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to broadcast propaganda
to send out a programme on television or radio that may be false or exagerrated in
order to gain support for a political leader, a party etc
a leading article
a piece of writing which deals with the most important news item of the day.
editorial policy
the policy of the newspaper, as decided by the person in charge of producing the
sensational journalism
reporting which tries to get your interest by presenting facts or events as more
shocking or worse than they are.
to carry a story
to include an item in a news report
news coverage
the reporting of news and sport in newspapers, tv, or radio.
to make front page headlines
to be an important item of news in the newspapers, on radio or TV.
breaking news
newly received information about an event that is currently taking place
up to the minute
having the latest information
stale news
information that is no longer interesting or new, because it has already been reported
falling circulation
the decline in the number of copies of a newspaper sold each day
celebrity endorsement
A form of brand or advertising campaign that involves a well known person using
their fame to help promote a product or service
to subscribe to a magazine
to pay money regularly in order to receive a copy of a magazine
the financial sections
Newspapers have increasingly turned to providing expert, detailed analysis of recent
events, for example in their financial or business sections.
online advertising
advertising a product or service on the internet
to slash the prices of products
to reduce the price dramatically
to be found guilty
the court decided that the person did commit the crime
to promote their products
to make products popular by advertising them.
to buy goods impulsively
to buy things suddenly without any planning and without considering the effects they
may have
to be swayed by advertisements
to be influenced to buy things as a result of advertising
market research
the action of collecting information about what people buy
a price war
a situation in which companies or shops continually reduce their prices in order to
attract customers away from their competitors
to launch a product
to introduce a new product
target audience
consumers whom businesses aim at when selling their products.
brand awareness
the action of bringing the name of a company to the attention of the public
prime time television
the hours during which most people are watching TV
the electronic media
broadcast media which use electronic technology, such as the internet, television,
radio, DVDs etc
to impose regulations on
to control something by means of rules
commercial advertising
advertising on the radio or television, between or during programmes.
a method of selling things or taking orders for sales by telephone


crime of passion
refers to a crime, especially murder, caused by sexual jealousy
to serve a prison sentence
to carry out confinement in prison as a punishment
to turn to crime/ drugs
To start committing crimes or using drugs
to be tough on crime
To punish crime severely
to contest the verdict
not agree with the decision of the jury after the trial of a case
to take into consideration
to think about a particular fact or detail and allow it to have some influence when you
are making a decision
to reintegrate back into society
to restore someone through education or therapy
to be soft on crime
not to impose strictpunishments on offenders
a policy of zero tolerance
a policy of applying laws very strictly, so that every illegal action is punished, even if
it is not very serious
a chance of rehabilitation
a chance of helping someone to have a normal life after serving a prison sentence
to embark on something
To start something new
to make a fresh start
Meaning: to try something new after making mistakes in ones life
to act as a deterrent
Meaning: a measure which makes somebody less likely to do something
to release back into society
to give freedom to prisonerswho have finished their sentences.
corporal punishment
to punish by physically harming the offender
drug trafficking
importingand selling illegal drugs
a non-custodial sentence
a sentence which is not served in prison
to be found guilty
the court decided that the person did commit the crime
the full weight of the law
Meaning: all the strictest punishments available according to the laws of a country.
to impose a ban on something
to enforce an official rule which says that something is not allowed
to convict a criminal
to find an offender guilty and to punish them
law-abiding citizens
people who obey and respect the law
to enforce the law
to make sure that the law is obeyed
capital punishment
punishment by death
forensic evidence
connected with the scientific tests conducted by the police when investigating a crime
to instal surveillance cameras
to put cameras in a place where a crime is likely to be committed
to put on probation
to make a convicted person see an official at regular intervals to check on their good
behavior, as an alternative to going to prison
to punish wrongdoers
to punish people who do something illegal
to arrest suspects
to stop and hold people who the police think may have committed a crime
the letter of the law
the exact wording of the law, without considering any excuses

environmental degradation
the process or fact of the environment becoming worse
to take action on global warming
to do what has to be done on problems related to global warming
to deplete natural resources
To reduce the amount of natural resources.
ozone layer depletion
refers to a steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere
an ecological crisis
a serious situation that occurs when the environment of a species or a population
changes in a way that destabilizes its continued survival
carbon footprint
a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced by the daily activities of a
company or person
to cut down on emissions
to reduce the amount of gases sent out into the air
to fight climate change
To try to prevent changes in climate patterns, such as rainfall, temperature and winds.
to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels
to decrease peoples consumptionof fossil fuels, like oil, coal or gas.
to alleviate environmental problems
to make bad environmental problems less severe
to throw ones weight behind something
To use one's influence to help support
alternative energy sources
refers to any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel
food miles
Distance food has to travel between where it is grown or made and where it is
captive breeding
the reproduction of animals in confinement, not in their natural habitats
to disrupt lessons
cn tr tit hc: If strict discipline is not imposed on pupils who ______ then the
education of all the children in the school will suffer.
environmental impact assessment
a study into how a development, like a new road, a new dam or other construction
activity will affect the plants, animals and local communities living in an area.
the greenhouse effect
the natural process by which the sun warms the surface of the Earth
global warming
the process by which the Earth is getting hotter, as a result of the greenhouse effect
in particular the increase in carbon dioxide in the air
habitat destruction
the process that occurs when a natural habitat, like a forest or wetland, is changed so
dramatically by humans that plants and animals which live there.
endangered species
plants or animals that only exist in very small numbers, so that in future they may
disappear forever
on the brink of extinction
an animal or plant which has almost disappeared from the planet
renewable energy
energy is renewable when it source, like the sun or wind, cannot be exhausted or can
easily be replaced (like wood, as we can plant trees for energy
wind farms
an area of land on which there are a lot of windmills or wind turbines for producing
environmentally friendly
behavior or products that do not harm the environment
the green movement
all the organisations concerned with the protection of the environment
to discharge chemical waste
x cht thi ha hc
to be bio-degradable
phn hy sinh hc
to hold somebody accountable for
trch nhim cho ai


To take something into account
to consider or remember something when judging a situation
To break into a market
to enter a market with the connotation that entrance to the industry was difficult.
to launch a product
to introduce a new product
To keep someones word
to uphold one's promise; to do as one says
To reach a consensus
to come to an agreement
To make the most of something
to make something appear as good as possible; to exploit something; to get as much
out of something as is possible.
To go out of business
if a company goes out of business, it stops doing business permanently, especially
because it has failed
To do market research
to collect information about what people buy and why they choose it.
To make cutbacks
to decrease, to reduce
To manage expectations
Seek to prevent disappointment by establishing in advance what can realistically be
achieved or delivered by a project, undertaking, course of action, etc.
To make a calculation
to assess a situation and figure out (or guess) the outcome
To pay in arrears
refers to making a payment to a supplier later than the terms of the arrangement under
which goods or services were purchased from the supplier.
To buy at auction
to buy something at a usually public sale of goods or property, where people make
higher and higher bids (= offers of money) for each thing, until the thing is sold to the
person who will pay most
To squander a chance
to waste money or supplies, or to waste opportunities by not using them to your
Overhead cost
refers to regular costs required to run a business, such as rent, electricity, wages etc
A takeover
an act of taking over a company by buying its shares
A merger
the action of joining two or more businesses into one
A heavy workload
having many tasks to perform
something that somebody gives you [usually money] because they have hurt you or
damaged something that you own
the money that a government receives from taxes or which a company receives from
its business
working in an office, not a factory
connected with people who do physical work in industry
To run your own business
to have a business which you own
To earn a living
to earn money
Enhance their public image
to make their company appear more attractive to people
To grow a business
to expand a business, usually a new one
To gain a competitive edge
to achieve an advantage over another company or organization, often by providing the
same goods or services at a lower price
Maximize profits
to increase profits to the highest possible level
To conduct a business
to operate a business in a particular way
To be made redundant
to lose ones job
Pension scheme
a system in which you and your employer pay money regularly into a fund, to use
when you retire from work
to abide by
to accept and act according to a law, an agreement, etc.
parliamentary democracy
dn ch ngh vin: Freedom of speech is usually one of the rights enjoyed by citizens
in a ______.
to adhere to
tun th: Governments which fail ______ their election promises generally become
unpopular very quickly.
constitutional government
Chnh ph hin php: The media have an important role to play in reporting on the
actions of politicians, to ensure the proper functioning of __________.
the executive branch
Chi nhnh hnh php: The enforcement of policies affecting schools and hospitals is
the responsibility of ______ of the government.
the legislative branch
ngnh lp php: Laws relating to human rights have been passed by ______ of many
national governments.
the separation of powers
s phn chia quyn hn: In the USA, the independence of the courts from the
government is safeguarded by _________.
to adopt policies
(v) thng qua cc chnh sch: In order to deal with traffic congestion, the government
must _______ to restrict the use of private cars.
to impose spending cuts
(v) p t chnh sch ct gim chi tiu: It is essential for the authorities ______ on
space programs in order to fund health services.
to raise taxes on
(v) tng thu ln: Governments should _______ cigarettes to persuade more people to
give up smoking.
to curb public spending on
(v) hn ch chi tiu cng: I would argue that it is preferable ______ building new
roads rather than to impose spending cuts on education.
to allocate resources to
(v) Phn b cc ngun lc : If governments ________ improving public transport,
this will reduce the problem of traffic congestion in cities.
to introduce restrictions on
(v) gii thiu cc hn ch v: The government must _______ smoking in public
to infringe upon something
(v) vi phm iu g : Governments must sometimes ________ individual freedoms
in the wider interests of society.
to be a government priority
(v) tr thnh u tin ca chnh ph: In developing countries, spending on health and
education should _________.
to prioritize expenditure on
(v) u tin chi tiu cho: I believe that it is important _______ medical research in
order to save lives.
to provide funding for
(v) cung cp ti chnh cho: ____health care must be a priority of governments.
high on the agenda
(n) cao trong chng trnh ngh s: The rehabilitation of prisoners must be _________
of prison authorities everywhere.
to exert pressure on
(v) gy p lc ln: Environmental organisations should _______ governments to
invest in renewable energy projects.
to form a pressure group
(v) to thnh mt nhm gy p lc: Activists in my country have _______ to persuade
the government to close nuclear power stations.
to provide public subsidies for
(n) b sung tr cp cng cho: In order to promote agriculture that is environmentally-
friendly, the government should ______ organic farmers.
international bodies
(n) c quan quc t: National governments ought to give funds to _______, like the
Red Cross and the United Nations, to deal with emergency situations.
national and local authorities
government organizations acting at a national level or within a smaller, local area
non-governmental organizations
(n) t chc phi chnh ph: Individuals could donate money to NGOs to help others in
need of food, shelter and medical services.
to campaign for something
(v) vn ng mt ci g : People who are concerned about the environment should
______ stricter controls on pollution.
government decision-making
(n) s a ra quyt nh ca chnh ph: Pressure groups are sometimes able to
influence ______.
to impose an official ban on
(v) p t mt lnh chnh thc v: Governments ought to _______ the use of mobile
phones on public transport.
government sponsorship
(n) s bo tr ca chnh ph: _____ of the arts is necessary if creative talent is to be
a welfare state
(n) mt nh nc phc li: In order to eradicate poverty, I believe that ________
should be established in all developing countries.
a stopgap measure
(n) mt bin php tm thi: Building more prisons will not solve the problem of rising
crime rates, but it is ______ which the government must take to protect ordinary

to take up exercise
(v) tp th dc: Governments should provide sports facilities to encourage more
people to take up sport.
to get into shape
(v) vo form:If people have a sedentary lifestyle, they must do regular exercise to
to keep fit
(v) duy tr tnh trng sc khe tt: A healthy diet and plenty of exercise are essential
for people____
to exert oneself
(v) pht huy bn thn: Example: I believe that sports professionals deserve high
salaries, because constant hard training is necessary so that they can _______ to the
limit when they compete.
to work out at the gym
(v) rn luyn ti phng gym: As part of a healthy lifestyle, people of all ages should
______ on a regular basis.
to be out of condition
(v) tr nn khng fit: One of the causes of obesity is that many people are _____ and
fail to exercise regularly.
to be in the peak of condition
(v) t phong nh cao: Sports professionals should receive high salaries, because
they must always be _______ in order to perform at the highest levels.
to take gentle exercise
(v) tp th dc nh nhng: Even the elderly can keep fit by _______, like jogging or
even a walk in the park.
alternative forms of exercise
(n) cc hnh thc tp th dc thay th: _____, such as yoga and tai chi, are popular in
my country among people of all ages.
to outlaw dangerous sports
(v) cm cc mn th thao nguy him: I believe that the government should ______
because participants may suffer serious injuries.
on safety grounds
v l do an ton: Boxing is a very dangerous sport and must be outlawed _______.
a low probability of injury
(n) xc sut chn thng thp: If anyone plans to take up mountaineering or
skydiving, they should be aware that there is not ________.
life-threatening injuries
(n) chn thng nguy hi n tnh mng: Paragliding and cliff-jumping are two
examples of extreme sports in which _______ are sustained all too often by those who
take part.
an extreme sport
(n) mn th thao nguy him: Personally, I cannot understand why some people take
up ________, and they should consider all the risks first.
essential sports gear
(n) thit b th thao thit yu: In order to reduce the risks associated with dangerous
sports, participants should undergo rigorous training and use all the ________
to take sensible precautions
(v) c bin php phng nga hp l: Anyone engaging in an extreme sport must
_______ and seek expert advice.
to foster a competitive spirit
(v) thc y tinh thn cnh tranh: The problem with encouraging sport at school is
that it _______ among students, instead of teaching children simply to do the best that
they can in all aspects of life.
the Olympic ideal
(n) l tng c gng ht sc trong cuc thi, khng v mc ch thnh tch:
Unfortunately, professional sport is just another branch of the entertainment industry,
and ______ has been lost.
a win-at-all-costs attitude
(n) thi thng bng mi gi: Youth sport is being ruined by _______, which
includes cheating and breaking the rules in order to achieve victory.
performance-enhancing drugs
(n) thuc nng cao hiu sut: Athletes who take _______ are not only cheating, but
they also set a bad example for young people.
to use illegal substances
(v) s dng cc cht bt hp php: In professional sport, it has become increasingly
common to ________ in order to win at all costs.
to place too much value on sport
(v) t qu nhiu gi tr vo th thao: I would argue that schools ______ in the
curriculum, and participation in sport should be an out-of-school activity.
a sports fan
(n) ngi hm m th thao: While I think that it is healthy to be ______, people
should remember that for most people, sport is just entertainment, not a matter of life
and death.
to set a record
(v) lp k lc: Real Madrid have _____ for the number of goals scored in a match.
sports coverage
(n) vic a tin th thao: Many top sports stars are now known to millions of people
around the world because of global ______ by the media.
sports commentators
(n) bnh lun vin bng : Not only sports stars, but even some ______ have become
well-known celebrities.
sports merchandising
(n) bn hng th thao: _______ is a multi-billion dollar business worldwide, in the
form of t-shirts and sports equipment.
the endorsement of sporting goods
(n) s qung co sn phm th thao: In addition to their fabulous salaries, sports
celebrities also make a great deal of money through their _______ such as trainers or
even casual clothes or deodorants!
to fail a drugs test
(n) pht hin s dng cht kch thch: Cycling is a sport which has been discredited in
recent years, as so many competitors have _____

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The space race
Cuc ua khng gian gia Lin X v M: _____ in the 1950s marks an important
point in the development of space exploration.
A space probe
tu thm d khng gian: _____can be sent to far distances for long periods of time to
gather information about different areas in space.
A lunar module
tu thm him mt trng: When the first men walked on the moon they came out of
_______. The first man to walk on the moon said "One small step for a man, one
giant leap for mankind."
To put into orbit
a vo qu o: A new satellite has been _____ around the earth.
Manned space flight
chuyn bay c ngi li: As _______ are so dangerous, many checks must be carried
out first.
To launch a space rocket
khi ng tn la khng gian: Nowadays, men _______ not ships to discover new
The cosmos
v tr: Although the challenge of exploring and understanding ______ is exciting, it
is also very expensive
To pour money into space research
tin vo nghin cu v tr: Some people argue that it is wasteful to ______.
A test flight
chuyn bay th nghim: _____ add to the huge costs of space exploration.
A space shuttle
tu con thoi v tr: The first ______ was front-page news, but now people are no
longer excited by the concept.
A space station
trm khng gian: Even maintaining an international _______ is so expensive that the
costs must be shared by several countries.
Space vogages
chuyn du hnh vo v tr: Public interest in the early ________ was unprecedented.
Space tourism
du lch khng gian: Billionaires are the only people who are likely to experience
______ in the foreseeable future.
To discover the mysteries of the universe
khm ph b n v tr: Space exploration is an essential element in our attempt to
Space missions
nhim v khng gian: Recent ________ have begun to explore Mars and more distant
parts of the universe.
The conquest of space
cuc chinh phc khng gian: _______ is a challenge that continues to inspire the
public imagination.
To be an inspiration to
l ngun cm hng cho: The images of the first men on the moon were an inspiration
to people, and made them more hopeful about the future.
Spacesuits and helmets
b khng gian: Astronauts must find it difficult to carry out maintenance tasks
during space flights wearing uncomfortable spacesuits and helmets.
Vacuum-packed food
n chn khng: During manned space flights, astronauts have to live off vacuum-
packed food.
Weightless conditions
trng thi khng trng lng: Astronauts work in weightless conditions, which must
make even routine tasks very difficult.
To endure hardships and discomforts
tri qua iu kin kh khn gian kh: I doubt that space tourism will have mass
appeal in the future. Travellers would have to endure hardships and discomforts such
as weightless conditions, vacuum-packed food and wearing spacesuits and helmets.
To float through space
tri ni trong kh quyn: Space tourism would be really boring, simply floating
through space and looking out of the window of the spacecraft.
Zero gravity
khng trng lng: Living in conditions of zero gravity in space must be extremely
tiring and uncomfortable.
Satellite technology
cng ngh v tinh: Satellite technology has resulted in huge advances in
communications and information-gathering.
A spin-off
sn phm ph: Space programs have produced spin-offs that have revolutionized
modern life, such as satellite television and communications.
To make space travel commercially viable
khin du lch v tr thnh cng v mt thng mi: Holidays in space are just fantasy.
It is doubtful if it will ever be possible to __________.
The quest for a new homeland
khm ph ni nh c mi: As humans are destroying their own planet, the ______ in
the universe is essential.
Alien life forms
dng sinh vt ngoi hnh tinh: One of the most exciting possibilities of the space
program is finding ______ on other planets.
Extraterrestrial life
s sng ngoi tri t: The quest for extraterrestrial life will prove that humans are not
alone in the universe.
In the realm of science fiction
trong lnh vc khoa hc vin tng: Most of the arguments in favour of space
programs are in ______.
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the immune system
H min dch: A diet lacking in vitamins find minerals will almost certainly weaken a
person's ________.
a chemical preservative
ha cht bo qun: The juice contains no ________, so drink it within the next two or
three days.
artificial colouring and flavouring
cht to mu v v nhn to: Consumers today expect food to look attractive and to
have a distinctive taste, so ________ is often used in the food production process.
food labelling
nhn thc n: ______ should be clear in order for consumers to make informed
choices about the food that they buy.
food processing
ch bin thc phm: The growth of the _____ industry has meant that most of the
food that we eat is neither fresh nor locally produced.
shelf life
thi hn s dng: Supermarket throw away a lot of food, simply because its _____
has expired and it is no longer fit for sale
a food retailer
nh bn l thc phm: With the expansion of supermarkets, local ____ have
disappeared from many neighbourhoods.
organic food
thc phm hu c: The production of ____ causes less damage to the environment
and many people also claim that it is more nutritious.
genetically modified food
thc phm bin i gen: There is growing public concern over the environmental
consequences of producing _____.
free-range products
sn phm chn th t nhin: Customers who buy ______, such as eggs or chickens,
often do so because they oppose factory farming.
food poisoning
ng c thc phm: In order to prevent cases of ______, local authorities must
regularly inspect places in which food is prepared or sold to the public.
fast food chains
chui thc n nhanh: Healthy eating means avoiding eating out at _____ like
McDonald's or Pizza Hut
junk food
n vt: The consumption of too much ____ is a major factor in the increase of
childhood obesity.
A lack of calories to meet his energy needs
thiu calo cung cp nng lng cn thit cho c th: If a vegetarian's daily
meals are not properly balanced, he or she might suffer from _____.
home-made food
n t lm: In developed countries, the young generation must rediscover the art of
preparing _____, as part of a healthy lifestyle.
to have a snack
n vt: Unless people are doing vigorous exercise, it is a bad habit to _____ between
to eat a balanced diet
ch n cn i: The health benefits of ______ are obvious.
a vegetarian diet
ch n chay: If everyone in the world followed _____ there would be no hunger or
a vegan diet
ch n chay hon ton: Many people active in animal rights movements worldwide
follow _____, because they believe that we should not exploit animals.
to go on a diet
n king: Many people in the West eat too much and - from time to time - have ____
to follow a recipe
theo cng thc: Whether you _____ or moke something up as you go along I think
cooking is a very creative pastime.
Chinese cuisine
m thc trung hoa: ____ is an important part of the traditional culture of the country.
a diet rich in
ch n giu ...: ______ fibre, such as dried fruits, helps to keep people healthy and
a diet low in
ch n ngho: To prevent obesity, people should avoid overeating and eat ______
fats and sugar.
a low-calorie diet
ch n t calo: Those who are overweight should follow a ____
to count calories
tnh s calo: Slimmers who are trying to lose weight sometimes take this very
seriously and ____ in everything they eat and drink each day.
to provide somebody with a healthier diet
cung cp ch n lnh mnh hn cho ai : Eating only fresh fruit and vegetables
to put on weight
tng cn: Those who wish to avoid ______ should avoid fatty and sugary foods.
a slimming club
cu lc b gim cn: _____ is a good option for people who lack motivation to lose
weight on their own.
low in fat and high in fiber
t cht bo v giu cht x: A healthy vegetarian diet is typically ______.


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to cover a lot of ground
S dng rt nhiu ti liu: The history lecture ______ today.
to tailor teaching styles
bin i phng php dy hc: When faced with classes of students with different
levels of ability, teachers should _______ to deal with this challenge.
a high-flyer
ngi ham hc: The problem with our teacher is that she explains things too quickly
for most of the students and she pays most attention only to the academic ____ in the
transmission of knowledge
truyn t kin thc: I believe that the ______ is more effective in face-to-face
interaction with teachers rather than online learning.
interactive learning
hnh thc hc tng tc: With or without the aid of technology, _____ helps students
strengthen problem solving and critical thinking skills.
to bombard someone with something
khng b thng tin: Every day it seems as if we are ________ e-mail messages
warning of computer viruses
to have a good grasp of something
thu hiu, nm bt ci g: Children who begin to learn a foreign language in primary
school are usually able to ________ the new language quickly.
to make a grade
t tiu chun/kt qu: Nobody can succeed in their studies if they rely on luck rather
than hard work ______.
continuous assessment
nh gi lin tc: Many students prefer _______ because they consider that exams are
unfair and too stressful.
to be out of one's depth
vt qua kh nng nhn thc: Streaming in schools enables pupils to study at the level
which is _ I appropriate for them, and therefore students rarely find themselves out
a formal examination
k thi chnh thc: Entrance to university usually involves achieving required grades in
_______, such as IELTS.
to work your way through university
lm vic khi ang l sinh vin trang tri: He had ______ because his family was so
poor that they could not afford his tuition fees.
to take a year out
ngh 1 nm tri nghim: ______ before starting your degree course can give you a
chance to further develop your skills, as well as giving you the opportunity perhaps to
travel and work in a different country.
to sift information
loi b thng tin: I had to ___ hundreds of pages____ to discover the data that I
needed to support my theory.
to study under supervision
hc di s hng dn ca ai : At college, I discovered I did not have _______ all
the time, and I was free to do independent research.
Top-tier institutions
nhng t chc gio dc hng u: The government has pumped huge amounts of
money into a select group of _______ in recent years
to deliver a lecture
ging bi: It is just as easy to ______ online as it is to give a lecture in front of a class
of students in a lecture theatre
streaming in schools
phn lp trng hc: One disadvantage of _______ is that children in the lower
groups have less motivation to study because they think of themselves as failures.
extra-curricular activities
hot ng ngoi kha: Most UK universities offer a wide range of _______ such as
sport, music and drama to help students enjoy university life to the full.
to fall behind with your studies
hc ui: Irregular attendance at classes is one of reasons why some students ______.
to drop out of college
b hc: A number of students _______ when faced with the pressure of formal exams.
to pay off a student loan
tr n sinh vin: Owing to the difficulties of _________, some young people prefer to
look for a job after leaving school.
to impose discipline
p t k lut: If teachers fail to ______ in class, then students will not learn anything.
to disrupt lessons
cn tr tit hc: If strict discipline is not imposed on pupils who ______ then the
education of all the children in the school will suffer.
distance learning
hc t xa: Although she lives in a remote rural area, she is able to study for a degree
by ______.
to give feedback
a ra phn hi: It is essential for teachers to _________ to students so that students
understand their mistakes and can improve
face-to-face learning
hc trc tip: ________ motivates students and encourage interaction in the
to sit an exam
tham gia mt k thi: Some students claim that they feel more motivated to study when
they have to _____ at the end of their course
tertiary education
hc i hc: Some school leavers prefer to start work rather than ______.
a virtual classroom
lp hc o: Many people argue that the ______ will replace traditional teaching
methods, eliminating the need for teachers

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To acquire experience
c c kinh nghim: Some school leavers prefer to _________ working in a chosen
profession rather than entering university.
Job satisfaction
s hi lng trong cng vic: A high salary is not necessarily the most important factor
in _______.
Put knowledge gained into practice
p dng kin thc hc vo thc t: Vocational training courses enable students to
________ during their studies _______.
Working environment
mi trng lm vic: If work is to be enjoyable,then a friendly _________ is
To have a steady job
c cng vic n nh: Although some people prefer to change jobs, others prefer to
have ________ and a set daily routine at work.
A desk job
cng vic vn phng: Many young people enjoy the excitement of a dangerous
profession to the boring routine of a _________.
Job prospects
trin vng cng vic: People with qualifications and experience usually have the best
Promotion opportunities
c hi thng tin: Perhaps the most important factor when choosing a job are the
To move up the career ladder
bc cao hn trong nc thang s nghip: Ambitious employees look for a job in
which there is a chance to _________.
Labour productivity
nng sut lao ng
Unemployment benefits
tr cp tht nghip
Minimum wage
lng ti thiu
To job-share
chia s cng vic
Flexible working hours
thi gian lm vic linh hot
Health and safety in the workplace
an ton v sc khe ti ni lm vic
Working mothers
nhng b m lm vic
To take early retirement
ngh hu non
A retirement package
ch hu tr
Holiday entitlement
s ngy ngh php
Sick leave
ngh m
Annual leave
k ngh hng nm
To pursue a successful career
theo ui s nghip thnh t
To take career break
ngh vic mt thi gian (s quay li lm vic)
To have no career ambitions
khng c tham vng trong s nghip
Supportive work colleagues
ng nghip nhit tnh h tr
To be a good team player
lm vic nhm tt
Labour intensive
cn nhiu lao ng
To dismiss somebody from something
sa thi ai

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to be prone to obesity
chc chn s bo ph
eating disorders
ri lon n ung
safe hygiene standards
tiu chun v sinh an ton
to keep their teeth healthy
gi gn rng ming khe mnh
to launch a full-scale investigation into something
bt u mt cuc iu tra thc s hoc dng tt c phng php thit b v tin bc c
the outbreak of an epidemic
s bng pht ca dch bnh
sedentary lifestyle
phong cch sng thiu vn ng
healthy eating habit
thi quen n ung lnh mnh
to take regular exercise
tp th dc thng xuyn
a fitness regime
ch tp luyn
a health awareness campaigns
chin dch tuyn truyn sc khe
preventive medicine
thuc phng bnh
alternative healthcare
liu php thay th
public health services
dch v y t cng cng
to take out private health insurance
ng k bo him y t t nhn
primary health care
chm sc sc khe c bn
medical practitioner
ngi hnh ngh y
to build up one's immune system
tng sc khng cho c th
mental health problems
cc vn v tinh thn
to offer emotional support
a ra h tr tinh thn
to be addicted to something
nghin ci g
to search for a cure
tm phng php cha tr
life threatening conditions
e da tnh mng
to carry health risks
mang him ha ti sc khe
Operating theatre
phng m
The pharmaceutical industry
ngnh cng nghip dc phm
A degenerative illness
bnh suy bin
To be detrimental to health
c hi cho sc khe
To have a regular check
khm bnh thng xuyn

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To be thronged with tourists
cht nch khch du lch
To swarm with tourists
y khch du lch
Family outings
d ngoi gia nh
khch du lch ba l
To break the bank
dng ht sch tin
Travel sickness
say xe
To hurt tourism
gy tn thng ti ngnh du lch
The height of tourist season
cao im ma du lch
To experience phenomenal growth
tri qua hin tng tng trng
To book
t ch
A boost of tourism
n by cho du lch
To plague something
gy tn thng ci g
du lch sinh thi
To be rewarded by a vista
chim ngng mt hin tng hng v
To have a thirst for something
khao kht c lm g
To have a whale of a time
c mt khong thi gian vui v
A package holiday
k ngh trn gi
To sunbathe
tm nng
To put to the test
th thch
To get away from it all
thot khi cuc sng hin ti
The holiday of a lifetime
chuyn i du lch khng th qun
A wildlife safari
chuyn thm him hoang d
A charter flight
chuyn bay thu bao (r hn cc chuyn bay thng thng)
A holiday resort
khu du lch ngh dng
Out of season
khng phi ma v
t phc v
To go sightseeing
i tham quan
A breathtaking view
cnh p n ngt th
A city break
k ngh ngn ngy ti mt thnh ph du lch ni ting
A guided tour
tour du lch c hng dn


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social services
c quan an sinh x hi
domestic violence
bo lc gia nh
social conscience
thc x hi
social networking sites
trang mng x hi
social and community centres
trung tm vn ha cng ng
a multicultural society
x hi a vn ha
minority groups
dn tc thiu s
segregate somebody from somebody
c lp mt ai
to discriminate on the grounds of something
phn bit i x
be a form of racial
mt dng k th
colour bar
ro cn mu da
asylum seeker
ngi xin t nn
to grant refugee status
c trao quyn t nn
to deport somebody
trc xut ai
to be prejudiced against somebody
c nh kin chng li ai
to integrate into society
ha nhp vo x hi
to be socially acceptable
c x hi chp nhn
to develop social skills
pht trin cc k nng x hi
to be poverty-stricken
c hon cnh kinh t c bit kh khn
economic migrants
di dn kinh t
the consumer society
x hi tiu th
an egalitarian society
x hi bnh ng
social mobility
s dch chuyn x hi
the migration of labour
s dch chuyn lao ng
sweated labour
lao ng chn tay
socio-economic changes
cc thay i v kinh t - x hi
the grass roots
tng lp thp
industrial action
nh cng
a sit-in
cuc biu tnh ngi
an outcry
s phn i kch lit, la
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a work of art
mt tc phm hi ha
the aesthetic qualities of something
cht lng thm m ca ci g
the portrayal of something
miu t chn dung/ khc ha chn dung ai
a private viewing
i xem trc trin lm
to be a connoisseur of
ngi am hiu ci g
a priceless portrait
bc chn dung v gi
to commission a work of art
t lm/ mua mt tc phm ngh thut
an art movement
trng phi ngh thut
performance art
ngh thut biu din
funding for the arts
qu ngh thut
a mixed funding model for the arts
m hnh qu ngh thut hn hp
the imposition of censorship
kim duyt bt buc
to stage a play
trnh din 1 v kch
a talented playwright
nh bin kch ti nng
to appeal to audiences
hp dn khn gi
a literature festival
l hi vn hc
literary and artistic heritage
di sn vn ha ngh thut
to express oneself
th hin bn thn
works of literary fiction
tc phm vn hc gi tng
a literary genius
thin ti vn hc
street musicians
ngh s ng ph
genres of music
th loi m nhc
to take up a musical instrument
hc chi mt nhc c
live music
nhc sng
a concert venue
nh ht
a resident orchestra
mt dn giao hng
an opera house
nh ht
folk songs
nhc c truyn/ dn tc
popular music
nhc hin i
to sing in a choir
ht ng ca


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to hide ones light under a bushel
che giu ti nng ca ai
to throw a tantrum
tc gin v c
to stamp ones mark on something
li du n c nhn
a clash of personalities
s bt ng v tnh cch
to have a superiority complex
c suy ngh, cm xc rng mnh vt tri hn ngi khc
to hear something through the grapevine
nghe n
to act ones age
c x ng mc, ng la tui
codes of conduct
quy tc xng x
to assimilate knowledge
tip nhn kin thc
to marshal facts
a ra lp lun
to be a team player
ngi gii lm vic nhm
the downfall of communication
suy gim giao tip
a breakdown in communication
ngng tr giao tip (tht bi/ gin on)
to live in harmony with one another
sng ha hp vi ngi khc
to keep abreast of something
cp nht tin tc
to accelerate the flow of information
tng tc thng tin
behind the times
li thi
set in his or her ways
bo th
a social butterfly
ngi giao thip rng
a stickler for something
ngi cu n, kht khe v ci g
to be user-friendly
thn thin vi ngi dng
social networking sites
mng x hi
to break off a relationship
ct t m phn
to reach a stalemate
nh tr, b tc
to have social skills
k nng x hi tt
to have a laid-back attitude
th gin, th lng, thong th
to be a workaholic
nghin cng vic
to see the big picture
nhn nhn mt cch ton din
to be generous to a fault
nhit tnh gip
to exchange pleasantries
ni chuyn x giao


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a dysfunctional family
gia nh bt ha
to end in divorce
ly hn
a divorce settlement
s dn xp ly hn
patterns of behavior
c trng hnh vi
a method of contraception
phng php trnh thai
formative years
giai on hnh thanh
to shape a child's personality
hnh thnh tnh cch
child custody
quyn nui con
birth control
sinh c k hoch
to terminate a pregnancy
ph thai
a family planning clinic
phng khm k hoch ha gia nh
to pay child support
tr tin tr cp nui con
a single parent household
gia nh n thn
working mothers
cc b m i lm
trng tr
to enter adult life
bc vo th gii ngi ln
generation gap
khong cch th h
shapers of a nation's tomorrow
Nhng ngi lm ch tng lai t nc
an extended family
gia nh c m rng
a nuclear family
gia nh c bn
negative influences on individual families
nh hng tiu cc ti tng gia nh
parental involvement
s can thip/ tham gia ca cha m
a dual-income family
gia nh c 2 thu nhp
to start a family later in life
c con mun
to support a family
nui sng gia nh
to be over protective
bo v qu mc
To bring up their offspring
nui dy con ci
Embarking on parenthood
bt u lm cha m
a family gathering
tp trung gia nh

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beyond comprehension
qu tm hiu bit/ nhn thc, khng th hiu/ tin c
critical thinking
t duy phn bin
To broaden one's literary horizons
m mang hiu bit vn hc
a turn of phrase
mt cch din t khc
To read something into something
ngh qu v ci g
A period of readjustment
thi gian thch nghi
To read on
c tip
To break with precedent
ph v tin l
To read over something
c k, c t u n cui
To come to somebody's knowledge
c ai bit ti
Safe in the knowledge that
chc chn v ci g
To dig deep
o su tm hiu v ci g
To do something to the letter
lm ng theo hng dn
To stick in your mind
in m trong tm tr
To sharpen something
lm ci g thm su sc, nhy bn
To write off something
xa b/ loi b ci g
To be engrossed in
m mi vo ci g
To understand somebody to be something
tin ci g / cho l
Conduct somebody
dn dt, hng dn ai
Secure in the knowledge
t tin, chc chn
Bedtime stories
truyn k trc khi i ng
To be a story of
tr thnh cu chuyn
To run a story
vit, k, tho mt cu chuyn
A success story
cu chuyn v s thnh cng
To tell its own tale
t thut, t ni ln tt c
To read between the lines
hiu r nhng g c c/ nghe thy/ bit n
To read up on
tm kim thng tin trong sch
To come highly recommend
c nh gi cao
Literary appreciation
cm th vn hc
A literary genius
thin ti vn hc

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To be computer-literate
s dng tt my tnh
To computerize something
my tnh ha/ a my tnh
Advances in technology
tin b cng ngh
To download podcasts
ti cc ng dng m thanh
Video conferencing
hi thoi thy hnh
The college intranet
mng ni b trong trng cao ng
Silver surfer
ngi gi dng mng
A technological breakthrough
mt t ph v cng ngh
Discourage real interaction
cn tr s tng tc trc tip
Leading-edge technology
cng ngh hng u/ tin tin nht
To become obsolete
tr nn li thi
The digital revolution
cch mng s
Labour-saving appliances
thit b tit kim sc lao ng
To apply something to something
ng dng ci g vo u
To gain access to the internet
kt ni mng
Wireless technology
cng ngh khng dy
E - commerce
thng mi in t
Online shopping
mua sm trc tuyn
To go viral
lan truyn
Computer hackers
nhng k tn cng my tnh
Online scams
cc m mu trn mng internet/ th on trc
To microwave something
un nu bng l vi song
A smart card
th thng minh
Supermarket checkouts
quy thu ngn ti siu th
Driverless vehicles
phng tin khng ngi li
gi tin nhn vn bn
Robotics technology
cng ngh r bt
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To have access to public transport
tip cn vi giao thng cng cng
To upgrade and expand public transport provision
nng cp v m rng h thng giao thng cng cng
To invest in transport infrastructure
u t vo giao thng h tng
An integrated transport system
h thng giao thng c kt ni
A light rail transit system
h thng ng st trng ti nh
Free bus/train passes
v i xe bus hoc tu min ph
A season ticket
v thi v
Dedicated bus lanes/ cycle lanes
ln u tin
To speed up journey times
tit kim thi gian di chuyn
Rush hour traffic jams
tc ng gi cao im
Park and ride
bi xe ngoi vi
To subsidize the cost of fares
tr gi v
To ease traffic flow
gim lu lng giao thng
Commuting times
thi gian i li
Off-peak travel
di chuyn ngoi gi cao im
To grind to a halt
chm chm dng li
Congestion charge
Ph n tc
A traffic warden
ngi gim st giao thng
Road safety measures
cc bin php an ton giao thng ng b
To conduct regular vehicle inspections
kim duyt phng tin thng xuyn
To install speed cameras
ci t camera tc
Traffic calming
iu ha giao thng
Driving while intoxicated
li xe khi say ru
To raise petrol prices
tng gi xng
To be punctual
ng gi
Freight services
dch v ch hng
A tachograph
ng h tc
Roll-on roll-off ferries
ph ro ro
Economy airlines
hng khng gi r
Online booking
t trc trc tuyn

in its infancy
thi k thai nn
To be superseded by
b th ch bi
To become over-reliant on