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c1

Student:___________________________________________________________________________

1.Whyhasdevelopmentduringadulthoodonlyrecentlybeenstudied?
A.Previously,fundingforstudieswasusedmainlytoresearchchilddevelopment.
B.Abeliefexistedformanyyearsthatfewchangesoccurinadulthood.
C.Researchersthoughtthatstudyingadultdevelopmentwasimpractical.
D.Anideaexistedthatstudyingadultdevelopmentwasverydifficult.

2.Beforebirth,_________mainlydirectthebrain'sdevelopment.
A.genes
B.zygotes
C.theprefrontalcortex
D.myelination

3.Thelayeroffatcellsthatinsulatesnervecellsandenablesnerveimpulsestotravelquicklyiscalledthe
_________.
A.amygdala
B.synapse
C.parietallobe
D.myelinsheath

4.Thepartofthebrainthatlosesitsabilitytoholdinformationisthe________.
A.temporallobe
B.cerebellum
C.prefrontalcortex
D.amygdala

5.Researcherscalltherapidgrowthandpruningofsynapsesthatoccursduringadolescence_______.
A.exuberance
B.myelination
C.cerebelliance
D.plasticity

6.Thepatternofmovementorchangethatbeginsatconceptionandcontinuesthroughthehumanlifespanis
called_______.
A.Lifespandevelopment
B.plasticity
C.regulation
D.multidimensionality

7.Lifespandevelopmentalpsychologistsunderstandthatdevelopmentis_______becauseitconsistsof
biological,cognitive,andsocioemotionalprocesses.
A.multidimensional
B.multidisciplinary
C.contextual
D.lifelong

8.AsMonicagetsolder,shenoticesthatsheisbetteratsolvingcomplexproblemsbutittakesheralittlelonger
todosomethings.Thisexampledemonstrateshowlifespandevelopmentis________.
A.multisensory
B.multidisciplinary
C.lifelong
D.multidirectional

9.Neglectedchildrenfromimpoverishedhomescanthriveiftheyareplacedinnurturing,stimulating
environments.Thisexampleshowshowdevelopmentis_______.
A.multidisciplinary
B.plastic
C.rubberlike
D.myelinated

10.Theinfluencesthataresimilarforpeopleofaparticularagegroupare____.
A.normativeagegradedinfluences
B.contextualagegradedinfluences
C.normativehistorygradedinfluences
D.nonnormativeinfluences

11.Theintegrationofcomputersandcellphonesintoeverydaylifeisanexampleof_______.
A.normativeagegradedinfluences
B.nonnormativeinfluences
C.contextualagegradedinfluences
D.normativehistorygradedinfluences

12.Becauseitdeterminesaccesstowater,hygiene,healthcare,andsocialservices,_______playsacrucialrole
inlifeexpectancy.
A.plasticity
B.context
C.history
D.multidimensionality

13.Onaverage,Canadianmencanexpecttolivetobeabout80andwomentoabout82.Thisiscalled__.
A.lifeexpectancy
B.nonnormativeexpectancy
C.historicalexpectancy
D.contextualexpectancy

14.Lifeexpectancyinvariouspartsoftheworldrangesfromaslowas________toashighas_________.
A.29.5;80
B.76.1;99
C.68.5;102
D.87.5;92

15.ThemedianageoftheCanadianpopulationisabout40,whichmeans_________.
A.mostCanadiansaregettingyounger
B.halfofthepopulationisolderandtheotherhalfisyounger
C.theaverageageistwotimesgreaterthanthemedianage
D.thefertilityrateishigherforhalfofthepopulation

16.Animportantaspectofcontextis_________.
A.socioeconomicstatus(SES)
B.myelination
C.neuroplasticity
D.generationalinequity

17.Oliviahasjustlearnedtomultiplyby1,2,and3.Thisshows__________development.
A.secondary
B.cognitive
C.physiological
D.socioemotional

18.WhichofthefollowingstatementsBESTdescribestherelationshipbetweenbiological,cognitive,and
socialprocesses?
A.Thethreehavenoeffectononeanother.
B.Thethreeareinterdependentprocesses.
C.Onlybiologicalandcognitiveprocesseshaveaneffectoneachother.
D.Onlycognitiveandsocialprocesseshaveaneffectoneachother.

19.Inlifespandevelopment,atimeframeinaperson'slifethatischaracterizedbycertainfeaturesisreferred
toasa
A.biologicalprocess.
B.cognitivestage.
C.developmentalperiod.
D.phaseofmaturation.

20.Whichofthefollowinglifespanphaseslaststhelongest?
A.adolescence
B.earlyadulthood
C.middleadulthood
D.lateadulthood

21.Allanspendsagreatdealoftimeworkingandtryingtoestablishhiscareer.Healsohasbeenthinkingabout
hisrelationshipwithhispartnerandwhetherornotitcouldleadtoestablishingafamily.AllanisMOSTlikely
in
A.lateadolescence.
B.earlyadulthood.
C.middleadulthood.
D.lateadulthood.

22.Nowthatherkidsareolder,Mariawentbacktouniversitytoexpandhereducationandachievegreater
fulfillmentandsuccessinhercareer.MariaisMOSTlikelyin
A.lateadolescence.
B.earlyadulthood.
C.middleadulthood.
D.lateadulthood.

23.Theperiodofdevelopmentduringwhichschoolreadinessskillsaredeveloped,andmostfreetimeisspent
playingwithfriends,iscalled
A.infancy.
B.earlychildhood.
C.toddlerhood.
D.middlechildhood.

24.Peterissatisfiedwithhiscareerandhomelife.Hehasfinallyreceivedapromotionthatallowshimtospend
muchmoretimewithhisfamily.Heislookingforwardtohelpinghischildrentobecomemature,competent
individuals.Peter'ssituationismostrepresentativeofwhichperiodoflife?
A.earlyadulthood
B.middleadulthood
C.lateadulthood
D.retirement

25.Lifeexpectancyisbestpredictedby
A.chronologicalage.
B.socialage.
C.biologicalage.
D.psychologicalage.

26.Susanhasjustcompletedastandardizedtest.Aneducationalpsychologistcomparesherresultstoothersof
thesamechronologicalagetoarriveather
A.biologicalage.
B.socialage.
C.mentalage.
D.psychologicalage.

27.Neugartenarguesthatoursocietyisbecomingageirrelevantwithrespecttodevelopment.Whichofthe
followingBESTillustratesthisargument?
A.Eventheoldestindividualsinoursocietyareremaininghealthyandactive.
B.Decisionsmadeinearlierdevelopmentalperiodsdonotaffectlaterdevelopmentalperiods.
C.Theissuespeoplemustdealwithrecuratvaryingtimesthroughoutthelifespan.
D.Oursocietyisnowmuchlessprejudicedagainstolderpeople.

28.Neugartenbelievesthatwearebecominganageirrelevantsocietybecause
A.researchersaretakingextremeviewsontheimportanceofstagesofdevelopment.
B.chronologicalageisapoorindexofdevelopment.
C.mostadulthoodthemesarenotuniquetoanyonestageofadulthood.
D.ageisnowdefinedbywhatwedo,nothowoldweare.

29.Whichofthefollowingreferstothetimeelapsedsinceaperson'sbirth?
A.biologicalage
B.chronologicalage
C.socialage
D.psychologicalage

30.Leois65yearsoldandhasjustretired.Hehaslearnedtocopewithhischangeoflifestyleandishighly
motivatedtolearnnewthings.DevelopmentalistswoulddescribeLeoasbeing
A.sociallyyoung.
B.biologicallyyoung.
C.physicallyyoung.
D.psychologicallyyoung.

31.Comparedtotheabilitiesofothersofthesamechronologicalage,aperson'sabilitytosolveproblemsona
standardizedinstrumentiscalled________.
A.Scholasticage
B.Mentalage
C.Socialage
D.Psychologicalage

32.SevenyearoldSusancompletedastandardizedtestandwhenherperformancewascomparedtoherpeers,
shewasassignedanageoften.Theageoftenreferstoher_________.
A.psychologicalage.
B.chronologicalage.
C.mentalage.
D.socialage.

33.Harry'sorgansarequitedamagedfromyearsofalcoholanddrugabuse.His_____islikelytobegreater
thanhischronologicalage.
A.Chronologicalage
B.Biologicalage
C.Psychologicalage
D.Developmentalage

34.Thesocialrolesandexpectationsrelatedtoaperson'sagerefertoaperson's__________.
A.biologicalage.
B.socialage.
C.psychologicalage.
D.historicalage.

35.Haroldisasinglefatherof3youngchildren.TheexpectationsandsocialrolesthataccompanyHarold'sage
areknownas_________.
A.socialage.
B.chorionicage.
C.psychologicalage.
D.historicalage.

36.WhichofthefollowingisNOTamajorconcernoflifespandevelopmentalists?
A.whetherdevelopmentalchangeiscontinuousordiscontinuous
B.whetherdevelopmentischaracterizedbystabilityorchangeovertime
C.whetherdevelopmentismostlyinfluencedbynatureornurture
D.whetherdevelopmentinvolvesmanyshortstagesorseverallongerstages

37.Biologyisto__________asenvironmentisto_________.
A.nature;nurture
B.nurture;nature
C.maturation;nature
D.experience;nurture

38.Alexbelievesthatpeopleareprimarilyinfluencedbytheenvironmentandlearnedexperiences,sohe
believes__________playsamostpowerfulroleinhumandevelopment.
A.nurture
B.maturation
C.change
D.nature

39.Apsychologistwhoemphasizestheimportanceofnurtureismostlikelytobeconcernedwithan
individual's
A.geneticmakeup.
B.nutrition.
C.biologicalinheritance.
D.intelligencecapacity.

40.Natureadvocatesarguethat__________ismostimportantinlifespandevelopment.
A.learning
B.biology
C.earlychildhoodexperiences
D.sociologicalfactors

41."It'snouseputtingherinaspecialeducationalprogram,"Misha'sdadexplainspatiently."Shejustcan't
understandthingsverywell.Hergrandpawasthesameway.Wemightaswellgetusedtoitnow."Misha'sdad
seemsto
A.holda"nature"viewofdevelopment.
B.holda"nurture"viewofdevelopment.
C.viewdevelopmentasacontinuousprocess.
D.viewdevelopmentasadiscontinuousprocess.

42.Atheoristbelievesthattheabilitytoengageinthoughtfulreflectivenessisbasedonagradualaccumulation
ofexperiencesacrossmanyyearsratherthanasingleabruptevent.Thistheoristholdsapredominantly
__________viewofdevelopment.
A.changebased
B.stabilitybased
C.continuitybased
D.discontinuitybased

43.Atheoristbelievesthatyoungstersgothroughdistinctstagesofthoughtastheyprogressfromimpulsivityto
thoughtfulreflectiveness.Thistheoristholdsapredominantly__________viewofdevelopment.
A.naturebased
B.nurturebased
C.continuitybased
D.discontinuitybased

44.ProponentsofthestabilitysideofthestabilitychangedebatewouldMOSTendorse
A.thosewhobelievethatthebestpredictoroffutureperformanceispastperformance.
B.developmentalistswhoseeplasticityasanimportantpartofthelifespanissue.
C.thosewhoarguethatlaterexperienceisjustasimportantasearlierexperience.
D.theviewsoflifespandevelopmentexpertPaulBaltes.

45.Suddendistinctchangesingrowth,asexperiencedbyabutterfly,areexamplesofwhatdevelopmental
theme?
A.nature
B.nurture
C.continuity
D.discontinuity

46.Smooth,gradualchangesingrowthareanexampleofwhatdevelopmentaltheme?
A.nature
B.nurture
C.continuity
D.discontinuity

47.WhichstatementBESTresolvesthenaturenurturecontroversy?
A.Natureisclearlymoreimportantindevelopment.
B.Thecombinationofnatureandnurtureisevidentinbraindevelopment.
C.Nurtureisclearlymoreimportantindevelopment.
D.Neitherplaysaparticularlystrongroleindevelopment.

48.Josewasabusedasayoungboy,butdidnotgrowuptobecomeanabuserhimself.Instead,heleadsa
fulfillingfamilylife.Thisisanexampleofwhichcharacteristicofdevelopment?
A.change
B.stability
C.maturation
D.continuity

49.Thecontroversyofstabilityversuschangeiscloselylinkedtothecharacteristicof
A.plasticity.
B.contextualism.
C.multidimensionalism.
D.multidirectionalism.

50.Marjoriewasdiagnosedwithchildhooddepressionandwentontosufferfromdepressionfortherestofher
adultlife.Thisisanexampleofwhichcharacteristicofdevelopment?
A.change
B.stability
C.maturation
D.discontinuity

51.Jessewasphysicallyabusedasaninfant.Hewastakenawayfromhisabuserandraisedinahomewith
lovingadults.Accordingtodevelopmentalistswhoemphasizechange,Jessewill
A.continuetobepsychologicallyscarredbyhisearlierabuse.
B.blockouthisabuseduringchildhood,butreliveitduringadulthood.
C.healfromtheearlierabuseinhissupportiveenvironment.
D.sufferduringadolescencebecauseofhisearlierabuse.

52.Onecontemporaryconcernoflifespandevelopmentalresearchis___________.
A.healthandwellbeing
B.technology
C.astrology
D.politicalconflicts

53.Thebehaviourpatterns,beliefs,andallotherproductsofaparticulargroupofpeoplethatarepassedon
fromgenerationtogenerationis_____________.
A.education
B.healthandwellbeing
C.culture
D.historicalcontext

54.Ashishonoursthesisinpsychology,AndrewplanstocomparehowLebaneseCanadianandFrench
Canadianadolescentgirlsmakecareerandeducationchoices.Hisresearchwouldbeconsidereda
___________.
A.crossculturalstudy
B.genderbasedstudy
C.normativehistoricalresearch
D.contextualhistoricalresearch

55.ThetermPhilippinoCanadianwouldreferto_________.
A.crossculturalaffinity
B.ethnicity
C.generationalinequity
D.geographicaldiscontinuity

56.Evidenceofhowgenderinfluencesmentalhealthcomesfromstudiesthatshow__________.
A.womenseemtobemorepronetodepressionthanmen
B.menandwomensharehouseholdresponsibilitiesequally
C.womenandmenareequallypronetoheartdisease
D.women'ssalariesarelowerthanmen's

57.Providingsafeinjectionsitesforintravenousdruguserswouldbeanexampleof____________.
A.culture
B.ethnicity
C.socialpolicy
D.generationalinequality

58.Whenanagingpopulationunfairlyreceivemoreresources,leavingfewerresourcesforyoungermembers,
thisiscalled_____________.
A.socialpolicy
B.generationalinequality
C.culturalunfairness
D.ageism

59.Aresearcherusesavideocameratorecordchildrenastheyplayonaschoolplayground.Theresearcher
planstocarefullywatchthevideotapelatertocountthechildren'shelpingbehaviours.Thisresearcheris
conductinga
A.casestudy.
B.naturalisticobservation.
C.standardizedtest.
D.multisourcestudy.

60.Observationalmeasureisalwaysconducted
A.inarealworldsettingratherthanalaboratory.
B.inalaboratoryratherthanarealworldsetting.
C.inawaythatissystematicandplannedinadvance.
D.withtheconsentandpriorknowledgeofallpeoplebeingobserved.

61.Dr.Sanjaycollectsdataonhelpingbehavioursbetweenstrangersatamall.Astrengthofthisnaturalistic
observationalapproachisthatit
A.occursinarealworldsetting.
B.involvesastructuredsetofinterviewquestions.
C.allowsforcontrolovertheobservationalsetting.
D.demonstrateshowpeoplebehaveunderthestressofobservation.

62.Dr.Ryder,whowantstoknowwhypeoplefight.Heproposestoputpeopleinalaboratorysettingandhave
aresearchassistantinstigateaheatedargumentamongtheparticipants.Theprimaryweaknessofthisstudyis
that
A.structuredinterviewquestionscannotbeused.
B.itisnoteffectiveforcrossculturalstudies.
C.theresearcherhaslittlecontrolovercriticalvariableslikegenderandage.
D.researcherscannotethicallysubjectpeopletoextremelystressfulsituations.

63.Whenresearcherscollectdatainnaturalisticsettings,theyarerecording
A.hypotheses.
B.observations.
C.statisticalanalyses.
D.theoreticalpostulates.

64.WhenDr.Chenismonitoringchangingfitnesslevelsofschoolchildrenoveranextendedperiodoftime,
usingthesamegroupofparticipants,heisutilizinga
A.sequentialresearchstrategy.
B.crosssectionalresearchstrategy.
C.naturalisticobservationstrategy.
D.longitudinalresearchstrategy.

65.Whichtypeofmethodisbeingusedwhenatelemarketingcompanyrepresentativecallsindividualsonthe
telephonetoasktheiropinionsaboutgovernmentcutbackstoeducation?
A.lifehistoryrecord
B.casestudy
C.naturalisticobservation
D.survey

66.Johnwantstoconductasurveyonpeople'sexperienceswithdomesticabuse.Whatishismainproblem
likelytobe?
A.Thistypeofresearchisveryexpensivetoconduct.
B.Peoplearelikelytoprovidesociallyacceptableresponses.
C.Thisapproachisnotobjective.
D.Thesurveymustbeconductedinacontrolledsetting.

67.WhichresearchmethodisNOTappropriatewhenstudyingalargenumberofpeople?
A.casestudy
B.questionnaire
C.standardizedtest
D.naturalisticobservation

68.Aresearcherwantstounderstandthedevelopmentofelderlyadults.Shechoosestostudyoneelderly
womaningreatdetailbytakingfrequentmeasuresofherbehaviour,thoughts,andfeelings.Whichofthe
followingmethodsisthisresearcherusing?
A.casestudy
B.questionnaire
C.standardizedtest
D.naturalisticobservation

69.Whichtypeofmeasureallowsaresearchertocompareoneperson'sscorewiththescoresofalargegroupof
similarpeople?
A.casestudy
B.questionnaire
C.standardizedtest
D.naturalisticobservation

70.ApsychologistgivesSandyanorallyadministeredanxietytestwith100questionsthataskhertoratehow
anxiousshewouldbeinavarietyofsituations.Sandy'sscoreishigherthan90percentofotheradultstested.
Thisanxietytestisanexampleofa____________.
A.questionnaire.
B.standardizedtest.
C.physiologicalmeasure.
D.laboratoryobservation.

71.Imaginethatyouhaverecordedthenumberofpositivestatementsparentssaytotheirchildrenwhilereading
throughtheirreportcards,andthatyoualsohavegiventhechildrenaselfesteemscalewherehigherscores
representagreaterdegreeofselfesteem.Ifyourtwomeasuresaresignificantlycorrelated,youcouldcorrectly
concludethat
A.negativeparentalfeedbackCAUSESlowselfesteeminchildren.
B.positiveparentalfeedbackCAUSEShighselfesteeminchildren.
C.positiveparentalfeedbackISRELATEDTOselfesteemlevelsinchildren.
D.negativeparentalfeedbackISRELATEDTOlowselfesteeminchildren.

72.Whichtypeofresearchwouldyouuseifyouwantedtodeterminewhetherornotthereisarelationship
betweenpovertyanddrugaddiction?
A.surveyresearch
B.correlationalresearch
C.experimentalresearch
D.observationalresearch

73.Predictinganeventbasedontheobservationofanothereventisabenefitofthe
A.correlationalmethod.
B.longitudinalapproach.
C.crosssectionalapproach.
D.randomassignmenttechnique.

74.WhichisNOTtrueofcorrelationalresearch?
A.Thestrongerthecorrelationbetweentwoeventsthemoreeffectivetheprediction.
B.Thegoalistoidentifythestrengthofarelationshipbetweentwocharacteristics.
C.Twoeventsthatarecorrelatedarealsoassociatedorrelated.
D.Correlationprovidesindicationofcausation.

75.TheresearchdesignthatcanBESTdeterminebehaviouralcausesisthe
A.correlationalstrategy.
B.experimentalstrategy.
C.observationalstrategy.
D.casestrategy.

76.Inanexperiment,theeventbeingmanipulatedisthe__________variable.
A.dependent
B.correlational
C.independent
D.control

77.Randomassignmentisusedinexperimentsbecause
A.itguaranteesthattheresultswillbestatisticallysignificant.
B.researcherswantpeoplefromdifferentsocialclassestobeinseparategroups.
C.researcherswanttohighlightpreexistingdifferencesbetweengroups.
D.researcherswanttominimizepreexistingdifferencesbetweenexperimentalandcontrolgroups.

78.Apsychologistdesignsanexperimenttodeterminetheeffectofeyecontactonchildren'ssmilingbehaviour.
GroupIisexposedto10eyecontactsduringthesessionwhileGroupIIisexposedtonoeyecontactsduringthe
session.Thepsychologistrecordsthenumberoftimesthechildrenineachgroupsmile.Inthisstudy,the
numberof
A.smilesbythechildrenistheindependentvariable.
B.eyecontacts(10vs.0)isthedependentvariable.
C.eyecontacts(10vs.0)istheindependentvariable.
D.smilesbythechildrenisthecorrelationalvariable.

79.Aresearcherisinterestedintheeffectofexerciseonstaminainelderlypatients.Thepatientsarerandomly
assignedtobeinahighexerciseorlowexercisetrainingprogramforeightweeks.Attheendoftheprogram,
theirstaminaismeasuredbyseeinghowlongtheycanwalkcomfortablyonatreadmill.Inthisstudy,the
dependentvariableisthe
A.numberofminutesonthetreadmill.
B.exerciseprogram(highvs.low).
C.ageofthepatient.
D.eightweekdurationoftheexerciseprogram.

80.ProfessorLeBlancwantstoassignsubjectstoexperimentalgroupsinsuchawaythateachsubjecthasan
equalchanceofbeinginanygroup.Sheisassigningindividuals
A.subjectively.
B.randomly.
C.systematically.
D.independently.

81.Seeingtheeffectoftheindependentvariableonthedependentvariableisastrengthofthe
A.longitudinalstrategy.
B.correlationalstrategy.
C.experimentalstrategy.
D.randomassignmenttechnique.

82.WhichresearchstrategyistheBESTfordeterminingcauseandeffectrelationships?
A.experimental
B.correlational
C.observational
D.standardized

83.Tochartthedevelopmentofintelligenceoverthelifespan,researcherstestedtheintelligenceofindividuals
(ranginginagefromchildhoodtooldage)severaltimesoverafiveyearperiod.Whichapproachtothetime
spanofinquirydidtheytake?
A.crosssectional
B.longitudinal
C.sequential
D.cohort

84.Whichresearchapproachallowsagechangesinonecohorttobecomparedwithagechangesinanother
cohort?
A.correlationalstudies
B.crosssectionalstudies
C.sequentialstudies
D.longitudinalstudies

85.Thetypeofstudythatcanbeconductedintheshortestamountoftimeisthe
A.crosslagapproach.
B.sequentialapproach.
C.longitudinalapproach.
D.crosssectionalapproach.

86.TheNationalLongitudinalStudyofChildrenandYouth(NLSCY)isacomprehensivesurveyofCanadians
from
A.birthtoschoolage.
B.elementaryschooltohighschool.
C.gradeninetogradetwelve.
D.birthtoadulthood.

87.Whichresearchdesignwouldallowresearcherstocontrolbestforcohorteffectsindevelopmental
research?
A.crosssectional
B.longitudinal
C.sequential
D.correlational

88.Ifyoustudiedtheattitudesofelderlypeopletoday,youmightfindthatmostbelieveitisbetterforwomen
tostayathomethantowork.Thisattitudeisprobablynotbecausetheyareelderlypersebutbecausetheyall
grewupduringtheearlyandmiddlepartofthecentury.Thisisanexampleofa(n)
A.eticeffect.
B.emiceffect.
C.cohorteffect.
D.correlationaleffect.

89.Whichofthefollowingclinicalpsychoanalystsassertedthatmenandwomenhavedifferingmoraland
psychologicaltendencies?
A.HarrietLerner
B.KarenHorney
C.CarolGilligan
D.JeanBakerMiller

90.Whenresearchersusesurfacelabelslike"Blacks,""Asians,"and"Caucasians",theyunderrepresentthe
differencesthatexistamongpeoplewithinthesameracialgroup.Usingsurfacelabelsliketheseisreferredto
as
A.ethnicgloss.
B.experimenterbias.
C.racegrouping.
D.ethnicinequality.

91.Priortostartingresearchwithhumanparticipants,investigatorsshouldsecureparticipants'
A.demographicinformation.
B.pledgeofconfidentiality.
C.informedconsent.
D.commitmenttoparticipateovertheentirecourseoftheresearch.

92.TheWorldHealthOrganizationisparticularlyconcernedwithalackof
A.validandreliableresearchonhealthtopics.
B.researchinThirdWorldnations.
C.interestinlifespanstudies.
D.interestinmulticulturalisminlifespanstudies.

93.DiscussbrieflyfourcharacteristicsofthelifespanperspectiveasoutlinedbyBaltes.

94.Discusshownonnormativelifeeventscouldinfluencedevelopment.

95.Brieflydefinetheterms"biologicalprocesses","cognitiveprocesses",and"socioemotionalprocesses".

96.Listtheeightlifespandevelopmentalperiods.

97.Identifyandbrieflydescribethefivewaysagehasbeenconceptualized.

98.Brieflydiscussthenaturenurturequestion.

99.Brieflydiscussthecontinuitydiscontinuityissueofdevelopment.

100.Brieflydiscussthestabilitychangeissue.

101.Discusshowgender,ethnicity,andraceformpartofoursocioculturalcontext.

102.Brieflydefinetheterms"theory"and"hypothesis".

103.HowareCorrelationalandexperimentalapproachessimilaranddifferent?

104.Brieflydiscussthesequentialapproachtoresearch.

105.Identifyfourmajormethodsusedtogatherdataaboutlifespandevelopment.

106.Identify5differentmethodsforcollectingdata.

107.Whyarelifespanresearchersespeciallyconcernedaboutcohorteffects?

c1Key

1.(p.5)Whyhasdevelopmentduringadulthoodonlyrecentlybeenstudied?
A.Previously,fundingforstudieswasusedmainlytoresearchchilddevelopment.
B.Abeliefexistedformanyyearsthatfewchangesoccurinadulthood.
C.Researchersthoughtthatstudyingadultdevelopmentwasimpractical.
D.Anideaexistedthatstudyingadultdevelopmentwasverydifficult.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#1

2.(p.2)Beforebirth,_________mainlydirectthebrain'sdevelopment.
A.genes
B.zygotes
C.theprefrontalcortex
D.myelination

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#2

3.(p.3)Thelayeroffatcellsthatinsulatesnervecellsandenablesnerveimpulsestotravelquicklyiscalledthe
_________.
A.amygdala
B.synapse
C.parietallobe
D.myelinsheath

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#3

4.(p.3)Thepartofthebrainthatlosesitsabilitytoholdinformationisthe________.
A.temporallobe
B.cerebellum
C.prefrontalcortex
D.amygdala

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#4

5.(p.3)Researcherscalltherapidgrowthandpruningofsynapsesthatoccursduringadolescence_______.
A.exuberance
B.myelination
C.cerebelliance
D.plasticity

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#5

6.(p.5)Thepatternofmovementorchangethatbeginsatconceptionandcontinuesthroughthehumanlifespan
iscalled_______.
A.Lifespandevelopment
B.plasticity
C.regulation
D.multidimensionality

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#6

7.(p.5)Lifespandevelopmentalpsychologistsunderstandthatdevelopmentis_______becauseitconsistsof
biological,cognitive,andsocioemotionalprocesses.
A.multidimensional
B.multidisciplinary
C.contextual
D.lifelong

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#7

8.(p.5)AsMonicagetsolder,shenoticesthatsheisbetteratsolvingcomplexproblemsbutittakesheralittle
longertodosomethings.Thisexampledemonstrateshowlifespandevelopmentis________.
A.multisensory
B.multidisciplinary
C.lifelong
D.multidirectional

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#8

9.(p.5)Neglectedchildrenfromimpoverishedhomescanthriveiftheyareplacedinnurturing,stimulating
environments.Thisexampleshowshowdevelopmentis_______.
A.multidisciplinary
B.plastic
C.rubberlike
D.myelinated

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#9

10.(p.67)Theinfluencesthataresimilarforpeopleofaparticularagegroupare____.
A.normativeagegradedinfluences
B.contextualagegradedinfluences
C.normativehistorygradedinfluences
D.nonnormativeinfluences

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#10

11.(p.7)Theintegrationofcomputersandcellphonesintoeverydaylifeisanexampleof_______.
A.normativeagegradedinfluences
B.nonnormativeinfluences
C.contextualagegradedinfluences
D.normativehistorygradedinfluences

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#11

12.(p.7)Becauseitdeterminesaccesstowater,hygiene,healthcare,andsocialservices,_______playsacrucial
roleinlifeexpectancy.
A.plasticity
B.context
C.history
D.multidimensionality

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#12

13.(p.7)Onaverage,Canadianmencanexpecttolivetobeabout80andwomentoabout82.Thisiscalled__.
A.lifeexpectancy
B.nonnormativeexpectancy
C.historicalexpectancy
D.contextualexpectancy

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#13

14.(p.8)Lifeexpectancyinvariouspartsoftheworldrangesfromaslowas________toashighas_________.
A.29.5;80
B.76.1;99
C.68.5;102
D.87.5;92

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#14

15.(p.9)ThemedianageoftheCanadianpopulationisabout40,whichmeans_________.
A.mostCanadiansaregettingyounger
B.halfofthepopulationisolderandtheotherhalfisyounger
C.theaverageageistwotimesgreaterthanthemedianage
D.thefertilityrateishigherforhalfofthepopulation

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#15

16.(p.9)Animportantaspectofcontextis_________.
A.socioeconomicstatus(SES)
B.myelination
C.neuroplasticity
D.generationalinequity

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#16

17.(p.10)Oliviahasjustlearnedtomultiplyby1,2,and3.Thisshows__________development.
A.secondary
B.cognitive
C.physiological
D.socioemotional

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#17

18.(p.11)WhichofthefollowingstatementsBESTdescribestherelationshipbetweenbiological,cognitive,and
socialprocesses?
A.Thethreehavenoeffectononeanother.
B.Thethreeareinterdependentprocesses.
C.Onlybiologicalandcognitiveprocesseshaveaneffectoneachother.
D.Onlycognitiveandsocialprocesseshaveaneffectoneachother.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#18

19.(p.11)Inlifespandevelopment,atimeframeinaperson'slifethatischaracterizedbycertainfeaturesis
referredtoasa
A.biologicalprocess.
B.cognitivestage.
C.developmentalperiod.
D.phaseofmaturation.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#19

20.(p.12)Whichofthefollowinglifespanphaseslaststhelongest?
A.adolescence
B.earlyadulthood
C.middleadulthood
D.lateadulthood

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#20

21.(p.12)Allanspendsagreatdealoftimeworkingandtryingtoestablishhiscareer.Healsohasbeenthinking
abouthisrelationshipwithhispartnerandwhetherornotitcouldleadtoestablishingafamily.AllanisMOST
likelyin
A.lateadolescence.
B.earlyadulthood.
C.middleadulthood.
D.lateadulthood.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#21

22.(p.12)Nowthatherkidsareolder,Mariawentbacktouniversitytoexpandhereducationandachievegreater
fulfillmentandsuccessinhercareer.MariaisMOSTlikelyin
A.lateadolescence.
B.earlyadulthood.
C.middleadulthood.
D.lateadulthood.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#22

23.(p.11)Theperiodofdevelopmentduringwhichschoolreadinessskillsaredeveloped,andmostfreetimeis
spentplayingwithfriends,iscalled
A.infancy.
B.earlychildhood.
C.toddlerhood.
D.middlechildhood.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#23

24.(p.12)Peterissatisfiedwithhiscareerandhomelife.Hehasfinallyreceivedapromotionthatallowshimto
spendmuchmoretimewithhisfamily.Heislookingforwardtohelpinghischildrentobecomemature,
competentindividuals.Peter'ssituationismostrepresentativeofwhichperiodoflife?
A.earlyadulthood
B.middleadulthood
C.lateadulthood
D.retirement

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#24

25.(p.13)Lifeexpectancyisbestpredictedby
A.chronologicalage.
B.socialage.
C.biologicalage.
D.psychologicalage.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#25

26.(p.13)Susanhasjustcompletedastandardizedtest.Aneducationalpsychologistcomparesherresultsto
othersofthesamechronologicalagetoarriveather
A.biologicalage.
B.socialage.
C.mentalage.
D.psychologicalage.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#26

27.(p.14)Neugartenarguesthatoursocietyisbecomingageirrelevantwithrespecttodevelopment.Whichof
thefollowingBESTillustratesthisargument?
A.Eventheoldestindividualsinoursocietyareremaininghealthyandactive.
B.Decisionsmadeinearlierdevelopmentalperiodsdonotaffectlaterdevelopmentalperiods.
C.Theissuespeoplemustdealwithrecuratvaryingtimesthroughoutthelifespan.
D.Oursocietyisnowmuchlessprejudicedagainstolderpeople.

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#27

28.(p.14)Neugartenbelievesthatwearebecominganageirrelevantsocietybecause
A.researchersaretakingextremeviewsontheimportanceofstagesofdevelopment.
B.chronologicalageisapoorindexofdevelopment.
C.mostadulthoodthemesarenotuniquetoanyonestageofadulthood.
D.ageisnowdefinedbywhatwedo,nothowoldweare.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#28

29.(p.13)Whichofthefollowingreferstothetimeelapsedsinceaperson'sbirth?
A.biologicalage
B.chronologicalage
C.socialage
D.psychologicalage

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#29

30.(p.13)Leois65yearsoldandhasjustretired.Hehaslearnedtocopewithhischangeoflifestyleandishighly
motivatedtolearnnewthings.DevelopmentalistswoulddescribeLeoasbeing
A.sociallyyoung.
B.biologicallyyoung.
C.physicallyyoung.
D.psychologicallyyoung.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#30

31.(p.13)Comparedtotheabilitiesofothersofthesamechronologicalage,aperson'sabilitytosolveproblems
onastandardizedinstrumentiscalled________.
A.Scholasticage
B.Mentalage
C.Socialage
D.Psychologicalage

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#31

32.(p.13)SevenyearoldSusancompletedastandardizedtestandwhenherperformancewascomparedtoher
peers,shewasassignedanageoften.Theageoftenreferstoher_________.
A.psychologicalage.
B.chronologicalage.
C.mentalage.
D.socialage.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#32

33.(p.13)Harry'sorgansarequitedamagedfromyearsofalcoholanddrugabuse.His_____islikelytobe
greaterthanhischronologicalage.
A.Chronologicalage
B.Biologicalage
C.Psychologicalage
D.Developmentalage

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#33

34.(p.14)Thesocialrolesandexpectationsrelatedtoaperson'sagerefertoaperson's__________.
A.biologicalage.
B.socialage.
C.psychologicalage.
D.historicalage.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#34

35.(p.14)Haroldisasinglefatherof3youngchildren.Theexpectationsandsocialrolesthataccompany
Harold'sageareknownas_________.
A.socialage.
B.chorionicage.
C.psychologicalage.
D.historicalage.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#35

36.(p.1516)WhichofthefollowingisNOTamajorconcernoflifespandevelopmentalists?
A.whetherdevelopmentalchangeiscontinuousordiscontinuous
B.whetherdevelopmentischaracterizedbystabilityorchangeovertime
C.whetherdevelopmentismostlyinfluencedbynatureornurture
D.whetherdevelopmentinvolvesmanyshortstagesorseverallongerstages

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#36

37.(p.15)Biologyisto__________asenvironmentisto_________.
A.nature;nurture
B.nurture;nature
C.maturation;nature
D.experience;nurture

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#37

38.(p.15)Alexbelievesthatpeopleareprimarilyinfluencedbytheenvironmentandlearnedexperiences,sohe
believes__________playsamostpowerfulroleinhumandevelopment.
A.nurture
B.maturation
C.change
D.nature

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#38

39.(p.15)Apsychologistwhoemphasizestheimportanceofnurtureismostlikelytobeconcernedwithan
individual's
A.geneticmakeup.
B.nutrition.
C.biologicalinheritance.
D.intelligencecapacity.

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#39

40.(p.15)Natureadvocatesarguethat__________ismostimportantinlifespandevelopment.
A.learning
B.biology
C.earlychildhoodexperiences
D.sociologicalfactors

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#40

41.(p.15)"It'snouseputtingherinaspecialeducationalprogram,"Misha'sdadexplainspatiently."Shejustcan't
understandthingsverywell.Hergrandpawasthesameway.Wemightaswellgetusedtoitnow."Misha'sdad
seemsto
A.holda"nature"viewofdevelopment.
B.holda"nurture"viewofdevelopment.
C.viewdevelopmentasacontinuousprocess.
D.viewdevelopmentasadiscontinuousprocess.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#41

42.(p.1516)Atheoristbelievesthattheabilitytoengageinthoughtfulreflectivenessisbasedonagradual
accumulationofexperiencesacrossmanyyearsratherthanasingleabruptevent.Thistheoristholdsa
predominantly__________viewofdevelopment.
A.changebased
B.stabilitybased
C.continuitybased
D.discontinuitybased

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#42

43.(p.1516)Atheoristbelievesthatyoungstersgothroughdistinctstagesofthoughtastheyprogressfrom
impulsivitytothoughtfulreflectiveness.Thistheoristholdsapredominantly__________viewofdevelopment.
A.naturebased
B.nurturebased
C.continuitybased
D.discontinuitybased

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#43

44.(p.16)ProponentsofthestabilitysideofthestabilitychangedebatewouldMOSTendorse
A.thosewhobelievethatthebestpredictoroffutureperformanceispastperformance.
B.developmentalistswhoseeplasticityasanimportantpartofthelifespanissue.
C.thosewhoarguethatlaterexperienceisjustasimportantasearlierexperience.
D.theviewsoflifespandevelopmentexpertPaulBaltes.

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#44

45.(p.1516)Suddendistinctchangesingrowth,asexperiencedbyabutterfly,areexamplesofwhat
developmentaltheme?
A.nature
B.nurture
C.continuity
D.discontinuity

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#45

46.(p.1516)Smooth,gradualchangesingrowthareanexampleofwhatdevelopmentaltheme?
A.nature
B.nurture
C.continuity
D.discontinuity

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#46

47.(p.15)WhichstatementBESTresolvesthenaturenurturecontroversy?
A.Natureisclearlymoreimportantindevelopment.
B.Thecombinationofnatureandnurtureisevidentinbraindevelopment.
C.Nurtureisclearlymoreimportantindevelopment.
D.Neitherplaysaparticularlystrongroleindevelopment.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#47

48.(p.16)Josewasabusedasayoungboy,butdidnotgrowuptobecomeanabuserhimself.Instead,heleadsa
fulfillingfamilylife.Thisisanexampleofwhichcharacteristicofdevelopment?
A.change
B.stability
C.maturation
D.continuity

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#48

49.(p.5,16)Thecontroversyofstabilityversuschangeiscloselylinkedtothecharacteristicof
A.plasticity.
B.contextualism.
C.multidimensionalism.
D.multidirectionalism.

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:1
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#49

50.(p.16)Marjoriewasdiagnosedwithchildhooddepressionandwentontosufferfromdepressionfortherestof
heradultlife.Thisisanexampleofwhichcharacteristicofdevelopment?
A.change
B.stability
C.maturation
D.discontinuity

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#50

51.(p.16)Jessewasphysicallyabusedasaninfant.Hewastakenawayfromhisabuserandraisedinahomewith
lovingadults.Accordingtodevelopmentalistswhoemphasizechange,Jessewill
A.continuetobepsychologicallyscarredbyhisearlierabuse.
B.blockouthisabuseduringchildhood,butreliveitduringadulthood.
C.healfromtheearlierabuseinhissupportiveenvironment.
D.sufferduringadolescencebecauseofhisearlierabuse.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#51

52.(p.18)Onecontemporaryconcernoflifespandevelopmentalresearchis___________.
A.healthandwellbeing
B.technology
C.astrology
D.politicalconflicts

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#52

53.(p.18)Thebehaviourpatterns,beliefs,andallotherproductsofaparticulargroupofpeoplethatarepassedon
fromgenerationtogenerationis_____________.
A.education
B.healthandwellbeing
C.culture
D.historicalcontext

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#53

54.(p.19)Ashishonoursthesisinpsychology,AndrewplanstocomparehowLebaneseCanadianandFrench
Canadianadolescentgirlsmakecareerandeducationchoices.Hisresearchwouldbeconsidereda
___________.
A.crossculturalstudy
B.genderbasedstudy
C.normativehistoricalresearch
D.contextualhistoricalresearch

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#54

55.(p.19)ThetermPhilippinoCanadianwouldreferto_________.
A.crossculturalaffinity
B.ethnicity
C.generationalinequity
D.geographicaldiscontinuity

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#55

56.(p.19)Evidenceofhowgenderinfluencesmentalhealthcomesfromstudiesthatshow__________.
A.womenseemtobemorepronetodepressionthanmen
B.menandwomensharehouseholdresponsibilitiesequally
C.womenandmenareequallypronetoheartdisease
D.women'ssalariesarelowerthanmen's

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#56

57.(p.20)Providingsafeinjectionsitesforintravenousdruguserswouldbeanexampleof____________.
A.culture
B.ethnicity
C.socialpolicy
D.generationalinequality

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#57

58.(p.21)Whenanagingpopulationunfairlyreceivemoreresources,leavingfewerresourcesforyounger
members,thisiscalled_____________.
A.socialpolicy
B.generationalinequality
C.culturalunfairness
D.ageism

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#58

59.(p.23)Aresearcherusesavideocameratorecordchildrenastheyplayonaschoolplayground.The
researcherplanstocarefullywatchthevideotapelatertocountthechildren'shelpingbehaviours.This
researcherisconductinga
A.casestudy.
B.naturalisticobservation.
C.standardizedtest.
D.multisourcestudy.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#59

60.(p.2223)Observationalmeasureisalwaysconducted
A.inarealworldsettingratherthanalaboratory.
B.inalaboratoryratherthanarealworldsetting.
C.inawaythatissystematicandplannedinadvance.
D.withtheconsentandpriorknowledgeofallpeoplebeingobserved.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#60

61.(p.23)Dr.Sanjaycollectsdataonhelpingbehavioursbetweenstrangersatamall.Astrengthofthis
naturalisticobservationalapproachisthatit
A.occursinarealworldsetting.
B.involvesastructuredsetofinterviewquestions.
C.allowsforcontrolovertheobservationalsetting.
D.demonstrateshowpeoplebehaveunderthestressofobservation.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#61

62.(p.29,32)Dr.Ryder,whowantstoknowwhypeoplefight.Heproposestoputpeopleinalaboratorysetting
andhavearesearchassistantinstigateaheatedargumentamongtheparticipants.Theprimaryweaknessofthis
studyisthat
A.structuredinterviewquestionscannotbeused.
B.itisnoteffectiveforcrossculturalstudies.
C.theresearcherhaslittlecontrolovercriticalvariableslikegenderandage.
D.researcherscannotethicallysubjectpeopletoextremelystressfulsituations.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#62

63.(p.2223)Whenresearcherscollectdatainnaturalisticsettings,theyarerecording
A.hypotheses.
B.observations.
C.statisticalanalyses.
D.theoreticalpostulates.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#63

64.(p.2627)WhenDr.Chenismonitoringchangingfitnesslevelsofschoolchildrenoveranextendedperiodof
time,usingthesamegroupofparticipants,heisutilizinga
A.sequentialresearchstrategy.
B.crosssectionalresearchstrategy.
C.naturalisticobservationstrategy.
D.longitudinalresearchstrategy.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#64

65.(p.23)Whichtypeofmethodisbeingusedwhenatelemarketingcompanyrepresentativecallsindividualson
thetelephonetoasktheiropinionsaboutgovernmentcutbackstoeducation?
A.lifehistoryrecord
B.casestudy
C.naturalisticobservation
D.survey

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#65

66.(p.23)Johnwantstoconductasurveyonpeople'sexperienceswithdomesticabuse.Whatishismainproblem
likelytobe?
A.Thistypeofresearchisveryexpensivetoconduct.
B.Peoplearelikelytoprovidesociallyacceptableresponses.
C.Thisapproachisnotobjective.
D.Thesurveymustbeconductedinacontrolledsetting.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#66

67.(p.24)WhichresearchmethodisNOTappropriatewhenstudyingalargenumberofpeople?
A.casestudy
B.questionnaire
C.standardizedtest
D.naturalisticobservation

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#67

68.(p.24)Aresearcherwantstounderstandthedevelopmentofelderlyadults.Shechoosestostudyoneelderly
womaningreatdetailbytakingfrequentmeasuresofherbehaviour,thoughts,andfeelings.Whichofthe
followingmethodsisthisresearcherusing?
A.casestudy
B.questionnaire
C.standardizedtest
D.naturalisticobservation

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#68

69.(p.2324)Whichtypeofmeasureallowsaresearchertocompareoneperson'sscorewiththescoresofalarge
groupofsimilarpeople?
A.casestudy
B.questionnaire
C.standardizedtest
D.naturalisticobservation

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#69

70.(p.2324)ApsychologistgivesSandyanorallyadministeredanxietytestwith100questionsthataskhertorate
howanxiousshewouldbeinavarietyofsituations.Sandy'sscoreishigherthan90percentofotheradults
tested.Thisanxietytestisanexampleofa____________.
A.questionnaire.
B.standardizedtest.
C.physiologicalmeasure.
D.laboratoryobservation.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#70

71.(p.2425)Imaginethatyouhaverecordedthenumberofpositivestatementsparentssaytotheirchildrenwhile
readingthroughtheirreportcards,andthatyoualsohavegiventhechildrenaselfesteemscalewherehigher
scoresrepresentagreaterdegreeofselfesteem.Ifyourtwomeasuresaresignificantlycorrelated,youcould
correctlyconcludethat
A.negativeparentalfeedbackCAUSESlowselfesteeminchildren.
B.positiveparentalfeedbackCAUSEShighselfesteeminchildren.
C.positiveparentalfeedbackISRELATEDTOselfesteemlevelsinchildren.
D.negativeparentalfeedbackISRELATEDTOlowselfesteeminchildren.

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#71

72.(p.2425)Whichtypeofresearchwouldyouuseifyouwantedtodeterminewhetherornotthereisa
relationshipbetweenpovertyanddrugaddiction?
A.surveyresearch
B.correlationalresearch
C.experimentalresearch
D.observationalresearch

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#72

73.(p.2425)Predictinganeventbasedontheobservationofanothereventisabenefitofthe
A.correlationalmethod.
B.longitudinalapproach.
C.crosssectionalapproach.
D.randomassignmenttechnique.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#73

74.(p.2425)WhichisNOTtrueofcorrelationalresearch?
A.Thestrongerthecorrelationbetweentwoeventsthemoreeffectivetheprediction.
B.Thegoalistoidentifythestrengthofarelationshipbetweentwocharacteristics.
C.Twoeventsthatarecorrelatedarealsoassociatedorrelated.
D.Correlationprovidesindicationofcausation.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#74

75.(p.2526)TheresearchdesignthatcanBESTdeterminebehaviouralcausesisthe
A.correlationalstrategy.
B.experimentalstrategy.
C.observationalstrategy.
D.casestrategy.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#75

76.(p.26)Inanexperiment,theeventbeingmanipulatedisthe__________variable.
A.dependent
B.correlational
C.independent
D.control

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#76

77.(p.26)Randomassignmentisusedinexperimentsbecause
A.itguaranteesthattheresultswillbestatisticallysignificant.
B.researcherswantpeoplefromdifferentsocialclassestobeinseparategroups.
C.researcherswanttohighlightpreexistingdifferencesbetweengroups.
D.researcherswanttominimizepreexistingdifferencesbetweenexperimentalandcontrolgroups.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#77

78.(p.26)Apsychologistdesignsanexperimenttodeterminetheeffectofeyecontactonchildren'ssmiling
behaviour.GroupIisexposedto10eyecontactsduringthesessionwhileGroupIIisexposedtonoeye
contactsduringthesession.Thepsychologistrecordsthenumberoftimesthechildrenineachgroupsmile.In
thisstudy,thenumberof
A.smilesbythechildrenistheindependentvariable.
B.eyecontacts(10vs.0)isthedependentvariable.
C.eyecontacts(10vs.0)istheindependentvariable.
D.smilesbythechildrenisthecorrelationalvariable.

BloomsLevel:application
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SantrockChapter01#78

79.(p.26)Aresearcherisinterestedintheeffectofexerciseonstaminainelderlypatients.Thepatientsare
randomlyassignedtobeinahighexerciseorlowexercisetrainingprogramforeightweeks.Attheendofthe
program,theirstaminaismeasuredbyseeinghowlongtheycanwalkcomfortablyonatreadmill.Inthisstudy,
thedependentvariableisthe
A.numberofminutesonthetreadmill.
B.exerciseprogram(highvs.low).
C.ageofthepatient.
D.eightweekdurationoftheexerciseprogram.

BloomsLevel:application
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SantrockChapter01#79

80.(p.26)ProfessorLeBlancwantstoassignsubjectstoexperimentalgroupsinsuchawaythateachsubjecthas
anequalchanceofbeinginanygroup.Sheisassigningindividuals
A.subjectively.
B.randomly.
C.systematically.
D.independently.

BloomsLevel:application
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SantrockChapter01#80

81.(p.2526)Seeingtheeffectoftheindependentvariableonthedependentvariableisastrengthofthe
A.longitudinalstrategy.
B.correlationalstrategy.
C.experimentalstrategy.
D.randomassignmenttechnique.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
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SantrockChapter01#81

82.(p.2526)WhichresearchstrategyistheBESTfordeterminingcauseandeffectrelationships?
A.experimental
B.correlational
C.observational
D.standardized

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#82

83.(p.2627)Tochartthedevelopmentofintelligenceoverthelifespan,researcherstestedtheintelligenceof
individuals(ranginginagefromchildhoodtooldage)severaltimesoverafiveyearperiod.Whichapproachto
thetimespanofinquirydidtheytake?
A.crosssectional
B.longitudinal
C.sequential
D.cohort

BloomsLevel:application
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#83

84.(p.27)Whichresearchapproachallowsagechangesinonecohorttobecomparedwithagechangesinanother
cohort?
A.correlationalstudies
B.crosssectionalstudies
C.sequentialstudies
D.longitudinalstudies

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#84

85.(p.26)Thetypeofstudythatcanbeconductedintheshortestamountoftimeisthe
A.crosslagapproach.
B.sequentialapproach.
C.longitudinalapproach.
D.crosssectionalapproach.

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SantrockChapter01#85

86.(p.28)TheNationalLongitudinalStudyofChildrenandYouth(NLSCY)isacomprehensivesurveyof
Canadiansfrom
A.birthtoschoolage.
B.elementaryschooltohighschool.
C.gradeninetogradetwelve.
D.birthtoadulthood.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#86

87.(p.27)Whichresearchdesignwouldallowresearcherstocontrolbestforcohorteffectsindevelopmental
research?
A.crosssectional
B.longitudinal
C.sequential
D.correlational

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#87

88.(p.27)Ifyoustudiedtheattitudesofelderlypeopletoday,youmightfindthatmostbelieveitisbetterfor
womentostayathomethantowork.Thisattitudeisprobablynotbecausetheyareelderlypersebutbecause
theyallgrewupduringtheearlyandmiddlepartofthecentury.Thisisanexampleofa(n)
A.eticeffect.
B.emiceffect.
C.cohorteffect.
D.correlationaleffect.

BloomsLevel:conceptual
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#88

89.(p.31)Whichofthefollowingclinicalpsychoanalystsassertedthatmenandwomenhavedifferingmoraland
psychologicaltendencies?
A.HarrietLerner
B.KarenHorney
C.CarolGilligan
D.JeanBakerMiller

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#89

90.(p.31)Whenresearchersusesurfacelabelslike"Blacks,""Asians,"and"Caucasians",theyunderrepresent
thedifferencesthatexistamongpeoplewithinthesameracialgroup.Usingsurfacelabelsliketheseisreferred
toas
A.ethnicgloss.
B.experimenterbias.
C.racegrouping.
D.ethnicinequality.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#90

91.(p.29,32)Priortostartingresearchwithhumanparticipants,investigatorsshouldsecureparticipants'
A.demographicinformation.
B.pledgeofconfidentiality.
C.informedconsent.
D.commitmenttoparticipateovertheentirecourseoftheresearch.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#91

92.(p.31)TheWorldHealthOrganizationisparticularlyconcernedwithalackof
A.validandreliableresearchonhealthtopics.
B.researchinThirdWorldnations.
C.interestinlifespanstudies.
D.interestinmulticulturalisminlifespanstudies.

BloomsLevel:knowledge
LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#92

93.(p.56)DiscussbrieflyfourcharacteristicsofthelifespanperspectiveasoutlinedbyBaltes.

thereare8characteristics:developmentislifelong,developmentismultidimensional,developmentis
multidirectional,developmentisplastic,developmentismultidisciplinary,developmentinvolvesgrowth,
maintenanceandregulation,developmentisacoconstructionofbiology,culture,andtheindividual,
developmentiscontextual.

LearningObjective:1
SantrockChapter01#93

94.(p.7,1011)Discusshownonnormativelifeeventscouldinfluencedevelopment.

accidents,seriousillnessesorinjuries,naturalcatastrophes,deathofaparentcanallinfluencedevelopmentin
differentwayssuchasviacognitive,biological,andsocioemotionalprocesses.

LearningObjective:2
SantrockChapter01#94

95.(p.1011)Brieflydefinetheterms"biologicalprocesses","cognitiveprocesses",and"socioemotional
processes".

Biologicalprocessesinvolvechangesintheindividual'sphysicalnature.
Cognitiveprocessesinvolvechangesintheindividual'sthought,intelligence,andlanguage.
Socioemotionalprocessesinvolvechangesintheindividual'srelationshipswithotherpeople,changesin
emotions,andchangesinpersonality.

LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#95

96.(p.1112)Listtheeightlifespandevelopmentalperiods.

(1)prenatal;(2)infancy;(3)earlychildhood;(4)middleandlatechildhood;(5)adolescence;(6)early
adulthood;(7)middleadulthood;and,(8)lateadulthood.

LearningObjective:3
SantrockChapter01#96

97.(p.1213)Identifyandbrieflydescribethefivewaysagehasbeenconceptualized.

(1)chronologicalage:thenumberofyearsthathaveelapsedsinceaperson'sbirth;(2)biologicalage:aperson's
ageintermsofbiologicalhealth;(3)psychologicalage:anindividual'sadaptivecapacitiescomparedtothoseof
otherindividualsofthesamechronologicalage;(4)socialage:socialrolesandexpectationsrelatedtoa
person'sage;(5)mentalage:anindividual'sabilitytosolveproblemsonastandardizedinstrumentcomparedto
othersofthesamechronologicalage.

LearningObjective:4
SantrockChapter01#97

98.(p.15)Brieflydiscussthenaturenurturequestion.

Thiscontroversyinvolvesthedebateaboutwhetherdevelopmentisinfluencedprimarilybythegenetic
blueprintorbiologicalinheritance(nature)orbyenvironmentalexperiences(nurture).

LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#98

99.(p.1516)Brieflydiscussthecontinuitydiscontinuityissueofdevelopment.

Thisissuefocusesonwhetherdevelopmentinvolvesgradual,cumulativechangefromconceptiontodeath
(continuity)orwhetherdevelopmentoccursindistinctstagesorphasesacrossthelifespan.

LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#99

100.(p.16)Brieflydiscussthestabilitychangeissue.

Thisissuefocusesonwhetherwebecomeolderrenditionsofourearlyexperienceorwhetherwedevelopinto
somethingdifferentthanwewereatanearlierpointindevelopment.Thebasicthemeiswhetherdevelopmentis
bestdescribedbystabilityorbychange.

LearningObjective:5
SantrockChapter01#100

101.(p.18)Discusshowgender,ethnicity,andraceformpartofoursocioculturalcontext.

Thesocioculturalcontextreferstothesettinginwhichdevelopmentoccurswhichisinfluencedbyhistorical,
political,geographic,andotherfactors.Genderreferstothesocioculturaldimensionofbeingmaleorfemale;
genderiscentraltoouridentityandsocialrelationships.Ethnicity(basedonculturalheritage,national
characteristics,race,religion,andlanguage)andrace(controversialclassificationofpeopleaccordingtorealor
imaginedbiologicalcharacteristics)formpartofthesocioculturalcontext;theyinfluenceourinteractionswith
othersandhowothersthinkofus.

LearningObjective:6
SantrockChapter01#101

102.(p.22)Brieflydefinetheterms"theory"and"hypothesis".

Atheoryisaninterrelatedcoherentsetofideasthathelpstoexplainandtomakepredictions.
Ahypothesisisaspecificassumptionandpredictionthatcanbetestedanddeterminedforaccuracy.

LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#102

103.(p.2426)HowareCorrelationalandexperimentalapproachessimilaranddifferent?

Correlationalapproachesareinterestedinexploringrelationshipsbetweenvariableswiththegoalofprediction.
Correlationalapproachesdonotpermitcausalinferences.Experimentalapproachesarecarefullycontrolled
proceduresthatpermittentativecausalinferences.Inexperiments,oneormorevariables(independentvariable)
ismanipulatedanditseffectsaremeasuredonthedependentvariable(s).Typically,theindependentvariable
hasexperimentalandcontrolgroups,towhichparticipantsareassignedrandomlyinanefforttominimize
systematicdifferencesbetweenthe2groups.

LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#103

104.(p.27)Brieflydiscussthesequentialapproachtoresearch.

Thisisthecombinedcrosssectional,longitudinalresearchdesign.Itusuallybeginswithacrosssectionalstudy
thatincludesindividualsofdifferentages.Laterthoseindividualsaretestedagainand,atthissametime,anew
groupofsubjectsisalsoassessedateachagelevel.

LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#104

105.(p.2426)Identifyfourmajormethodsusedtogatherdataaboutlifespandevelopment.

Fourmajormethodsemployedincludedescriptiveresearch,correlationalresearch,experimentalresearch,and
timespanresearch.

LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#105

106.(p.2324)Identify5differentmethodsforcollectingdata.

Observation,surveysandinterviews,standardizedtests,casestudies,andphysiologicalmeasures.

LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#106

107.(p.27)Whyarelifespanresearchersespeciallyconcernedaboutcohorteffects?

Developmentisaffectedbythetimeandplaceofbirth.Thismustbeconsideredwhenplacinglifespanresearch
intoitsappropriatecontext.GrowingupduringtheUSdeclaredWaronTerrorism,forexample,willshape
manyfacetsoflifespandevelopment.

LearningObjective:7
SantrockChapter01#107

c1Summary

Category #ofQuestions
BloomsLevel:application 36
BloomsLevel:conceptual 9
BloomsLevel:knowledge 47
LearningObjective:1 11
LearningObjective:2 8
LearningObjective:3 12
LearningObjective:4 10
LearningObjective:5 19
LearningObjective:6 8
LearningObjective:7 40
SantrockChapter01 107