,
Chennai, tamilnadu, India. He obtained his
L.E.E. from S.M.V.M.ploytechnic, Tanuku,
A.P, A.M.I..E. in electrical engineering from
institution of engineers (India), M.E. in
Power Systems from Anna University. He
has published over 20 technical papers in
national and international conference
proceedings/journals. He has secured
A.M.I.E. institution gold medal for
obtaining highest marks. He has secured
Aimo best project award and Vijaya Ratna
Award. He has worked in Tata Consulting
Engineers, Bangalore and Anna University,
Chennai. He has teaching experience of 12 years. His research interest is in
the areas of resonant converters, VLSI , and solid state drives. He is life
member of institution of engineers (India), Indian society for technical
education, system society of India and society of power engineers. He is a
fellow of institution of electronics and telecommunication engineers ( India).
He has published text books on power electronics and solid state circuits.


received his B.E degree in Electrical &
Electronics Engineering from Sri Siddhartha
Institute of Technology, Bangalore
University, Tumkur, India in 2001 and ME
degree in Power Electronics & Drives from
Anna university, Chennai, India in 2004. He
is currently pursuing Ph.D degree in Bharath
University, Chennai, India and his research
area is on DC-DC converter for Electrolyzer
Application. He has worked in Electrical
Engineering Dept. of Bharath University,
Chennai, India. He is a former member of IEEE. He is presently working as
an Associate Professor in Dr.Paul Raj Engineering College, Bhadrachalam,
Khammam Dt., Andhara Pradesh.