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Relative Clauses


Relative Clauses 2

1. Defining Relative Clause

1.) adjective noun

2.) comma noun relative clause
The man came here yesterday.
relative clause
The man who works in your office came here yesterday.

The house that stands at the end of the street is very old.
( relative clause ()
relative clause

2. Non-defining relative Clause

3.) relative pronouns who which that

James Smith , who lives next door , came here yesterday.

( relative clause who lives next door

James Smith )
Defining Relative Clause

1.1 )
(Persons) who (= that
We like the woman who teaches us German. 2
= We like the woman. The woman teaches us German.
who the woman subject verb teaches
** relative clause

(animals or things) that (= ) which
The car that is going past now belongs to me.

The car belongs to me. The car is going past now.
that the car subject verb is
= We went to the shop that sells ready-made clothes.
= Ive just had some soup that tasted like water.
= Books that are written for students are called textbooks.

(Object of the verb)
2.1 )
(Persons) whom (=
The lady (that or whom) you met last week came here yesterday.
The lady came here yesterday. You met the lady last week.
the lady object verb met
The man (that or whom) you spoke to last night is my boyfriend.
The man is my boyfriend. You spoke to the man last night.
the man object verb spoke to
(animals or things) that which
The composition (that) you wrote yesterday was good.

The composition was good. You wrote the composition yesterday.
the composition object verb wrote
** relative pronoun object verb relative pronoun

The teacher I love is ill today. (subject + verb relative pronoun )
The friend he met at school went abroad.
The house we have just bought cost a million baht.
The dress you made yesterday was beautiful.
I like the photo you took at Hua-Hin.
3) (Object of preposition)
relative pronoun object preposition
subject + verb + proposition
The woman the book was written by is in hospital now.
The woman is in hospital now. The book was written by the woman.
** the woman object preposition by
(animals or things)
The bridge they went over a few minutes ago was built in 1970.
The bridge was built in 1970. They went over the bridge a few minutes ago.

= The pen that you are using with is cheap.

The pen which you are using with is cheap.
The pen with which you are using is cheap.( )
The pen you are using with is cheap.

** preposition + that preposition + which

at/ in + which = where ( )
for + which = why ( )
on / at + which = when ( )
I have not fixed the date on which Ill go abroad.
(= I have not fixed the date when Ill go abroad.)
Are those reasons for which you choose to go to Africa instead of America?
(=Are those reason why you choose to go to Africa instead of America?)
This is the town in which I used to live.
(=This is the town where I used to live.)
What was the date on which you visited me?
(= What was the date when you visited me?)
The time at which he heard the sound of the gun is not known.
(=The time when he heard the sound of the gun is not known.)
She could not know the reason for which her close friend had left her.
(=She could not know the reason why her close friend had left her.)
This is the time of year in which the flowers appear.
(=This is the time of the year when the flowers appear.)
This is the place at which I found your watch.
(=This is the place where I found your watch.)

4. (Possessive)
The boy is my cousin. The boys hat hangs here.
= The boy whose hat hangs here is my cousin.
This is the man. I am going to marry his daughter.
= This is the man whose daughter I am going to marry.
** Whose relative clause


= whose + noun + (subject) + verb

4.2.1 of which

Pass me the book. Its cover is red.

= Pass me the book of which the cover is red.
of which + subject + verb ..
of which
4.2.2 with + noun
Pass me the book. Its cover is red.
= Pass me the book with the red cover.
Please buy me a cat. Its tail is long.
= Please buy me a cat with a long tail.
.with + (article) + adjective + noun ..

The girl with long hair is my sister.
The box whose lid you painted cost 20 dollars.
The dog whose tail is short is very fierce.

relative pronoun that who which
1. (Superlative Adjective)
He is the cleverest boy that has ever studied in this college.
This is the hardest problem that I have ever had to face.
That is the biggest elephant that I have ever seen.

2. (ordinal Numbers)
This is the second car that broke down.
The first thing that you must do is to help him at once.

everybody , everyone , anyone , anybody , someone , nobody , no , one , all , none ,
any , some , littel , much , few , everything , anything , nothing , only , very , Its
Everything (that) I do seem to be wrong.
Everyonr that knew her liked her.
This is the only example that I can give you.
It was a clever boy that found the stolen goods.

Non-defining relative Clause

1. clause

2. comma ( clause)
3. that clause who , which , whom , whose
Jim Smith , who lives next door , is coming to see you.
Jim Smith

who lives next

My uncle John, who owns a department store , is very rich.

1. Subject
1.1 Persons who

a) Charles Dickens was a very famous writer . He wrote Oliver Twist.
= Charles Dickens , who wrote Oliver Twist , was very famous writer.
b) Mr. John Brown received a reward. He got high marks in the final exam.
= Mr. John Brown ,who got high marks in th final exam, recieved a reward.
c) My friends uncle has gone to Paris. He works at the Ministry of Education.
= My friends uncle,who works at the Ministry of Education,has gone to Paris.

1.2 things which

a) Bangkok is very crowded. Bangkok is the capital of Thailand.
= Bangkok , which is the capital of Thailand, is very crowded.
b) Chiang Mai is a fantastic city. Its in the north of Thailand.
= Chiang Mai , which is in the North of Thailand, is a fantastic city.
c) I always read Thairath . It is a famous newspaper.
= I always read Thairath , which is a famous newspaper.

2. Object of the verb

2.1 Persons whom object ( whom )
a) Peter Gray is coming to see you. I met him in Wellington.
= Perter Gray , whom I met in Wellingon , is coming to see you.
b) Your girlfriend Jane came to see me. I really like her.
= Youir girlfriend Jane , whom I really like , came to see me.
c) David and Martin have arrived. I mentioned them to you.
= David and Martin , whom I mentioned to you , have arrived.

2.2 things which

object ( which )
a) White elephants are rare. Thai people present them to the King.
= White elephants , which Thai people present to the King , are rare.
b ) Thai rice isnt expensive. Most people like it.
= Thai rice , which most people like , isnt expensive.
c) Dream World is famous for children. I visited Dream World last week.
= Dream World , which I visited last week , is famous for children.
3. Object of the preposition
3.1 Persons
, whom + subject + verb..+preposition
.., preposition + whom + subject + verb ,

a) Tommayantee is a writer. You spoke to her yesterday.

= Tommayantee , whom you spoke to yesterday , is a writer.
= Tommayantee , to whom you spoke yesterday , is a writer.
b) Mr. Vinai is my teacher. You borrowed a pen from him.
= Mr. Vinai , whom you borrowed a pen from , is my teacher.
= Mr. Vinai , from whom you borrowed a pen , is my teacher.

3.2 Things
..,which +subject + verb.preposition,..
,preposition +which +subject + verb,

a) Thonburi is our former capital . Weve just learnt about it.
= Thonburi , which weve just learnt about , is our former capital.
= Thonburi , about which weve just learnt , is our former capital.
b) The Oriental Hotel is very big. I stayed at it last night.
= The Oriental Hotel , which I stayed at last night , is very big.
= The Oriental Hotel , at which I stayed last night , is very big.
(=The Oriental Hotel , where I stayed last night , is very big.) ()
c) The White House is in Washington D.C.The President of America lives in it.
= The White House , which the President lives in , is in Washington D.C.
= The White House , in which the President lives, is in Washington D.C.
(= The White House , where the President lives , is in Washington D.C.)

4. Possessive
4.1 Persons whose
a) My eldest brother has just got married. You saw his girlfriend last Sunday.
= My eldest brother , whose girlfriend you saw last Sunday , has just got married.
b) Krisana writes novels. Her picture was in the paper.
= Krisana , whose picture was in the paper , writes novels.

4.2 Things of which with + adjective + noun

1. which
a) My uncles house is on Silom Road. The window of it is 2.
= My uncles house , of which the window is brown , is on Silom
3. whoRoad.
( My uncles house with the broken window is on Silom4.Road.)
Choose the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose). 5. who
6. who
1. This is the bank _________ was robbed yesterday. 7. which
2. A boy _________ sister is in my class was in the bank 8. at
whothat time.
3. The man _________ robbed the bank had two pistols. 9. whose
4. He wore a mask _________ made him look like Mickey 10. Mouse.whose
5. He came with a friend _________ waited outside in the 11. car. which
6. The woman _________ gave him the money was young. 12. whose
7. The bag _________ contained the money was yellow. 13. who
8. The people _________ were in the bank were very frightened.
14. which
9. A man _________ mobile was ringing did not know what 15. to do.
10. A woman _________ daughter was crying tried to calm her.
11. The car _________ the bank robbers escaped in was orange.
12. The robber _________ mask was obviously too big didnt drive.
13. The man _________ drove the car was nervous.
14. He didnt wait at the traffic lights _________ were red.
15. A police officer _________ car was parked at the next corner stopped
and arrested them