Optical and Broadband Networks Module P00336
Jorge Pinto 09097562

March, 2010

dead zone and more at any location along the fibre using an equipment connected just to one end of the fibre operating like a one dimensional radar. It will help to find out other distance such as round trip distance and knowing about the pulse propagation velocity. . fibre ends. 2. (1310 nm and 1550nm) All results and conclusion that were reached in this exercise will be found out below. which is shown in Figure 1. It very important to highlight the fact that if any event happens within theses 11 metres of the fibre the OTDR will not be able to detected it.1 Single reel of fibre The first trace obtained by the OTDR belongs to a single reel of monomode fibre. some of this is reflected back (back scattered) down the fibre so in this way the Receiver will see the power returning from all the point of the fibre system this phenomenon is intrinsic to the fibre and it is know by Rayleigh scattering. The Fresnel reflection is other event to take into account. These traces will be related with the different scenarios such as single reel of fibre and 3 ports of the EDNET network box. for this reason it will not be able to record any back scattered signal for a short amount of time. 2. TraceView software was use to analyses the traces also two values of wavelengths were used in all the experiment. Experiments and results This experiment has the object to acquired different OTDR traces related to every single exercise describe on the coursework.Optical Time Domain Reflectometry [OTDR] 1. splices. it will appear as a spike in the power display and it occurred at the boundary of materials with different refractive indexes like connectors. fibre length. connectors. The OTDR send pulses of laser light and they propagate along the fibre. Using the difference between the injected pulse and the reflected one we will be able to obtain the distance. This zone was roughly about 11m. Introduction Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) is the method that we will use to represent optical fibres in this coursework. It is used to detect events like attenuation. This reflection will saturates the photodiode on the OTDR and make it goes blind. The length related with this period of time is called Dead Zone. The first peak is the result of the Fresnel reflection at the connection to the fibre.

4685) = 9. The experiment was repeated using a wavelength of 1310nm with similar results with the difference on the resulting attenuation coefficient. On a logarithmic scale this negative coefficient is the slope of a straight line.55 µs The slope of the curve between the two (2) Fresnel reflections (figure 1) gives the attenuation coefficient. It was about 0.3   Figure 1. As described on the coursework the length of the fibre was measure from the display and it was equal to 1952 metres. The value for 1550 nm was 0. we can say that the power along the fibre decreases exponentially. In a linear scale. If different events occur with distance no more than 10 metres along the fibre.24 dB/km. and the fraction that is released back.4685) × 50×10-9 = 10 metres Where “n” is the refractive index of the fibre. . The pulse width of the signal is ∆t = 50 ns. The resolution (metres) is given by: ∆d = (c / n) × ∆t = (3×108/1.38 dB/km. the OTDR will be unable to see any difference between them. Trace for a single reel of fibre for a wavelength of 1550nm The second peak that is found at the end of the fibre is due to the Fresnel reflection too. Now we have the length of the fibre (L) obtained from the software also we know the value of “n” which is equal to the time that the pulse takes to travel from the end of the fibre back to the OTDR and it is given by: t = L / (c / n) = 1952 / (3×108/1.

2. The peak correspondent to the dead zone is here again. The second peak as it said is due to the Fresnel reflection at the connector on Port 1. Trace for a single reel of fibre connected to Port 1 (1550nm) From figure 2. The connector on Port 1 introduces a loss of 0. Using the Zoom on the image. The trace obtained for a wavelength of 1550 nm is shown in figure 3.2 Port 1 on the EDNET Network box Using the same reel of fibre from the previous experiment it is connected to Port 1 on the EDNET Network box. The trace obtained from the OptoSci box with a wavelength of 1550nm is shown in figure 2.2 dB. I have arrived to the conclusion that after have seen all those values and finish with the second experiment I could say that the EDNET box has two lengths of fibre connected by a fusion splice at about 395 metres from Port’s 1 connector.3 Port 2 on the EDNET Network box For the third experiment the same reel of fibre was used to connect the OTDR to Port 2 on the EDNET box. we can see a splice related to the fusion between two fibres and one more peak associated to the Fresnel reflection at the end of the fibre.9 dB and the fusion splice introduces a loss of 0. the length of fibre measured from the trace inside Port 1 was around 492 metres (395+97). .2. Figure 2.

6 and solving the Excess Loss yields we said that EL = 0. K = 0. given by: TotalLoss = [10 log10(K 2 + (1 + K 2 )]/ 2 + EL Now substituting the values. Taking measurement of the distance I would say that the Port 2 is a 276 metres length of fibre followed by a coupler where one of the coupled arms is connected to a 130 metres of fibre whilst the other arm is connected to a 288 metres (130m+158m). The splice loss is related to the coupler inside the network box (as we know the coupler does not produce Fresnel reflection peak).6 that is. The total loss measured from the trace at the coupler is 1. Trace for a single reel of fibre connected to Port 2 (1550nm) Port 2 of the EDNET box contains lengths of fibre and a coupler with a split ratio K = 0.15 dB.57 dB. scattering. Back to figure 3 in order to find out which one are the coupled arm and the . Also we know that not all the power is split between the 2 arms. 60% of the input power goes to the coupled arm while 40% goes to the transmitted arm.5   Figure 3. absorption and coupling to the € isolated port. This loss is intrinsic to the coupler and includes radiation. Looking at figure 3 we can see three (3) Fresnel reflections and a splice loss that occur just after the 1952 metres of the reel of fibre. This loss is the sum of the losses due to the coupling coefficient ratio K and the intrinsic excess loss (LE). As we have talked before the first peak is due to the connector on port 2. some of this power is lost within the coupler (Excess Loss). The second peak is due to the end of the fibre connected to the coupler arm and the third peak is related with the end of the fibre connected to the other arm in the coupler.

The W_DEMUX output arm with 1310nm wavelength has just 87 metres of fibre (figure 6). . The traces obtained for both wavelengths are approximately the same until the W_DEMUX is reached. The first one has 129 metres of fiber and the second one has 286 metres (129m+157m) see figure 5. the back-scattered power is due to the longer arm (288 metres).4 Port 3 on the EDNET Network box For the third test the connector is changed to port 3 on the EDNET box. We will make use of the OTDR traces displayed in figure 5 and figure 6 at 1550nm and 1310 respectively to identify each of the events happens on the traces. Diagram of the network connected to port 2.6). this coupler has two output arm the first one has just 111 metres of fibre whilst the second output arm has other coupler (Coupler 2) connected about 367 metres away from itself (111m+256m). The first one is 202 metres away from the demultiplexer. Figure 4.4) according with these values we can say that the longest piece of fibre is connected to the transmitted arm and the shortest € piece of fibre is connected to the coupled arm (K=0. Considering K’ the split ratio at the coupler due to only the longest arm: 4.37 which is approximately (1 – K = 0. 2. It has happened at 275 metres roughly. At the output with 1550nm there are 2 couplers. The insertion loss from the W_DEMUX is about 0. The total measured loss at this point was 4.4dB = [10 log10( K '2)]/ 2 + 0.transmitted arm.15dB. Now on the Coupler 2 see that it has two-output arm too. A diagram of the network connected to Port 2 is shown in figure 4.15dB Calculating the K’ yields K’= 0. from connector 3. After the Fresnel reflection due to the fibre end on the shortest arm (130 metres). 2 couplers and 2 lengths of fibre. It contains a 1550/1310nm wavelength demultiplexer.4 dB.

Trace for network connected to Port 3 (1310nm) . Trace for network connected to Port 3 (1550nm) Figure 6.7   Figure 5.

Diagram from the inside network connected to Port 3 3. 2009 . coupler etc.6 (60%). The power loss measured in the coupler 1 is 1. 4. splices. The € network connected to port 3 inside the box will be display on figure 7 and it was obtained from the OTDR measurement.com/doc/27095980/Guide-to-Fiber-Optic-Measurements Optical and broadband Networks Coursework handbook. For coupler 2 we found that K2’ yields is K2’=0.From coupler 1 we seen two output arms where. Figure 7.scribd.15dB and a lossless fibre: 1. which contributes to the back-scattered signal. insertion loss. Also the last but not least I would like to emphasis how different wavelengths generate different result on the measurement.15dB The K1’ yields is K1’= 0. Conclusion After this coursework I have understood the OTDR principles.8 (80%). Dr Peter Ball. as we said before the Arm 1 has 111 metres of fibre connected to it and the Arm 2 is the one.15dB = [10 log10( K1'2)]/ 2 + 0. References http://www.15dB (see figure 5). Taking K1’ as the split ratio at Arm 2 assuming a excess loss (EL) equal 0. Also I have to highlight all the events found on the traces like fibre attenuation coefficient. How to take measurement of the time that a pulse of light take to return due to Rayleigh scattering or how important is the Fresnel reflection when we testing any network.

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