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R.I.

SER Stress-Engineering-AssessmentTM
US Patents 7155369, 7231320, 7240010, 7403871, 8050874, 8086425, 8428910 and others pending

RiserSEA-Note2v2
To manage Risk effectively you must
July 2013
See what the Ocean, the Well and the Equipment seeTM
www.riserinc.com
Also see
RiserSEA-Note1

Manage a healthy level of controlled


Risk using R.I.SER Patented, Field-
Proven and Certified Technology
within the existing workflow and without
the need for additional personnel.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
This is what the OCTG endures courtesy of the ocean, the Well and the Equipment
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Marine Drilling Riser Risk Management - a RiserSEATM definition

API 16Q 3.1 The purpose of the maximum stress analysis is to ensure that the riser is strong enough to support the maximum
design loads while keeping the maximum stress below the allowable stresses.
This section applies equally to the design of a new riser system or the site specific evaluation of an existing (used) riser
system (and the COC). API 16Q Table 3.1 All stresses in Table 3.1 refer to the von Mises Stress-Criterion.

API 16F 5.4 The analysis shall provide peak stresses, and shall include effects of wear, corrosion, friction, and
manufacturing tolerances. (Wear and Corrosion is found on used Risers through full-length inspection, not spot-checks)

ABS Guide for the certification of drilling systems 9.1 The riser is to be so designed that the maximum stress intensity for
the operating modes, as described in API RP 16Q, is not exceeded.

Riser Risk Management should acquire a sufficient number of good quality specific data for
the calculation of maximum Riser stresses and should monitor deployment parameters to verify
that the actual stresses do not exceed the allowable stresses under the deployment Loads.

The Riser owner is responsible for the calculation and monitoring of the maximum Riser
stresses to assure that a Failure limit is not exceeded during deployment. Any Inspection or a
Riser OEM Certificate-of-Compliance (COC) does not shift that responsibility to anyone else.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
New Marine Drilling Riser spot-check Inspection is inappropriate for Used Risers

Riser OEM inspection focuses on New (flawless) Riser. Therefore, it is limited to a few spot-checks (per
Purchase Order) using low-cost prove-up techniques that are unfit for full-length field inspection (Visual, Dim.,

X-Ray, Ultrasonic (UT), TOFD, Eddy Current (EC), Mag-Particle (MPI) etc). The simplicity and low-cost of the

spot-checks has resulted in a number of Riser inspection companies offering spot-checks instead of the
appropriate full-length inspection for used Risers a lurking root-cause of the next disaster.

The Riser OEMs and Riser inspection companies do not acquire data that can be used toward
the calculation of maximum Riser stresses per API 16Q, API 16F, ABS, DNV etc. Furthermore,
most (not all) state clearly what their spot-checks consist of. Due-diligence should classify spot-
checks as inappropriate and inadequate for used Riser inspection (or any other used OCTG). Also
notice that nobody relies on the pipe mill (OEM) for used Drill Pipe or used Casing inspection.

Typical Riser spot-check coverage is less than 1% (based on Riser OEM and Riser inspection
brochures). With the condition of 99% of the used Riser still unknown after the spot-checks, the

Riser owner would then have to explain how that does not fall well below ordinary care.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Riser Modeling & Analysis

There are many Engineering Firms that offer Riser Modeling & Analysis. They all use sophisticated
software and colorful graphics to distinguish themselves from the others. However, they all have one thing
in common: They do not acquire or use any Riser joint specific data like RiserSEA does.

As carried out today, all other Riser Modeling & Analysis is based on the properties of an ideal Riser
material that is: a) Linearly Elastic; b) Homogeneous (having the same material properties at all points); c)
Isotropic (having the same properties at all directions) and d) having a Circular cross-sectional-area throughout
the Length that is also Constant. These assumptions simplify the Riser Analysis while it is further assumed
that any unknowns, errors and omissions are covered when the calculated (Ideal) Riser maximum stresses
do not exceed 0.67 of the material specified minimum yield strength.

However, under extreme, abnormal and survival conditions the knowledge of the actual strength of the
weakest riser joint in the string becomes the key to survival (notice that ideal material Riser is never present in a
Riser string). Furthermore, Fatigue calculations must account for the details of each Riser joint along with the

deployment environment. Since Fatigue is cumulative, ignoring those details may lead to a significant
underestimation of the actual Fatigue; another lurking root-cause of the next disaster.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
RiserSEATM Modeling & Analysis of the actual as-is Riser joint

RiserSEA was designed from the ground up toward the acquisition of high-resolution 3D Riser data that
are sufficient*1 (full length - 100% inspection coverage) for the calculation of maximum Riser stresses and a von
Mises Failure-Criterion as specified in API 16Q (Table 3.1), API 16F (B2), API 579-1/ASME FFS-1
(B1.2.2) , ABS (9.1), AMJIG (I.8.1.3), DNV RP-F206, DNV OSS-302 and other standards and practices.

RiserSEA generates a Finite-Element-Analysis (FEA) model of the as-is Riser joint for the calculation of
maximum Riser stresses. The RiserSEA FEA is based on data derived by the 3D-FEI Flaw Spectrum*2
through NeuroFuzzy techniques that include: a) Feature Duration; b) Complex Features; c) Welds (since
1992, STYLWAN 3D-FEI has scanned thousands of welds enduring cycles of plastic deformation without a single failure); d)

Fatigue; e) Crack-like-Imperfections; f) Pitting; g) Critically-Flawed-AreaTM (CFATM); h) 3-d & 3-D (grooves,


gauges, keyseat); i) Hardness changes; j) Wall Thickness and k) 3-G (Geometry, Deformation).

Only RiserSEA confirms in 3 simple steps (Scan, Measure, Analyze) that the as-is Riser joint is still Fit-For-
Service (FFS) and identifies the weakest riser joint in the Riser string.

*1 Beware that the validity of any stress calculations and FFS declines rapidly with less than 100% inspection coverage.
*2 Three-Dimensional Finite-Element-Inspection (3D-FEI) and Flaw Spectrum are Trademark of STYLWAN.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
See what the Ocean, the Well and the Equipment see in 3 simple steps

1. SCAN
No OCTG cleaning or special preparation is required

2. MEASURE
The Highest production rate in the industry Von Mises

3. ANALYZE
The only field optimized full-length 3D Inspection for new or used Risers
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
The Flaw SpectrumTM

The Flaw SpectrumTM is calculated from the 3D-FEI data. The 3D-FEI data are derived from the
3D-MRI sensor array signals that are continuously related in Form, Kind, Space and Time. Pattern
Recognition uses Identifier Equations and Fuzzy Logic to process and condense the Flaw Spectrum
to a few traces (like the FEAV79-DNATM below) for presentation in reports and export to FEA.

FEAV79-DNATM correlation with API 579-1 / ASME FFS-1 for simple Imperfections

FEAV79-Defect-Numerical-Analysis*1 API 579-1 / ASME FFS-1*2


STYLWAN Trademark sequence and color Assessment of

Critical-Thickness-Path (CTP), Critical-Flawed-Path (CFP), thickness changes, Section 4: General Metal Loss
3-W Taper, Key seat, Rodwear, Corrosion- bands, Neck-down, Wear Section 5: Local Metal Loss*3
Section 5: Local Metal Loss
Metallurgy, Hardness changes, Mechanical damage, Corrosion, H2S type
3-T pitting, gouges, groove-like-flaws, Critically-Flawed-Areas (CFA)
Section 6: Pitting Corrosion*3
Section 7: Blisters, Laminations
Section 6: Pitting Corrosion
CFA, 1/8", pit-like-flaws, crack initiation seeds, visible Cracks
2-T Default for failure to calculate
Section 9: Crack-Like-Flaws
Appendix F: Fatigue
*1 The FEAV79-DNA is not like a chemical analysis where the individual components of a compound are separated. Instead, it is closer to a
DNA signature where a certain pattern identifies a specific individual (see US Patent 7155369).

*2 See API 579-1 / ASME FFS-1 chapters for detailed Assessment information.

*3 See API 579-1 / ASME FFS-1 formula (4.1) for the recommended minimum number of wall thickness readings.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
RiserSEA Flaw SpectrumTM
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Riser spot-checks vs. RiserSEA

Reference Weld A number of Riser joints developed significant weld cracks*3 around 15% of

*2 their expected Fatigue life. RiserSEA scan (Bottom) detected a very wide Heat-
Affected-Zone (HAZ) *5 and significant Hardness changes*6 (Stavanger, Norway -

February 2011). A Reference trace of a new Riser Weld is shown on the Top. Both
traces show no detectable Fatigue*4.

From the traces, it is reasonable to conclude that the wider HAZ (Duration) is
*4
the result of overheating the base metal and the Cracks are the result of the
Hardness changes since there is no detectable Fatigue. It should also be noted that
Failed Weld
Hardness-induced-Cracks may not form (and therefore cannot be detected by spot-
*6 checks) on new Riser but initiate and propagate rapidly even with the application of
insignificant loads leading to an increased Infant Mortality.
*5
Yet another lurking Failure-seed that passed the Riser OEM spot-checks and it is
not detectable otherwise until a Failure. Detection and Recognition of lurking
*3
*4 Failure-seeds sets RiserSEA apart from all others.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Riser spot-checks vs. RiserSEA

Following the failure of C&K lines during pressure


testing, R.I.SER detected multiple mid-wall
imperfections (above left). Their Flaw SpectrumTM pattern
matched the pattern of the mid-wall imperfections on the
failed joints. Prior to the installation, a full length UT
facility had inspected the joints. Apparently, the mid-wall
imperfections did not generate sufficient echoes. All
joints were replaced (Houston, TX September 2002).

It is readily apparent in the Flaw SpectrumTM that the


pattern of the mid-wall imperfections is not related to the
pattern of the man-made UT calibration notches (bottom
left). Notice that the RiserSEA pattern based recognition

would always alert the inspector about the mid-wall


imperfections regardless of the signal magnitude.
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Riser spot-checks vs. RiserSEA

Following the field inspection of 29 riser joints and one telescopic, the
rig superintendent sent out certain joints for re-inspection by the OEM.
The results revealed that R.I.SER offers a superior inspection at a fraction
of the time and cost (Pascagoula, MS July 2001).

During a baseline inspection of new riser joints, R.I.SER detected that


the Booster wall was around 0.380 instead of the specified 0.500.
Detection of this discrepancy at a later time would have erroneously
attributed the reduced wall thickness to wear (Houston, TX February 2001).

A 7.0x0.175 weld crack was detected on a 0.625 MT (28%). A


Riser inspection TOFD failed to detect the clearly marked crack and
gave up after 2 hours of trying. This is not unexpected for TOFD as any
surface cracks fall within one of the two TOFD known Dead-Zones; the
near-surface dead-zone due to lateral waves and the far-surface dead-zone
due to Echoes. (Houston, TX July 2002).
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Riser spot-checks vs. Maximum Riser Stresses during Deployment

R.I.SER detected a significant undercut in the ID Box-end flange weldment of


many new Riser joints (top left). It appears that the Riser OEM removed some weld
cracks from the weld ID and added weld on the OD to meet the wall thickness
specification of the Purchase Order (New Iberia, La - June 2000). The Wall thickness was
within specifications (8% wall loss) while the offset from the ID toward the OD was
significant (26.7%). This stress concentrator was severe enough for R.I.SER to mark
it as an area of concern (Bottom: Different OEM , similar issue - Cape Town, SA May 2011).

However, despite the FEA warning (middle left), the Riser OEM declared this
weld acceptable as it met the minimum wall thickness specifications of the Purchase-
Orders, "the only specification in effect.

On March 2010, the DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (Docket No.
PHMSA-2010-0078) warns about this type of stress concentrator in pipelines.
Pipelines do not endure VIV Marine Drilling Risers do!
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Combining Riser OEM spot-checks with Riser Modeling & Analysis

An incident investigation revealed that a Riser


OEM Visual and UT spot-checks detected only 8 of
keyseat which agreed with the predictions of the
Riser Model at extreme angles that did not occur.

The incident remained unexplained until R.I.SER


high resolution full-length 3D Inspection and 100%
coverage detected 34 of shallow keyseat and the out
of specification material.

As it turned out, the Riser model erroneous


assumptions were partially based on the Riser OEM
spot-checks (Broussard, La June 1999).

This model erroneous assumptions were then corrected based on the R.I.SER full length inspection
precise results. What about all other Riser Modeling & Analysis software? What data are they based on?
R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-Assessment
Application Examples

Production Record:
2 Inspectors
32 75 joints
in 5 hours

No Riser cleaning or special preparation is required


R.I.SER Stress-Engineering-AssessmentTM
US Patents 7155369, 7231320, 7240010, 7403871, 8050874, 8086425, 8428910 and others pending
DNV certificates HIO-00-0077, HIO-02-1347, HIO-02-1348, HIO-02-1349, HIO-02-1350

The highest production rate in the industry


Minimum Rig downtime
110 or 220Vac Dual offshore system
about 300W designed for air transport, about 100Kg

When Riser Integrity is a concern,


RiserSEA is the only option.