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# Operations Research 10CS661

## VTU Question Bank

UNIT 1: Introduction, Linear programming-1

1. A farmer has to plant two kinds of trees P and Q in a land of 400m2 area. Each P tree requires
at least 25m2 and Q tree requires 40m2 of land. The annual water requirement of P tree is 30
units and of Q tree is 15 units per tree, while at most 3000 units of water is available. It is also
estimated that the ratio of the number of Q trees to the number of P trees should not be less
than 6/19 and should not be more than 17/8. The return per tree from P is expected to be one
and half times as much as from Q tree. Formulate the problem as an LPP model.
(June/July 2015)
2. Define operations research. List and explain the various phases of an operations research study
(June/July 2015)

## 3. A Manufacturer of biscuits is considering 4 types of gift packs containing 3 types of biscuits,

orange cream (oc), chocolate cream (cc) and wafers(w) market research study conducted
recently to assess the preferences of the consumers shows the following types of assortments
to be in good demand. (Dec 2015)

## Max Z =x1 + 3x2

STC
3x1 + 6x2 <= 100 (8/3,
4/3) 5x1 + 2x2 <= 120
(2,5) x1 , x2 >= 0
5. Briefly explain the scopes of OR. (June/July 2014)
6. Explain the six phases of OR study. (Dec 2014 )
7. Dwight is an elementary school teacher who also raises pigs for supplemental income. He is
trying to decide what to feed his pigs. He is considering using a combination of pig feeds
available from local suppliers. He would like to feed the pigs at minimum cost while also
making sure each pig receives an adequate supply of calories and vitamins. The cost, calorie
content, and vitamin content of each feed are given in the table below.
(Dec/Jan.2014)

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Operations Research 10CS661

## Contents Feed Type A Feed Type B

Calories (per pound) 800 1,000
Vitamins (per pound) 140 units 70 units
Cost (per pound) \$0.40 \$0.80

8. Use the graphical method to solve this model. What is the resulting daily cost per pig?
. (June/July 2014)
Minimize Z= 0.4 A + \$0.8 B,
subject to
800 A + 1000 B 8000
140 A + 70 B 700
2/3 A - 1/3 B 0 and
A 0, B 0.
9. what is operation research? Mention the six phases of an operations research study.
(June/July 2014)
10. A farmer wants to customize his fertilizer for his current crop. He can buy plant food mix A
and plant food mix B. Each cubic yard of food A contains 20 pounds of phosphoric acid, 30
pounds of nitrogen and 5 pounds of potash. Each cubic yard of food B contains 10 pounds of
phosphoric acid, 30 pounds of nitrogen and 10 pounds of potash. He requires a minimum of
460 pounds of phosphoric acid, 960 pounds of nitrogen and 220 pounds of potash. If food A
costs \$30 per cubic yard and food B costs \$35 per cubic yard, how many cubic yards of each
food should the farmer blend to meet the minimum chemical requirements at a minimal cost?
What is this cost?

## 11. Find the maximum value of f=10x+8y (June/July 2013)

Subject to 2x + 3y 120

5x + 4y 200
x0 y 0

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12. A farmer can plant up to 8 acres of land with wheat and barley. He can earn \$5,000 for every acre
he plants with wheat and \$3,000 for every acre he plants with barley. His use of a necessary
pesticide is limited by federal regulations to 10 gallons for his entire 8 acres. Wheat requires 2
gallons of pesticide for every acre planted and barley requires just 1 gallon per acre.

(Dec 2014)

13. A company has two grades of inspectors, 1 and 2 to undertake quality control inspection. At
least 1,500 pieces must be inspected in an 8 hour day. Grade 1 inspector can check 20 pieces
in an hour with an accuracy of 96%. Grade 2 inspector checks 14 pieces an hour with an
accuracy of 92%.The daily wages of grade 1 inspector are Rs. 5 per hour while those of grade
inspector are Rs. 4 per hour, any error made by an inspector costs Rs. 3 to the company. If
there are, in all, 10 grade 1Inspectors and 15 grade 2 inspectors in the company, find the
optimal
assignment of inspectors that minimize the daily inspection cost (Dec 2014)

## UNIT 2: LP 2, Simplex Method 1

1. Consider the following linear programming model.

## Maximize Z = 3x1 + 2 x2,

subject to
x1 4
x1 + 3x2 15
2x1 + x2 10
and
x1 0, x2 0.
a. Use graphical analysis to identify all the corner-point solutions for this model. Label each
as either feasible or infeasible.
b. Calculate the value of the objective function for each of the CPF solutions. Use this
information to identify an optimal solution.
c. Use the solution concepts of the simplex method given in question 1 to identify which
sequence of CPF solutions would be examined by the simplex method to reach an
optimal solution
(June/July 2015)
2. Maximize Z = 3x1 + 2 x2, (Dec 2015)
subject to
x1 4

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x1 + 3x2 15
2x1 + x2 10
and x1
0, x2 0.

a. Introduce slack variables in order to write the functional constraints in augmented form.
b. (b) For each CPF solution, identify the corresponding BF solution by calculating the
values of the slack variables. For each BF solution, use the values of the variables to
identify the nonbasic variables and the basic variables.
c. For each BF solution, demonstrate (by plugging in the solution) that, after the nonbasic
variables are set equal to zero, this BF solution also is the simultaneous solution of the
system of equations obtained in part (a)
2. Explain the concept of Tie breaking in simplex method. (Jan 2014)

## 2x1 + 4x2 8 and x1, x2 0 (Jan 2014)

4. Define basic solution and obtain all the basic solutions to the following system of linear
equations: (June/July 2013)
2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 = 10,
3x1 + 4x2 + x3 = 12
Also, classify the solutions into i) Basic
feasible solution ii) Degenerate basic
solution iii) Non-degenerate basic feasible
solution.

## 5. Solve the following LPP using simplex method: (June/July 2013)

Maximize Z = 10x1 + 15x2 +
8x3 Subject to the constraints x1
+ 2x2 + 2x3 200, 2x1 + x2 +
x3 220,
3x1 + x2 + 2x3 180, x1 10, x2 20, x3 30 and x1, x2, x3 0.

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(June/July 2015)

(Jan 2013)

6. Solve using the Simplex method the following problem: (June/July 2014)
Maximize Z = f(x,y) = 3x + 2y subject
2x + y 18
to:

2x + 3y 42 3x

+ y 24 x0,y

## 7. Solve the given problem by simplex

method Max Z =107x1 + x2 +2 x3
STC
14x1 + x2 - 6x3 +3x4 = 7
16x1 + 1/2x2 -6x3 <= 5
16x1 - 8x2 - x3 <= 0
x1, x2, x3, x4 >= 0

## 9. Z 3x1 5x2 = 0 x1 + x3 = 4 2x2 + x4 = 12 3x1 + 2x2 + x5 = 18

10. using the tabular form of the simplex method solve the following example.

## Maximize Z = 3 x1 + 2 x2, (Jan 2013)

Subject to
x1 + x3 =4
x1 + 3 x2 + x4 = 15
2 x1 + x2 + x5 = 10
and
x1 0, x2 0, x3 0, x4 0, x5 0

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11. An advertising company wishes to plan is advertising strategy in three different media
television, Radio and magazines. The purpose of advertising is to reach as large as a number
of potential Customers as possible. Following data has been obtained from the market survey:
television Radio Magazine 1 Magazine 2 (Dec 2015)

## UNIT 3: Simplex Method 2

1. Consider the following problem.

## Minimize Z = 3x1 + 2x2 + x3,

subject to
x1 + x2
3x1 + x2 + x3
and x1
0, x2 0, x3 0.
a. Using the Big M method, work through the simplex method step by step to solve the
problem.
b. Using the two-phase method, work through the simplex method step by step to solve
the problem (June/July 2015)

## 3.Solve the following LPP by Big-M method.

Maximize Z = 4x1 + x2
Subject to 3x1 + x2 = 3 4x1
+ 3x2 6
x1 + 2x2 3 and x1 , x2 0 (Jan 2014)

## 4.Solve the following LPP by two-phase simplex method: (June/July 2013)

Maximize Z = 3x1 x2
Subject to the constraints
2x1 + x2 2, x1 + 3x2 2, x2 4 and x1, x2 0.

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## 5. Solve the following LPP by Big-M method: (June/July 2013)

Maximize Z = -2x1 x2
Subject to the constraints
3x1 + x2 = 3,
4x1 + 3x2 6, x1 + 2x2 4 and x1, x2 0.

## 6. Solve the following LPP by Big-M method: (Jan 2013)

Max Z = -2x1 - x2
Subject to
3x1 + x2 = 3
4x1 + 3x2 6, x1 + 2x2 4 and x1 0, x2 0

## 7. Solve the following LPP by Big-M method: (Jan 2013)

Max Z = 3x1 - x2
Subject to 2x1 + x2 2 x1 + 3x2 3,
x2 4 and x1 0, x2 0

## UNIT 4: Simplex Method 2, Duality Theory

1. Apply revised simplex method to solve the following problem (Jun/July 2015)
Maximize Z = 4 x1 + 3 x2 + 6 x3,

subject to
3 x1 + x2 + 3 x3 30
2 x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 40
and x1 0, x2 0, x3
0.

2. Apply revised simplex method to solve the following problem (Jun/July 2015)

Maximize Z = x1 - x2 + 2 x3,
subject to

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x1 + x2 + 3x3 15 2x1 - x2 + x3
2 -x1 + x2 + x3 4
and x1 0, x2 0, x3 0.

3. Identify the defining equations for the CPF solution corresponding to the optimal BF solution
in the simplex tableau. (Dec 2015)

Coefficient of:

Basic Z x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 Right
Variable Side
Eq

## Z (0) 1 3/2 0 0 0 3/2 5

x4 (1) 0 1 0 0 1 -1 -2 5
(2) 0 1/2 0 1 0 1/2 1/2 3
x3

4.Identify the missing numbers in the final simplex tableau. Show your calculations. Identify the
defining equations of the CPF solution corresponding to the optimal BF solution in the final
simplex tableau. (June/July 2014)

Coefficient of:

Basic Z x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 Right
Variable Side
Eq

Z (0) 1 0

x4 (1) 0 1 -1 -2

x3 (2) 0 0

x2 (3) 0 0
-

## 5. Explain queing notation with an example (June/July 2014)

6. Apply revised simplex method to solve the following problem: (Jan 2014)

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7. Max Z = 2x1 + x2
Subject to
3 x1 + 4 x2 6
6 x1 + x2 3 and x1, x2 0
8. Explain the need of studying queues. (Jan 2013)
9. Define i) Balking ii) Reneging iii) Jockling (Jan 2013)
10. Explain the following: (Jan.2014).
11. Solve the following LPP by revised simplex method: (June/July 2013)

## Max Z = x1 + 2x2 Subject

to
x1 + x2 3, x1 + 2x2 5, 3x1 + x2 6
and x1, x2 0
11 Explain the following: (June/July 2013)

i) Weak duality property ii) Strong duality property iii) Complementary solutions

property

## UNIT 5: Duality Theory and Sensitivity Analysis, Other Algorithms for LP

1. Construct the primal-dual table and the dual problem for the following linear programming
model fitting our standard form. (June/July 2015)

Maximize Z = 5 x1 + 4 x2 - x3 + 3 x4 subject
to
3 x1 + 2 x2 - 3 x3 + x4 24
3 x1 + 3 x2 + x3 + 3 x4 36 and
x1 0, x2 0, x3 0, x4 0.

## 2. Consider the following problem. (June/July 2015)

Maximize Z = 2 x1 - 1 x2 + 1 x3,
subject to
3 x1 + 1 x2 + 1 x3 60
1 x1 - 1 x2 + 2 x3 10
1 x1 + 1 x2 - 1 x3 20 and
x1 0, x2 0, x3 0.

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## 3. Consider the following problem. (Dec 2015)

Maximize Z = 2 x1 - 1 x2 + 1 x3,
subject to
3 x1 + 1 x2 + 1 x3 60
1 x1 - 1 x2 + 2 x3 10
1 x1 + 1 x2 - 1 x3 20
and
x1 0, x2 0, x3 0.

## 4. A commodity is to be supplied at a constant rate of 25 units per day. A penalty cost is

being changed at a rate of Rs. 10 per unit per day late for missing the scheduled delivery
date. The cost of carrying the commodity in inventory is Rs 16 per unit per month. The
production process is such that each month (30 days) a batch of items is started and are
available for delivery and time after the end of the month. Find the optimal level of
inventory at the beginning of each
month (Dec 2015)
5. Maximize Z = 3x1 + 2x2, (June/July
2014)
Subject to
x1 4 x1 + 3x2 15
2x1 + x2 10
and
x1 0, x2 0,
(a) Use the graphical method to solve this model.
(b) Use graphical analysis to determine the shadow price for each of these resources by solving
again after increasing the amount of the resource available by 1.

## 6. Solve the following LPP by using dual simplex method:

(Dec/Jan.2014)
Minimize Z = 10x1 + 6x2 + 2x3
Subject to x1 + x2 + x3 1
3x1 + x2 x3 2 and x1, x2, x3 0
7. Explain general procedure for sensitivity analysis.
(Dec/Jan.2014)
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8. Write any five key relationships between the primal and the dual problems. (June/July 2013)

## 9. Write the duals of the following LPPs. (June/July

2013)
i) Maximize Z = 7x1 + 4x2 + 5x3
Subject to the constraints
2x1 4x2 + 3x3 10, x1 + 3x2 + x3 6 and x1, x2, x3 0. ii)
Minimize Z = 3x1 + 2x2 + x3
Subject to the constraints
2x1 3x2 + x3 5,
4x1 2x2 9,
-8x1 + 4x2 + 3x3 = 8 and x1, x2 0 and x3 is unrestricted.
10. Solve the following LPP by dual simplex method: (Jan 2013)
Minimize Z = 2x1 + 2x2 + 4x3
Subject to the constraints
2x1 + 3x2 + 5x3 2,
3x1 + x2 + 7x3 3, x1 + 4x2 + 6x3 5 and x1, x2, x3 0.
12. Maximize Z = -5 x1 + 5 x2 + 13 x3, (Jan 2013)
subject to
-1 x1 + 1 x2 + 3 x3 20
12 x1 + 4 x2 + 10 x3 90
and
x1 0, x2 0, x3 0.

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## 4. Explain Hungarian algorithm with example.

(Dec.2013/Jan.2014)

5. The transportation costs per truck load of cement (in hundreds of rupees) from each plant to
each project site are as follows: (Jan.2014)

Determine the optimal distribution for the company so as to maximize the total transportation cost.
7. Solve the following assignment problem: (June/July 2013)

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## UNIT 7: Game Theory, Decision Analysis

1. For the game having the following payoff table, determine the optimal strategy for each
player by successively eliminating dominated strategies. (Indicate the order in which you
eliminated strategies.) (Jun/July 2015)

Player 2
Strategy 1 2 3

1 1 2 0
Player 1 2 2 -3 -2
3 0 3 -1

2. For the game having the following payoff table, use the graphical procedure to determine
the value of the game and the optimal mixed strategy for each player according to the
minimax criterion. (Jun/July
2015)

Player 2

Strategy 1 2 3

1 1 -1 3

Player 1 2 0 4 1

3 3 -2 5

4 -3 6 -2

3. Two players I and II throw a die on a table the strategy is has follows find the game
(Jan.2014)

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## 4. With reference to game theory define the following, with an example:

(Jan.2014)
(i) Pure strategy (ii) Mixed strategy (iii) Saddle point (iv) Payoff matrix (v) Two-person-zero-
sum- game
5. Define the following with respect to games: (June/July 2013)
i) Pay-off ii) Zero-sum game iii) Saddle point.
6. Solve the following game by Dominance principle: (June/July 2013)

## 7. Write a short note on decision trees. (June/July 2013)

UNIT 8: Metaheuristics
1.Explain briefly tabu search and simulated annealing (June/July 2015)
2. Write a note on tabu search (Dec 2015)
3. Write a note Genetic algorithm (Dec 2015)
4. Write the algorithm for tabu search (June/July 2014)
5. Explain briefly the following: (Jan.2014)

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## Tabu search algorithm

Genetic algorithm
Metaheuristics
Simulated Annealing algorithm

6. Write the outline of a basic tabu search algorithm. Explain it with the help of a minimum spanning
tree problem with constraints. (June/July 2013)
7. Write short notes on: (June/July 2013)
i) Simulated annealing; ii) Genetic algorithms.
Solution: Refer solution of question 1

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