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ANCIENT HISTORY

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

At present IVC was known as Harappan civilization. It was a river centric and urban based civilization.
According to radio carbon taste or C14 test IVC developed and declined between 2300 BC-1750 BC.
IVC was discovered by Rakhal Das Bandopadhaya and Dayaram Sahani in 1921-22.
CREATORS OF IVC
1. Contemporary Foreign Civilization (Mesopotamia & Sumerian Civilization).
2. Aryans
3. Dravid Civilization.
4. Mehergarh Civilization (Pre Harappan Civilization) developed rural civilization and it was
discovered by J.F. Jarieeje and Richard Midow in 1974 in the bank of Boan river, Baluchistan.
*So historian remarks that IVC was the extreme phase of Mehrgarh Civilization.
IVC belongs to a Chalcolithic age . [Chalco-Copper, Lithic-Stone]

MAIN FETURES OF IVC


1. Coverage drainage system/underground drainage system.
2. Great Bath It was the greatest building of IVC found in Mahenjodaro.
Area 1.08 180 Ft. (area of swimming pool 39 23 8 ft.)
Dancing girl made of bronze found in Mahenjodaro. Mahenjodaro discovered by R. D Bannerjee in
1922 in the banks of river Indus. Mahenjodaro means Mount of Dead.
3. Great Granary Found in Harappa.
Area 1.69 135 ft.
Historian L. A. Besam compared it as a modern state bank. Ina single row in Harappa found 6
granaries. Harappa discovered by Dayaram Sahani in 1921 in the bank of river Ravi (Present name
Iravati)
4. TRADE
Main port Lothal, bank of river Savarmati. (Gujrat)
Export Commodity Cotton, spices, Ivory, Valuable wood & cotton garments.
Import Commodity precious stone (Lapis Lazuli), copper, silver etc.
*IVC people collected copper from Khetri, Rajasthan.
5. RELIGIOUS LIFE OF IVC: Adi Shiva.
6. Famous Amusement of IVC People: Dancing
7. Ornaments: Bangles was the most famous made of Copper, Silver, Stone, Bronze, Terracotta.
8. Famous Foods: Barley, Wheat were the famous crops [Unknown Crops Rice/Paddy]
9. Script: Pictography, Writing Direction: Right to Left & Left to Right.

IMPORTANT CENTRES OF IVC


1. MANDA: It was the northern most sight of IVC.
2. DIMABAD: Southern most sight.
3. KALIBANGAN: Bangles factory found in Kalibangan (Trace of rice cultivation found in Lothal,
Kalibangan, Ropar, Alam Gir Poor)
4. DHOLAVIRA & SURKOTTDA: remains of horse, a stadium found in Dholavira.
5. CHAN-HU-DARO: Inkpot, Eyeliner found.

ARYAN OF VEDIC CIVILIZATION


Duration
Early Vedic Civilization: 1500-1000 BC
Later Vedic Civilizxation: 1000-600 BC
Initially Aryans stayed in India Punjab or land of Five rivers or Land of Seven rivers in around 1500
BC and at that time they composed VEDA.

VEDA
Comes from the word Vid (Knowledge). It is divided into 4 parts- RIG, SAMA, YAJUR &
ATHARVA. Rig Veda was the earliest literature of India.
Total no. of Hymns: 1028
Gayatrimantra found in Rig Veda and it addressed to Savitri (Goddess of Sun).
Varnasram found in Rig Veda 10 th Mondal Pusrushsukta. It was based on profession but
Varnasram was basis on the colour of Skin.

SAMA VEDA: Deals with Indian music and melody.

ATHARVA VEDA: Non-Aryan text, deals with black magic and ayurvedic.

Each Veda divided into 4 parts


i) Brahman It was written in prose.
ii) Sanhita Collection of hymns.
iii) Aryanak Forrest Life.
iv) Upanishad/Vedanta Last Para of Veda. Total no. 108, deals with Indian Philosophy.
CHATURASRAM - found in Zabala Upanishad.
SATYAMEB-O-JAYATE- found in Mundaka Upanishad.
Study of Veda easily to introduce Sutra Literature. It was divided into 2 categories Vedanga & Six
Darshan.
Six Vedanga Siksha, Chanda, Jyotish, Kalpa, Nirukta (Origin of word) & Grammar.
Six Darshans
i) Sankhya Kapil Muni
ii) Yoga Patanjali
iii) Nyaysastra Gautam Muni
iv) Vaishasikha Kanad
v) Purva-mimansa Jaimini
vi) Uttar-mimansa - Vyasdev

ARYAN SOCIETY:
Women were most prestigious group in the society Lopamudra, Apala, Gargy, Moitri etc.
It was a rural civilization.

IMPORTANT BATTLES IN THE INDIAN HISTORY

1. Battle of Marathon 490 BC Greek-Persian


2. Battle of Hidaspises1 431-432 BC Greek-Spartan
3. Battle of Hydaspes 326 BC King Alexander-Porus
4. 1st Greek War 321 BC Chandragupta Mourya-
Greek General
5. 2nd Greek War (Battle of Liberation) 305 BC Chandragupta Mourya-
Selukas
6. Battle of Kalinga 261 BC Ashoka
7. 1st Battle of Tarain 1191 AD Md. Ghori-Prithbiraj Chauhan
8. 2nd Battle of Tarain 1192 AD Md. Ghori-Prithbiraj Chauhan
9. 3rd Battle of Tarain 1215 AD
10. Battle of Khanua 1527 AD Babar-Rana Sangram Singha of
Mewar
11. Battle of Gharghra 1529 AD Babar-Afgan Ruller of Bengal &
Bihar
12. Battle of Surajgarh 1534 AD Sher Shah Mamud
13. Battle of Chausa 1539 AD Sher Shar-Humayun
14. Battle of Konauj/Billowgram 1540 AD Sher Shar-Humayun
15. 1st Battle of Panipat 1526 AD Babar-Ibrahim Lodi
16. 2nd Battle of Panipat 1556 AD Akbar (Bairam Khan)-Himu (Adil
Shah)
17. 3rd Battle of Panipat 1761 AD Ahmed Shah Abdali-Balaji Baji
Rao
18. Battle of Dharmatt 1658 AD Aurangzeb-Murad
19. Battle of Samugarh 1658 AD Aurangzeb-Dara
20. Battle of Khaujar 1659 AD Aurangzeb-Shuja
21. Battle of Deorai 1659 AD Aurangzeb-Dara
22. Battle of Jauj 1707 AD Bahadur Shah I-Md. Azam
23. Battle of Hyderabad 1709 AD
24. Battle of Bhopal 1737 AD Baji Rao I-Nijam ul Haq
25. Battle of Giriya 1740 AD Alibardi Khan-Sarfaraj Khan
26. 1st Carnatic War 1746-48 AD Chanda Sahib & French-British,
Nizam & Anwaruddin Md. Khan.
27. 2nd Carnatic War 1751-55 AD DO
28. 3rd Carnatic War 1756-61 AD Anglo-French
29. The Seven Years War 1756-63 AD France, Russia, Sweden, Austria &
Saxony Prussia, Hanover & Great
Britain.
30. Battle of Plassey 1757 AD British-Siraj ud Dullah
31. Battle of Bidara 1759 AD Anglo-Dutch
32. Battle of Wandibash 1760 AD Anglo-French
33. Battle of Buxar 1764 AD British Force (led by Major Munro)
- The Triple alliance of Nawab Mir
Qasim, Siraj-ud- Dullah & Shah
Alam.
34. 1st Anglo-Mysore War 1767-69 AD British-Hyder Ali
35. 2nd Anglo-Mysore War 1780-84 AD DO
36. 3rd Anglo-Mysore War 1790-92 AD British-Tipu Sultan
37. 4th Anglo-Mysore War 1799-1805 AD DO
38. Battle of kharda 1795 AD Nana Farnabish-Nizam
39. 1st Anglo-Maratha War 1795 AD Maratha-British (Warren Hastings)
40. 2nd Anglo-Maratha War 1803-05 AD DO
41. Battle of Waterloo 1815 AD Napoleon Bonaparte-British
42. 3rd Anglo-Maratha War 1817 AD Maratha-British
43. Battle of Akargar 1805 AD Anglo-French
44. 1st Anglo-Sikh War 1846 AD British-Sikh Force
45. 2nd Anglo-Sikh War 1849 AD Do
46. 1st World War 1914-18 AD
47.2nd World War 1939-45 AD
48. Battle of 2nd Indo -sikh 1849 Lord Dalhousie-Sikh Force
49. Anglo-Nepal War 1814-16 AD Lord Hastings

SOME IMPORTANT TREATIES

Treaty of Purander 1665 Sivaji & Mughal Gen. Jai


Singh
Treaty of Alinagar 1757 East India Co. & Siraj-ud-
Dullah
Treaty of Mysore 1769 East India Co. & Hyder Ali
Treaty of Salbai 1782 Maratha & Warren Hastings
Treaty of Mangalore 1784 Tipu Sultan & Warren
Hastings
Treaty of Srirangapattanam 1792 Tipu Sultan & Lord
Cornwallis
Treaty of Besin 1802 Baji Rao & Lord Wellesley
Treaty of Tripower 1878 Maratha-Nizam-British
Treaty of Warner 1731 Sambhuji II & Sahuji
Treaty of Lahore 1846 Ranjit Singh & British
General
Treaty of Amritsar 1809 Ranjit Singh & LordMinto
Treaty of Surat 1775 Peswa Raghunath Rao &
British
Treaty of Madras 1769 Hyder Ali-British
Treaty of Gondomark 1879 Lord Lytton & Iakub Khan
Treaty of 1826 British & Bramhoraj
Panidebota
Treaty of Saugauli 1816 Lord Hastings

TITLES OF IMPORTANT HISTORICAL CHARACTER

NAME TITLE
1. Ashoka : Priyodarshi, Debanampriyo, Chandashoka
2. Bindusara : Amitraghat
3. Samudragupta : Vikramanko, Napoleon of India, Kaviraj, Licchabi Douhitro
4. Sher Shah : Farid Khan, Nizam Khan, Md. Haji
5. Akbar : Jalaluddin Md.
6. Babar : Jahiruddin Md., First Emperor of India
7. Humayun : Nasiruddin Md.
8. Jahangir : Nuruddin
9. Shahjahan : Sahabuddin, Khurram
10. Aurangzeb : Muhiuddin, Alamgir
11. Jagat Seth : Fateh Chand
12. Siraj-ud-dullah : Mirza Md.
13. Giasuddin Balwan : Naib-i-Khudai (Representative of God), Jilillah (Shadow of God)
14. Giasuddin Tughlak : Gazi Malik
15. Ramtanu Pandey : Tansen
16. Husain Shah : Alauddin Husain
17. Atish Dipankar : Adinath
18. Al Biruni : Abu Rehan
19. Titumir : Mir Nisar Ali
20. Swami Dayanand Saraswati : Mul Shankar
21. Nana Saheb : Givind Thandupanth
22. Giasuddin Khilji : Husamuddin Ujbak
23. Birbal : Mahesh Das
24. Manabendranath Ray : Narendranath Bhattyacharya
25. Skandagupta : Bharater Rakshakarta, Singhabikram
26. Sivaji : Go Brahman Pratipalak, Chatrapati, Mountain Rat
27. Kesabchandrab Sen : Brahanando Pratipalak
28. Husain Shah : Akbar of Bangladesh
29. Lala Lazpat Rai : Ser-i-Punjab
30. Surendranath Bandopadhaya : Desh Nayak
31. Nurjahan : Mehernussa Begam, Badshah Begam
32. Md Ghori : Muizuddin Md.
33. Mumtaz : Anjuman Banu Begam
34. Md Bin Tughlak : Juna Khan, Mad King
35. Tatiya Topi : Ramchandra Panduranga
36. Sri Ramkrishna : Gadadhar Chattapadhaya
37. Gopal Hari Deshmukh : Lokahitabadi
38. Tilak : Lokmanya
39. Nizam Khan : Sikander Lodi
40. C. F Andrews : Dinabandhu
41. Dharapal : Uttarapathaswami
42. Pulakeshi II : Parameswar, Dakshinapathanath
43. Chengis khan : Temuchin , Curse of Asia
44. Chandragupta II : Bikramaditya, Sakari
45. Kaniska : Second Ashoka , Devputra (Son of God)
46. Chandragupta I : Maharajadhiraj
47. Kumar Gupta I : Mahendraditya
48. Basudev Balwant Korouk : Sivaji II
49. Qutubuddin Ibok : Lakhbax
50. Napoleon : Man of Destiny
51. Iltutmis : Sultan-i-Ajam
52. Ramratan Mallik : Nanasahib of Bengal
53. Lord Dalhousie : Father of Modern India
54. Harishchandra Mukhopadhaya:
55. Herodetatus : Father of History
56. Mussolini : Duke II
57. Md. Abdullah : Lion of Kashmir
58. Ajatsatru : Kunik
59. Laxman Sen : Arirajmardanasankar, Gaureswar
60. Sultan Mamud : Bathshikan (Destroyer of Temple or Image), Yamin-i-dullah
61. Narasingha Burman : Batapikoundo
62. Gautama Buddha : Light of Asia
63. Mahapadmanada : Parasuram II, Ugrasena, Eakkrat
64. Humayun Shah : Jalim
65. Bahadur Shah II : Emperor of Hindusthan
66. Bairam Khan : Man-i-Mannan
67. Bipin Chandra Pal : Burt of Bengal
68. Mahendra Burman I : Pallavmalla
69. Kaniska II : Maijar
70. Bimbisara : Srenik
71. Harshabardhan : Siladitya, Sakallatarapathanath
72. Birendra Kumar Sasmal : Deshpran
73. Firoz Shah Tughlak : Akbar of Delhi Sultanate
74. Hitlar : Fuerar
75. Tipu Sultan : Yugavatar
76. Amritlal Bose : Rasaraj
77. M.G. Ranade : Socrates of Maharastra
78. Bhagat Singh : Sahid-i-Ajam
79. Rasbihari Bose : P N Thakur
80. Sikander Shah : Aurangzeb of Kashmir
81. Minander : Dharmik
82. Demitrirs : King of India
83. Maladhar Bose : Gunaraj Khan
84. Sasanka : Narendra Gupta
85. Alauddin Khilji : Alexander II, Sikander-i-Sani
86. Rajendra Chola : Gongaikondo

MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE
1. BABAR : i) Nishadbad (Kashmir)
ii) Kabuli Bagh (Tomb of Babar, situated in Kabulibag,Kabul)
iii) Lodi Fort

2. HUMAYUN i) Din-i-Panha (It was a library in Delhi)


ii) Jamali Masque & the Masque of Isa Khan at Delhi

3. AKBAR i) Ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri


ii) Buland Darwaja
iii) Hawamahal
iv) Diwan-i-Aam
v) Diwan-i-Khas
vi)Delhi Court
vii) Allahabad Court (1583)
viii) Ajmer Court (1570)
ix) Jam-e-Masque

4. JAHANGIR i) Jahangirs own Mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore)


ii) Ittmad-i-daulah Tomb at Agra
iv) Moti Masque at Lahore

5. SHAHJAHAN** : i) Taj Mahal (Main architect Isa Khan) at Agra


ii) Moti Masjid at Agra
iii) Jama Masjid & Red Fort at Delhi
iv) Shalimar Bagh at Lahore and city of Shahjahanabad
v) Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in
captivity)
vi) Sheesh Mahal, Peacock Throne (built by Bebadal Khan on
which Amir Khusraus couplet- If there is a paradise on
Earth, it is here)

6. AURANGZEB : i) Moti Masjid at Delhi & Badshahi Masque at Lahore


ii) Biwi Ka Makbara in Aurangabad

** SHER SHAH : Old Delhi, Old Killa

DYNASTIES AND RULERS IN ANCIENT INDIA

HARYANKA DYNASTY

1. BIMBISARA (544-493BC)
Title-Srenik
Capital-Rajgir (Giribraja )
Contemporary of Buddha.
His Physician was Jeevaka
His reference has been found in Upanishad

2. AJATSATRU
Title-Kunick
Prime Minister of Ajatsatru Bassakar
1st Buddhist council organized by Ajatstaru in 483 BC at Rajgir.
Gautama Buddha (483 BC) & Mahabira (468 BC) both died in his reign.

3. UDAYIN
He transferred his capital from Rajgir to Patliputra.

4. NAGDASAKA
Last ruler of Haryanka dynasty.

SAISUNAGA DYNASTY

1. SISHUNAGA-
Founder of this dynasty, he transferred his capital from Patliputra to Vaishali.
2. KALASHOKA or KAKVARNA-
Last ruler of this dynasty, he transferred his capital from Vaishali to Patliputra.
He organized 2nd Buddhist council in 383 BC at Vaishali.

NANDA DYNASTY

1. MAHAPADMA NANDA
Founder of this dynasty.
Title: Porosuram II, Ugrasena (according to Purana). Eakkrat
First historical emperor in North India- R. K Mukhopadhaya.
Nabananda means Nine Nanda rulers (including MahapadmaNanda & Dhana Nanda)

2. DHANA NANDA
Last ruler of this dynasty.
Title: Aggrammass (According to Greek)
** When Alexander invaded India in 327 BC at that time.

THE MOURYAN DYNASTY

1. CHANDRAGUPTA MOURYA-
Religious Teacher- Bhadrabahu
Prime Minister- Kautilya/Chanakya (Real Name- Vishnu Gupta), wrote Arthasastra-deals with
Principal of state craft. Mondal Theory introduced by Kautilya.
Title- First Historical King of India, Sandrakottus (According to Grrek)
Religion- Jainism, 1st Jain Council held at Patliputra in his reign.
Foreign Traveler visited- Megasthinis (Indica)
His history was written by Hemachandra.
In 305 BC battle of Liberation between Chandragupta Mourya and Selukas. After this battle
Chandragupta Mourya married Helen, daughter of Selukas.
He built Mouryan Palace made of wood at Patliputra. Concept of wooden palace given by
Kautilya.
According to Jainish literature Chandragupta Mourya died in 300 BC at Sravanabellgola
(Mysore).

2. BINDUSARA (300-273 BC):


Title-Amitraghat
Religion-Ajivaka, which was founded by Goshal. He donated Barbara Cave (Bihar) to Ajivaks.
In his reign Dakshila revolt against Mouryan administration and Ashoka to Dakshila to suppress
it.
Foreign Traveler visited- Antiocus sent his ambassador Dyonicious to the court of Bindusara.

3. ASHOKA
Title: Devanampriyo, Chandashoka, Priyodarshi
13th Rock edict Kalinga war (261 BC)
Religion- Ashoka inspired Buddhism by Upagupta (but his Prime Minister was Radha Gupta).
He organized 3rd Buddhist Council at Patliputra in 250 BC. He sent his daughter Sanghamitra
and his son Mahendra to Srilanka for the Propagation of Buddhism (Buddhism first time
promulgated outside India in Srilanka by Ashoka). Ashoka appointed Dharmamahamatya&
Woman Dharmamahamatya for the propagation of Buddhism and welfare activities. He
introduced Byabohar Samata (equal justice) and Danda Samata (equal punishment)
Two types of Mouryan Court- i) Dharmasthiya (Civil Court) & ii) Kontaksodhona (Criminal
Court)
Architecture -i) City of Srinagar, ii) Lion pillar at Patliputra, iii) Sanchi Stupa.
Currency Kashparna made of silver.

4. BRIHADHRATH
Last ruler of Mouryan dynasty.

SUNGA DYNASTY
Founder- Pusyamitra Sunga, who murdered last Mourya ruler Brihadhrath.
Patanjali (Mahabhashya) belongs to his age.
Devbhuti was the last ruler of this dynasty.

THE KANVA DYNASTY


Fouder- Vasudeva, who killed Pusyamitra Sunga.

THE SATBAHANAS OR THE ANDHRAS:


They were successors of Moryans in the Deccan and the central India.
Simuka is regarded as the founder of this dynasty. The most important king was Gautamiputra
Satkarni (AD 106-130)

THE KUSHANA DYNASTY


Original Homeland China.
Kushana belongs to Yu-Chi tribe.
Kushana dynasty founded by Kuzzul Kadphesis or Kadphesis I but in India Kushana dynasty
was founded by Bin Kadphesis or Kadphesis II, he introduced gold coin or gold currency in
India.

KANISKA
Title: Devputra, Second Ashoka
Religion: After the conquer of Patliputra Kaniska inspired Buddhism by Aswaghosh who wrote
Buddhacharit.
Kaniska organized 4th Buddhist council at Kashmir in 72 AD under the leadership of Basumitra
who wroteMahabivasha.
Capital: i) Purushpur (Peshwar) & ii) Mathura
ART: i) GandharArt: Indo-Greek and Roman Art. Mathura art and Amravati art developed in
Kushana age.
First idol of Gautama Buddha built in Gandhar artand he setup an image of Buddha in his coin.
Important persons who was contemporary of Kaniska-
1. NAGARJUNA (Indian Einstein), he wrote Pragya Paramita (features of Mahajanism) &
Madhyamika Sutra (deals with previous concept of theory of Relativity)
2. CHARAK Famous ayurvedic who wrote Charak Sanhita.
3. SUSRUTA He introduced Plastic surgery, wrote Susrut Sanhita.

THE GUPTA DYNASTY


Capital Patliputra, Ujjain

CHANDRAGUPTA I (AD 319-335)


He started the Gupta era in 319-320 AD.
Titles- Licchabi Dauhitra, Maharajadhiraj

SAMUDRAGUPTA (AD 335-380)


Titles- Kaviraj, Vikramanko.
Because of his bravery and generalship he is called Napoleon of India (by the historian V A
Smith)

CHANDRAGUPTA II (AD 380-413)


Took the title of Vikramaditya by defeating Rudrashima III, a Kshatrap king of Ujjain and
Sakari by defeating Sakas.
He was the first ruler to issue silver coins. Also issued copper coins.
His court was adorned by celebrated nine gems (Navaratnas) including Kalidasa, Amarshima,
Barahmihir & Dhanvantri.
Foreign traveler visited : Fa-Hien.

KUMARGUPTA (AD 414-455)


Title Mahendraditya.
Founded Nalanda University.

SKANDAGUPTA (AD 455-467)


Last renowned king of Gupta era.
He faced Hunas effectively, thats why he considered as the savior of India.

PUSHYABHUTI DYNASTY
Foubder- Pravakarvardhana
Captal Thaneswara

RAJYA VARDHANA
Son of Pravakaravardhana.
Sasanka defeated him and

HARSHA VARDHANA (AD 606-647)


Capital - Konauj
Title - Siladitya. Sakallatarapathanath.
He wrote Nagadanda, Priyodarshika & Ratnavali.
His court poet was Bana Bhatta who wrote Harshacharit and Kadambari.
Sasanka and Harshavardhana were contemporary ruler.
He organized donation camp in every 5 years at Prayag.
Defeated by Pulakeshin II on the banks of river Narmada.
Foreign traveler visited Hu-en-sung.

CHALUKYA DYNASTY OF BATAPI


Capital Batapi.
Fonder - Pulakeshin I, but greatest ruler was Pulakeshin II (Dakshinapathanath) who was a
contemporary of Harsha.
Court poet Ravi Kirti who wrote Aihole Inscription

RASHTRAKUTA DYNASTY
Founder Dantidurga.
Capital Manyakhet or Malkhed
Greatest ruler Krishanadev I is remembered for constructing the famous rock-cut Kailasa
temple at Ellora. He also made the city of Aurangabad.
Their king Krishnadev III set up a pillar of victory and a temple at Rameswaram.
Last ruler Amoghvarsha iv.

THE PALLAVAS
Founder- Singhavishnu
Capiatl Kanchi
Narasingho Varman was their greatest king. He founded the city of Mahabalipuram
(Mamalapuram). Mahabalipuram chariot was built by Narasingho Varman but completed by
Narasingho Varman II
Narasingho Varman II built Kailashnath Temple of Kanchi. He defeated Pulakeshin II and
assumed the title Batapikoundo
Last ruler was Aparajito Varman.

THE IMPERIAL CHOLAS (AD 846-1279)


Founder- Vijayalaya
Capital- Tanjore
Real Founder Rajraj I, built the Rajrajeswar temple(also called Brihadeswar temple) at
Tanjavur.
Greatest Ruler Rajendra I
Title Gongaikondo. He defeated Mahipala I of Pala Dynasty.
Naval power created by Cholas.
Last ruler was

THE PALAS OF BENGAL


Founder Gopala (750 AD)
Religion- Sahajiya Buddhism.
Capital Monghyr
Next Ruler- Dharmapala. He was the real founder of Pala dynasty.
Title Uttarapathaswami
His minister was Gargh.
Triparty or Three party Struggle among Pala, Pratihar and Rastrakutas in the reign of
Dharmapala for the conquer of Konauj.
He built Vikramsihla Mahavira, Sompuri Mahavira and revived Nalanda University.
Next Ruler Devpala. He finally conquered Konauj.
Name of his minister Darvapani & Kedar Mishra.
Mahipala I He was the second founder of Pala dynasty.
Rajendra Chola invaded Bengal in the reign of Mahipala I & assumed the title Gongaikoundo.
Mahipala II Kaibarto revolt held in the reign of Mahipala II. Divya leader of Kaiborto
defeated Mahipala II and conqured Bengal/Pala Empire. (Main source Ramcharit of
Sandhyakar Nandi)
Next & powerful Ruler Rampala. He recaptured Pala dynasty.
Court Poet Sandhyakar Nandi.
Last ruler of Pala dynasty Madanpala.
Famous Painters of Pala Dynasty Bita Pala & Dhiman.

THE SENA DYNASTY


Original Homeland Karnataka.
Founder- Samanta Sena
Next Ruler Hemanta Sena.
Next and Real Founer Vijaya Sena.
Court Poet Umapati Dhar. (Deopara Inscription & Chandrachur Chartit)
Next Ruler Ballal Sena.
His guru was Anuruddha Bhatta. (Haralata, Pitridoyita & Ballal Charit)
Ballal Sena wrote Danasagara (a work on smriti) & Advutsagara (a work on Astronomy), but
it was completed by Laxmana Sena. Both written in Sanskrit.
Last powerful Ruler Laxmana Sena.
Title Arirajmardana
Court Poet Joydev (Gitgovindam in Sanskrit)
In 1201-02 Muslim general Bakhtier Khilji invaded Bengal during the reign of Laxmana Sena.
(Main Source Tabakath-i-nasiri by Minhaj-us-siraj)
5 gems contemporary of Laxamana Sena
Joydev
Umapati Dha
Dhoyl (Pabandutam inspired by Meghduth of Kalidasa)
Saran
Gobardhana
Another court scholar of Laxmana sena was Halayudha (Mimansha Sarvasya & Brahmin
Sarvasya)
Famous Painter of Sena Dynasty Shulopani.

VIJAYNAGAR EMPIRE
Founder Harihar & Bukka (1336)
Former Name Vidyanagar.
No. of dynasty 4
1. Sangam Dynasty.
2. Saluva Dynasty.
Founded by Narasingho Varman, ruler of Chandragiri.
3. Tuluva Dynasty.
Founded by Bin Narasingho. Next ruler was Krishnadevaraya (1509-1550)
4. Aravidu Dynasty.
Founded by Tirumal in 1570.

FOREIGN TRAVELLERS VISITED


Iban-e-batuta from Morocco during the reign of Harihar & Bukka
Book- Kitab-ul-Rahella, Safarnama..
Nicolo-di-conti from Itally during the rule of Devraya I.
Abdur Razzak from Persia during the reign of Devraya I.
Fredrick Barbosa from Portugal during the reign of Krishnadevraya.
Poes from Portugal during the reign of Krishnadevaraya.
Epithet of the kingdom Forgotten Kingdom.

KRISHNADEVARAYA (1509-1550)
Dynasty Tuluva.
Books Amuktamalyada
Architecture 1) Bitthalswami Temple & ii) Hazare Temple.
Court Poet Peddana (Grand Father of Telegu Literature/Father of Andhra Poetry)
Astadiggajas contemporary of Krishnadevaraya.

**In 1565 battle of Talikota between Vijaynagar and Bahmoni Kingdom during the reign of Ramraya,
minister of Sadashiv Rao for the conquer of raichur Doab in between Krishna and Tungabhadra.

BAHMONI KINGDOM
Founder Hasan Gangu or Alauddinn Bahman Shah in 1347 in the reign of Md. Bin Tughlak.
Other Important Ruler
1) Mahmud Shah III (Ahmednagar) Mahmud Gawan was his general.
2) Humayun Shah He was bitterly known as Zalim
After break up of Bahmoni Kingdom rise of separate 5 Muslim states
Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmednagar
Adil Shahi of Bijapur
` founded by Yusuf Adil Shah (Jaggatguru) [Akbar, Hari Bijoy Suri (Jain Saint),
Sankaracharya.] Revival of Hinduism under the leadership of Shankaracharya.
Qutub Shahi of Golconda
-founded by Quli Qutub Shah. But the greatest ruler was Md.Quli Qutub Shah who built
the city of Hyderabad and Charminar.
Barid Shahi of Bidar.
Imad Shaihi of Bidar.

SHIVAJI
He was born in 1630. His fathers name was and mothers name was Jijabai. His guru was Ramdas. His
guardian was Kondodeva. He inspired Gorilla warfare from Malik Amber. In 1665 treaty of Purander
sign between Sivaji and Aurangzeb (Joy Singh was the general of Aurangzeb). Afzal khan was
murdered by Shivaji.
In 1674 coronation of Shivaji in Raigarh Fort with the name of Chattrapati. He was also known
as Mountain rat. Death of Shivaji in 1680.
Shivaji created Astapradhan for the development of administration. Among them Peswa was the
most powerful. He collected Chauth (1/4 of the production) and Sardeshmukhi (1/10 of the
production) from neighbor province.
His cavalry was divided into two parts i) Bargi & ii) Siladar. After the death of Shivaji,
Shamvuji ascended the throne of Maratha. In 1713 Sahuji appointed Balaji Biswanath as the peswa of
Maratha. He and Sahuji established the peswa system.

RISE OF PESWA
The first Peswa was Balaji Biswanath (1713-1720). The next peswa was Baji Rao I (1720-1740). Baji
Rao I is the second founder of peswa. He was also known as Napoleon of Maratha (by Grant Duff).
He introduced Hindu Padpadshahi and it was abolished by Balaji Baji Rao.
The third peswa was Balaji Baji Rao (1740-61), bitterly known as Nanasahev (Original name
of Nanasahev was Thandupanth, leader of the Revolt 1857). In 1761 Afgan leader Ahmed Shah Abdali
defeated Balaji Baji Rao in the 3rd battle of Panipath. Sadashiv Rao and Biswas Rao were the general of
Balaji Baji Rao. Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded India 4 times. Baji Rao II was the last peswa.

SIKH GURU
The founder of Sikhism was Guru Nanak. He was born in Talwandi village in Lahore in 1469. He was
contemporary of Babar. Total no. of Sikh guru 10.
2nd Sikh Guru : Guru Angad. He developed Gurumukhi script in Punjabi language.

5th Sikh Guru : Guru Arjun. He built Swarna Mandir in Amritsar, and land donated by Akbar to
Ramdas. Guru Arjun was killed by the order of Jahangir in 1606. He composed Adi
Granthsahev.

6th Sikh guru : Guru Hargovind. He converted Sikh as a military race.

9th Sikh Guru : Guru Tegh Bahadur. He was killed by the order of Aurangzeb in 1675. Guru sir diya
sara nahi diya. associated with Guru Tegh Bahadur.

10th Sikh Guru : Guru Govind Singh. He established Khalsa in 1699 means Holy. He abolished the
post of Guru and introduced 5K. After his death Banda Bahadur or Banda Bairagi was
the leader of Sikh Khalsa.

MUSLIM HISTORY
Hajrat Muhammed was born in 570 AD in Macca and he died in 632 AD. He went to Madina
from Macca in 622 AD, this incident was known as Hijrat. Hijri era started in 622 AD. In 630
AD he came back to Macca. After the death of Hajrat the introduction of Khalifa system. First
four khalifa were - i) Abu Bakka, ii) Oman, iii) Osman & iv) E Ali. Khalifa dethroned in 1922
but the post khalifa was abolished by Kamal Pasha (Atatusk) in 1924. Follower of Hajrat is
Sunni and follower of Ali is Sia.
In 712 AD Md. Bin Qasim invaded India and captured Sindh. At that time Dahis was the Hindu
ruler of Sindh. It was the first muslim invasion in India. Md. Bin Qasim was the first muslim
invader. (Main Source Chachnama of unknown Arabian Sailor & Tahkik-i-sindh of Mir Md.
Masum)
Next ruler was Sabuktagiri in 997-998. In 999 Sultan Mahmud ascended the throne of Gajni,
but he invaded India in 1000 AD-1026 AD in 17 times. Bath Sikkar was the title of Mahmud.
Court poet of Mahmud was Firdousi, the father of Persian renaissance.
Al Biruni (Tahkik-i-hind & Quitab-ul-hind) and Abu Rehan came to India with the companion
of Sultan Mahmud. In 1026 Mahmud destroyed Somnath temple and it was the last invasion of
Mahmud.
In 1175 Md. Ghori captured Multan. In the 2nd battle of Tarain (1192 AD) Ghori defeated
Prithiraj Chauhan to establish first Muslim empire in India.

DELHI SULTANATE

First Capital Lahore


Delhi Sultanate was ruled by 5 dynasties.

1.0. SLAVE DYNASTY (1206-1290)


1.1. Qutubuddin Aibok (1206-1210)
Founder of Delhi Sultanate and Slave Dynasty.
Title lakhbax
Architecture i) Quwwat-al-islam Masque in Delhi.
ii) Adai Din Ka Jhopra in Ajmer.
iii) Laid the foundation of Qutub Minar.
Died while playing Polo (1210 AD) in Lahore on horsepack.
1.2. Aram Shah
Ruled only for 8 months.
1.3. Iltutmis
Title Sultan-i-ajam.
Iltutmis was the real founder of Delhi Sultanate.. he introduced Khutba (prayer to God,
mention the name of Sultan) and Sikka (introduced currency, mention the name of sultan)
Iltutmis introduced copper currency Jittal and silver currency Tanka and Asrafi.
He introduced Iqta system (Iqta means part of land). It was renamed as Jaigir in Mughal age.
Ownership of iqta system is known as Maqti.
He created Group of Forty
In 1221 Chengis Khan (Temuchin) invaded India in the reign of Iltutmis but he suppressed this
invasion by diplomacy.
He also suppressed
i) Ali Mardan Khilji (Ruler of Bengal)
ii) Tazuddin Ildus
iii) Nasiruddin Qubaccha
They are the slaves of Md. Ghori and solve inheritant problem.
He established Delhi as a capital city.

1.4. Rukuddin Firoz

1.5. Razia Sultana (1236-1240 AD)


She was the first woman sultan of India. She was only one sultan who ascended the throne by
directly public support.
Name of husband Altunia, ruler of Bhatinda.
1.5. Baharam Shah (1240-1242 AD)
1.6. Alauddin Masud Shah (1242-1246 AD)
1.7. Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah (1246-1265 AD)
* 1240-1265 AD is known as Dark age of Delhi Sultanate.
1.8. Balwan (126-1287 AD)
Title - Niyabat-i-khudai (deputy of God) and Zil-i-llah (Shadow of God)
He introduced Kingship Theory. He introduced Sizda (down of sir infront of sultan) &
Paibos (kissing the feet of Sultan) - Persian system.
He suppressed i) Tughril Khan (Ruler of Bengal), ii) Mewati.
Balwan created Diwan-i-araz (Means chief of General)
Amir Khosru betterly known as Parrot of Hindustan contemporary of Alauddin Khilji-Balwan,
but the court poet of Balwan.
1.9. Kaikobad/Kaurmash (1287-1290 AD)

2.0. KHILJI DYNASTY (1290-1320 AD)


2.1. Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-1295 AD)
Founder of Khilji dynsty.
Created New Musalmans.
Foreign Traveler Visited Italian traveler Marco Polo in 1292 AD.
2.2. Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD)
Real Name Alighurshamp.
Title Sikander-i-sani, Alexander II
Capital Siri
He introduced Rationary System or Market Control Regulation for Military to avoid inflation
in Delhi.
He introduced Dag (identification of horse) & Huliya (identification of soldier).
His general was Malik kafur (who was the main architect of South India invasion of Alauddin
Khilji), bitterly known as Thousand Dinar.
In 1298 he captured Gujrat and he defeated Raikaran or Karnadev.
In 1303 he captured Chittor and defeated Ratan Singh (*Main Source- Padmabyoti of Malik
Md. Jaisi)
In 1306 he captured Devgiri and defeated Ramchandra.
Architecture palace of Thousands Pillar at Siri, Alai Darwaja near Qutub Minar.
Death 1316.
After the death of Alauddin Khilji Sultani administration controlled by Malik Kafur for 35 days.
In 1316 Malik Kafur was defeated by Alauddin Mubarak Khilji. Title of Mubark Khilji Khalifa

3.0. TUGHLAK DYNASTY (1320-1412 AD)


3.1 Giasuddin Tughlak (1320-1325 AD)
Founder of Tughlak dynasty.
Real Name Gazi Malik.
He built Tughlakabad.
He introduced irrigation system.
Death 1325 at Afganpur.

3.2. Md. Bin Tughlak (1325-1351 AD)


Real Name Juna Khan, bitterly known as Mad King
Foreign Traveler visited Iban e-batuta in 1333. (Kitab-ul-rahella)
Md. Bin Tughlak transferred his capital from Delhi to Devgiri (Daulatabad) in 1327 and re-
transferred from Devgiri to Delhi in 1335
He introduced copper token currency Dokani.
He invaded Karachal and Khorasan between 1329-1337. He built Hindu temple in South India.
Death 1357.

3.3. Firoz Shah Tughlak (1351-1388 AD)


Betterly known as Akbar of Delhi Sultanate.
He abolished 24 taxes and continue only 4 taxes
a) Jijiya (he first collected from Brahmins)
b) Kharaj (land revenue)
c) Zakat (religious tax from Muslims)
d) Khams
He created the city of Firozabad. He established Dar-ul-safa and Diwan-i-khayrat. He
transferred Ashokan pillar from Saranath to Delhi.
His auto-biography Futuha-i-Firozsahi
Famous historian Ziyauddin Barani was his contemporary, he wrote Tarikh-i-Firozsahi.

3.4. Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlak


Last sultan of this dynasty. In 1398 Taimoor Lung invaded India during of this ruler.

4.0. SYED DYNASTY (1414-1451 AD)


Founder Khijir Khan (1414-1420)
Last Sultan Alauddin Alam Shah (1443-1451)

5.0. LODI DYNASTY (1451-1526 AD)


5.1. Founder Bahlul Lodi (1451-1489). It was the first Afgan dynasty in India.
5.2. Sikander Lodi (1489-1517 AD)
Noblest of three Lodi rulers.
Introduced Gaj-i-Sikandari (Sikandrers yard) of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
In 1504 he founded the city of Agra and made it his capital.
Foreign Traveler visted In 1498 Vasco-da-gama came to Kalikat. (Jamorin was the Hindu
ruler of Kalikat)
Vakti saint Kabir was contemporary of Sikander Lodi. Advise of kabir is known as Doha. In
hindi language Kabir said Ram Rahim ek hain.

5.3. Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526 AD)


He was the last sultan of a) Delhi Sultanate, b) First Afgan dynasty, c) Lodi dynasty.
He was the only one sultan who died in the battlefield.
In 1526, 21st April by the 1st battle of Panipath Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babar and Mughal
empire established.

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE


BABAR
Mughal dynasty was founded by Babar. Full name Jahiruddin Md. Babar. His fathers name was
Omar Sekh Mirza. He was the ruler of Farghana. In 1504 Babar he captured Kabul. In 1524 he
captured Lahore. In 1526, 21st April by the 1st battle of Panipath Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babar
and Mughal empire established. (Daufad Khan invited Babar to attack India). Babar first introduced
cannonef in Indian battlefield for which he had successes.
Babar was known as Prince of autobiography (Tujuki-i-babari/Babarnama-composed in
Chagtai Turkey. It was translated in Persi by Abdul Rahman Khan-i-Khannan ) and Prince of garden.
Death 1530.

HUMAYUN (1530-1540,1555-56 AD)


Humayun means fortunate but he was known as Problem Child of Mughal.
In 1539 battle of Chausa between Sher Shah and Humayun, but Humayun was defeated by Sher
Shah. In 1540 battle of Konauj or Billowgram between Sher Shah and Humayun, this time also
Humayun defeated by Sher Shah and thrown by Sher Shah who established 2 nd Afgan dynasty in India
in 1940.
** In 1542 Akbar was born in Amorkot.
In 1555 battle of Shirhind between Humayun and Sikander Sur, by this battle Humayun re-
establish Mughal empire in India.
His biography Humayunnama was composed by Gulbadan Begam, sister of Humayun (daughter of
Babar) in Persi which was the court language of Mughal.
Death : at Din-i-panha in 1556.

AKBAR (1556-1605 AD)


He was only one Mughal who was illiterate. Initially Akbar was the ruler of Punjab but after the death
of Humayun Akbar ascended the throne in 1556.
From 1556-1560 Akbar was controlled by Bairam Khan. (Title Khan-i-Khannan)
In 1556 2nd battle of Panipath between Bairam Khan (Akbar) and Himu (Hindu general of Adil
Shah). By this battle Afgan power completely abolished from India.
Religious Policy of Akbar: He introduced Sulaha-i-kush by the inspiration of Mir Abdul Talif (his
home teacher). In 1563 he withdrawn Pilgrion tax. He organized Haj by govt. expenditure.
In 1564 he withdrawn Jijiya tax. (Religious tax from non-muslims)
In 1575 Akbar established Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri, which was his capital city. It was
religious conference hall. Akbar invited
Purusuttam - Hinduism
Bijay Sen Suri & Hari Bijay Suri (Jaggatguru) Jain Saint
Sekh Abdul Nabin - Islamism
Father Monsarafe & Aqnaviva Christianity
Dadu Bhakti Saint
In 1579 Akbar declare Mahajar Nama/Mazahar Nama in Fatehpur Skri, by this declaration
he declare himself as a Imam-i-Adil.
In 1582 he introduced Din-i-ilahi or Touhil-i-ilahi. It was first accepted by Birbal (Real
Name- Mahesh Das)
Administration: Akbar introduced Mansabdari system in 1577. It was the pillar of Mughal
administration. Mansab means rank or padamarjada. Mansab divided in two category i) Jath
(infantry) & ii) Sawar (cavalry).
Revenue System: He introduced Tahasala system (Ten year settlement). His revenue minister
Todormol introduced Zaoti revenue system.
His court was adorned by nine gems-
i) Abul Faiji (Court poet of Akbar, he translated Lilabati of Aryabhatta into Persi)
ii) Abul Fazal (Akbarnama, Ain-i-Akbari)
iii) Todormol (Revenue minister and general)
iv) Tansen (Real Name- Ramtanu Pandey)
v) Man Singh (Highest Hindu Mansab)
vi) Birbal
vii) Sekh Mubarak
viii) Abdur Rahim Khan i-Khanann
ix) Hamid Humand.
Conquered Policy:
1576: Battle of Haldighat between Rana Pratap & Akbar (Man Singh & Asaf Khan were the general of
this battle)
* All Rajput ruler accepted the alliance of Akbar except Udai Singh, Rana Pratap, Amar Singh.
1585: He conquered Kabul.
Art & Architecture: Akbar created a department of Painting under the leadership of Abdus Samad. He
built-
Buland Darwaza for the victory of gujrat in 1572. It aws the only one architecture which has
has equal length and breath. Height 176 Ft. Part of Bible (/all holy book) written on Buland Darwaza.
Jama Masque in Agra built by Akbar. *Akbar not created any architecture in Delhi.
Death: Akbar was died in 1605. His tomb is situated at Sikendara in Agra.
*Akbar captured all over India except Ahom (Assam) state. Total no. of province of Akbar
15+3 (Ocean)

JAHNAGIR (1606-1627)
Real Nmae Selim.
Dastur-ul-Alam/Twelve law passed by Jahangir. He also created Chain of Justice/Zanzir-i-Adil.
It was a gold chain with a bell from Agra Fort to Yamuna for justice.
In 1605 Sikh Guru Arjun killed by the order of Jahangir. In 1608 William Hawkins (ambassador
of James I) came to the court of Jahangir in Surat for trade. William bitterly known as English Khan.
In 1613 East India Co. established their first trading centre in Surat in the reign of Jahangir. (But British
East India Co. established in 1600 AD in the reign of Akbar in England)
In 1615 Tomas Row came to the court of Jahangir.
In 1622 Jahangir signed alliance treaty with Amar Singh. Jahangir first time lost in Kandahar in
1622.
He suppressed Twelve Fudal Loss. He married Nurzahan (Real Name Meherunnisha).
Nurzahan controlled Mughal administration with the help of her father Itimadullah/Mirza Gias Beg,
her brother Asaf Khan and Khurram.
Reign of Jahangir bitterly known as Zenith of Mughal Painting. Famous painters were
Oishen Das, Rezc.

SHAJAHAN (1628-1658 AD)


Real Name Khurram (Source Padshaha Nama)
Reign of Shajahan bitterly known s Mughal Golden Age. He built - **( Page )
War of Succession It was started in the reign of Shajahan among Dara (Punjab), Suza (Bengal),
Aurangzeb (Decan) & Murad (Gujrat).
Death 1666.

AURANGZEB (1658-1707 AD)


Title Zinda Pir(according to Sunni), Alam Gir Badshah
In 1658 Dara was defeated by Aurangzeb and Aurangzeb ascended the throne of Mughal
empire. (Battle of Samugarh).
1669: Aurangzeb abolished Muharram and Nauraj festival.
1679: Re-introduced Jijiya tax.
In 1669, 1671, 1672 respectively Jath, Bundella, Saytnami revolt held in the reign of
Aurangzeb.
Italian traveler Mannuchi came to the court of Aurangzeb.
Death: 1707 in Ahmednagar
*Decan Alsar Associated with the decline of Aurangzeb.

LATER MUGHALS

1. Bahadur Shah I/ Shah Alam I (1707-12) : Granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas.


2.Jahander Shah (1712-1713) : Abolished Jijiya.
3. Farrukh Siyer (1713-1719) :
a) Ascended the throne with the help of Syed Brothers, Abdullah Khan & Hussain Khan
b) In 1717 Independent Bengal Nawabi founded by Murshidkuli Khan. He transferred his
capital from Dhaka to
Murshidabad.
c) In 1717 Farrukh Siyer granted forman to East India Co. It was known as Farruk Siyers
Forman/Dastak/Trade without tax in Bengal. It was alos known as Magnacarta of the trade
of East India Co. Private trade means trade of British officials.
4. Md. Shah (1719-1748) :
a) Nadir Shah invaded India and took away Peacock throne (1739).
b) He had a nick name Rangeela.
c) Hyderabad state was founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk.
5. Ahmed Shah (1748-1754)
6. Alam Gir II (1754-1759) :
a) Ahmed Shah Abdali occupied Delhi.
b) Battle of Plassey was fought in Bengal.
7. Shah Alam II (1759-1806)
a) Granting of Diwani (1765)
b) Battle of Bauxar (1764)
8. Akbar Shah II (1806-1837)
a) He gave Rammohan the title Raja.
b) Lord Hastings ceased the sovereignty of Mughals.
9. Bahadur Shah II (1837-1862)
a) Last Mughal King.
b) Confined by the British to the Red Fort.
c) Revolt of 1857 and he was proclaimed as emperor by the rebels.
d) He was deported to Rangoon after the revolt.

REVOLT OF 1857
Centres of Revolt & Their Leaders
Delhi : Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
Kanpur : Nana Sahev, Tantiya Tope, Azimullah Khan
Lucknow : Begam Hazrat Mahal (Awadh), Moulavi Ahmadullah of Faizabad
Jhansi : Rani Laxmi Bai
Bareily : Khan Bahadu Khan
Arrah (Bihar) : Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur

Suppression of the Revolt


Delhi : Recaptured on 20th Sept 1857 by John Nicholson.
Kanpur : Recaptured on 6th Dec 1857 by Colin Campbell.
Lucknow : Recaptured on 21st March 1858 by Colin Campbell.
Jhansi : Recaptured by Hugh Rose.
Arrah (Bihar) : William Taylor and Eyre suppressed the revolt

Fate of the Leaders


Bahadur Shah II : Deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. His sons were shot dead.
Nana Saheb& Begam Hazrat Mahal : Escaped to Nepal.
Rani Jhansi : Died in the battlefield.
Tantiya Tope : was captured and executed on 15th April, 1859.

*Earlier at Barrackpore in Bengal where Mangal Pandey killed the British adjutant (29 th Mar, 1857)
and later was hanged for firing on senior officers.

Who said what about the Revolt of 1857


1. British Historian : A mutiny, due to the use of greased cartridges.
2. Disraeli (Opp. Leader) : A national revolt rooted in deep mistrust.
3. V.D Savarkar : First war of independence.
4. S.B Choudhury : Civil rebellion.
5. R.C Mazumder : Neither first nor national nor a war of independence.
6. S N Sen : An effort by the conservative elements to turn the clock back.

GROWTH OF BUDDHISN AND JAINISM

BUDDHISM
Buddhism stands for 3 pillars:
Buddha: Its founder
Dhamma: His Teachings
Sangha: Order of Buddhist monks and nuns.

THE BUDDHA
Also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata.
Born in 563 BC on the at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu) in Nepal.
His father Suddhodana was the Saka ruler and his mother Mahamaya (of Kosola Dynasty) died
after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother Gautami.
Married at 16 to Yashodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and had a son named
Rahula.
Left his place at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of
truth (also called Mahabhunishkraman or The Great Renunciation).
Attended Nirvana or Enlightment at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal tree.
Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath. His first sermon is called dharmachakrapravartan or
Turning of the Wheel of Law.
Attended Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP)
in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla district.

THE DHAMMA (DHARMA):

(1) THE FOUR GREAT TRUTHS


The world is full of sorrow and misery.
The cause of all pain and misery is desire.
Pain and misery can be ended by killing or controlling desire.
Desire can be controlled by following the Eight Fold Path.

(2) THE EIGHT FOLD PATH


Consists of Right, Faith, Right Thought, right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Efforts, Right
Speech, Right Remembrance and Right Concentration.

(3) BELIEF IN NIRVANA


When desire ceases, rebirth ceases and nirvana is attained i.e. freedom from the cycle of birth,
death and rebirth is gained by following the 8 Fold Path.
According to Buddha soul is a myth.

(4) BELIEF IN AHIMSA


One should not cause injury to any living being, animal or man.

(5) LAW OF KARMA


Man reaps the fruits of his past deeds.

THE SANGHA:
Consists of monks (Bhikshus or Shramans) and nuns.
Bhikshus acted as a torch bearer of the dhamma.
Apart from Sangha, the worshippers were called Upasakas.

BUDDHIST COUNCILS

FIRST COUNCIL: At Rajgira, in 483 BC under the chairmanship of Mehakassaapa (King was
Ajatsatru). In this council Tripitak composed by Ananda & Upali in Pali language.

SECOND COUNCIL: At Vaishali, in 383 BC under Sabakami (King was Kalashoka). Followers are
divided into Sthavirmadins & Mahasanghikas.

THIRD COUNCIL: At Patliputra, in 250 BC under Mogaliputta Tissa (King was Ashoka).

FORTH COUNCIL: At Kashmira (Kundalvan), in 72 AD under Vasumitra (King was Kanishka).


Vice chairman was Ashwaghosha. Divided Buddhism into Mahayana & hinayana sects.

BUDDHIST LITERATURE:
In Pali language.
Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitaks, i.e. Threefold Basket.
VINAYA PITAKA
Rules of discipline in Buddhist monasteries.
SUTTA PITAKA
Largest, contains collections of Buddhas sermons.
ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA
Explanation of the philosophical principles of the Buddhist religion.
JAINISM
Total no. of Tirthankar 24.
1st Tirthankar Rishab Dev or Rishab Nath. (Emblem Bull)
23rd Tirthankar Parshanath (Emblem Snake) who was the real founder of Jainism.. Son of
King Ashvasena of Banaras.
24th & Last Tirthankar Vardhman Mahavira.

VARDHMAN MAHAVIRA
He was born in Kundagram (Dist Muzaffarpur, Bihar) in 599 BC.
His father was Siddahrtha and mother was Trishla, sister of Lichchavi Prince Chetak of
Vaishali.
Mahavira was related to Bimbisara.
Married to Yashoda, had a daughter named Priyadarsena, whose husband Jamali became his
first disciple.
Outside the town of Jrimbhikgrama he attained supreme knowledge (Kaivalya).
At the age of 72, he attained death at Pava, near Patna, in 527 BC.

DIVISION OF JAINISM
Digambarism founded by Bhadrabahu in South India.
Svetambarism founded by Sthulobhadra.

JAIN COUNCIL

FIRST COUNCIL: Held at Patliputra by Sthulabhadra in 300 BC.


SECOND COUNCIL: Held at Vallabhi (Gujrat) in 512 AD.