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IN BEAM MODELING PROBLEMS

Rohcrt L. West, Assistant Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Blackshurg, VA 24061-0238

,u mass matrix

I? coefficient vector

A clas of admissible functions known as quasi-xxnpai-

a0 natural freqwlcy

son timctio~~~ can bz used with the Rayleigl-Ritz m&cd to

W beam weight

quickly and accurately solve due differential eigenvaht? problem.

This method inch&s the proper selection of admisible func-

tions and an effective solution technique for the equivalent Basic Theorv

getmalized algetrtic eigenvalue problem. Nahral frequencies

and mcde shap can be found for a variety of bxnday lo order to develop an analytical mcdel of an object, a

::mdition and tension effects. The results of this to%nique can set of goveming partial differential equations must be available

%J nxsd as a basis for comparison with faults from experimental that acc~~~ately and completely desxik the physics of the

dynamics tests. 7% is pwticularly useful when dealing with problem. For a simple l-earn in transverse vitxation, there are

suspension effects. two theories widx conespmding diffwaial equations, fourth

order in space and second order in time, that describe tie

Nomenclature physics. The Eulw-ESernoulli beam thexxy is the cl&sic theory

since its goveming partial differential equation is easily separa-

T kinetic energy term ble and can be explicitly solved using a numba of techniques.

Timushenko later derived a more complete formulation dxt

V potential energy term

WC&S with fewer assumptions, incorporating the effects of

.r distance from beam tip

matory inertia and &ear.

c time

L beam length or differential operator

The Euler-Etemoulli beam equation can be derived using

YWI beam displacement

Eq. l,[l] which is Hamiltons variational equation, with the

Hd beam velocity

ldnetic and pxemial energy terms given in Fq. 2. No rotamry

jqx, f) beam acceleration

inertia or shear effects are present, which makes the m&l

fn (4 beam mass per unit length

inaccurate for beams with a low s1enderne.s ratio (IengdVtbick-

~W beam stiffness

nes) a at wy high frequencies

w tension

Q-1 base stiffness

K point translational stiffness at location x

KU point rotatory sttifness at Ication x

rs

iJ order of system

& boundary condition operator

.I eigenvalue

w eigenvector

n-term approximation of w

z approximation function

41 approximation function coefficients

R RayleigWs quotient

546

The energy terms of F.q. 22 used in the context of This is done in a t&miqnc known as the Rayleigh-Ritz method,

Hamiltons equation, will gcncratc the equations of motion and which can k applied to any system that can bc characterized by

boundary canditim given in F+ 3 and 4. a self-adjoint (pz.&ivc dcfnite) differential writor L and

bamdary condition operators B, as given in Eqs. 5 and 6.[41 L

is of mder 2~. and Ll is of orda JI. For the fourth order F&r-

Bernoulli equation, p txluals 2.

tension, base stiffness, and springs at both ends of the beam.

including these effects makes the equation of motion and

boundary conditions suitable for use with a variety of problems. These opmato~ are used to specify the cigcnvaluc

problem given in Fq. 7, which ~ovides the wlution ta the

The Lwm m&l developed by Timoshcnko works with system of equations given in !Jqs. 3 and 4, as shown in F& 8,

fewer assumptions than the Euler-Bcmoulli m&l, including the

effects of shear and rotatory inerti. Rds increasesthe xcuracy

of the m&l, particularly if the them has a slendcmcssratio

alme 10 or is excited at very high frequencics.[Zl

rfsult.5 in hvo diffcrcntial equations, making it diiticult to w. In this m&cd, a series of functions are added together

Fommately, the beam m&led in this study has a slendemezs m appmximate the rcspnse of the system, as shown in Eq. 9.

ratio of 210. At this value, there is no difference between the

results of the Euler-Bernoulli theory and the Timcshenko theory.

The ccefficicnts of the functioa.s must be selected to find

lt is possible to explicitly solve the Euler-Bernoulli a stationary pint of RayleigWsquotient for the system, as

equation for a nwnbx of different boundary condition combine defined in EZq.10. This minimization prwess is cquivalcnt to

tions. These solutions are typically wlvcd by separation of the generalized algebraic eigenvahx problem of !?q. I I. Ilte Z

variables, which results in a continuous eigenvalue ~bletn. vector gives the ccefticicnts of the hwtions used in the summa-

Scvcral examples of this are pwented by Mcirovitch.[31 tion. There will be n solutions to this problem, each correspond-

Howcvc~, for the situation in which zevcral springs arc attached ing to a natural mcdc of vibration of the system.

to the txam, explicit solutions cannot lx generated. The

problem ?sthen solved with a discretization tcchniquc.

system is the f&e element m&od. In this methcd, simple

approximating polynomials are wed to approximate the respmsc

of the structure over aall regions on the shwture. TXs

technique is wry paverful, primarily becaw of its flexibility in

de&g with strwhxes of arbitrary shape. Howcvcr, using the

ftite element for vibration problems can require considerable When this technique is derived using Ray&bs m&cd

computational pxvcr to solve accurately fa vibratiaul m&s. as a basis, the functiom wed in the summation have strict

The tinitc element m&cd was not used in this work differentiability and boundaty conditions wluircmcnts.[5]

Spxifically, the functions nust be × differentiable and

Ravleiqh-Ritz Method nut satisfy the ixundary conditions of the original problem

exactly. These functions arc known as comparison functions.

Another approach for disc&zing continuous vibrational Driving comparison function for a system with general bound-

systemsis to use a single, very complex, a~oximating function ary conditions can be quite diff!cult.

547

A derivation based on energy terms, however, reveals km functions and the fmite clement method. In all caxs it

that the solution technique of Eq. II will work even if the slightly outperformed the cmpCsn function method and

functions used in the summation are only p-times differentiable signiticantly outperformed the tinite element methai.

and match the tamday conditions in sihxticns in which

displacement 1 slopes are tixed.[61 These functions are known The barn m&led in this study was m&led with

as admiisible functions. This lads to a difficulty of a different qua.+comparison functions. In an interview, Meirotitch

nature. There are now so many allowable bmctions that deter- suggested using combinations of tix mcdes generated by free

mining which fimctiom will work test is difficult. free and fmed-fixed tamdary condition% A mtimnm of four

tams are needed to match any pzsible boundary condition.

implementation SDecifics Wkile these mde shape can lx solved analytically, they contain

hypzrbiic trigonometric terms that result in difficult integmtions

over the tam. Therefore, linear combinations of the m&s

Quashm~arkwn Functions

resulting from pinncz-pinned and slide-slide boundary conditions

were used. With thex mcde shapes, boundary conditions could

While the reqnirements for a function to be admissible

still be mcdelled with four tams, but all of the mcde shapesare

are weak, there are strong rquirements that a set of admissible

camped of simple sine and cosine terms. This greatly simpli-

functions must n~eetif they are to accurately approximate the

ties the integrations required while retaining the pJwer of the

response of the structure. The szt of admissible functions must

qua+comparizan function method. Using thess m&s is

tc linearly independent and complete. Two examples of sets of

equivalent to a Fourier series with half-periodic tenm included,

functions that satisfy thex requirements are the Fourier series

as SW in Eq. 12.

and a polynomial seriesof increasing order. Either one of these

series can exactly match a given function if enough tams are

bxluded in the s&es.

series t& converge to the solution in the limit. Unfortunately,

thix require performing an infinite mm&r of intcgmtions and

solving for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an infinitely Development of BEAM3.EXE

large matrix. For one of these series with a finite nnmlxx of

terms, the end condition of the solution will be matched pearly. Since the ultimate objective of this work was to perform

For example, the fist flexural mcde of a free-free beam has a optimization experiments on the beam and its Lxundary condi-

positive slope at one end and a negative slope at the other. All tions, it was necessaryto develop a m&l solution technique

of the cosine tem~shave no slopz at either end, while the sine with which a large number of m&l solutions could te calm-

terms have the same slopes at both ends. Adding a finite lated very quickly. In accomplishing this, the Rayleigh-Ritz

number of these te- will nevtx result in different slopes at the method was nsed with quasi-compaison functions, as discussed

end. Similarly, the second flexural mcde of the &am has a in the previous sections, to approximate the m& shapesand

positive displacement at one end and a negative displacement at natural frequencies of the beam.

the other. Since the sine turns have no displacement at either

end and the cosine terms all have dis$cement +l at bath ends, %e Rayleigh-Ritz integrations, from w. 11, were

a finite numba of terms will again fail to generate a function performed symbolically using Mathematica.[8] Having these

with different dispkaements at each end. While compari~m itegIzds in clcsed form allowed the integmtions m be jxrfnncd

functions will, by definition, match all txnmdary conditions, quickly and accurately with 8 minimum of effort. The integra-

admissible functions can easily fail in this task tion mlutiom were implemented in a Pascalprogram desiaed to

work with Matlab MAT files, which store m&ices in Matlab

Meirovitch propcad the uxxept of quasi-comparison native form. The beam and suspensionparameters were sat to

function to resolve this problem.[7] In thii technique, admissi- the prmam using a MAT file, and the mass and stiffness

ble functions are spzcitically selected such that linear combine matrices were retmned to Matlab using a MAT tile.

tions can bz used tc match any possible linear boundary condi-

tion. In the papa, a rod experience axial vibration was nstxi Having the Pascalprogrun wmk with MAT fdes enabled

az the example. The variable cross-sectionred was fmed at one M&b to call it directly from any routine. This was specifically

end and spring kxded at the other. The admissible functions done to allow the Matlab optimization tcalt~x[9l to Lx used in

tlsed to mlxiel the xsponse of the rod were the mcde shapes of a optimization experiments with the m&l.

uniform red with fxd-fixed ends and with fix&free ends. A

linear combination of a fmec-tixed mcde shape and a free-free Clifficullies Encountered and Solved

mcde shap can be uxd m match any linear boundary condition

causzd by the spring, thus forming the equivalent of a cornpa- The progrant went through four major revisions before

son function with only two terms. The quasiGcomparisn finally being usal for the work The fust version hansfared

functions wae companxi in convergence rate to actual camp- data with ASCII files rather than MAT fdes, and this relatively

548

inaccurate data storage form combined with mamix illxondition- presence of large, negative eigenvalues in the eigensystem

ing caused imaginary frequencies for mass and stiffness matrices solution, which correspond to imaginary frequencies. Th&

hug- than 1 I by 1 I. IXe second version, which worked occumed when a bigh numlxr of terms were present in the

directly with MAT tiles, was useful with systems as large as 19 &es. TIE exact numlxr of tams required for the singuIariw to

by 19. TIE third version of the program W&S formulated with take place was determined by the accuracy with which mmtters

direct design parameters mtber than the Eaditional combined were stored in the compter. The early text file program went

team pmmetm, such as El and nz. Finally, the fourth version singular at I3 terms, the Matlabbaxd solver went singular at 21

solved the eigenvalue problem direcdy using a Jacobi based tams, and the Pascal-based solver went singular at 29 terms.

symmewic eigensystem solvex. The utilization of symmetiy and

inaased precision available witb the Pascal compiler enabled Due to the Rayleigh-Ritz formulation of the beam, the

the progmn to work with systems as large zz 27 by 27. eigensystem should be either Ix&ix defnite or positive s&mi-

defmite. As a m.sult, negative eigenvalucs should not can.

The primary Alice of difficulty in solving the beam Therefore, when negative eigenvalws did cccw, the results of

poblem was iIl.conditioning that cccurred in the mass and the entire solution were suspect. The illanditioning of the

stiffness matxices. According to the Rayleigh-Ritz tbeoty, the mauices discwsed in the Ixevious section is probably the cause

discretized mzss and stiffness mat&x are Ixsitive derinite, of this problem. In order to alleviate this effect, an eigensystem

though the stiffness ma& is positive semi-definite if both es& solver specifk to symmetric, Izusitive semi-definite systems was

of the beam are free. However, if the series of functions used developed and incorpxated into the final version of tJx prc-

for approximation is not Iinealy indepzndenL positive detinite gmm.[lOl[lll Table 2 shows bow the symmetric solver

ness can lx lost. A lwk at the eigenvalues of the rna~ matrix performed in comparison to the Matlab eigensolver. Tbe

(which remains constant for a given number of tams) shows imaginary frequencies resulting from the negative eigenvalues

how the cigenvalues of the matix approach zero as the munlxr generated by Matlab are higbIighted to emphasize how it faiIs to

of tams in the series is incwased. This is indicative of a matrix calculate correct results for tbis Insitive deftite system

appmaching singukwity. Table I shows this wend.

Table 2: Comparison of eigensystem solvers

Table 1: Ill-conditioning of mass matrix

Matlab PC?.%%?1 Matlab PSCZII

Z7 n=9 = 11

0 2.6e-13 1206 1407

-- -. 0.0000000036 .7e-11 I 2.2e.12 1407 1623

-- 0.0000001101 0.0000003242 17.5 17.5 1623 1855

0.0000032794 0.0000076425 0.0000163275 46.2 46.2 1655 2106

0.0001576016 0.0002632472 0.0003195041 94.5 94.5 2107 2360

igew 0.0031573992 0.0032649727 0.0037480720 156 156 2432 2791

eS 0.0156133142 0.0163376762 0.0156133142 233 233 2625 3223

0.0290391704 0.0279616558 0.0261046567 326 326 3719 4449

0.0310666269 0.0310595565 0.0309071244 434 434 4699 5376

0.0456667222 0.0312169659 0.0312170274 536i 556 6791 10902

.- 0.0460192954 0.0312263043 556 697 13129 13880

-. -. 0.0462079125 697 651 51569 65016

651 1021 K7554i 69862

The reason for this tendency towards singularity is not

1021 1206 -- --

immediately apparent. It probably cccws because the whole

wavelength tams ccmpris~ the equivalent of a truncated Fourier

series. The baIf.wavelengtb terms, added through the WE of Small negative eigenvalues sometimes still resuhed from

quasi-comparison hmctions, comprise additional terms that can the use of the Pascal-based eigemolver, but these were slight

also te approximated with the Fomia series. As the numbs of pmxbatim from zero caused by rounding and tnmcation errors

terms is increased, this approximation becomes closa and closer during the solution pro-xss. These small negative values were

until a match with the added terms is obtained. At this In% safely rounded to zero for purIwses of this study, as they were

hear indepadence is lost and the ma& lxcomes singukir. clearly errors cccurring at the very limits of ma&ix precision.

A saond difficulty that occmred duibtg the quasi- A fmal difficulty encountered in accurately modeling the

comparison function m&lii of the beam mcde sbapzs was the beam was determining the achnl beam parameters to use in the

549

modeling mdy. Since the m&l was ultimately intcodcd to Lx each additional term crates anotber row and column to the

wed in comparisom with an actual steel tx%m, parameters for a ~y~tcmmatrice. This pushes all of the frequcncics down except

prticu!ar beam wed in the lab were &m&d. Table 3 gives for tbe new one ad&d. The frequencies nevcx drop below the

the best &mates available for the pxameters. actual dutiw.s frequencies if tbc solution is cowergent.

AB,,s ,t,> s Aa,25 A,? 5 5 AB< 5 A< s Ati.1

4. Denstiy z 0.282 lbf/in (table value for 304

stainless, an austenkic stainless steel) Table 5 shows the quic!%ss with which convergence is

w&cd wing the quasi&compaison functions For tbc freefree

5. Elastic modulus = 26.0 x 10 (table value Lxxmdary conditions, it appears that only 15 terms are required

for 304 stainless) to acc!xatcly mcdel the tirst five fleaxal mcde-sof tbc txam.

*t 19 tern, the natural hequencics converge to machine

Improved pmmctcrs for density and elastic modulus precision. The rirst two m&s listed, til) and r(Z), are the two

could be obtained with more n.ccwatematerial identiticatioo rigid lady modes of tbc free-free beam. Figure I show the tinst

ml/or actual property testing performed on the beam itself. The four m& sbap obtained with I9 te-.

stain& steel beam has 304 stamped on tbc back and cxbibited

the classic non-ferromagnetic bcbavior of an anstenitic (face- Table 5: Free-free Convergence Study

centcredsubic) steel.

Natural frequency of mode [Hz]

Validation of Ravleiah-Ritz model tl r(l) G9 1 2 3 4

In order to use tbc quasi-cmnparison analytical m&l to 5 0.00 4.89 17.53 48.69 127.56 --

approximate the behavior of the barn, it had to bc validated.

7 0.00 1.67 17.50 46.53 95.56 204.7(

Ilk was done by comparing results from tbc m&l m known

analytical salutioru for camin combinations of simple lxxndary 9 0.00 0.44 17.50 46.26 94.56 156.11

conditions. Natural frequcncics were us03 as tix basis for 11 0.00 0.10 17.50 48.23 94.55 156.3f

comparison. Mode sbap could have been used as well. 13 0.00 0.02 17.50 46.23 94.55 156.31

15 0.00 0.00 17.50 48.23 94.55 156.3C

Validation bv Analvtical Solution

theorv 0.00 0.00 17.50 46.23 94.55 156.3t

Analytical results were available for tbrec different sets

of bxndxy conditions, as found in Meirovitcb. T&e combin+

tions are given in Table 4.

nesses at both ends)

stiffnesses at one end)

FIgwe 1: Free-free Mode Shapes

The free-free end condition was the one most beavily

cam&d, because it most closely approximattx the conditions TIE pbmez-pinned boundary conditions were stiied in a

likely to lx found in the study. It was used as the basis of a slightly different manner. Table 5 aixvc &owed how tbc results

cmwgcmz mdy. By Theorem I, with corrcspmding FQ. 13. converged with an increasing numbzx of tams in tbc series. Tbc

the RaylcigbRitz m&cd converges to the tnc sduti~~~ &!n next study foxed on how the results conwgcd with incxasing

& as terms arc addal to the series. This bapp~ txxause stiffnesscs. Table 6 shows tbis convcxgen~. Figure 2 shows tix

550

UK& shapzs for stiffoess values of I.54 lbflin. The d&shed lbxs

near zero represent the mm when compared to the theoretical

shapes.

M) @J 1 2 3 4

0.00 0.00 17.50 48.23 94.55 156.30

3.63 6.67 19.32 48.91 94.90 156.51

Figure 3: Fixed-free Mode Shapes

6.73 16.87 31.60 55.34 98.16 158.44

7.61 29.07 60.12 94.50 131.84 161.21 Validation bv Other ComputatIonal Model

7.71 30.69 68.53 120.47 185.28 261.03

7.72 30.87 69.46 123.47 192.89 277.72 Wlile zero and infinite stiffness tanday conditiow ale

easily tested analykally, imermediate values are not. To

7.72 30.67 69.47 123.50 192.97 277.87 validate the m&l oo intermediate values, another nomaical

package known as BEAM VI was nsed. BEAM I is a pagn,,,

based on transfer matrices that wlve~ team problenx[lZJ III

this approach, a finite number of onifom lxam sections are

joined together with joints of known stiffne~.

where they generated identical results. Alw, BEAM VI was

used m validate the analytical mcdel on cases in which base

stiffoess was present. Table 8 gives the wsolts of centi tax

stiffoes on the beam. Again, results were identicaJ for

BEAM VI and the aoalyticai mcdel.

Figure 2 Pinned-pinned Mode Shapes

Finally, the &?&free &mJary conditions were studied Natural frequency of modes [Hz]

in a mamm similar to the pinne&pimted bamdary conditioos.

The tnnslational stiffoess was held war iofnity while the 0) w 1 2 3

rotatory stfffllcss as increased from n30 to near intiity. me 17.50 48.23 94.55

0.00 0.00

convergence for tbjs case is tab&ted in Table 7. Figue 3

21.07 21.07 27.39 52.64 96.87

shows the male shqes for a rotatory stiffoess of 1~6 lbf-in, with

the da&d lines mar zero representing the enor when compared 66.64 66.64 68.91 82.26 115.68

to thw~etical vahs. 210.74 210.74 211.47 216.19 230.98

Table R Fixed-free Convergence Study Since the results from the qoasi-comparison fooction

based Rayleigh-Ritz model very closely mat&d the results from

Natt~4freqwncy of modes [Hz] koovm analytical solutions and results from BEAM VI, it can be

stiffness concluded that the mxlel is effective for mcdeling the bxn and

[lbffin] any external stiffnews added to the ends of the beam

el) a 1 2 3 4

0 ~ 0.00 0.00 17.50 48.23 94.55 156.30

Gravitational Tension Convemence

10 3.63 6.87 19.32 48.91 94.90 156.51

1e2 6.73 18.87 31.60 55.34 98.16 158.44 Ibe convwgeoce and validation studies discosxd above

7.61 29.07 60.12 94.50 131.84 181.21 fccosed on variations of the fre&free beam problem for which

le3

iodependent solution were available. However, io the physical

le4 7.71 30.69 68.53 120.47 185.26 261.03 equiment in which the actual stainless steel beam was to be

le6 7.72 30.87 69.46 123.47 192.89 277.72 tested, there was a teosioo effect caused by gravity loading.

theory 7.72 30.87 69.47 123.50 192.97 277.87 This tension is described io Eq. 14, where W is the weight of the

- beam and x is the distance measured from the top of the barn.

551

Table l& Recommendations for Future Work

This ternion effect could not lx compared to other with a complete and independent set of

solutions, since no other solutions were available, but it could functions that allow for varying displace-

still lx tcstcd for conwxgcce. Table 9 shows that the gmvity ments and slopes at the ends, such as

effect converged very slowly on the quaskomparison function Forsythe polynomials. This should solve

mcdel. The reasons for this m convergence are not known. the ill-conditioning problem encountered.

the Pascal program with a faster QRftridiag

onalization-based routine. This will in-

Natural frequency of mode [Hz]

crease the speed with which solutions are

obtained.

GJ G3 1 2 3 4

7 0.00 2.19 17.86 48.85 95.90 205.52 Reformulate the problem using the aqua-

11 0.00 1.61 17.78 48.64 94.60 156.60 tions resulting from the Timashenko beam

15 0.00 1.39 17.76 48.52 94.76 156.55 model. This would allow the model to be

used with thicker beams and at higher

19 0.00 1.31 17.74 48.47 94.78 756.52

frequencies.

23 0.00 1.27 17.72 48.45 94.74 156.50

27 0.00 1.25 17.70 48.44 94.72 156.49 References

This difficulty with convergence hex led to the question Meirovitch, Leonard, Computational Methcds in Struchxal

of whether or not the quas*om~tin function analytical mcdel Dvnamics, Sijthofl & Noordhcaff, Rcckville, Maryland, ,980,

was appropriate for modeling the gravitational body load. The pp. 23C-232.

effect was left in the m&l because it is Iawn to exist pbysi- Singh, M. P. and Abdelnaser, A. S., Random Vibrations of

tally. An incompletely converged effect will more accurately mmoshenko Seams witi Genemiized Bounda~ Conditions,

m&l the physical structure than no effect at all. 2nd International Conference on Stochastic Structural

Dynamics Bxa Raton, Florida, 1990, pp. 173.192.

Conclusions and Recommendations Meirovitch, Leonard, Anah4ical Methods in Vibrations,

Macmillan Publishing, New Yo& 1967, pp. t6l-t66.

The Rayleigh-Ritz m&cd, when camhined with the

technique of quasiannparison functions, can be used ta quickly Meirovitch, m pp. 286.268.

and accurately solve the equations resulting from the application Meirovitch, Analvtica Methods, pp. 21 l-215.

of the Eula-Etemoulli beam mcdel.

Meirovitch, AnalYtical Methods, pp. 225.233.

Convergence with the Rayleigl-Ritz model was usually Meirovitch, Leonard and Kwak, Moon K., Convergznc? of

obtained with as few as I5 tams. This convergence was still tie Classics Rayleigh-Ritz M&cd and the Finite Element

achieved when additional stiffnesses were added, in eirher the Method, AIAA Journal. Vol. 28 No. 9, August 1990,

form of tmnslational and rotatory springs at the ends or of a tase pp. t509-,516.

stiffness. Analytical results and a sepamtt! computational Mathematics 2.1, Wolfram Research, Urbana, Illinois.

p&age were used to verify that the natural frequencies obtained

by the m&l were accurate. Matlab Optimization Toolbox, Andrew Grace, The

Mathwotis, South Natick, Massachusetts, 1991.

Gravitationally induced tension effects were not as well G&b, Gene H. and Van Loan, Chada F,, w

m&led, primarily due to incomplete convergence. It is not Commutations, Second Edition, Johns Hopkins University

known if increased machine prezzisionwould solve the problem Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1989, pp. 469.470.

or if the lack of convergence is an indicator of a more fun&-

mental problem. Fox purposes of thii study, however, the effect Press, William H., et al., Numerical Recipes in C,

Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988, pp. 36@366.

was kept in the model.

BEAM VI, L. D. Mitchell, et. al., Department of Mechanical

While the m&l appears m work well, there are several Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State

things that could be changed or refined to improve the perfm- University, Blacksburg, Virginia, ,992.

mnce of the m&l. Some of thess suggestions could lx

implemented fairly easily, while otbas would require signifi-

cantly Inore work.

552

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