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BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION
to be submitted to Mumbai University, Mumbai for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Telecommunication
By Group No: 17
Sarvesh Desai .... 711 Jitendra Naik .... 735 Girish Patil .... 739 Guide : Prof. P.N.Sonar
Manjra Charitable Trust’s
RAJIV GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Juhu Versova Link Road,Versova,Andheri(w),Mumbai-53.
Fingerprints are believed to be unique across individuals and across ﬁngers of same individual. etc. save and delete operations. are believed to have diﬀerent ﬁngerprints. The characteristics are measurable and unique. We use keypad to log name and to perform read. Humans have used ﬁngerprints for personal identiﬁcation for centuries and the validity of ﬁngerprint identiﬁcation has been well established. The most commonly used minutiae in current ﬁngerprint recognition technologies are ridge endings and bifurcations because they can be easily detected by only looking at points that surround them. These observations have led to the increased use of automatic ﬁngerprintbased identiﬁcation in both civilian and law-enforcement applications. Due to the increasing need for securing data and places. Even identical twins having similar DNA. Many classiﬁcations are given to patterns that can arise in the ridges . room.Biometrics oﬀer automated methods of identity veriﬁcation or identiﬁcation on the principle of measurable physiological or behavioral characteristics such as a ﬁngerprint. corporate world.1 Abstract Security is becoming increasingly important in many facets of society. authentication results are displayed via two color LED’s. and eﬃcient device that can be used to secure doorways throughout a complex. This computer then performs the ﬁltering and authentication and sends the result back over Ethernet to the microcontroller. via some form of biometric authentication. and personal lives. This data is captured through use of an PIC 16 microcontroller and stored on external SRAM while being sent through the microcontrollers USART serial port into a serial to Ethernet converter to a server computer. the biometric authentication industry is seeing large market growth. 2 Introduction Fingerprint-based identiﬁcation is one of the most important biometric technologies which has drawn a substantial amount of attention recently. This project produces a system that captures a user’s ﬁngerprint and then authenticates it against a database via Ethernet communication. The ridges are the dark area of the ﬁngerprint and the valleys are the white area that exists between the ridges. A ﬁngerprint is comprised of ridges and valleys. 2 . These points are also known as the minutiae of the ﬁngerprint. ranging from military. ﬁngerprint technology is so common in personal identiﬁcation that it has almost become the synonym of biometrics. In fact. One area of technology that is seeing growth is that of biometric authentication where a user is granted access to a piece of data. small. Hence we decided to build a scalable. We use a Fingerprint Cards capacitance based ﬁngerprint scanner as our capturing device.
We also referred a paper on ﬁngerprint recognition using minutia score matching written by K B Raja and Venugopal K R which gave us good idea about the process of matching. especially during past several years. block diagram for this project from internet. 3 . ﬁngerprint recognition has recently received signiﬁcant attention. We found some ideas regarding new algorithms . We found this ﬁeld very interesting and challenging as it involves designing new innovative algorithms for ﬁngerprint matching.3 Literature Survey As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding.we came across one of research papers of Raymond Thai a renowned auther for books on ﬁngerprint matching algorithms.com.When we were searching some ideas for BE project . So we searched more on this topic and found some abstracts. oﬃcial website of Cornell University.electronics foryou. technical matter on diﬀerent websites like www.
and if it is equal to ’G’ then it starts the image capturing. it reads it.We then read in the stream from the ﬁngerprint reader and simultaneously store the data point in SRAM and add it to the Ethernet packet for later transmission. 4. Step two is to take this skeleton image and ﬁnd as many legitimate minutiae (ridges and bifurcations) as possible.Once all 30400 bytes have been sent.2 Fingerprint Veriﬁcation: There are basically three steps to matching one ﬁngerprint against a reference ﬁngerprint in a databaseThe ﬁrst step is to perform the ﬁltering on the input ﬁngerprint in which the goal is to enhance all features and end up with a skeleton image of the original ﬁngerprint.The last step is to compare the legitimate minutiae that were just found against the reference minutiae in the database and output the result (true or false) of the comparison. the microcontroller returns to waiting for another read.The result of the matching is then outputted on the LED’s. 4 .1 Fingerprint Capturing: To capture the ﬁngerprint image we set the microcontroller to wait for an available character in USART. When a character becomes available.4 Block diagram 4.
type of minutiae. Depending on the value of the crossing number it identiﬁes a point as either a ridge ending. 4. but.Minutiae Comparison: Minutiae comparison is one of the most heavily researched areas of ﬁngerprint matching.For eﬃcient matching process. Gabor Filtering: Gabor ﬁlters can best be thought of as a direction ﬁlter that when the orientation of the gabor ﬁlter is perpendicular to that of the ridge orientation the image is enhanced along that direction. the result would resemble a smudge and have very low variance. and minutiae angle. we perform a thinning algorithm. No.5 Step Three .y coordinates . 4.Feature Enhancement: Normalization: In this step we take the input image and divide it up into N x N squares. Thinning the Image: After we have binarized the image.After minutiae are identiﬁed as being possibly legitimate we attempt to delete all of the spurious minutiae. a ridge ending or a bifurcation. a bifurcation. For example.3 Step One .r.Minutiae Extraction: In this project we distinguish a minutiae as one of two types. We need x.extracted data is stored in matrix format.4 Step Two . The ﬁrst step in the algorithm is to establish what information we need about the minutiae and create a structure that stores all the relevant information. if we applied a gabor ﬁlter of orientation directly in line with ridge orientation. if we ﬁltered with a perfectly perpendicular gabor ﬁlter the result would be a smoothed image eliminating most noise. or as nothing. The minutiae angle is the angle the minutiae makes w. Threshold Binarization: In each N x N window we take the average pixel value as the threshold and if a pixel in that windowed image is less than the threshold we assign it a value of 1 (indicating ridge) or 0 (indicating valley). We use a window of 3 x 3 to scan across the thinned image to compute a crossing number. We then normalize the image according to our preferred mean and variance (100 and 100 respectively).4.t to the ridge it lies on. of rows= No of minutiae points No of column= 4 column 1= row index of each minutiae point column 2= column index of each minutiae point column 3= orientation angle of each minutiae point column 4= type of minutia 5 . In each square we ﬁnd the mean and variance.
5 Circuit diagram 6 .
National University of Sciences and Technology  Fingerprint Image Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction.References  Computational Algorithms for Fingerprint Recognition. Raymond Thai 7 .Clemson University . College of Electrical and Mechanical Engienering.  Fingerprint Matching Using gabor Filters. Bir Bhanu and Xuejun Tan. 2004.  Fingerprint Image Enhancement and Minutiae Extraction. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Muhammad Younas Javed. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering . Muhammad Umer Munir and Dr. Nimitha Chama.
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