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A. Background
As a social creature people need to interact one each other, to
communicate one each other there are some method such as spoken
communication, written communication, gesture, visual, signal, or by multi
media. We use spoken communication, gesture; signal if the receiver is near with
us, so we can exactly give them message without any mediator. But what we have
to do, if the receiver is far away from us, separated by time and distance. There
are three ways to send receiver the message by written communication, visual and
multimedia; nonetheless, there is just one model of communication that can
deliver a formal message, it is written communication.
Students and professional now a day realize that written communication is
important, because it can bring them into a success. There are many kinds of
letter, such as letters, reports, proposal, case analysis, resumes, etc. in this paper
the writer going to explain one of model written communication; it is letter,
especially in business letter.

B. problem formulation
1. What are business letters?
2. How to make good business letters?
3. What should we do to write business letters?

C. Destination
1. To know the definition of business letter.
2. To know the format, and part of business letter
3. To know steps to make good business letter.



A. What Business Letters Are

1. The definition of business letters.
Business letters are formal paper communications between, to or from
business and usually send trough post office or sometimes by courier. Business
letter are sometimes called snail-mail (in contrast to email which is faster). 1

Like another kind of communication, letter should be well-planned. Depend on

the purpose there are four kind of business letters; letter, memo, fax and e-mail.
2. Who writes business letters?
Most people who have an occupation write business letters. Some of them
write letter every day, sometimes, or just write only when they want to apply
application to get some job. Business letter are written from person or group
known as the sender as person or group. the example of sender and recipient:
business <> business
business <> consumer
job applicant <> company
citizen <> government official
employer <> employee
staff member <> staff member
3. Why write business letters?
The variety of reasons why business letters have to be written is huge, as is
the variety of circumstances which necessitate them. And, of course, much
depends on the activities in which a particular enterprise is engaged and on the
work performed by a particular executive or other employee.
There are many reasons why you may need to write business letters or
other correspondence:
to persuade

Arifin, Tajul.(2009),English For Business, Gunung Djati Prees, Bandung. Hal, 1

to inform
to request
to express thanks
to remind
to recommend
to apologize
to congratulate
to reject a proposal or offer
to introduce a person or policy
to invite or welcome
to follow up
to formalize decision
4. How to make effective business letters

The message is said to be effective when the receiver understands the

same meaning that the sender was intended to convey. For any communication in
business, in order to be effective, it must have five qualities. These five attributes
are called seven Cs of effective business communication. (All these attribute
starts with the alphabet C so are called 5 Cs)2

1. Clarity

Clarity demands the use of simple language and easy sentence structure in
composing the message. When there is clarity in presenting ideas, its easy for the
receiver/decoder to grasp the meaning being conveyed by the sender/encoder.

Clarity makes comprehension easier.

2. Conciseness

Imani Anugrah. English Business Interaction,Sagara Publishing, Bandung. Hal;19

A concise message saves time of both the sender and the
receiver. Conciseness, in a business message, can be achieved by avoiding wordy
expressions and repetition. Using brief and to the point sentences, including
relevant material makes the message concise. Achieving conciseness does not
mean to loose completeness of message.

Conciseness saves time.

3. Courtesy

In business, almost everything starts and ends in courtesy. Courtesy

means not only thinking about receiver but also valuing his feelings. Much
can be achieved by using polite words and gestures, being appreciative,
thoughtful, tactful, and showing respect to the receiver. Courtesy builds

Courtesy strengthen relations.

4. Completeness

By completeness means the message must bear all the necessary

information to bring the response you desire. The sender should answer all the
questions and with facts and figures. and when desirable, go for extra details.

Completeness brings the desired response

5. Correctness

At the time of encoding, if the encoder has comprehensive knowledge

about the decoder of message, it makes the communication an ease. The encoder
should know the status, knowledge and educational background of the
decoder. Correctness means:

Use the right level of language

Correct use of grammar, spelling and punctuation
Accuracy in stating facts and figure

B. How to make business letters.

1. business letter format
There are certain standards for formatting a business letters, though some
variation are acceptable ( for example between European and north American
business English letters. here are some basic guidelines:
Use A4 ( European) or 8 X 11 inch ( north American) paper or
use 2.5 cm or 1 inch on all four sides\
use a simple font such as times new roman or Arial
use 10-12 point font
use a comma after a salutation (Dear Mr. Born,)
lay out the paper so it fits the paper appropriately
single space within paragraph
double space between paragraph
double space between last sentence and closing (sincerely, best wishes)
leave three to five space for a handwritten signature
cc: (meaning copies to) comes after the typed name (if necessary)
enc: (meaning enclosure) comes next (if necessary)
fold in three (horizontally) before placing in the envelope
use right ragged formatting (not justified on right side).3

2. Formatting Envelopes for Business Letters

It is best to type an envelope for a business letter. Most word document

programs contain an envelope labeling function to help you. All you need to do is

Arifin, Tajul.(2009),English For Business, Gunung Djati Prees, Bandung. Hal, 1

indicate the size of envelope you are using and type the correct information in the
appropriate fields, for example:

Ms. Maggie Jones
Angel Cosmetics Inc.
110 East 25th Street
New York
NY 10021

3. Formatting Business Email

When using email in business, most of the guidelines for standard

formatting in business letters apply. Here are a few differences:

Choose a subject line that is simple and straightforward. Refrain

from using key words that might cause an email to go into another
person's trash box.
Repeat the subject line in the body of the email, beneath the
salutation (as with a letter).
Use the "cc" address line to copy more than one person with your
You can request a receipt for important letters. The system will
automatically let you know when someone has opened your email.

Instead of a signature, include your typed name, and below it
include your email address, business name and address, phone and
fax number, and website if appropriate.
Remember that people often print out emails, so your own email
address and the subject line would be lost if you had not included
them in the body of the email.
Internal electronic mail may be formatted more like a memo than a
formal letter.
Repeat the subject line in the body of the email, beneath the
salutation (as with a letter).
Use the "cc" address line to copy more than one person with your
You can request a receipt for important letters. The system will
automatically let you know when someone has opened your email.
Instead of a signature, include your typed name, and below it
include your email address, business name and address, phone and
fax number, and website if appropriate.
Remember that people often print out emails, so your own email
address and the subject line would be lost if you had not included
them in the body of the email
Internal electronic mail may be formatted more like a memo than a
formal letter.

4. Formatting Business Memos

Memos are short internal business letters, sent to other staff within the
same company. A memo (or memorandum) may also be posted somewhere inside
a company for all to see. Memos are becoming less common as electronic mail
becomes more common. In contrast to letters, memos do not usually contain
salutations or closings, and may be typed or hand-written. The text portion of the

memo is generally in block format. Memos should include "From", "To", "Date",
"Subject" and the message itself, like this:

Company logo


From: [name or initials]

To: [name or initials]


Subject: [short description]

Message starts here...


C. What should we do before making business letters?

1. Planning business letters.
Business letter are not place for chit chat, because it is formal. Unlike
business conversation which sometimes takes small talks to break the ice. a
business letter must be clear and concise. before going to make some business
letter, you have to take the time to make a planning, because you will save the
time in the writing and proofreading stage. During the planning stage, ask yourself

for some question. jot down your answer to create an outline before you start
Who am I writing this letter to?
Identifying your audience always comes first. Are you writing to more
than one person, to someone you dont know, or someone you have known
for a long time? This will help you determine how formal the letter needs
to be, you need to introduce yourself briefly in the letter if the recipient
doesnt know you. you may also to find out the up dated address and title
of the recipient. This is the good time to confirm the correct spelling of
first and last name.
Remember that each reader has an attitude. How can you turn your
readers attitude to your advantages?
Take into account your reader level of knowledge. Are writing to
someone you have known for years or to someone you may never meet?
Every reader has needs and expectations. Try to full fill these as well as
you can. Do they need everything spelt out to the letter, or will clear
explanations and straightforward language be best?
Is your reader from different culture?

Why am I writing this letter?

The main reason for the letter should be understood from the subject line
and first few sentence. you may cover more than one thing n one business
letter. Identify your main goal and what you hope to accomplish. There are
some example reason why people write business letter such as:
To confirm an agreement or appointment.
To persuade someone or sell something.
To give information or answer enquiries.
To request information or action.
To justify something
To report on progress
To apologize for something

To offer sympathy

Are there specific detail I need o include?

Gather any date, address, names, prices, times of other information that
you may need to include before you write your letter. double checklist
details rather than relying in your memory.
Do I require a response?
Some business letter needs a response. Determine whether or not you need
a response or an action from the recipient. Your request or requirement
should be clear. In some cases you may need to provide a deadline for
recipient. If you do require a response, how should the recipient contact
you? Indicate this information clearly. You may want to provide more than
one option, such as an e-mail address and a phone number.
How can I organize my points logically?
Think about how you would organize your thought if you were speaking
rather than writing to the recipient. First you would introduce yourself
clearly. Second you would state concern or reason for writing. After the
main content of your letter you would include the information on how you
can be contacted. The end of the letter is also place to express gratitude,
wish good luck, or offer sympathy. Here is an example an outline:
The example :
Repi Pramuja Diansyah
Title : president , Great Formula Solution
Adrress: Hj. Saodah Street 125 B, Bandung, INDONESIA
To apply a job as an English teacher
saw an announcement in the web that GFS need a new English teacher
Reference to resume what your qualification is
How applicant's past experience indicate general abilities

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How past experiences matches company specific needs.
Availability for interview
When can meeting be arranged
Return address of our home
Repi Pramuja diansyah title and address
Salutation : Dear Mr. Repi
First paragraph: introduce myself briefly remind Repi where you know
the announcement. Provide your reason for writing: recent article in the
wall street journal and other publications that the great formula solution is
planning a new English teacher.
Second paragraph: Explain about your curriculum Vitae or resume, how
do you past your experiences indicate general abilities, and then make it
more specific by giving explanation how your past experiences match with
companys specific needs.
Third paragraph: provide deadline for response and how to contact me.
2. writing business letters
The term business letter makes people nervous, many people with
English as a second language worry that their writing is not advanced enough for
business writing. The easier letter is to read, the better. You will need to use
smooth transition so that your sentences do not appear too choppy.
1. salutation
First and foremost, make sure that you spell the recipient name correctly.
you should also confirm the gender and proper title. Use Ms. for woman and Mr.
for men. if you are 100% sure that women is married. If you dont know the name
of person and cannot find this information out you may write to whom it may
concern. it is standard to use a comma after the salutation. it is also possible to
use no punctuation mark at all. here is some common ways to address the
Dear Mr Powell,

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Dear Frederick Hanson:
Dear Madam
2. first paragraph
In most type of business letter it is common to use friendly greeting in the
first sentence of the letter. Here are some examples:
I hope you enjoying a fun summer
Thank you for kind letter of January 5th.
I appreciate your patience in waiting for response.

After your short opening, state the main point of your letter in one or two

Im writing to enquire about...

Im interesting in the job opening posted on your company website
3. second and third paragraph
use few short paragraph to go into a greater about your main point. If one
paragraph is all you need, dont write an extra paragraph just to make your letter
look longer. If you are including sensitive material, such as rejecting an offer or
incoming an employee of lay out period, embed this sentence in second paragraph
rather than opening with it.
4. final paragraph
Your last paragraph should include request, reminders, and notes on
enclosures. If necessary, your contact information should also in this paragraph.
Here are some common phrases used when closing business letter:
I look forward to...
Please respond at your earliest convenience.
If you require more information.
5. closing

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Here are some common ways to close a letter. Use a comma between the
closing and your handwritten name. If you do not use a comma or colon in your
salutation, leave out the comma after the closing phrase.

your truly,
your sincerely,
Best Wishes.
The example:

Vice-President of Sales
PT. Loker Seni
Jl. Cinta
Jakarta Selatan

I am applying for a position as Sales Manager with your company, as I feel my

background in developing a sales department will be of interest to you.
As my resume indicates, I joined PT. Loker Seni., in the capacity of trainee and
moved up the ladder to my current position of Sales Manager. In each year of my
employment, I was successful in opening news account, penetrating existing ones,
and reopening closed business. As a result, I was responsible for sales increase of
20% to 25%.
As sales manager I was involved in recruiting, training, and supervising a staff of
120 salespeople and was responsible for sales worldwide.
I am looking forward to meeting you. When can we set up an appointment for an
interview? I may be reached at 021-7856729.


Youre Name

3. writing tips
Here are some tips to make a good business letter
Use a conversational tone
Ask direct question

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Double-check gender and spelling of names
Use active voice whenever possible
Use polite modals
Always refer to your self
Dont use we, unless its clear exactly who the pronoun refers to.
Rewrite any sentence or request that sounds vague
Dont forget to include the date.
4. proofreading

Proofreading means to read a text carefully, to check it for errors and general tone.
You should always proofread a business letter before sending it.

1. Did you read the letter out loud?

2. Did you allow some time to pass after writing the letter before to
proofreading it?
3. Did you request, mix, concern, clear?
4. Are there any long sentences that need to be broken into two?
5. Do you use we?
6. Do all questions contain a question mark?
7. Did you include the date?
8. Did you spell the recipient name correctly?
9. Have you used a standard business format?
10. Have you used passive sentences that could be change to active one?
11. Have you used standard spelling?
12. If it is an important letter, did someone else read it for you?

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A. Summary
Business letter is kind of some written communications that very
important for all students and professional which have occupation. Business letter
should be clear and concise. Thats way we have to plan it well. There are some
types of letter such as letter of inquiry, information letter, persuasive letter,
sample sales letter, and the job inquiry letter.
Every business letter-writer needs to process a good vocabulary. That term
refers to the number of words which a person knows well, and can use correctly in
speaking and writing. A good vocabulary should be enabling you to write
business letter in language which is clear and interesting. And which will
encourage each address to read letter. If an address became bored and distracted,
he or she might not continue his reading.

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Imani Anugrah. English Business Interaction,Sagara Publishing, Bandung.

Arifin, Tajul.(2009),English For Business, Gunung Djati Prees, Bandung.

Robbins, Larry.M.91996). The Business Of Writing And Speaking, Th Mcgraw-
Hill Commpanies,Inc. University Pennsylvania
The Cambridge university.PDF

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