This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Database Systems Management & Technology
361 B Fitch Avenue Monterey, CA 93940
T 831-224-2778 email@example.com
Improved data consistency iv. There are 10 advantages according to our text which include: i. What are some of the important benefits that Mountain View Community Hospital should seek in using databases? As much as possible.Improved data quality viii. are the medical care providers such as the doctors and nurses who rely on accurate patient data. The first. The second benefit of a database is for the billing and HMO support that quickly gains hundreds of charges per visit. CH 1 1. relate your response to the hospital environment. There are many advantages in using a database approach -many that far outweigh the costs of switching to a database. There are two areas that quickly come to mind as key users of this database.Improved data accessibility and responsiveness ix. In order to keep an accurate and Vasquez 2 . Improved decision support b. and most obvious. Increased productivity of application development vi. Enforcement of standards vii. Minimal data redundancy iii. Improved data sharing v. Program-data independence ii. a. Reduced program maintenance x.CST 597 Tao Project Case: Mountain View Community Hospital. The use of a database will quickly allow a large amount of relevant and accurate data to be processed for enhanced decision making.
is nearly a necessity to keep up in the modern industrialized world. whereas technology is becoming cheaper. There are several costs and risks that must be evaluated before accepting a database approach: i. and the manual labor required to convert these files will also only grow / increase in scope and cost. Organizational conflict b. Conversion costs iv. The database approach. the Hospital can share their data with HMOs or billing departments. Installation and management cost and complexity iii. What are some of the costs and risks of using databases that the hospital must manage carefully? a.CST 597 Tao reliable source of billing data. Naturally a hospital will weigh the costs vs benefits and make a wise choice. However in a smaller or rural environment. specialized personnel ii. 2. it may be easier to maintain analog data or manually updated files on a PC or simple server. although not free of costs. it is less well suited to unstructured data such as graphical data and images. Although this technology is appropriate for structured data such as patient or accounting data. 3. An important factor to consider immediately is the conversion costs. Need for explicit backup and recovery v. Can you think of some types of data maintained by a hospital that fit this latter Vasquez 3 . New. the amount of data required by modern care providers is only continuing to increase. This reduces the risk of error on both the part of the hospital and of the billing department. At present.. Mountain View Community Hospital is using relational database technology..
and foremost. how can a user find the relevant charges for a particular patient? a. Whereas it is easy to relate items like customer ID and customer Room on a relational database. A third advantage is the ability to use web applications to capitalize on wireless mobility and client-side processing. will deliver both a patient and patient charges depending on the database pulled. The type of database technology that is better suited to deliver this type of graphic data is a LAN or Intranet system that includes a search function for meta-data. An example would be a web-based prescription filler for care providers to add prescriptions for their patients without having to go to a special computer. What are some ways the hospital could use the internet? a. it is extremely difficult to store critical medical data such as the results of a heart monitor EKG or the image of a baby from an ultra-sound. when queried. How are data in the PATIENT and PATIENT CHARGES tables related? That is. The simple data tables both include a PATIENT NUMBER that. b. the internet can be used as a massive source of medical information for care providers to research. Another example of data that is graphical in nature are X-rays and CAT scans. 5. A fourth advantage of using the internet is that there are fewer Vasquez 4 . The common key on both tables is the PATIENT NUMBER. Secondly. A secondary method is to attach file names to a patient’s relational database data and keep records just like the ‘old fashioned’ physical records.CST 597 Tao category? What types of database technology might better be suited to these data types rather than relational? a. First. and correctly treat their patients. 4. The internet is by far the greatest advantage a hospital could utilize for reasons far beyond the databases described in this chapter. the internet could be used a a way to host and access data that is far more media rich than the relational database example from above -pulling everything from articles to imaging. spot trends.
Internet. The accounting department could use this type of database to auto-generate mailed out bills or provide statistics for administrative review. a search function can be as simple as an intra-net version of Google’s popular search application -maintained by Google. Personal: The best use of a personal database is a contacts or notes list. For example. Typically designers and content providers collaborate to build a dynamic and timely website. An example of a workgroup application would be the hospital’s external website. would best be suited by a departmental database. utilizing a contact number stored on a personal contacts list. Workgroup: A workgroup is usually considered to be 2-25 people that need to have access to a common set of data. a. Enterprise: The largest database. for 100 or more. Vasquez 5 .CST 597 Tao specialized applications that require a hospital administrator to monitor. is known as an enterprise level database. Workgroup. d. As well. The hospital would use this type of database to store all of its patient care records and provide its care givers with instant access to several terabytes of data. Departmental: A larger group of 25-100 within an organization. A reason for this step up in capability is to design a more robust data server so that man users can access large amounts of data quickly. The files for a website and design notes would be help by a work group. Enterprise. For example. An excellent tool for this size is an Adobe product called Dreamweaver. such as marketing or accounting. 6. c. Departmental. if an MD wants to follow up with a department in the hospital. b. it would be the easiest for him/her to use a PDA and flag a date to call back. Give an example of how the hospital could use each of the types of databases described in this chapter: Personal. these applications and others such as WebMD’s database of case studies and health information are often free of charge.
current data. rosters. Which information system planning matrixes (among those shown in this case study or others not shown) might assist the study team at Mountain View Community Hospital to determine a tiered location plan for databases? Why? a. Quality of medical care: i. Accurate and timely care Vasquez 6 . and remote login. 2. Internet: An internet database would be an excellent way to store patient location. current care. The first is a Location-to-function model which indicates which business functions are being performed at which business locations. Project Case: Mountain View Community Hospital. and maps for the hospital and guests. It also allows for access across a variety of platforms such as mobile phones. e. The data could be pulled from the enterprise database and made more graphically friendly for visitors or display kiosks. PDAs. and family information could all be stored and accessed in this database. available to all hospital employees with sufficient privileges. A second model is the unit-to-function model which identifies which business functions are performed by or are the responsibility of which business units. a. These additional models will help determine the tiered location plan since it will help deliver where each tier is required: Client tier. In the project description. Write plausible objectives. objectives are listed for one of the four critical success factors. and the Enterprise server tier.CST 597 Tao Patient history. CH 2 1. Application / Web server tier. address books. given the structure and plans of this hospital for the other three CSFs. It would be advantageous to add two models while developing an enterprise model and executing functional decomposition. operating cost control.
Provide excellent support for staff iii. Promote hospital through organized University recruiting awareness programs 3. Use varied suppliers to maintain a competitive and informed supply chain c. physician. but they also deliver a better business by improving the way the hospital operates. and the vendor. especially nurses: i. Negotiate fair prices for business purchases iii. Maintain modern equipment and office equipment b. Recruitment and retention of of skilled personnel. Equip and train staff for success iv. Another example would be a host or hostess volunteer opportunity that improves the customer satisfaction index of a hospital. What activities might occur within the “risk management” business function? a. Maintain a highly motivated staff ii. The volunteer helps keep costs down by acting as unpaid labor. Courteous and professional staff iv. A business application of risk management Vasquez 7 . Volunteers could also contribute to quality care by assisting Nurses or staff with routine delivery of information such as X-rays to the MD for analysis or expediting lab results. Control of capital costs: i. medical / surgical item. Provide caring bed-side manor iii. patient. Utilize bulk purchases on items that do not expire ii. Risk management is currently a business function for the facility. 4. What additional activities might occur within the “volunteering” business function? a.CST 597 Tao ii.
A final application example may include a critical assessment of the facility to ensure the proper level of care is being provided. for example during an accidental or intentional destruction of data or altering of data to meet better numbers for health insurance or hospital performance assessment matrixes. patient’s data rights protection. A risk manager should work with an ethics advisor and a legal representative to ensure that the staff is made aware of the risks associated with private data. or even discover medical hazards associated with OTC drug use being prescribed by the hospital staff. and meeting patients’ needs. Finally there should be great care given to reducing the risk of corrupted data. use data. The best next step is to develop an actual prototype and allow a limited user group to test the application. analysis. a risk manager should look at the hazards of data loss. Feedback from various and preferably diverse groups can advise the project manager what should be added / changed before a corporation-wide system is implemented. Do you think that the study team will be able to identify all the data entities by doing the kind of analysis they have been doing? If not. initiation. What additional data entities. data leak. It can also reveal faults that revert a manager back to one of the earlier stages. Vasquez 8 . 5. and maintenance -yet change and prototyping can assist at any one of these stages. implementation. besides the 10 entities mentioned in this case. physical design. logical design. and risks associated with network security and illegal data access. 6. In light of the fact that the database is being proposed. It is nearly impossible to capture all of the data required to make a ‘perfect’ database. A development cycle includes project identification. Another use could be to analyze the customer satisfaction index to ensure that the goal of “quality of medical care” doesn’t start to wain. what other database development steps will need to be done and when? a.CST 597 Tao is required to broker a relationship with drug vendors to gather price trends. might the risk management business function need? a.
Staff could be broken down to full time. Even though the capital cost control is a critical success factor. Why do you think the people on this business planning study team were selected for this assignment? Would you have chosen different or additional people? a. or project manager is he/she would accept. I would have also added a project manager from another successful project similar to what the hospital is attempting to do in the role of consultant. Dr Browne would be able to provide a current top-down look at what would be required by those who work for him. and patients. 8. which would be off the premises. In this case. and maintenance supplies. yet still requires service. there is an assumption that Vendors also supply other than medical supplies to the medical professionals. In addition to the model. nine business rules are listed. All of these items are business functions. it seems to reason that a medical professional like Dr Browne (listed as the chief of physicians staff) should be on the team since a hospital tends to revolve around a doctor and his/her patient. while trying to treat the patients. What other business rules. and recruitment / retention of skilled personnel. the administration chose to emphasize quality of medical care. cleaning. are implied or depicted in that figure? a. 9. In the case description. The reason they were chosen was that the tool of a database is only to assist a corporation to do a better job. Why? What would need to be done to enhance this figure so that more entries indicated a relationship between business functions and this CSF? Vasquez 9 . The facility does not show ambulatory services. control of operating costs. besides these nine. or volunteer. staff. only two business functions in the MVCH mention this CSF. However. It should also show that many doctors would analyze the many tests performed by the laboratory. Vendors must also supply the food. control of capital costs.CST 597 Tao 7. The study team used these rules to develop the MVCH. part time.
The question moves from what data is required to where the data should be stored and manipulated. one could either combine operating cost control and capital cost control. With the massive amount of data now available to managers. servers. The MVCH model only shows an ‘essential’ mark for capital cost control in Surgery and a ‘desirable’ for electrodiagnosis. The ability to free up processing power can be done through the de-facto language for creating and querying relational databases. and data-servers. it is almost in contrast to quality care and staff recruiting and retention. but at the cost of developing and employing firewalls. Chapter 8-13: Implementation Overview Once a database is designed. database. The internet has provided a new way of delivering content rapidly by internet based applications. no one wants to be a part of a low cost. and reduced long term costs. with each following a TCP/IP protocol. This thin client approach allows for scalability. This network has allowed for online shopping and data-rich web pages. there are many methods of data application and processing available to meet the original performance requirements. Web services such as ASP and ColdFusion include web enabled databases that often deliver a simple GUI. To increase this category. Despite the flexibility of client / server architectures. the challenge resorts to a proper way to gather the critical information necessary for good decision making processes. and lowered user privacy. After all. A problem with the sheer volume of data is not only the overload. but the Vasquez 10 . In addition to the ANSI accepted language there are tiered ways of distributing the architecture. to include client. It would be possible to reword the capital cost control to include a simple comparison of costs to similar industries and assess success based off of peer to peer comparison. since they are very similar. The internet is composed of a network of workstations. low quality solution. In reality.CST 597 Tao a. technological flexibility. many mission critical applications tend to remain on a mainframe. and application code servers. or eliminate the capital cost control from the critical success factors.
Operational systems are typically designed to be a quick way to deliver a lot of processing. Vasquez 11 . A data warehouse collects the massive amounts of data and distributes it across a 3-layer architecture. or a decentralized database. The DBMS become responsible to meet the four database properties: atomic. consistent. A quality administrator essentially delivers the information to those who need it. there must be a DBMS that coordinates the access to data at the various user nodes. known as a data mart and stored in a variation of the relational model known as a star schema. To have this type of database. corruption. such as investors on Wall Street. The major difference between what managers need and what they have is known as operational vs informational systems. reliability. and blocks those who do not. The second is a centralized data warehouse. The first layer is data throughout the various operational systems. which allows for a higher level of reliability and accessibility. The benefits of shared data include redundancy. and at the same time share processing power between client and servers. there are many different variations for on-line analytical processing. This can include a challenge such as a distributed database. Security and administration become essential roles in maintaining the technical advantage and avoiding threats such as data loss. maintenance. Whereas an informational systems is designed to aid decision makers. And the third is a limited scope data delivery system. and loss of availability. and speed of processing. to include drill down services and data-mining. and is maintained by proper planning. isolated. The most common form is to distribute the data across many nodes. it is still essential to maintain and manage the database system.CST 597 Tao increasingly difficult methods to locate data due to ‘generations’ of coding. Naturally. scrubbing. In conclusion. The focus remains on the appearance of a single node. there are many ways to free resources and deliver data or information to those who require it. and durable. and protection. Once data is available to decision makers. such as a render farm.