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global competence
Reinforcing global competence is vital for In 2015, 193 countries committed ASSESSMENT
individuals to thrive in a rapidly changing to achieving the UNs 17 Sustainable
world and for societies to progress without Development Goals (SDGs), a shared vision
leaving anyone behind. Against a context of humanity that provides the missing piece
in which we all have much to gain from of the globalisation puzzle. The extent to
growing openness and connectivity, and which that vision becomes a reality will THE ASSESSMENT
much to lose from rising inequalities and depend on todays classrooms; and it is THE DIMENSIONS COMPETENCE AND
radicalism, citizens need not only the skills educators who hold the key to ensuring that COMPETENCE IN PISA STRATEGY
to be competitive and ready for a new world the SDGs become a real social contract P.07 P.21
of work, but more importantly they also with citizens. Goal 4, which commits to P.07
need to develop the capacity to analyse quality education for all, is intentionally THE BUILDING
and understand global and intercultural not limited to foundation knowledge and COMPETENCE THE COGNITIVE SELF-REPORTED
issues. The development of social and skills such as literacy, mathematics and KNOWLEDGE,
emotional skills, as well as values like science, but places strong emphasis on AND VALUES
respect, self-condence and a sense of P.34
learning to live together sustainably. But P.12
belonging, are of the utmost importance such goals are only meaningful if they P.38
to create opportunities for all and advance become visible. This has inspired the
a shared respect for human dignity. The OECD Programme for International Student
OECD is actively working on assessing Assessment (PISA), the global yardstick
global competence in PISA 2018. Together, for educational success, to include global
we can foster global competence for more competence in its metrics for quality, equity ILLUSTRATIVE
inclusive societies. and effectiveness in education. PISA will REFERENCES ANNEXES SCENARIOS FOR
assess global competence for the rst time ASSESSMENT
P.39 P.43
Gabriela Ramos ever in 2018. In that regard, this framework OF GLOBAL
OECD Chief of Staff and Sherpa to the G20
provides its conceptual underpinning.

Andreas Schleicher DESCRIPTION
Director, OECD Directorate for Education TOPICS FOR THE COMPETENCE
and Skills, and Special Advisor on Education SCENARIOS OF THE IN THE STUDENT
Policy to the Secretary-General
P.46 P.50

This framework is the product of a collaborative effort between the countries participating in
PISA and the OECD Secretariat, under the guidance of Andreas Schleicher and Yuri Belfali.
The framework was developed by Mario Piacentini with Martyn Barrett, Veronica Boix Mansilla,
Darla Deardorff and Hye-Won Lee. Rose Bolognini and Natalie Foster edited the framework.
Natasha Robinson provided excellent research assistance and Mattia Baiutti, helpful
comments. This framework builds on earlier work by the experts who led the rst phase
of development of the assessment: Darla Deardorff, David Kerr, Peter Franklin,
Sarah Howie, Wing On Lee, Jasmine B-Y Sim and Sari Sulkinen. The OECD
would also like to thank Project Zero at Harvard University for their invaluable
input and dissemination efforts.
immigrants in numerous countries, communities people tend to ock together (Zuckerman,
have to redene their identity and local culture. 2014) favouring interactions with a small set of
Contemporary societies call for complex forms people with whom they have much in common.
of belonging and citizenship where individuals Likewise, access to an unlimited amount of
must interact with distant regions, people and information is often paired with insufcient
ideas while also deepening their understanding media literacy, meaning that young people are

Introduction: of their local environment and the diversity

within their own communities. By appreciating
easily fooled by partisan, biased or fake news.
In this context, cultivating students global

The importance of an
the differences in the communities to which competence can help them to capitalise on
they belong - the nation, the region, the city, the digital spaces, better understand the world
neighbourhood, the school young people can they live in and responsibly express their voice

international global learn to live together as global citizens (Delors

et al., 1996; UNESCO, 2014b). While education

competence assessment
cannot bear the sole responsibility for ending To support the Sustainable Development
racism and discrimination, it can teach young Goals
people the importance of challenging cultural
biases and stereotypes. Finally, educating for global competence
can help form new generations who care
To thrive in a changing labour market about global issues and engage in tackling
Twenty-first century students live in an signicant to both the world at large and to social, political, economic and environmental
interconnected, diverse and rapidly changing their own lives. They can teach students how Educating for global competence can boost challenges. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
world. Emerging economic, digital, cultural, to critically, effectively and responsibly use employability. Effective communication and Development recognises the critical role of
demographic and environmental forces are digital information and social media platforms. appropriate behaviour within diverse teams are education in reaching sustainability goals,
shaping young peoples lives around the planet, Schools can encourage intercultural sensitivity keys to success in many jobs, and will remain calling on all countries to ensure, by 2030, that
and increasing their intercultural encounters and respect by allowing students to engage so as technology continues to make it easier for all learners acquire the knowledge and skills
on a daily basis. This complex environment in experiences that foster an appreciation people to connect across the globe. Employers needed to promote sustainable development,
presents an opportunity and a challenge. Young for diverse peoples, languages and cultures increasingly seek to attract learners who easily including, among others, through education
people today must not only learn to participate (Bennett, 1993; Sinicrope, Norris and Watanabe, adapt and are able to apply and transfer their for sustainable development and sustainable
in a more interconnected world but also 2007). Schools are also uniquely positioned to skills and knowledge to new contexts. Work lifestyles, human rights, gender equality,
appreciate and benet from cultural differences. enhance young peoples ability to understand readiness in an interconnected world requires promotion of a culture of peace and non-
Developing a global and intercultural outlook is their place in the community and the world, and young people to understand the complex violence, global citizenship and appreciation
a process a lifelong process that education improve their ability to make judgements and dynamics of globalisation, be open to people of cultural diversity and of cultures contribution
can shape (Barrett et al., 2014; Boix Mansilla take action (Hanvey, 1975). from different cultural backgrounds, build trust to sustainable development (Target 4.7,
and Jackson, 2011; Deardorff, 2009; UNESCO, in diverse teams and demonstrate respect for Education 2030, Incheon Declaration and
2013, 2014a, 2016). others (British Council, 2013). Framework for Action, page 20).
Why do we need global
competence? To use media platforms effectively and
What is global competence? Should we assess global
To live harmoniously in multicultural responsibly
Global competence is a multidimensional communities
capacity. Globally competent individuals Over the past two decades radical Every school should encourage its students
can examine local, global and intercultural Education for global competence can promote transformations in digital technologies have to try and make sense of the most pressing
issues, understand and appreciate different cultural awareness and respectful interactions shaped young peoples outlook on the issues dening our times. The high demands
perspectives and world views, interact in increasingly diverse societies. Since the world, their interactions with others and their placed on schools to help their students cope
successfully and respectfully with others, and end of the Cold War, ethno-cultural conicts perception of themselves. Online networks, and succeed in an increasingly interconnected
take responsible action toward sustainability have become the most common source of social media and interactive technologies are environment can only be met if education
and collective well-being. political violence in the world, and they show giving rise to new types of learning, where systems dene new learning objectives based
no sign of abating (Brubacker and Laitin, young people exercise greater control over on a solid framework, and use different types
1998; Kymlicka, 1995; Sen, 2007). The many what and how they learn. At the same time, of assessment to reect on the effectiveness of
Can schools promote global
episodes of indiscriminate violence in the name young peoples digital lives can cause them their initiatives and teaching practices. In this
competence? of a religious or ethnic afliation challenge to disconnect from themselves and the world, context, PISA aims to provide a comprehensive
Schools play a crucial role in helping young the belief that people with diverse cultures and ignore the impact that their actions may overview of education systems efforts to
people to develop global competence. They are able to live peacefully in close proximity, have on others. Moreover, while technology create learning environments that invite young
can provide opportunities for young people to accept differences, nd common solutions and helps people to easily connect around the people to understand the world beyond their
critically examine global developments that are resolve disagreements. With the high inux of world, online behaviour suggests that young immediate environment, interact with others

4 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 5

with respect for their rights and dignity, and take Taken together, the cognitive assessment and
action towards building sustainable and thriving the background questionnaire address the
communities. A fundamental goal of this work following educational policy questions:
is to support evidence-based decisions on how
to improve curricula, teaching, assessments To what degree are students able to critically
and schools responses to cultural diversity
in order to prepare young people to become
examine contemporary issues of local, global
and intercultural signicance? The concept of
global competence
global citizens.
To what degree are students able to
understand and appreciate multiple cultural

and its implications

How do we assess global
perspectives (including their own) and
competence? manage differences and conicts?

for education
The global competence assessment in PISA
2018 is composed of two parts: a cognitive To what degree are students prepared
assessment and a background questionnaire. to interact respectfully across cultural
The cognitive assessment is designed to elicit differences?
students capacities to critically examine
global issues; recognise outside inuences To what degree do students care about the
on perspectives and world views; understand world and take action to make a positive The dimensions of global competence
how to communicate with others in intercultural difference in other peoples lives and to
contexts; and identify and compare different safeguard the environment? Education for global competence builds an individual to reect upon and engage with
courses of action to address global and on the ideas of different models of global global problems that have deep implications
intercultural issues. What inequalities exist in access to education education, such as intercultural education, for current and future generations). Acquiring
for global competence between and within global citizenship education and education global competence is a life-long process
In the background questionnaire, students will countries? for democratic citizenship (UNESCO, 2014a; there is no single point at which an individual
be asked to report how familiar they are with Council of Europe, 2016a). Despite differences becomes completely globally competent. PISA
global issues; how developed their linguistic What approaches to multicultural, in their focus and scope (cultural differences or will assess at what stage 15-year-old students
and communication skills are; to what extent intercultural and global education are most democratic culture, rather than human rights are situated in this process, and whether their
they hold certain attitudes, such as respect for commonly used in school systems around or environmental sustainability), these models schools effectively address the development
people from different cultural backgrounds; the world? share a common goal to promote students of global competence.
and what opportunities they have at school understanding of the world and empower them
to develop global competence. Answers to How are teachers being prepared to develop to express their views and participate in society. The PISA 2018 assessment uses the following
the school and teacher questionnaires will students global competence? denition of global competence:
provide a comparative picture of how education PISA contributes to the existing models by
systems are integrating global, international proposing a new perspective on the denition
and intercultural perspectives throughout the and assessment of global competence. These Global competence is the capacity to
curriculum and in classroom activities. conceptual foundations and assessment examine local, global and intercultural
guidelines will help policy makers and school issues, to understand and appreciate
leaders create learning resources and curricula the perspectives and world views of
that approach global competence as a others, to engage in open, appropriate
multifaceted cognitive, socio-emotional and civic and effective interactions with people
learning goal (Boix Mansilla, 2016). They will also from different cultures, and to act for
facilitate governments ability to monitor progress collective well-being and sustainable
and ensure systematic and long-term support. development.

Competence is not merely a specic skill but

is a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes This denition outlines four target dimensions
and values successfully applied to face-to-face, of global competence that people need to apply
virtual or mediated1 encounters with people successfully in their everyday life:
who are perceived to be from a different cultural
background, and to individuals experiences 1. the capacity to examine issues and situations
of global issues (i.e. situations that require of local, global and cultural significance

Mediated here refers to encounters that occur through images in the media (for example, on television, on the Internet, in

a movie or book, in a newspaper, etc.).

6 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 7

(e.g. poverty, economic interdependence, These four dimensions are strongly Dimension 1: Examine issues of local, global and cultural signicance.
migration, inequality, environmental interdependent and overlapping, justifying the
risks, conflicts, cultural differences and use of the singular term global competence. This dimension refers to globally competent questions, analyse data and arguments, explain
stereotypes); For example, students from two different peoples practices of effectively combining phenomena, and develop a position concerning
cultural backgrounds who work together for a knowledge about the world and critical a local, global or cultural issue (Boix Mansilla
2. the capacity to understand and appreciate school project demonstrate global competence reasoning whenever they form their own and Jackson, 2011). Development in this
different perspectives and world views; as they: get to know each other better (examine opinion about a global issue. People who dimension also requires media literacy, dened
their cultural differences); try to understand how acquire a mature level of development in this as the ability to access, analyse and critically
3. the ability to establish positive interactions each perceives his or her role in the project dimension use higher-order thinking skills, evaluate media messages, as well as to create
with people of different national, ethnic, and the other's perspective (understand such as selecting and weighing appropriate new media content (Buckingham, 2007;
religious, social or cultural backgrounds or perspectives); negotiate misunderstandings evidence to reason about global developments. Kellner and Share, 2005). Globally competent
gender; and and clearly communicate expectations and Globally competent students can draw on people are effective users and creators of both
feelings (interact openly, appropriately and and combine the disciplinary knowledge and traditional and digital media.
4. the capacity and disposition to take effectively); and take stock of what they learn modes of thinking acquired in schools to ask
constructive action toward sustainable from each other to improve social relationships
development and collective well-being. in their classroom and school (act for collective
well-being). Examining issues of global signicance: an example
In her history course, a student learns about industrialisation and economic growth in
developing countries, and how these have been influenced by foreign investments. She
Dening culture
learns that many girls of her age work in poor conditions in factories for up to ten hours a day,
Culture is difficult to define because cultural groups are always internally heterogeneous instead of going to school. Her teacher encourages each student to bring one item of clothing
and contain individuals who adhere to a range of diverse beliefs and practices. Furthermore, to class and look at the label to see where it was manufactured. The student is surprised to
the core cultural beliefs and practices that are most typically associated with any given group notice that most of her clothes were made in Bangladesh. The student wonders under what
are also constantly changing and evolving over time. However, distinctions may be drawn conditions her clothes were made. She looks at the websites of various high-street brand
between the material, social and subjective aspects of culture, that is, between the material shops to see if the websites can tell her about their manufacturing standards and policies.
artefacts that are commonly used by the members of a cultural group (e.g. the tools, foods, She discovers that some clothing brands are more concerned with human rights in their
clothing, etc.), the social institutions of the group (e.g. the language, the communicative factories than others, and she also discovers that some clothing brands have a long history
conventions, folklore, religion, etc.), and the beliefs, values, discourses and practices that of poor conditions in their factories. She reads different journalistic articles about the issue
group members commonly use as a frame of reference for thinking about and relating to and watches a short documentary on YouTube. Based on what she discovers, she starts to
the world. Culture is a composite formed from all three of these aspects, consisting of a buy fair-trade clothing and becomes an advocate for ethically responsible manufacturing.
network of material, social and subjective resources. The full set of cultural resources is
distributed across the entire group, but each individual member of the group only uses a
subset of the full set of cultural resources that is potentially available to them (Barrett et al.,
Dimension 2: Understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others.
2014; Council of Europe, 2016a).
Defining culture in this way means that any kind of social group can have its own distinctive This dimension highlights that globally assumptions. This in turn implies a profound
culture: national groups, ethnic groups, faith groups, linguistic groups, occupational groups, competent people are willing and capable of respect for and interest in who the other is,
generational groups, family groups, etc. The definition also implies that all individuals considering global problems and other peoples their concept of reality and their emotions.
belong to multiple groups, and therefore have multiple cultural affiliations and identities perspectives and behaviours from multiple Individuals with this competence also account
(e.g. national, religious, linguistic, generational, familial, etc.). Although all people belong to viewpoints. As individuals acquire knowledge for and appreciate the connections (e.g. basic
multiple cultures, each person participates in a different constellation of cultures, and the about other cultures histories, values, human rights and needs, common experiences)
way in which they relate to any one culture depends, at least in part, on the perspectives that communication styles, beliefs and practices, that enable them to bridge differences and
are shaped by other cultures to which they also belong. In other words, cultural affiliations they acquire the means to recognise that their create common ground. They retain their
intersect, and each individual has a unique cultural positioning. perspectives and behaviours are shaped by cultural identity but are simultaneously aware of
multiple inuences, that they are not always the cultural values and beliefs of people around
Peoples cultural affiliations are dynamic and fluid; what they think defines them culturally
fully aware of these inuences, and that others them. Recognising anothers position or belief is
fluctuates as an individual moves from one situation to another. These fluctuations depend
have views of the world that are profoundly not necessarily to accept that position or belief.
on the extent to which a social context focuses on a particular identity, and on the individuals
different from their own (Hanvey, 1975). However, the ability to see through another
needs, motivations, interests and expectations within that situation (Council of Europe,
cultural lter provides opportunities to deepen
Engaging with different perspectives and world and question ones own perspectives, and thus
views requires individuals to examine the make more mature decisions when dealing with
origins and implications of others and their own others (Fennes and Hapgood, 1997).

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Dimension 4: Take action for collective well-being and sustainable development.
Understanding perspectives and worldviews: an example
A student notices that certain members of his class have stopped eating lunch. When he This dimension focuses on young peoples role on the refugee crisis via social media. Globally
enquires, they tell him that they are participating in a religious fast. The student is curious as active and responsible members of society, competent people are engaged to improve
and asks more about what that involves: for how long will they fast? When can they eat? and refers to individuals readiness to respond living conditions in their own communities and
What can they eat? What is the religious significance of the fast? The student learns that to a given local, global or intercultural issue also to build a more just, peaceful, inclusive and
for his classmates fasting is something that they do every year, along with their families or situation. This dimension recognises that environmentally sustainable world.
and religious community. He also learns that fasting is significant to his classmates as for young people have multiple realms of inuence
them it is a way of demonstrating control over their bodies. The student reflects on this ranging from personal and local to digital and Figure 1 shows how global competence
significance. Although he does not fast he recognises that the themes of community, global. Competent people create opportunities is defined as the combination of the four
sacrifice and material transcendence are common to many different religions, including that to take informed, reective action and have their dimensions (examining issues, understanding
of his own religious heritage. He recognises that different groups can attribute the same voices heard. Taking action may imply standing perspectives, interacting across cultural
meaning to different practices. He furthermore asks his classmates whether he can fast up for a schoolmate whose human dignity is in differences and taking action), and how each
with them for a day, as a way of experiencing what fasting means for them. His classmates jeopardy, initiating a global media campaign at dimension builds on specic knowledge, skills,
warmly agree and invite him to join their families for dinner in the evening to break the fast school, or disseminating a personal view point attitudes and values.
together. Although the student does not attribute the same significance to fasting, through
this experience he better understands the perspectives of his classmates and his respect
for religious diversity increases. Taking action for well-being and sustainable development: an example
A group of students decides to initiate an environmental awareness campaign on the ways in
which their school contributes to local and global waste and pollution. With support from their
teachers, they arrange a series of talks on how to reduce waste and energy consumption.
Dimension 3: Engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions across cultures.
They also design and strategically distribute information posters that help guide students
to make better choices when buying products and when disposing of waste. Furthermore,
This dimension describes what globally interact with others across differences in ways
they collaborate with both student representatives and school administrators to introduce
competent individuals are able to do when that are open, appropriate and effective. Open
recycling bins and energy conservation strategies on the school premises.
they interact with people from different interactions mean relationships in which all
cultures. They understand the cultural norms, participants demonstrate sensitivity towards,
interactive styles and degrees of formality of curiosity about and willingness to engage with
intercultural contexts, and they can exibly others and their perspectives. Appropriate Figure 1. The dimensions of global competence
adapt their behaviour and communication to refers to interactions that respect the expected
suit. This dimension addresses appreciation cultural norms of both parties. In effective
for respectful dialogue, desire to understand communication, all participants are able to le dge
the other and efforts to include marginalised make themselves understood and understand Kn
groups. It emphasises individuals capacity to the other (Barrett et al., 2014).

Interacting openly, effectively and appropriately across cultural differences:
Examine local, and appreciate
an example the perspectives
global and
Jo and Ai are collaborating on a school project with a student from another country, Mike. The intercultural and world views

issues of others
students set up a video chat on a web platform to brainstorm ideas, but at the convened time

for the meeting, they cannot find Mike online. When, a few hours later, the students manage
to connect on the web platform, Jo complains that not showing up at the first meeting Global
is not a good way to start, and gets angry when she receives no explanation at all from
Mike, who remains silent at the other end of the line. At this point, Ai demonstrates global

competence as she successfully de-escalates the conflict. She knows that silence is used Engage in open,
Take action
in some cultures as a strategy to deal with perceived aggressions, and is not necessarily an appropriate and
for collective
admission of guilt or indifference. She is also aware that some people refrain from speaking well-being
out directly for fear of a disagreement that may hurt the other persons feeling and threaten and sustainable
across cultures
their relationship. Ai thus suspends her judgement about Mikes behaviour and asks Mike
politely why they could not find him online. Mike explains that this is probably due to a
misunderstanding about the meeting time, as Jo and Ais country moved to daylight saving
time the night before while his country did not. Thanks to Ais intervention, the students Att
could laugh about their little incident and successfully start to work on their project. des itu

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The building blocks of global competence knowledge, skills, attitudes In the worst cases, these misunderstandings cases of conflict or successful integration
and values2 degenerate into negative stereotypes, between cultural groups.
discrimination and violent conict.
The four dimensions of global competence attitudes should also be adapted to the context The domain of socio-economic development
are supported by four inseparable factors: in which the school operates. More than in other domains of knowledge, and interdependence refers to the study of
knowledge, skills, attitudes and values. For global competence requires engaging with development patterns in different regions
example, examining a global issue (dimension Knowledge about the world and controversial issues. Schools can provide of the world, with a focus on the links and
1) requires knowledge of a particular issue, the other cultures a safe space in which students can explore interdependences between societies and
skills to transform this awareness into a deeper complex and controversial global issues that economies. Students can analyse, at different
understanding, and the attitudes and values Global competence is supported by knowledge they encounter through the media and their levels of complexity and in developmentally
to reect on the issue from multiple cultural of global issues that affect lives locally and own experiences. appropriate ways, the many forms of
perspectives, keeping in mind the interest of around the globe as well as intercultural globalisation, such as international migration,
all parties involved. knowledge, that is, knowledge about the The list of relevant global or intercultural issues transnational production, global brands and
similarities, differences and relations between that can be introduced to children and young technologies. By doing so, students can start
Effective education for global competence gives cultures. This knowledge helps people to people in school is a long one. There have been to make sense of how local, national and global
students the opportunity to mobilise and use challenge misinformation and stereotypes recent attempts to systematise these complex processes jointly shape the development
their knowledge, attitudes, skills and values about other countries and people, and thus sets of issues into a coherent sequence of patterns of countries, and the inequalities in
together while exchanging ideas on a global counters intolerance and oversimplified lessons and learning materials at all curriculum opportunities available to individuals.
issue in and outside of school or interacting representations of the world. levels (IBO, 2012; OXFAM, 2015; Reimers,
with people from different cultural backgrounds 2017). A curriculum should pay attention Students need a solid foundation in
(for example, engaging in a debate, questioning Global issues are those that affect all individuals, to the following four knowledge domains: environmental issues in order to promote and
viewpoints, asking for explanations or identifying regardless of their nation or social group. They culture and intercultural relations; socio- support sustainability. Learning activities in the
directions for deeper exploration and action). range from trade to poverty, human rights, economic development and interdependence; domain of environmental sustainability help
geopolitics and the environment. Global issues environmental sustainability; and global students understand the complex systems and
A school community that wishes to nurture reveal how different regions around the world institutions, conflicts and human rights. policies surrounding the demand for and use
global competence should focus on clear are interconnected by shedding light on the Teaching these four domains should highlight of natural resources.
and manageable learning goals. This means diversity and commonality of their experiences differences in opinions and perspectives,
engaging all educators to reect on teaching (Boix Mansilla and Jackson, 2011). For example, questioning concepts such as truth and The fourth knowledge domain of global
topics that are globally signicant, the types pollution in one place affects the ozone layer information. For example, while examining competence focuses on formal and informal
of skills that foster a deeper understanding of somewhere else; oods in agricultural areas not inequalities in economic development across institutions that support peaceful relationships
the world and facilitate respectful interactions only ruin the local environment and economy, but the world, the teacher can explain that there are between people and the respect of fundamental
in multicultural contexts, and the attitudes and also affect markets worldwide and drive waves of different interpretations of what development human rights. Students can learn how global
values that drive autonomous learning and migration. Global issues are also local issues: they means and implies, inciting students to measure institutions such as the United Nations were
inspire responsible action. are global in their reach but local communities development according to different metrics. established, can reect on the contested nature
experience them in very diverse ways. of global governance in a world with highly
This section provides a general description of the The rst key domain of knowledge for global unbalanced power relationships, review causes
content knowledge, attitudes, skills and values As global issues emerge when ecological competence relates to the manifold expressions of and solutions for current and historical
that individuals need in order to be globally and socio-economic interests cross borders, of culture and intercultural relations, such conicts between countries, ethnic or social
competent. Policy makers, school leaders intercultural issues (situations) arise from as languages, arts, knowledge, traditions and groups, and examine spaces and opportunities
and teachers can refer to this section as they the interaction of people with different cultural norms. Acquiring knowledge in this domain can for young people to play an active role in society,
dene strategies for teaching and assessing backgrounds. In this interaction, each partys help young people become more aware of their take responsibility and exercise their rights.
global competence. However, this description way of thinking, believing, feeling and acting own cultural identity, help them understand Acquiring deep knowledge in this domain
does not pretend to be conclusive or omni- are interpreted by the other. This process can differences and similarities among and within is instrumental for young people to develop
comprehensive (other perspectives on global be smooth if there are not extreme differences cultures, and encourage them to value the values such as peace, non-discrimination,
competence might put more emphasis on other between cultures, and individuals are open to importance of protecting cultural differences equality, justice, non-violence, tolerance and
important skills or attitudes, such as problem learning about and accepting those differences. and diversity. As they engage in learning about respect.
framing or emotional self-management). The But intercultural interactions can also face other cultures and individual differences,
denition and targeting of relevant skills and miscommunication and misunderstanding. students start to recognise multiple, complex Skills to understand the world and
identities and avoid categorising people to take action
through single markers of identity (e.g. black,
The discussion regarding knowledge, attitudes, skills and values in this section draws upon the conceptualisation of these
components provided by the Council of Europe (2016a) which was developed through an extensive process. It involved auditing
white, woman, poor). Students can acquire Global competence also builds on specic
101 existing conceptual global, intercultural and civic competence schemes. The basic values, attitudes, skills, knowledge knowledge in this domain by reecting on their cognitive, communication and socio-emotional
and understanding throughout the schemes were then identified, and a set of criteria identifying the core values, attitudes, own cultural identity and that of their peers, by skills. Skills are dened as the capacity to
skills, knowledge and understanding was established. Next, a first draft of the resulting model was produced and academic
experts, education practitioners and policy makers reviewed and endorsed the model. It was then fine-tuned and finalised, analysing common stereotypes towards people carry out a complex and well-organised pattern
taking into account the experts feedback. Full details of the development process can be found in Council of Europe (2016a). in their community, or by studying illustrative of thinking (in the case of a cognitive skill) or

12 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 13

behaviour (in the case of a behavioural skill) Perspective taking refers to the cognitive
Integrating global and intercultural issues in the curriculum in order to achieve a particular goal. Global and social skills individuals need in order to
Research on global education tends to focus on social studies and foreign language classes, competence requires numerous skills, including understand how other people think and feel.
often in the upper grade levels (Gaudelli, 2006; Karamon and Tochon, 2007; Merryfield, 2008; reasoning with information, communication It is the capacity to identify and take on often
Myers, 2006; Rapoport, 2010; Suarez, 2003). However, the local, global and intercultural skills in intercultural contexts, perspective conflicting points of view, stepping into
issues that students should learn about, in order to take responsibility for and act upon taking, conict resolution skills and adaptability. someone elses shoes. Perspective taking does
them, cut across education levels and academic disciplines (Gaudelli, 2003; OConnor and not only involve imagining another persons
Zeichner, 2011). For global education to move from abstraction to action, many advocates Globally competent students are able to reason point of view but also entails understanding how
recommend integrating global issues and topics into existing subjects (Klein, 2013; UNESCO, with information from different sources, i.e. various perspectives are related to one another.
2014). In practice, several countries are pursuing a dual approach, where content knowledge textbooks, peers, inuential adults, traditional Understanding others perspectives facilitates
related to global competence is both integrated into the existing curriculum and also taught in and digital media. They can autonomously more mature and tolerant interpretations of
specific subjects or courses (e.g. human rights education). Students can come to understand identify their information needs, and select differences among groups.
local, global and intercultural issues across ages, beginning in early childhood when such sources purposefully on the basis of their
issues are presented in developmentally appropriate ways (Boix Mansilla and Jackson, relevance and reliability. They use a logical, Competent students approach conicts in a
2011; UNESCO, 2015). systematic and sequential approach to examine constructive manner, recognising that conict
information in a text or any other form of media, is a process to be managed rather than seeking
The way that a teacher frames a topic in the curriculum can significantly shape its contribution
examining connections and discrepancies. to negate it. Taking an active part in conict
to global competence. When framing a topic to explore with students, teachers may consider
They can evaluate the worth, validity and management and resolution requires listening
the ways in which this topic addresses local and global dynamics, and how it can enable
reliability of any material on the basis of its and seeking common solutions. Possible
students to understand broad global patterns and the impact on their local environment.
internal consistency, and its consistency with ways to address conict include: analysing
For instance, a mathematics teacher might invite students to decide whether linear or
evidence and with ones own knowledge and key issues, needs and interests (e.g. power,
exponential functions best fit the data on world population growth, or a music teacher may
experience. Competent students question recognition of merit, division of work, equity);
explore how todays hip hop is expressed differently around the world.
and reect on the source authors motives, identifying the origins of the conict and the
In order to avoid the risk that global education becomes a catch-all curriculum where purposes and points of view, the techniques perspectives of those involved in the conict,
everything fits, teachers must have clear ideas about the global and intercultural issues used to attract attention, the use of image, recognising that the parties might differ in status
that they want students to reflect upon. Teachers need to collaboratively research topics sound and language to convey meaning, and or power; identifying areas of agreement and
and carefully plan the curriculum, giving students multiple opportunities to learn about a the range of different interpretations which are disagreement; reframing the conict; managing
core set of issues that increase in complexity throughout their education (Gaudelli, 2006). likely for different individuals. and regulating emotions, interpreting changes
Professional learning communities can be highly effective to engage all teachers and to in ones own and others underlying emotions
facilitate collaboration and peer learning. For example, Lee et al. (2017) show that highly Competent students are able to communicate and motivation and dealing with stress, anxiety
motivated teachers in Thailand followed a training course on global competence promoted effectively and respectfully with people and insecurity, both in oneself and in others;
by the Ministry of Education, and then created professional learning communities in their who are perceived to have different cultural and prioritising needs and goals, deciding on
school to engage other teachers, help them integrate global and intercultural topics in their backgrounds. Effective communication requires possible compromises and the circumstances
courses and promote school-wide projects (Lee et al., 2017). being able to express oneself clearly, condently, under which to reach them (Rychen and
and without anger, even when expressing Salganik, 2003). However, approaches to
Teaching about minority cultures in different subject areas requires accurate content about
a fundamental disagreement. Respectful managing and resolving conict may vary by
and comprehensive portrayals of ethnically and racially diverse groups and experiences.
communication requires understanding the societal expectations, so not all adhere to the
Curricula should promote the integration of knowledge of other people, places and
expectations and perspectives of diverse steps outlined here.
perspectives into the everyday workings of the classroom throughout the year (UNESCO,
audiences, and applying that understanding
2014a), rather than using a tourist approach, giving students a superficial glimpse of life
to meet the audiences needs. Respectful Adaptability refers to the ability to adapt
in different countries every now and then.
communicators also check and clarify the ones thinking and behaviours to the prevailing
Textbooks and other instructional materials can also distort cultural and ethnic differences meanings of words and phrases when they cultural environment, or to novel situations and
(Gay, 2015). Teachers and their students should thus critically analyse their textbook and engage in an intercultural dialogue. Speaking contexts that might present new demands or
teaching resources, and compensate for inadequacies when necessary. more than one language is a clear asset for challenges. Individuals who acquire this skill
Connecting global and intercultural topics to the reality, contexts and needs of the learning effective intercultural communication. Smooth are able to handle the feelings of culture
group is an effective methodological approach to make them relevant to adolescents communication in intercultural contexts is shock, such as frustration, stress and
(North-South Centre of the Council of Europe, 2012). People learn better and become also facilitated by active listening this means alienation in ambiguous situations caused by
more engaged when the content relates to them, and when they can see the parallels looking for not only what is being said but also new environments. Adaptable learners can
between many global issues and their immediate environment. For example, students can how it is being said, through the use of voice more easily develop long-term interpersonal
become aware of the risks related to climate change by studying the effects that natural and accompanying body language. Competent relationships with people from other cultures,
phenomena (e.g. hurricanes, floods) have on their own community. Capitalising on local students are capable speakers who can use and remain resilient in changing circumstances.
expertise and the experience of young people in culturally responsive ways is particularly their body language and voice effectively when
relevant when teaching less privileged or immigrant youth (Surez-Orozco, Surez-Orozco they discuss and debate global issues, express
and Todorova, 2008). and justify a personal opinion and persuade
others to pursue a particular course of action.

14 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 15

Pedagogies for promoting global competence Attitudes of openness, respect Respect consists of positive regard and
for people from different cultural esteem for someone or something based on
Various student-centred pedagogies can help students to develop critical thinking with regards backgrounds and global mindedness the judgement that they have intrinsic worth. In
to global issues, respectful communication, conflict management skills, perspective taking this framework, respect assumes the dignity of
and adaptability. Global competence embodies and is propelled all human beings and their inalienable right to
Group-based co-operative project work can improve reasoning and collaborative skills. It by key dispositions or attitudes. Attitudes choose their own afliations, beliefs, opinions
involves topic- or theme-based tasks suitable for various levels and ages, in which goals and refer to the mind-set that an individual adopts or practices. Being respectful of cultural
content are negotiated by all participants, and learners can create their own learning materials towards a person, a group, an institution, an differences does not require minimising or
that they present and evaluate together. In order to co-operate effectively, learners need to issue, a behaviour, or a symbol. This mind-set ignoring signicant and profound differences
feel safe and comfortable, and the task and its goals must be clearly set for them. Learners integrates beliefs, evaluations, feelings and that might exist between oneself and others,
participating in co-operative tasks soon realise that in order to be efficient, they need to be tendencies to behave in a particular way. nor does it require agreeing with, adopting
respectful, attentive, honest and empathic (Barrett et al., 2014). Project work can effectively Globally competent behaviour requires an or converting to others beliefs. Respect for
connect students within and across borders. For example, Global Cities has created a digital attitude of openness towards people from others also has certain limits that are set by
exchange program (Global Scholar) through which students in 26 countries are given the other cultural backgrounds, an attitude of the principle of human dignity. For example,
opportunity to work in e-classrooms across the world (Global Cities, 2017). Harvard Project respect for cultural differences, and an attitude respect should not be accorded to the contents
Zero also established a digital exchange program in 57 countries. of global mindedness (i.e. that one is a citizen of beliefs and opinions or to lifestyles and
of the world with commitments and obligations practices which undermine or violate the dignity
Students can voice their differences, biases and culturally determined beliefs through
toward the planet and others, irrespective of of others (Council of Europe, 2016a).
organised discussions in the classroom. In order to stimulate discussion, a teacher typically
their particular cultural or national background).
uses a thought-provoking video clip, image or text (Costa and Kallick, 2013). Students can
Such attitudes can be fostered explicitly, The concept of respect should be distinguished
then present supporting evidence, comment and express their differing points of view. Class
through participatory and learner-centred from the concept of tolerance. Tolerance may,
discussion is, by nature, an interactive endeavour, and reflective dialogue engenders proactive
teaching, as well as implicitly through a in some contexts, simply mean enduring
listening and responding to ideas expressed by ones peers. By exchanging views in the
curriculum characterised by fair practices and difference. Respect is a less ambiguous
classroom, students learn that there is not always a single right answer to a problem to be
a welcoming school climate for all students. and more positive concept. It is based on
memorised and presented; they learn to understand the reasons why others hold different
recognition of the dignity, rights and freedoms
views and are able to reflect on the origins of their own beliefs (Ritchhart et al., 2011).
Openness toward people from other cultural of the other in a relationship of equality.
Structured debates constitute a specific format of class discussion that is increasingly backgrounds involves sensitivity toward,
used in secondary and higher education as a way to raise students awareness about global curiosity about and willingness to engage Global mindedness is dened as a worldview
and intercultural issues, and to let them practice their communication and argumentation with other people and other perspectives on in which one sees oneself as connected to
skills (see the web platform and Schuster and Meany (2005) for resources on the world (Byram, 2008; Council of Europe, the world community and feels a sense of
debates in school education). In this format, students are given instructions to join a team 2016a). It requires an active willingness to responsibility for its members (Hett cited in
either supporting or opposing a polemic point of view for instance, the Internet should be seek out and embrace opportunities to engage Hansen, 2010). A globally-minded person has
censored or hosting the Olympics is a good investment. It is often helpful for students to with people from other cultural backgrounds, concerns for other people in other parts of the
articulate views that may be different from their own. to discover and learn about their cultural world, as well as feelings of moral responsibility
Service learning is another tool that can help students to develop multiple global skills through perspectives and how they interpret familiar to try to improve others conditions irrespective
real-world experience. This requires learners to participate in organised activities that are and unfamiliar phenomena, and to learn about of distance and cultural differences (Boix
based on what has been learnt in the classroom and that benefit their communities. After the their linguistic and behavioural conventions. Mansilla and Gardner, 2007). Globally-minded
activities, learners are required to reflect critically on their service experience to gain further Another important characteristic of open people care about future generations, and so
understanding of course content, and enhance their sense of role in society with regard to learners is their willingness to suspend their act to preserve the environmental integrity of
civic, social, economic and political issues (Bringle and Clayton, 2012). Service learning is own cultural values, beliefs and behaviours the planet. Globally-minded individuals exercise
strongly tied to the curriculum and differs both from other types of educational experiences when interacting with others, and not to assume agency and voice with a critical awareness of
in the community and from volunteering. Through service learning, students not only serve that their own values, beliefs and behaviours the fact that other people might have a different
to learn, which is applied learning, but also learn to serve (Bringle et al., 2016). are the only possible correct ones. The attitude vision of what humanity needs, and are open
of openness towards cultural otherness needs to reecting on and changing their vision as
The Story Circle approach has been used in numerous classrooms around the world to to be distinguished from only being interested they learn about these different perspectives.
let students practice key intercultural skills, including respect, cultural self-awareness and in collecting exotic experiences merely for Rather than believing that all differences can
empathy (Deardorff, forthcoming). The students, in groups of 5-6, take turns sharing a 3-minute ones own personal enjoyment or benefit. be eliminated, globally-minded people strive
story from their own experience based on specific prompts such as Tell us about your first Rather, intercultural openness is demonstrated to create space for different ways of living with
experience when you encountered someone who was different from you. After all students through a willingness to engage, cooperate and dignity.
in the group have shared their personal stories, students then take turns briefly sharing the interact with those who are perceived to have
most memorable point from each story in a flash back activity. Other types of intercultural cultural afliations that differ from ones own,
engagement involve simulations, interviews, role plays and online games (for examples of on an equal footing.
specific activities to use in the classroom, see Anna Lindh Foundation, 2017; Berardo and
Deardorff, 2012; Council of Europe, 2015; Fantini, 1997; Seelye, 1996; Storti, 2017; Stringer
and Cassiday, 2009).

16 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 17

Valuing human dignity and diversity beings who care for and respect others (Delors many different traditions, with many different reflections on human dignity can be found
et al., 1996), deciding which values education conceptions of good, can agree on these core in several different countries and cultures.
Values go beyond attitudes: they transcend systems around the world should promote is capabilities as the necessary basis for pursuing For example, the indigenous African concept
specic objects or situations. They are more subject to debate. It is not easy to identify a a good life (Nussbaum, 1997). of Ubuntu has a strong connection with the
general beliefs about the desirable goals that core set of rights that are universally valid and conceptualisation of human dignity in Western
individuals strive for in life, reecting modes of interpreted in the same way everywhere and A controversial issue relates to the Western philosophy. Ubuntu generally translates
conduct or states of being that an individual in every circumstance, as morals and social roots of the concept of human dignity and to as humaneness, and its spirit emphasises
nds preferable to all other alternatives. In institutions vary across cultures and historical the Western dominance in the discussion and respect for human dignity, marking a shift from
this way, values serve as standards and contexts (Donnelly, 2007). denitions of human rights. However, deep confrontation to conciliation (Mogkoro, 1995).
criteria that people use both consciously and
unconsciously in their judgements. They have a Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human
normative prescriptive quality about what ought Rights describes the constitutive elements Perspectives on global competence from different cultures
to be done or thought in different situations. of a minimum core of rights that can guide The literature, theories and frameworks on intercultural competence, global competence and
Values therefore motivate certain behaviours education around the world: All human beings global citizenship emerge predominantly from a Western, Euro-American context. However,
and attitudes. For example, people for whom are born free and equal in dignity and rights. related concepts exist in many countries and cultures around the world. One interesting
independence is an important value are They are endowed with reason and conscience perspective on global competence comes from South Africa and involves the concept of
triggered if their independence is threatened, and should act towards one another in a spirit Ubuntu. There is much literature written about Ubuntu (Nwosu, 2009; Khoza, 2011), found in
feel despair when they are helpless to protect of brotherhood. The article denes two basic a Zulu proverb Umuntu Ngumuntu Ngabantu meaning that a person is a person because
it, and are happy when they can enjoy it foundations of human dignity: the rst is that of others. This concept of Ubuntu can be used to illustrate a collective identity, as well
(Schwartz, 2012). every human being possesses an intrinsic as connectedness, compassion, empathy and humility. There are other similar concepts
worth, merely by being human; the second is to Ubuntu found in different cultures around the world including in indigenous cultures
Valuing human dignity and valuing cultural that this intrinsic worth should be recognised in the Andes and in Malaysia. Collective identity, relationships and context (as impacted
diversity contribute to global competence and respected by others, and certain forms by historical, social, economic and political realities) all become major emphases in other
because they constitute critical lters through of treatment by others are inconsistent with cultural discourses on global competence. In summarising some central themes across
which individuals process information about respect for this intrinsic worth. Individuals different cultures with regard to global competence, Deardorff (2013) noted the following
other cultures and decide how to engage have a distinct moral obligation to treat each key elements: respect, listening, adaptation, relationship-building, seeing from multiple
with others and the world. Individuals who other in ways that are constrained by certain perspectives, self-awareness and cultural humility.
cultivate these values become more aware of inviolable limits. Embracing this value often
themselves and their surroundings, and are means helping others to protect what is most
strongly motivated to ght against exclusion, important to them in life. Even if the cultural context varies, the common and discrimination, improving the school
ignorance, violence, oppression and war. core value of respecting human dignity is environment and social relationships in the
The concept of respecting the fundamental sufciently robust to challenge the legitimacy of communities that schools serve.
Education has a deep inuence on the values right of human dignity is often associated a wide array of systems that abuse their power
of individuals. During their time at school, with protection from discrimination. Andrew against individuals and groups3. Abuses of Respecting human beings core rights and
young citizens form habits of mind, beliefs and Clapham (2006) has suggested that valuing power against vulnerable individuals are not a dignity is, in most cases, compatible with
principles that will stay with them throughout the equality of core rights and dignity has prerogative of war-torn regions or fragile states. respecting and valuing cultural diversity.
their lives. This is why it is so crucial to reect four aspects: (1) the prohibition of all types of They can happen everywhere: neighbourhoods, Globally competent learners should not only
on the type of education that best cultivates inhuman treatment, humiliation or degradation offices or schools. Schools, in particular, have a positive attitude towards cultural
humanity (Nussbaum, 1997). An education that by one person over another; (2) the assurance are places where human dignity takes on a diversity (the attitude of openness and
encourages valuing dignity, human rights and of the possibility for individual choice and the concrete meaning, because every student respect defined above), but should also
diversity emphasises shared commonalities conditions for each individuals self-fullment, deserves equal justice, equal opportunity value cultural diversity as an asset for societies
that unite people around the world, rather than autonomy or self-realisation; (3) the recognition and equal dignity. Discrimination at school and a desirable goal for the future. However,
the issues that divide them; provides learning that the protection of group identity and culture can be overtly displayed through xenophobic valuing cultural diversity has certain limits that
experiences so that students see the world from may be essential for the protection of personal comments, bullying, name-calling, segregation are determined by the inviolability of human
many different perspectives, enabling them to dignity; and (4) the creation of the necessary and physical altercations. Discrimination dignity (UNESCO, 2001). The possible tension
examine their own thoughts and beliefs, and conditions for each individual to have their can also be less apparent but still present in between valuing cultural diversity and valuing
their societys norms and traditions; encourages essential needs satisfied (Clapham, 2006). stereotypes, fear of others and unconscious human rights can be solved by establishing a
people to understand the significance of Martha Nussbaum has argued that a minimally reactions to or intentional avoidance of certain normative hierarchy between the two: valuing
another persons sufferings; and emphasises just society has to endeavour to nurture and groups. Teaching youth to use human rights core human rights is more important than
the importance of reasoning, careful argument, support a core set of basic capabilities, as a frame of reference for their behaviour can valuing cultural diversity, in cases where the
logical analysis, self-questioning, the pursuit of dened as opportunities for choice and action allow them to break down stereotypes, biases two values are in conict with each other.
truth and objectivity. (e.g. being secure against violent assault, being
able to imagine, to think and to reason, being
While most people would agree that education able to love, to grieve, to experience longing,
Here system is used in a broad sense to include not just states and markets, but also husbands, parents, officials, landowners,
social authorities etc. In other words, all those who have power and can use it to control or interfere in peoples lives.
should help students develop into human gratitude and justied anger, etc.). People from

18 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 19

Promoting the value of cultural diversity in situations. While assessing such values is
education practice involves encouraging beyond the scope of the PISA 2018 assessment
students to take actions to safeguard both of global competence, the inclusion of values in
tangible and intangible cultural heritage around this framework hopes to stimulate a productive
the world, as well as actions to promote the debate on how education can shape childrens
rights of all people to embrace their own development of an ethical decision-making
perspectives, views, beliefs and opinions framework grounded on human rights, while
(UNESCO, 2009). It also means conveying
the message to all students that their cultural
fully preserving the value of diverse opinions
and beliefs. Acknowledging the importance of The assessment
of global competence
heritage is important and enriches society. values in education does not mean promoting
a uniform and xed way to interpret the world;
Evaluating how much students care about and it rather implies giving students some essential

cherish the values of human dignity and cultural references to navigate a world where not
diversity is complex and calls for a broad everyone holds their views, but everyone has a
repertoire of assessment strategies ranging duty to uphold the principles that allow different
from interviews or conversations to observation people to co-exist and to prosper.
of students in more and less structured

The assessment strategy

Teaching attitudes and values related to global competence
Assessing global competence in all of its in all countries. On the other hand, leaning
Allocating teaching time to a specific subject dealing with human rights issues and non-
complexity requires a multi-method, multi- too much towards cultural neutrality in the
discrimination is an important first step in cultivating values for global competence. But
perspective approach. The PISA 2018 design of scenarios and questions reduces
even more can be achieved by mainstreaming the principle of respect for human dignity
assessment of global competence contributes the authenticity and relevance of the tasks.
and for cultural diversity across all subjects. For example teachers can use multi-ethnic
a development in this direction, although clear The test design is further limited by the time
and multicultural examples to illuminate general principles and concepts, or emphasise the
challenges and limitations remain. The most constraints of the assessment and the narrow
contributions of people from different ethnic groups to our collective knowledge and quality
salient challenge for the PISA assessment is availability of internationally-valid instruments
of life. Teachers thus need to develop repertoires of culturally diverse examples, the skills
that through a single international instrument that measure the behavioural elements of
to use them fluidly and routinely in classroom instruction, and the confidence to do so.
it needs to account for the large variety of global competence.
Values and attitudes are partly communicated through the formal curriculum but also through geographic and cultural contexts represented in
the ways in which educators and students interact, how discipline is encouraged and the participating countries. Students who perform Accounting for these limitations and challenges,
types of opinions and behaviour that are validated in the classroom. For example, a history well on a question assessing their reasoning the PISA 2018 global competence assessment
lesson on the American Civil War may emphasise valuing racial equality; however if the about a global issue are likely to have some has two components: 1) a cognitive test
teacher disciplines minority students more severely, he or she communicates a contradictory prior knowledge of the issue, and the type of exclusively focused on the construct of global
value system. It is likely that students will assimilate the culture of the classroom more knowledge students already have of global understanding, dened as the combination
readily than they will learn the curriculum. Therefore, recognising the school and classroom issues is inuenced by their experiences within of background knowledge and cognitive skills
environments influence on developing students values can help educators to become their unique social context. On the one hand, required to solve problems related to global and
more aware of the effects that their teaching has on students. For example, a teacher might cultural variability in the tested population intercultural issues; 2) a set of questionnaire
reconsider the seating plan of the classroom if he is hoping to promote racial and gender requires that the test material cannot be too items collecting self-reported information
integration among his students. biased towards a particular perspective, for on students awareness of global issues and
Teachers can be instrumental in replacing stereotypes of minority and disadvantaged example the perspective of a student in a rich cultures, skills (both cognitive and social) and
students with more positive ones. However, teachers often find it difficult to engage in open country who thinks about a problem in a poor attitudes, as well as information from schools
discussions about diversity and discrimination. Part of the problem is a lack of experience country. Similarly, the test units should focus on and teachers on activities to promote global
with people who are different, and the assumption that conversations about discrimination issues that are relevant for 15-year-old students competence.
and ethics will always be contentious. Consequently, teachers may concentrate only on
safe topics about cultural diversity, such as cross-group similarities, ethnic customs,
cuisines, costumes and celebrations, while neglecting more troubling issues such as
inequities, injustices and oppression (Gay, 2015).
These difficulties can be overcome by giving educators access to continual professional
development throughout their career. Specific training programmes and modules can help
teachers to acquire: a critical awareness of the role that different subject and teaching
approaches can play in the struggle against racism and discrimination; the skills to
acknowledge and take into account the diversity of learners needs, especially those of
minority groups; and a command of basic methods and techniques of observation, listening
and intercultural communication (UNESCO, 2007).
20 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 21
Figure 2. The PISA approach to assessing global competence problems, and to weigh the direct and indirect competent ways, but whose measurement goes
consequences of such actions. beyond the parameters of the PISA cognitive
Global competence test. Self-reported skills and attitudes will
The student questionnaire will provide be measured through Likert-type scales that
complementary information on the attitudes, have been selected on the basis of a review of
knowledge and skills that people need to empirical studies.
navigate everyday life in globally and culturally
Knowledge Cognitive skills Social skills Values
and attitudes
Figure 3. Elements of a typical PISA 2018 global competence test unit
Pisa 2018 Beyond the scope
assessment of the PISA 2018
Scenario: Depicts
real-life situations,
in the form of case
The reporting of the results will reflect the Global understanding is assessed in the PISA studies, from which John is doing a project about renewable energy. He learns that there any
many types of renewable energy. He also learns that not everybody is
various tasks (test supportive of certain types of renewable energy. He decides to watch a
differences between these two assessment cognitive test by asking students to complete documentary about...
items) are derived.
components. Students answers to the several test units. Each test unit is composed Each scenario has
questions in the cognitive test can be of one scenario (or case study) and various multiple corresponding
objectively scored as right (or partially right) or scenario-based tasks (see Figure 3). In a test items. Question 1
What are examples of...?
wrong, and can thus be presented on a scale. typical test unit, students read about a case Categorised by: Circle Yes or No for each example below.

Given that the capacity to understand global and respond to questions (otherwise referred content domain, context,
Test Item: Any individual
complexity and format. Is this an example of...? Yes or No?
or intercultural issues and situations can be to as test items) that evaluate their capacity task that the student has
developed at school, the PISA proficiency to understand its complexity and the multiple Statement A Yes / No to perform in relation to a
Statement B Yes / No given scenario. The
scale is expected to yield results that can be perspectives of the diverse actors involved. Statement C Yes / No response format of test
interpreted in educational policy terms. For Each scenario will expose students to a range items can be either open-
some of the questions measuring attitudinal of different situations, and test their capacity or closed-response
or socio-emotional traits (e.g. openness), to apply their background knowledge and
Question 2 questions.
Explain why an inhabitant of a nearby village might be unhappy with
however, dening right or wrong answers is cognitive skills in order to analyse the situation the decision to....
Categorised by: cognitive
more controversial because the development and suggest solutions. process.

of these traits and their contribution towards

global competence might be non-linear (beyond The cognitive skills demanded by global Test Unit: The combination of a
a certain threshold, more openness may not understanding are relevant measures of all four scenario and its corresponding test
items. Each test unit is independent
necessarily be better). Measurement issues dimensions of students global competence. and self-contained. The PISA
are also more acute in self-reported items, Test items asking students to critically analyse cognitive test is made up of several
so ranking students or countries on the basis statements and information will provide different test units.
of students responses to the questionnaire relevant information about students capacity
risks errors of misrepresentation and to examine global and intercultural issues
misinterpretation. For example, people from (dimension1). Understanding perspectives
some cultural backgrounds tend to exaggerate (dimension 2) can be assessed through The cognitive test on global understanding
their responses to typical questionnaire items test items examining students capacity to:
based on a Likert-type scale (e.g. questions recognise different perspectives while being A short review of cognitive and trends, and legal and policy frameworks
asking students whether they strongly aware of ones own cultural lens and biases, assessments in this area associated with 13 global themes.
disagree, disagree, agree or strongly agree as well as those of other people; consider
with a statement), whereas others tend to the contexts (cultural, religious, regional) Research in this area has predominantly been Test items in the Global Understanding Survey
take a middle ground (Harzing, 2006). The that inuence these perspectives; and nd based on student self-reports, and only a few addressed real-world issues. Students who
responses to the questionnaire items will thus possible connections or common ground examples of cognitive assessments exist. In the reported regular news consumption scored
not be used to position countries and students across perspectives. Elsewhere, engage Global Understanding Survey (Barrows et al., higher on the test. However, the authors found
on a scale. Instead, they will be used only to in appropriate and effective interactions 1981), the authors dene global understanding only weak relationships between students
illustrate general patterns and differences (dimension 3) can be assessed through items as a sum of four components: (a) knowledge; educational experiencescoursework,
within countries in the development of the testing students capacity to understand (b) attitudes and perceptions; (c) general language study or study abroadand their
skills and attitudes that contribute to global communicative contexts and the norms of background correlations; and (d) language levels of international knowledge. The nal
competence among 15-year-old students, as respectful dialogue. Finally take action for proficiency. The knowledge domain in the report also recognised that the assessment
well as to analyse the relationship between sustainability and well-being (dimension 4) Global Understanding Survey consisted of provided only limited insights into the nature
those skills and attitudes and students results can be assessed vis-a-vis students capacity 101 multiple-choice questions that addressed and development of global understanding.
on the cognitive test. to consider possible actions to combat global international institutions, major historical events

22 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 23

The IEA Studies on Civic Education (the Civic students to not only use and process texts but Dening the construct of global students need to use in order to fully understand
Education Study) and the International Civic also to employ other cognitive, language and understanding global or intercultural issues and situations:
and Citizenship Study are other relevant social reasoning skills, as well as call upon their
examples that could guide item development own knowledge, strategies and dispositions. Access to global information and opportunities 1. The capacity to evaluate information,
in PISA. The key research questions for ICCS Unlike traditional reading assessments that for intercultural encounters have greatly formulate arguments and explain complex
concern student achievement in civic and present students with a set of unrelated texts increased over the last decade, meaning that situations and problems by using and
citizenship education and their disposition to and no purpose for reading them, GISA uses the majority of PISA students are exposed to connecting evidence, identifying biases and
engage with such issues. ICCS measures the a scenario-based approach with a carefully a wide range of perspectives on global issues gaps in information and managing conicting
cognitive processes of knowledge, reasoning structured sequence of tasks. By employing and intercultural experiences even if they arguments.
and analysis across four content domains scenarios that provide authentic contexts and do not actively search for them. However,
including: (a) civic society and systems, (b) civic purposes for reading, the assessment better access to information about the world and 2. The capacity to identify and analyse
principles, (c) civic participation, and (d) civic reects the cognitive processes that students other cultures does not always go together multiple perspectives and world views,
identities (Schulz et al., 2010; Torney-Purta et engage in when confronted with real learning with understanding. The oversimplication of positioning and connecting their own and
al., 2015). The item format combines multiple- activities. complex knowledge is a signicant contributing others perspectives on the world.
choice and open-ended questions. factor to deficiencies in learning (Spiro et
The GISA assessments also include collaborative al., 1988), and is particularly frequent in the 3. The capacity to understand differences in
Some of the items in ICCS measure students activities. For example, test takers interact domain of global and cultural issues. Although communication, recognising the importance
ability to analyse and reason. Reasoning with simulated peers to identify errors, correct misconceptions often arise from a lack of of socially-appropriate communication
asks students to apply knowledge and misconceptions and provide feedback. The information, they are compounded by the fact conventions and adapting communication
understanding of familiar concrete situations members of the simulated interactions can that initial and deeply-held beliefs about how to the demands of diverse cultural contexts.
in order to reach conclusions about complex, state facts, present incorrect information, give the world works are difcult to subsequently
multifaceted, unfamiliar and abstract situations their opinions and go off topic, just as people change. Given that humans learn by creating 4. The capacity to evaluate actions and
(Schulz et al., 2008). do in real life. Performance moderators such classication systems, a lack of new knowledge consequences by identifying and comparing
as background knowledge, self-regulatory or experiences can lead to oversimplified different courses of action and weighing
Outside of the context of global and civic strategies and motivation are also measured in categorisations and generalisations which, in these actions against one another on the
education, an increasing number of assessments GISA and are used to interpret the reading score. turn, can result in prejudice and stereotyping. basis of short- and long-term consequences.
have attempted to measure students capacity However, misconceptions also arise even when
to evaluate information and think critically about Relatively few assessments of perspective- students are exposed to appropriate information Globally competent students should thus be
problems.4 In many of these tests, students taking skills exist. One relevant example but absorb this information in a passive way, able to perform a wide variety of tasks utilising
read a short text and decide whether a series for the PISA test is the perspective-taking without reecting on its deeper meaning or different cognitive processes. The rst of these
of statements related to the text are likely measure developed within the Catalyzing using the information to adjust their prior beliefs. cognitive processes requires students to be
to be true or false. Some of these tests also Comprehension through Discussion and able to: reason with evidence about an issue
include constructed response questions, where Debate (CCDD) initiative.5 The assessment Students need to use knowledge and skills or situation of local, global and intercultural
students need to develop logical arguments is designed to assess students ability to simultaneously in order to develop global significance; search effectively for useful
or explain how someone elses conclusions acknowledge, articulate, position and interpret understanding (Figure 4). If a student does sources of information; evaluate information
could be veried or strengthened. All these the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in not know much about a certain issue, they on the basis of its relevance and reliability;
assessments emphasise reasoning, analysis, a social conict, and provide solutions that will nd it difcult to identify aws in texts, synthesise information in order to describe the
argumentation and evaluation (Liu et al., consider and integrate their respective different consider multiple perspectives (Willingham, main ideas in an argumentative text or the salient
2014). These tests treat those skills as generic, positions. The assessment puts students in the 2007), communicate in rich ways and consider passages of a conversation; and combine
however, while PISA will look at the application shoes of an advisor, who needs to address the consequences of actions related to the their background knowledge, new information
of these capacities in the specic context of social conflicts that can occur in different issue in question. However, knowledge alone and critical reasoning to build multi-causal
global and intercultural issues. contexts. In a sample assessment unit, test of intercultural and global issues without explanations of global or intercultural issues.
takers read a story about a student named understanding adds little value. One can know,
The Global Integrated Scenario-Based Casey who is a victim of bullying, and are and continue to judge and dismiss supercially Furthermore, a solid understanding of a
Assessment of Reading, or GISA for short, is asked what they would recommend Casey (Williams-Gualandi, 2015). Understanding is global or intercultural problem also requires
another relevant reference for the PISA test should do, why, and to identify potential negative the ability to use knowledge to nd meaning recognising that ones beliefs and judgements
(OReilly and Sabatini, 2013; Sabatini et al., consequences of their recommendation. and connection between different pieces of are always contingent upon ones own cultural
2014; Sabatini et al., 2015). GISA assesses Students have to provide answers to these information and perspectives. afliations and perspectives. Students should
students global reading literacy ability, a questions in the form of short, open responses. therefore be able to recognise the perspectives
multidimensional competence that requires The cognitive processes that support of other people or groups and the factors that
global understanding might inuence them, including their access to
information and resources. Students need to be
Measurement instruments of critical thinking include the EnnisWeir Critical Thinking Essay Test (Ennis and Weir, 1985),
Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Ennis, Millman and Tomko, 1985), ETS HEIghten Critical Thinking Assessment (Liu, Frankel, For analytical and assessment purposes, this able to explain how perspectives and contexts
and Roohr, 2014; Liu et al., 2016) and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (Halpern, 2010). framework distinguishes four, interrelated shape human interactions and interpretations
See for more information. cognitive processes that globally competent of events, issues or phenomena.

24 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 25

Globally competent students should also issue. For example, students can be asked to 3) is especially complex and might require a Table 1 describes students abilities at
identify ways to manage conicts that emerge select the most reliable among a selection of longer period of development and validation. basic, intermediate and advanced levels of
from communication problems, by analysing different sources of information about an issue; This cognitive process is thus expected to be development in the four typologies of cognitive
communicative contexts and conventions and they can evaluate whether a statement is valid less represented than the other three in the processes that constitute global understanding,
recognising markers of respect. and based on evidence; they can be asked to 2018 PISA test. the cognitive facet of global competence.
summarise and explain an issue or situation,
Finally, students demonstrate their level of or choose among possible summaries; they Table 1. Typologies of cognitive processes by level in the PISA 2018 test of global
global understanding when they can evaluate can be asked to identify passages of a media competence
different courses of action, propose solutions message transmitting negative stereotypes or
and consider the immediate and indirect making hasty generalisations; they can identify
Cognitive process Sub-category Basic Intermediate Advanced
implications of actions. The last constitutive the different stakeholders in a case and list the
cognitive process of global understanding possible contextual and cultural drivers of their 1. Evaluate
The student prefers using
sources stemming from
The student searches
for and selects sources
The student is able to frame
the search systematically
therefore involves the ability to draw sound respective positions; they can identify which formulate (range) her own cultural context stemming from geographic in a way which enables her
arguments and without having an apparent and cultural contexts (region, to identify the nature and
conclusions from the information one passages in a conversation demonstrate a explain complex strategy to search for, select language, perspective) extent of information needed
situations or or differentiate between beyond her own. She can to address the issue. She
possesses and acquires. clear ignorance of intercultural communication problems sources. also search for and select selects sources purposefully
more than one source drawing on contexts and
approaches; or they can be asked to list or type (e.g. newspapers, types that will inform her
Different types of tasks can test students level of select the possible consequences of a publications, personal
testimonies, government
understanding of the issue
at hand.
prociency in applying each of these interrelated proposed solution to a problem. reports). However, no
concrete strategy beyond
cognitive processes to a global or intercultural a commitment to using
different sources is
Figure 4. The relationship between the cognitive test of global understanding and the
Weighing The student takes the The student weighs sources The student pays attention
dimensions of global competence sources information at face value for their relevance vis-a-vis to contextual factors to
(reliability and without considering the topic or claim at hand. establish the sources
relevance) contextual factors (author, The student also considers reliability and its relevance.
geo-perspective, culture) contextual factors that can She understands the
or source kind. She cannot inform her evaluation of significance of different
yet detect clear biases or a sources reliability. She sources perspectives,
PISA cognitive test of global understanding inconsistencies. The student can detect clear biases can distinguish the
does not weigh the sources and inconsistencies, communicative intentions of
relevance vis-a-vis the topic yet she shows a rather sources and claims (facts,
or claim at hand. binary view of reliability opinions, propaganda),
(biased/non-biased). evaluate whether the
Knowledge Cognitive Dimensions of assumptions or premises are
skills/processes global competence reasonable or well-grounded
in evidence, and identify
assumptions or claims that
reveal stereotypes.
Evaluate information,
formulate arguments Examine local, global Employing The student views the The student understands the The student recognises
and explain complex and intercultural issues sources use of sources as a need for multiple sources the provisional nature of
Knowledge of
situations or problems (reasoning simple, unproblematic but uses a mechanistic evidence and that multiple
global issues
with evidence) matter of copying and approach when including arguments can stem from

pasting information into an sources in an argument (e.g. similar sources. The student
argument. two pro- two against can consider evidence to
sources) explore and meet counter-
Understand and appreciate
Identify and analyse arguments. She can also
the perspectives and address conflicting claims or
multiple perspectives
world views of others sources.

Describing The student can produce The student can describe The student can describe
Intercultural and explaining short summaries of the issue/situation at hand the issue/situation at hand
Understand Engage in open,
knowledge complex information or perspectives. in ways that connect larger in ways that connect larger
differences in appropriate and
communication effective interactions situations or Summaries read as a string concepts (e.g. culture, concepts (e.g. culture,
problems of information with little identity, migration) and identity, migration) and
substantive organisation. simple examples. She relevant examples. She
The student is not yet can order content in a can develop and express
Take action for collective capable of classifying the way that supports others clear, sound and effective
Evaluate actions information. understanding of the issues. arguments synthesising
well-being and sustainable
and consequences and connecting information
provided in the task and
information she acquired in
or outside of school.


While all four cognitive processes are important cover all four cognitive processes in a balanced
indicators of a globally competent individuals way. In particular, creating test items that
skills, the test items in the PISA 2018 global validly measure students understanding of
competence assessment are not expected to communication norms and differences (process

26 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 27

Basic Intermediate Advanced Basic Intermediate Advanced

2. Identify and Recognising The student has a simplistic The student can identify The student can describe 3. Understand Understanding The student does not The student is aware of The student is aware
analyse multiple perspectives view of perspectives: one different actors and points of and interpret multiple differences in communicative yet understand how to her way of communicating of her own styles of
perspectives and and world person-one perspective. view on an issue. perspectives and world communication contexts and effectively and appropriately and attempts to make communication and
world views views She cannot yet explain the The student begins to views. respectful communicate based on that communication fit the understands that
source of the perspective. recognise that differences The student understands dialogue audience and context. context. effective and appropriate
The student views context in perspectives or world that perspectives are rooted Specifically, she does The student can identify communication must be
as either irrelevant or as views are rooted in cultural, in cultural, religious, socio- not recognise cultural some interactive styles, adapted to audience,
deterministic (context as religious, socio-economic, economic, regional and norms, interactive styles, expectations, or levels purpose and context.
destiny). regional and other other backgrounds, and she expectations, or levels of of formality in a given Specifically, she is sensitive
She views perspectives backgrounds, and that she understands how someones formality in a given social social and cultural to nuances in cultural
(cultural, religious, linguistic) also holds a particular view geographic and cultural and cultural context and context but cannot yet norms, interactive styles,
as relatively fixed, bounded of the world. context can shape how that audience. calibrate her language and expectations, or levels of
or impermeable markers of a The student cannot yet person sees the world. The student is not yet able communication choices formality of a given social
persons identity and world articulate how multiple She also understands that to observe, listen actively, accordingly. and cultural context and
view. The student views perspectives relate to one an individuals identity is and interpret social and The student can respond audience. She listens
an individuals identity as another. Differences in complex (one can be at once contextual clues such to breakdowns in actively, observes carefully
predominantly one category perspectives or world view a girl, a daughter, a farmer, as body language, tone, communication, (for example and gathers insight,
(such as nationality or start to be seen as rooted and a citizen). diction, physical interactions, by requesting repetitions or including social and cultural
religion). in cultural, religious, socio- She can articulate dress code, or silences. reformulations) but does so clues that inform her
The student does not economic, regional and relationships among The student is surprised very tentatively. communicative choices.
consider herself as having a other backgrounds. perspectives, placing the by any breakdowns in The student can break down
distinct cultural perspective perspectives in a broader communication and lacks her messages, providing
or world view and rather encompassing frame (e.g. a communicative repertoire re-statements, revisions or
believes that what she when the student sees that can resolve or prevent simplifications of her own
knows is the norm. that two classmates from such breakdowns. communication.
different ethnic groups She employs linguistic
fight because of cultural devices such as avoiding
prejudices, she understands categorical claims,
that their relationship reflects connecting to what others
broader tensions in today's say, sharing questions and
society). puzzles, and acknowledging
The student views herself contributions in ways that
as holding perspectives advance civil and reciprocal
and blind spots. She dialogue.
understands that her
perspective is informed by
Basic Intermediate Advanced
her cultural context and
experiences and that others
may perceive her in ways 4. Evaluate Considering The student considers one The student understands The student demonstrates
that may differ from the way actions and actions course of action as obvious that multiple courses of an ability to identify and
she sees herself. consequences and unproblematic. For action are possible and evaluate different courses
example, when presented necessary to address an of action to solve an issue/
with a problem about issue/situation or contribute situation. She weighs these
Identifying The student does not The student recognises The student appreciates
industrial pollution, her to the well-being of actions against one another,
Connections recognise connections that people from different common human rights
immediate conclusion would individuals and societies. for example, by looking at
among human beings apart cultures share most basic and needs and reflects
be just close all polluting She can identify directions precedents, considering
from physical connotations human rights and needs on individual, cultural or
factories. for future investigations if and evaluating available
and evident cultural markers. (e.g. food, shelter, work, contextual differences
the available evidence is evidence, and assessing the
The student does not education, happiness). critically, understanding the
insufficient for reaching conditions that may make
recognise the impact that She understands the obstacles that individuals
conclusions about the best actions possible.
actions have on others meaning of these rights or and societies may confront
course of action.
and sees individuals from needs and some of the ways (economic inequality,
different cultures or contexts in which they can be met. unequal power relations,
as distant or exotic who violence or unsustainable Assessing The student understands The student understands The student considers
think and behave differently conduct) in affirming their consequences the implications of simple the most likely immediate the immediate and
and do not share similar rights to diversity and well- and actions in linear terms consequences of a given indirect consequences or
rights or needs. being. implications without weighing multiple position or course of action, implications of different
She also understands that actions and implications and can assess how these possible actions and
universal human rights or considering unintended consequences compare decisions. She can weigh
leave considerable space consequences. with available alternative short- and long-term
for national, regional and positions/views. consequences as well as
cultural individuality and short-range and spatially-
other forms of diversity, and distant consequences. The
that they allow individuals student also considers the
and groups to pursue possibility of unintended
their own vision of what consequences as a result of
constitutes a good life as actions.
long as their choices do not
impede others core human

Content of the test units identify a set of big issues that all young people
should learn about, regardless of where they
A typical test unit is based on a scenario that live or their socio-cultural background. However
focuses on one global or intercultural issue and an exact delimitation of relevant content for
presents different perspectives on the issue. the scenarios is difcult because global and
Scenarios are often used as teaching tools, intercultural issues are in constant evolution.
and their use in the test units can yield useful Nonetheless, Table 2 outlines four content
evidence for education policy and teachers as domains, and their related subdomains, which
they encourage students to think logically and can be considered relevant for all students.
systematically. Every scenario in the PISA cognitive test can
therefore be categorised according to one of
A scenario-based design in an international these content (sub)domains.
assessment assumes that it is possible to

28 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 29

Table 2. Content domains and subdomains of the scenarios asked to reect about a particular case study Table 3 sets out the categorisations of complexity
presented in a test unit. of the test units, according to the level of content
Content Domain 1: Culture and intercultural relations knowledge and general reading skills required
Subdomain 1.1: Identity formation in multicultural societies When students read a text or follow a by the scenario and test items. Although
Subdomain 1.2: Cultural expressions and cultural exchanges conversation presented in the scenario of each general language decoding and comprehension
Subdomain 1.3: Intercultural communication
test unit, their understanding is constrained skills are not integral components of global
Subdomain 1.4: Perspective taking, stereotypes, discrimination and intolerance
by both the content and complexity of the competence, the language used in the test
Content Domain 2: Socio-economic development and interdependence
material in the scenario, and the development scenarios and items will inescapably inuence
Subdomain 2.1: Economic interactions and interdependence of the cognitive processes necessary for the difficulty of test units. Highly complex
Subdomain 2.2: Human capital, development and inequality
global understanding. The cognitive demand language thus needs to be avoided to reduce
Content Domain 3: Environmental sustainability of individual test units is therefore dened by the risk that the test results become heavily
Subdomain 3.1: Natural resources and environmental risks the level of content knowledge and cognitive inuenced by differences in text decoding and
Subdomain 3.2: Policies, practices and behaviours for environmental sustainability skills that students need to activate in order language comprehension skills. As for domain-
Content Domain 4: Institutions, conflicts and human rights to solve the tasks. In more demanding test specic content knowledge, the requirement
Subdomain 4.1: Prevention of conflicts and hate crimes
units the student must generally contribute of prior exposure to relevant information and
Subdomain 4.2: Universal human rights and local traditions information from his or her own knowledge intercultural situations is an important driver
Subdomain 4.3: Political participation and global engagement about the content domain that is not explicitly of a test units difculty, and thus of students
stated in the scenario. performance on the cognitive test.
Test developers should aim at a balanced gender, religion, socio-economic differences
coverage of the four content domains across and so on students can be assessed on their Table 3. Dimensions and levels of complexity of the scenarios
the different units that constitute each 1-hour intercultural communication and understanding
cognitive test, favouring scenarios that cut skills (cognitive processes 2 and 3, and content Levels of
Domain-specific knowledge
Percentage General knowledge (text and Percentage
complexity of scenarios language) of scenarios
across multiple content domains. The test domain 1). Scenarios that incorporate histories
Low The topic analysed in the test unit is Around 40% The scenario is framed in very simple Around 60%
units should privilege stimulus material that is of conicts or positive cultural exchanges in familiar to the vast majority of students. language, without technical words or
familiar and relevant to 15-year-olds, in order to multicultural neighbourhoods (local context) Very limited prior knowledge of the
topic/issue is required from students to
expressions that are unique to a certain
socio-cultural or demographic group.
facilitate students engagement with the task. can serve as useful background for test items understand what the unit requires.

The risk associated with sensitive topics (e.g. a assessing students understanding of the Medium Most students regularly hear about the Around 40% The language in the scenario is familiar Around 30%
topic/issue but they are not necessarily to the majority of 15-year-old students.
case study on hate violence against minorities challenges of social integration within their familiar with all its aspects. Students The choice of words is typical of
who have had some exposure to the communication addressed to non-
may be sensitive for a student from a minority local community; scenarios in which students topic/issue in or outside of school can specialist audiences. Differences in
group) should be carefully assessed and are required to analyse global news or work be expected to perform better on the communication styles across groups
unit. are minimised whenever fictional
minimised during the design of the scenarios remotely on a project with other students in conversations are used as scenarios.
Single texts are internally coherent and
and related test items. The combination of a different country can tap into a wide variety multiple texts are clearly connected.
appropriate media, such as texts, comic strips of content domains and cognitive processes. High Most students have heard about the Around 20% The scenario is framed in more complex Around 10%
and photography, can increase the quality and topic/issue but, given its complexity, only
a minority of students can be expected
language that is typical of formal
writing or professional conversation,
relevance of the scenario for students, reducing Complexity of the test units to be familiar with the content of the unit. and can include a limited amount of
Students who have had some exposure content-specific or technical vocabulary.
the reading load and increasing students to the topic/issue in or outside of school Communication between actors in
can more easily engage with the test unit the scenario can reflect differences in
engagement with the tasks. It is also important The effective use of the assessed cognitive and are expected to perform significantly communication styles among groups,
better. although most students are expected
to avoid scenarios which present a stereotypical processes (described in Table 1) is intimately tied to be able to follow the conversation
representation of certain identities or cultural to the students' content knowledge of the issue and understand its overall meaning (no
jargon or convoluted phrasing is used).
groups, and could thus further contribute to or situation they are asked to work on. While
single stories and prejudice. the cognitive skills of analysing and evaluating
information are intrinsically general in nature, International asymmetries in a students other cultures can be traced to the varying
As well as varying by content, the scenarios in global and intercultural issues present their own opportunity to learn the subject matter are socio-cultural environments in which they live
each test unit can vary by context. For example specic challenges that require knowledge of the probably more important in an assessment and learn. Learning for global competence is
they can refer to the personal context of the world and of cultural differences. For example, of global competence than in assessments of a cultural activity, not just because it is partly
student (situations relating to the self, family and only those students who have some degree more traditional subjects, such as science or acquired through social interactions but also
peer groups), to their local context (wider social of knowledge of the consequences of climate mathematics. This is because only a minority because the process is inuenced by the way
networks, neighbourhood, city or country) or change can fully understand conicting positions of schools already consciously include global in which specic cultural groups interpret the
to a global context (life across the world, as in a debate on the reduction of carbon emission education in their curriculum, and the content world and transmit information.
experienced through exposure to the media and in cities. Similarly, if a student does not know of global education varies signicantly across
participation in social networks). For example, anything about an issue, they will nd it difcult countries. Moreover, the learning process of These asymmetries in content knowledge are
in the personal context of student interaction to consider the issue from multiple perspectives. global competence takes place within a context expected to matter for performance on the
within a multicultural classroom whereby a Background content knowledge is considered, that extends far beyond the classroom: an test. However, the design of the test makes
multicultural classroom encompasses not only in this framework, as an important facilitator of important factor determining the extent to the PISA cognitive assessment fundamentally
differences in national backgrounds but also in the cognitive processes that students use when which students know about global issues and different from a knowledge quiz. Firstly, no

30 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 31

test item directly assesses factual knowledge perspective-taking abilities can be assessed Finally the student as debaters scenarios that include detailed qualitative descriptions
(for example, an item would not ask students by asking them to examine the causes of a require test takers to develop arguments and of performance standards (Andrade, 2005;
to specify the increase in global temperature misunderstanding or conflict between two compare different perspectives on an issue Popham, 1997; Popp, Ryan and Thompson,
reported in the last International Panel on Climate members on the research team. in a debate format. The scenario typically 2009; Stellmack et al., 2009; Thaler, Kazemi
Change report). Secondly, only a minority of test provides some background information and Huscher, 2009)6. Most units in the test
units will require students to have a high level of The second format presents performance on the issue that students can use for their should include at least one question with an
background knowledge of global and intercultural tasks that students should solve by acting as responses. The questions in the scenario ask open-response format.
issues (Table 2). While background content reporters: the scenario asks students to put the students to develop (or select) arguments
knowledge assists students understanding of themselves in the shoes of a journalist who for their side, and address and rebut the Moderators of performance:
the scenario, performance on the test should wants to write an article about a piece of news arguments their opponents side has made. If reading comprehension, attitudes
mainly reflect students capacities to use he or she has heard. The text in this type of properly transposed to an assessment format, and values
their reasoning and perspective-taking skills scenario typically takes the form of an extract the debate format can stimulate students
to connect their general knowledge of global from a newspaper or from social media where engagement and give them the opportunity Certain individual factors that are not explicitly
issues to new and unanticipated problems and the main elements of a case are presented. to demonstrate their grasp of thinking and assessed in the PISA cognitive test may
situations. The test design mitigates international A rst question or set of questions typically communication skills. nonetheless moderate students performance.
asymmetries in students opportunity to learn veries whether the students understand the In the 2018 iteration of the test, the scenarios
background content knowledge because it asks message, can assess the quality and credibility This description of scenario formats is not are mostly based on written texts, despite
students to work on several short test units in of information reported in the source, and can exhaustive, and other types of scenarios can be efforts to efciently integrate texts and images.
different content domains. Test takers from a reason beyond the text questioning possible explored during the test development process. The capacities that students need in order to
given socio-cultural context will thus likely have motivations and subjective interpretations of perform well on the global competence test
more background knowledge on some areas, the information by the author. The scenario Response format therefore overlap to a certain extent with those
but not on others. then develops as students are asked to search required for reading literacy, because the PISA
for their own information and sources, for The form in which the evidence is collected denition of reading literacy has progressively
Format of the scenarios example by asking students to identify which the response format varies according to put more emphasis on students capacities
stakeholders they would like to interview, the cognitive process that is assessed and to analyse, synthesise, integrate and interpret
The scenarios used in the test should reect the and/or selecting relevant questions to ask the chosen format of the scenario. Various multiple texts (OECD, 2016). However, this
variety of contexts and roles in which students different actors in order to better understand response formats can require different skills. For framework identifies a set of perspective-
can learn about global issues or explore the their actions and perspectives. This type of example, closed and multiple-choice response taking and reasoning abilities that clearly go
complexity of intercultural interactions. The scenario can assess all the cognitive processes items depend more on decoding skills, because beyond reading prociency, and focuses on the
authenticity and relevance of the tasks are in the framework, and works particularly well readers have to eliminate incorrect responses, application of these abilities to specic content
critically important to stimulate a sufcient level for assessing students capacity to select, when compared to open-constructed response areas (global and intercultural issues). The
of engagement with the test. The scenarios can use information and assess the validity of items (Cain & Oakhill, 2006). specicities of global issues and intercultural
be designed using the following four formats information. The investigative nature of the relations contribute to dening and determining
that assign a particular role to the student, tasks should be sufciently stimulating and As in any large-scale assessment, the range the cognitive processes and skills employed
providing a clear purpose to engage in the task: realistic for most students. of feasible item formats is limited to some in the tasks.
combination of open and closed response
1. students as researchers The students as mediators/team-members questions. However, contextualised open- It will be possible to measure and partially
2. students as reporters scenarios ask students what they would suggest response items are particularly relevant for account for the correlation between reading
3. students as mediators or team-members to moderate or solve a conict in their schools or this assessment as they ask the learner to skills and global understanding as students
4. students as debaters. neighbourhood. The text typically takes the form assemble relevant, abstract, conceptual and tested in global competence in 2018 will also
of a conversation, where two or more actors case-specific knowledge components for be tested in reading. Thus, individual students
In the rst format students as researchers have a conict over an issue. The questions a problem-solving task (Spiro et al., 1995). and countries results on the assessment could
the test takers are asked to imagine that ask students to identify who is involved in the Open-response items were already used and be compared before and after accounting for
they are enrolled in a course at their school situation, how the different stakeholders are validated in the ICCSs International Cognitive their performance in reading.
and that they need to submit a collaborative likely to feel, think and react, and why they think Test (Schulz et al., 2008), NAEP Civics (National
research paper with other fellow students at and react in this way, based on the relationships Assessment Governing Board, 2010), and in
the end of the school term. In this scenario, the between characters and their social and cultural the United Kingdoms GCSE examination in
student has to examine information from web characteristics. The test-taker can also be asked Citizenship Studies (Department for Education
searches or from inputs from other students to generate or identify possible solutions that (UK), 2014). The open-response items are
on the team. This format tests multiple types consider the interests of all or most parties. This scored using rubrics scoring guidelines
of cognitive processes: students capacities type of scenario can effectively test students
to select information can be assessed by ability to acknowledge, articulate, position and
presenting them with multiple results from web interpret multiple stakeholders perspectives in 6
Doscher (2012) explores the validity and reliability of two rubrics for the Global Learning Initiative at Florida International
University (FIU). The rubrics referred to two case studies measuring university students global awareness and perspectives.
queries and asking them to select the one that a given social conict, and provide solutions that The rubrics yielded scores that reliably measured students global learning outcomes. Students who attended global learning
is most appropriate to the research; students consider and integrate these different positions. courses scored significantly higher on the performance tasks than students who did not attend such courses.

32 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 33

Attitudes can facilitate global and intercultural intercultural understanding. While values are Global-Mindedness Scale, for example, was relating to global issues, such as explaining how
understanding at the affective level, and can an integral part of global competence, the developed in order to measure attitudes of carbon-dioxide emissions affect global climate
thus act as moderators of performance in the PISA cognitive test does not assess values. students related to their sense of connection change. Another question asks students to
cognitive test. Some examples of attitudes The proposed test asks students to reect on to, interest in, and responsibility for, the global report how familiar they are with different global
that support the practice and development the validity and consequences of statements, community and the behaviours associated with issues, such as climate change and global
of cognitive skills with respect to global and to elaborate their own conclusions about this perspective (Hett, 1993). The items in the warming, global health and migration.
competence are: curiosity about other cultures; a specic issue or situation. scale addressed both beliefs and behaviours:
inquisitiveness with regard to a wide range for example, students were asked to report the Self-reported ability to communicate in
of global issues; conscious efforts to remain This issue requires a careful choice of the extent to which they agreed with the statement multicultural contexts
well-informed about current events at the test questions that can be included in the I tend to judge the values of others based on
local and global level; a positive and respectful international cognitive assessment. Students my own value system. A second set of questions refers to the linguistic,
regard of cultural differences; and a desire to could be asked to evaluate statements that are communication and behavioural skills that are
do something about global problems that clearly right or wrong on the basis of objective Following this literature, the student required to communicate with other people,
threaten the needs and freedoms of current criteria, because they adhere to or contradict questionnaire in PISA 2018 includes multi- to manage breakdowns in communication,
and future generations (global mindedness). agreed scientific or historical evidence. statement items using Likert-type methods. and to mediate between speakers of different
These attitudes will not be measured directly However, all the questions in the cognitive test These items are based, as much as possible, languages or cultures. Students progression
in the cognitive test. However in the contextual should not aim at assessing students on their on pre-existing works, taking into account in this component can be evaluated according
PISA questionnaire, students will report the ethics and opinions, but rather on their capacity issues of testing time and question sensitivity to their prociency in a foreign language and
extent to which they agree with a series of to recognize and explain the complexity of a and adapted as best can be to the reality of through their self-reported ability to handle
statements related to such attitudes (see case and the multiplicity of possible positions. 15-year-old students. Annex C includes the communication with people from other cultural
section on self-reported information in the For example, in a hypothetical scenario questions and items on global competence backgrounds and in unfamiliar contexts.
student questionnaire). The triangulation describing the case of a father who steals in that will be included in the PISA 2018 student
of results of the cognitive test and the self- order to feed his starving children, the students questionnaire. These questions are a subset Self-reported data on foreign language
reported information from the questionnaire would not be asked to conclude whether or of a larger set of material that was eld trialled proficiency can be used to examine the
will provide relevant evidence on how attitudes not the action deserves a given punishment; across all countries participating in PISA. In the relationships between acquiring a second
support global and intercultural understanding. the questions would rather ask the students to transition from the eld trial to the main study, language and measured levels of global
demonstrate an understanding that the law may some questions were deleted and some scales understanding or positive dispositions
Arguably, the most complex issue for the in some cases and under certain perspectives were shortened in order to save testing time, all toward other countries and cultures. Such an
operationalisation of this assessment collide with basic human needs, and to identify/ the while still ensuring the proper coverage of investigation could have several relevant policy
framework relates to a clear definition of explain the possible risks and uncertainties of this framework and preserving the psychometric implications for both language teaching efforts
the way in which values affect global and establishing ad-hoc exceptions to the law. validity of the scales. The longer questionnaire and curricular programmes aimed at increasing
tested in the PISA eld trial, as well as the eld the level of students understanding of global
trial analysis of the psychometric quality of the issues.
Self-reported information in the student questionnaire
material, are available upon request.
In addition to the results of the cognitive desirability. Attitudes, in particular, are related The student questionnaire for PISA 2018
assessment, the reporting on global to self-image and social acceptance. In order to The analysis of the responses to these items reports how many languages students and
competence in PISA 2018 will include preserve a positive self-image, students may be is expected to support the future development their parents speak well enough to be able to
country- or sub-population level information tempted to answer questionnaire items in a way of questions on attitudes and behavioural or converse with others. The questionnaire also
on students, school principals, teachers and that they believe is socially acceptable. Self- emotional skills that might be included in future includes one question asking the students the
parents responses to questionnaire items. reported scales that measure attitudes towards rounds of PISA. Future work beyond 2018 extent to which they would explain things very
race, religion, sex, etc. are particularly affected might also consider integrating other methods carefully, check understanding or adapt their
For socio-emotional skills and attitudes, nding by social desirability bias. Respondents for measuring attitudes and soft skills that are language when talking in their native language
the right method of assessment is arguably who harbour a negative attitude towards a less prone to social desirability bias. with people whose native language is different.
more a stumbling block than deciding what particular group may not wish to admit, even to
to assess. It is practically not possible to themselves, that they have these feelings. In a Self-reported knowledge and skills Self-reported adaptability
dene scales for self-reported attitudes and study of attitudes towards refugees, Schweitzer
skills that are always 100% valid. The strategy et al. (2005) found that social desirability bias Self-reported knowledge of global and Research on intercultural communication
adopted in PISA 2018 has privileged the use accounted for 8% of the variance in attitudes. intercultural issues has developed and validated several items
and adaptation of scales that have already been and scales on adaptability and exibility. For
validated in other empirical assessments. A large number of Likert-type scales appear A first set of questions in the student example, the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale of
in the literature on civic and democratic questionnaire covers knowledge of global and Portalla and Chen (2010) includes self-reported
The most common problem with assessing attitudes and a number of them are related to intercultural issues. One question in the PISA measures of behavioural exibility, such as the
self-reported skills and attitudes is that of social global competence as dened in PISA7. The 2018 questionnaire asks students to report level of agreement with the statement I often
how easily they could perform a series of tasks act like a very different person when interacting
Likert scales involve a series of statements to which respondents indicate agreement or disagreement on, for example,
a 4- or 5-point response scale.
34 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 35
with people from different cultures. The PISA Self-reported global mindedness The student questionnaire also provides particular, asks students to report whether they
2018 question includes one multi-statement information on teachers behaviours from the think that their teachers treat students from all
question on adaptability, asking students how The PISA questionnaire includes one question perspective of the students. One question, in cultural groups with equal respect.
they deal with challenging interactions with on global mindedness. The six items in the
people from other cultural backgrounds. The question are expected to assess the following
six items in the question were adapted from facets of global mindedness: sense of world
validated scales in Martin and Rubin (1995) and citizenship (item no. 1), responsibility for
Dennis and Vander Wal (2010). others in the world (items 2, 4 and 6), sense
of inter-connectedness (item 3) and global
Self-reported perspective taking self-efcacy (item 5).

As in the case of adaptability, there are several Questionnaire items on strategies,

scales on perspective taking and on empathy pedagogies and attitudes to teach
that have been specifically designed for global competence
adolescents and have been reviewed for the
PISA questionnaire. These include the Index of The PISA 2018 questionnaire will provide
Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA, information on innovations in curricula and
Bryant, 1982), the empathy subscale from the teaching methods aimed at preparing students
Childrens Behaviour Questionnaire (Rothbart for global citizenship. Two questions focus on
et al., 1994), the Interpersonal Reactivity the curriculum. One question asks principals
Index (IRI, Davis, 1980), the Basic Empathy and teachers whether the curriculum includes
Scale (Jolliffe and Farrington, 2006), and the global topics such as climate change and
Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy global warming, global health or migration.
(AMES, Vossen et al., 2015). In the PISA student Another question asks principals and teachers
questionnaire, one question comprised of ve whether the formal curriculum refers to global
items assesses perspective taking. The ve competence skills and dispositions, such as
items have been adapted from Davis (1983) communicating with people from different
and are expected to form a uni-dimensional cultural backgrounds or countries, or openness
construct. to intercultural experiences.

Self-reported attitudes A second set of questions focuses on educators

beliefs and practices. One question asks
Self-reported openness toward people from principals to report on their teachers general
other cultural backgrounds beliefs about how the school should handle
ethnic diversity. A second enquires about
The PISA questionnaire includes one question specic practices for multicultural learning at
assessing students interest in learning about the school level, such as teaching about the
other cultures. The question assesses a beliefs, customs or arts of diverse cultural
students desire or willingness to learn about groups that live in the country, or encouraging
other countries, religions and cultures. The students to communicate with people from
four items included in the question have been other cultures via the internet and social media.
adapted from different sources, such as Chen
et al. (2016) and Mahon and Cushner (2014). Two questions in the PISA teacher questionnaire
enquire about the teachers level of preparation
Self-reported respect for people from other to respond to different student communities,
cultural backgrounds potentially through different teaching strategies.
One question provides information on whether
One question in the PISA questionnaire asks the a teacher has studied intercultural issues or
students to report to what extent they feel they received training in pedagogical methods to
respect and value other people as equal human teach effectively in multicultural environments.
beings, no matter their cultural background. Another question in the teacher questionnaire
The ve items were adapted from the Council will provide information about teachers self-
of Europe (2016b), Munroe and Pearson (2006), efficacy in coping with the challenges of a
Lzr (2012), and Fritz et al. (2002). multicultural classroom and adapting their
teaching to the cultural diversity of students.

36 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 37

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These examples are provided only for illustrative purposes. They have not been prepared nor verified by the professional
test developers who are responsible for developing the cognitive instruments for PISA 2018. No fully developed test item is
included in these examples. The examples include questions and answer keys to these questions that are meant to guide
the development of test items using either a multiple-choice or an open-response format.

42 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 43

Global temperature Question: What is a possible consequence Answer key: It can reinforce a belief that
of the choice of nicknames? national players are smart, hardworking, team
Deviation from mean players while foreign players are athletes who
0,5 Question classification: 4. Evaluate get by on their natural gifts.
0,4 actions and consequences (4.2 Assessing
consequences and implications).
A song in Quechua
-0,2 Content domain: 1. Culture and Intercultural Relations (1.1 Identity formation in multicultural
-0,3 societies)/ 4. Institutions, conflicts and human rights (4.3 Political participation and global
In a YouTube video that reached over 2 million launched a version in Quechua and the New
viewers, Renata Flores sings in Quechua, her South Wales Government of Australia has
native language, to Michael Jacksons The proposed legislation for protecting and reviving
Question: What can you infer about the a study require the researchers to sign a Way You Make Me Feel against the backdrop Aboriginal languages. However, keeping alive
validity of the articles claim by comparing nondisclosure agreement before they are of ancient Inca ruins. Renata is an activist a disappearing language is not an easy task.
the two charts? funded, by which researchers waive their right participating in a project called Las juventudes
to release any results independently. tambien hablamos Quechua (The youth, we Question: Which factors, among
Question classification: 1. Evaluate speak Quechua too). the following, can contribute to the
information, formulate arguments and explain Question: What is a possible consequence disappearance of languages?
complex situations or problems (1.2 Weighing of allowing unregulated sponsoring Question: What messages do you think
sources). of scientic research by industrial Renata is trying to convey? Question classification: 1. Evaluate
companies? information, formulate arguments and explain
Answer key: The authors claim is not based Question classification: 2. Identify and complex situations or problems (1.4 Describing
on solid evidence. The author should have Question classification: 4. Evaluate analyse multiple perspectives (2.1 Recognising and explaining complex situations or problems)
considered a longer time frame to analyse actions and consequences (4.2 Assessing perspectives and contexts)
changes in global temperatures. consequences and implications). Answer keys: Young people from minority
Answer keys: She wants to combat young groups who think that speaking their heritage
The teacher tells the class that the research Answer key: If not properly regulated, some peoples perceptions of the indigenous language is not cool; lack of Aboriginal
in the article was financed by a major oil financing might result in a funding bias, due language as unhip and backwards. She wants and indigenous language teachers; few
corporation. She also explains that some to the fact that a researcher might be induced to revive her culture and combat uniformity. disappearing languages have written grammar
companies that hire researchers to perform to support the interests of the sponsor. and dictionaries that people can use to learn
Several other initiatives are trying to revive them.
disappearing languages. For example,
A talented player
one of the top Internet search engines has
Content domain: 1. Culture and intercultural relations (1.4 Perspective taking, stereotypes,
discrimination and intolerance).

Last weekend your team lost because a Answer key: Clear regulations enforced by
foreign-born player decided to walk away from the referee in which he or she suspends a
the game after putting up with racial insults by match whenever he/she hears racial insults,
the visiting teams fans for almost one hour, disqualifying the team whose supporters
forcing your team to play 10 against 11. One of perpetrate racist acts.
your friends was at the stadium, and told you
that the player should have gone on with the As you keep talking about the player who
game, and not have let the insults get to him. left the game, you realise that both you and
your friend have never used his real name but
Question: What could have prevented the always referred to him as the Animal. This is
player leaving and destabilising his team? the nickname he got from the press after his
rst game with your team. The captain of your
Question classification: 4. Evaluate actions team, who is also the captain of your national
and consequences (4.1 Considering actions) team, is nicknamed the Brain.

44 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 45

Annex B. Description of possible topics for the scenarios of the such as schools, community organisations, and ways to combat these. Scenarios in
cognitive test or workplaces become more effective as this subdomain can reproduce texts, media
colleagues/peers adjust their communication messages or conversations that: exhibit some
This annex lists global and intercultural issues this list that these complex topics have to be styles; people fail to understand each other explicit or implicit cultural bias against some
that can be used as reference topics to develop developmentally appropriate for 15-year-olds because of different non-verbal communication groups; describe how individuals adjust and
scenarios in the cognitive test. It is implied in and sufciently engaging. styles (especially given that more is often suffer as a result of cultural prejudices; show
communicated nonverbally than through how people correct their stereotypes as they
spoken word); individuals adapt (or fail to adapt) acquire new information about others. Common
1. Culture and intercultural relations their communication style to different contexts expressions of prejudice and oversimplication
This content domain relates to the manifold 1.2 Cultural expressions and cultural (academic/informal neighbourhood/online include: gender or socioeconomic-based
expressions of cultural diversity, such as exchanges settings); or individuals seek to communicate stereotyping about what students can achieve in
languages, arts, knowledge, traditions and while not sharing a language. These situations different subjects; gender or racial biases while
norms. Acquiring knowledge in this domain can This subdomain focuses on issues related can be within informal contexts to which selecting applicants for a job; perceptions about
help young people recognise that perspectives to preserving the worlds cultural capital 15-year-olds may better be able to relate certain groups predispositions to violence and
are shaped by multiple cultural influences, (e.g. language, arts and traditions) and the such as a sports team, within a friend group, crime; stereotypes about indigenous cultures;
better understand differences among cultures, relationships between dominant and non- in welcoming a new student (even from within intolerance towards sexual inclinations; and
and value the importance of protecting cultural dominant cultures. Scenarios in this content the same country but different background), religious stereotypes. The scenarios may
differences. area can describe: expression of different and so on. invite students to identify, articulate, explain
cultures in a globalised world; signicance and position different cultural perspectives.
1.1 Identity formation in of cultural diversity; public policies to protect 1.4 Perspective taking, stereotypes, They may ask students to engage with these
multicultural societies and promote the diversity of language and discrimination and intolerance discrimination cases and manage dilemmas
other cultural expressions; school initiatives to associated with conflicting value systems.
This subdomain focuses on how young people encourage learning and appreciating different This subdomain refers to what students can Specically, this could be a conversational
develop their cultural identity in multicultural cultural traditions; different perspectives on learn about social/cultural understanding exchange in which a biased remark is made
communities and interconnected societies. what development means and on how countries and perspective taking as well as the nature, and the respondent must determine how to
Scenarios in this content area can describe: should support other countries development; manifestations and impact of cultural prejudices respond.
designing art and cultural education
situations where minority individuals and/
programmes in schools; new technologies
or migrants must navigate between minority 2. Socio-economic development and interdependence
role in providing access to cultural expressions;
ethnic (home) culture and majority national
diversity of public media (access, content and This domain focuses on economic links between instability; the emergence of global corporations;
(peer group and school-academic) cultures;
language); convergence of peoples habits and local, regional and worldwide levels and looks impacts of low-cost travel and shipping on local
young citizens rights and responsibilities in
consumption patterns and how transnational at how these links influence opportunities economic systems; technological investments
different societies; complex views of identity
ideas (e.g. hip hop, meditation) are culturally around the globe and across social or cultural and technology exchanges; wage differences
(national, gender, religious); ideas of culture
appropriated in local contexts and/or fused groups. Students who acquire an advanced and foreign investments; and the impact of job
as xed and determined versus dynamic and
with other cultural practices to form hybrid level of knowledge in this domain more easily migration on countries.
permeable; expectations of how adolescents
cultures. Scenarios could include recognising understand how people, places and economies
should behave in and outside of school; causes
cultural elements or messages within such are strongly interrelated, and are aware that 2.2 Human capital, development
of supportive and conflicting relationships
expressions. economic policies and choices made at any level and inequality
between teachers and students in multicultural have consequences at all levels, from individual
classes; relationships with parents, family and 1.3 Intercultural communication to global. This subdomain focuses on the relationship
community networks in different cultures; between economic integration and social
tensions between cultural celebrations and This subdomain focuses on what students can 2.1 Economic interactions and development. Examples of topics in this
attempts to afrm larger cultural identities; learn about the complexity of communicative interdependence subdomain include: inequality in education,
understanding of power and privilege within processes involving individuals from different trends in income inequalities between and
a society; distinction between collective and cultural backgrounds. Scenarios in this area This subdomain focuses on the connections within countries; economic integration and
individual cultural orientations and the different can represent situations where: diverse and interdependencies of economic systems reducing poverty; developing sustainable
value judgements which can arise from these. audiences interpret different meanings from at multiple levels. Some examples of tourism; changes in employment opportunities
Scenarios may also address how young people the same information; two or more people fail scenario topics framed in this subdomain are: in the face of global automated production and
construct and respond to digital identities. It will to understand each other because they follow transnational production of everyday goods computerisation; and education mobility and
be important for these scenarios to address the different communication norms; individuals (cell phones, clothing); nancial liberalisation, brain drain.
multiple, complex identities held by individuals explore the idea that languages sometimes contagion and crisis; capital ow directions and
so that they do not perpetuate the single story encode meanings which can be difcult to
identity. access in other languages; multicultural settings

46 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 47

3. Environmental Sustainability 4.2 Universal human rights and local 4.3 Political participation and
This content domain focuses on the complex balance; contamination from pesticide residues; traditions global engagement
systems surrounding the demand for and use loss of biodiversity on the planet; access to clean,
of natural resources. Students who are more fresh water; overshing; and the clearing of forests. This subdomain includes human right This subdomain refers to the opportunities
exposed to this area learn about the main drivers With any of these topics, it will be important to education and scenarios can refer to key young people across the world have to express
that deplete the planets natural environment, select ones that are most relevant to 15-year-olds. documents such as the Universal Declaration their voice and make a difference in local or
and better understand how improving the of Human Rights or the UN Convention on the global contexts. Scenarios in this area can
quality of life should be pursued without 3.2 Policies, practices and Rights of the Child. Students might be asked describe real experiences of young people who
damaging the planet for future generations. behaviours for environmental to reect on the reasons why some peoples have taken action to improve peoples living
sustainability rights are denied (e.g. why gender inequalities conditions in their own or other communities,
3.1 Natural resources and in access to education persist); enquire about or who are evaluating the actions they can
environmental risks This subdomain focuses on what policy makers the political, legal, socio-cultural, religious and take on a social, civic or political issue. The
and individuals can do to reduce resource economic factors that can undermine human situations presented in the scenarios can also
In this subdomain students learn about the main depletion and better manage environmental rights in particular contexts; analyse opposing describe practical difculties young people
environmental risks facing our planet and about risks. Scenarios in this subdomain can ask arguments and evidence about the universality face when they start volunteering, such as lack
the ecological interdependence of the natural students to reect on tools and instruments (e.g. or relativity of human rights; reflect on the of knowledge about the people they wish to
world. The environmental risks considered in standards, taxes, subsidies, communication obligations of states in relation to human rights help, recognising their limits in taking action as
this subdomain are widespread, concerning campaigns, education) put in place to encourage and/or on the means to protect oneself which an individual, backlash, discouragement and
both developed and developing countries, and sustainable consumption and production; how are available to citizens; and reect on rights fatigue. This subdomain also includes issues
cause harm to people who have not voluntarily environmental risks are communicated in the that are in conict with one another and how related to how young people are exposed to
chosen to suffer their consequences, requiring media; how governments weigh the risks of the to resolve such conicts. political propaganda and develop their political
public authority regulation. In most cases, these depletion of natural resources when making opinions.
risks cannot be assessed precisely, and can be choices of economic policy; what role non-
evaluated differently in different contexts and government organisations have in forming
social terms. A partial list of these risks include: the public opinion about environmental issues
climate change; air pollution and related health and changing policies; trade-offs between
risks; pollution and over acidification of the development and environmental concerns and
oceans; soil degradation; desertification and differences in how sustainable development
drought; population growth and unsustainable is understood and political responsibilities are
urbanisation; natural disasters; glacier mass allocated in different countries and contexts.

4. Institutions, conicts and human rights

This content domain focuses on the formal or religious conicts and hate crimes against
and informal institutions supporting peaceful particular groups. Scenarios in this area can
relationships between people and the respect expose students to different interpretations
of fundamental human rights. Students can about the causes of a particular violent conict;
learn how global institutions such as the United present different historical reconstructions of
Nations have developed, can be asked to reect conicts driven by competition over scarce
on the contested nature of global governance natural resources or by economic competition
in a world with highly asymmetrical power between countries; encourage them to
relationships, review factors of and solutions analyse strategies for managing, resolving
to current and historical conflicts between and preventing conicts; ask them to think
countries, ethnic or social groups, and examine about why some conicts are more difcult
spaces and opportunities for young people to to resolve than others; let them reect on the
play an active part in society and exercise their psychological preconditions that might be
rights and responsibilities. necessary for reconciliation between conicting
parties (e.g. willingness to admit that ones own
4.1 Prevention of conicts and hate group has perpetrated unacceptable acts,
crimes etc.); make them examine the role of non-
violent protests in social and political change,
This subdomain relates to institutions and conicting denitions of social justice, and
strategies for managing, resolving and contrasting arguments about the conditions
preventing violent conicts. Relevant conicts for lasting peace and greater social cohesion.
include international wars, civil wars, ethnic

48 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 49

Annex C. Questions related to global competence in the
student questionnaire

How easy do you think it would be for you to perform the following tasks How informed are you about the following topics?
on your own? (Please select one response in each row.)
(Please select one response in each row.)
I have heard
I know I am familiar
about this
I would something with this
I could do but I would
I couldnt struggle to I could do I have never about this and I would
this with a bit not be able
do this do this on this easily heard of this and could be able to
of effort to explain
my own explain the explain this
what it is
general issue well
really about
Explain how carbon-dioxide
emissions affect global climate
01 02 03 04 Climate change and global
warming 01 02 03 04

Establish a connection between

prices of textiles and working
conditions in the countries of 01 02 03 04
Global health (e.g. epidemics)
01 02 03 04

Discuss the different reasons why Migration (movement of people)

01 02 03 04
people become refugees 01 02 03 04

Explain why some countries suffer International conicts

01 02 03 04
more from global climate change
01 02 03 04
than others
Hunger or malnutrition in different
Explain how economic crises in parts of the world 01 02 03 04
single countries affect the global
01 02 03 04
Causes of poverty
01 02 03 04
Discuss the consequences of
economic development on the
01 02 03 04
environment Equality between men and women
in different parts of the world 01 02 03 04
Construct: Self-efcacy regarding global issues
Construct: Awareness of global issues

50 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 51

How well does each of the following statements below describe you? How well does each of the following statements below describe you?
(Please select one response in each row.) (Please select one response in each row.)

Very Very
Mostly Somewhat Not much Not at all Mostly Somewhat Not much Not at all
much like much like
like me like me like me like me like me like me like me like me
me me

I try to look at everybody's side of

a disagreement before I make a I can deal with unusual situations.
01 02 03 04 05 01 02 03 04 05

I believe that there are two sides I can change my behaviour to

to every question and try to look meet the needs of new situations. 01 02 03 04 05
01 02 03 04 05
at them both.
I can adapt to different situations
I sometimes try to understand my even when under stress or
01 02 03 04 05
friends better by imagining how pressure.
01 02 03 04 05
things look from their perspective.
I can adapt easily to a new
Before criticizing somebody, I try culture. 01 02 03 04 05
to imagine how I would feel if I
01 02 03 04 05
were in their place.
When encountering difcult
When Im upset at someone, I try situations with other people, I
to take the perspective of that can think of a way to resolve the 01 02 03 04 05
01 02 03 04 05
person for a while. situation.

Construct: Perspective-taking I am capable of overcoming my

difculties in interacting with
01 02 03 04 05
people from other cultures.

Construct: Adaptability

52 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 53

Imagine you are talking in your native language to people whose native language Are you involved in the following activities?
is different from yours.
(Please select one response in each row.)
To what extent do you agree with the following statements?
(Please select one response in each row.) Yes No

Strongly Strongly I reduce the energy I use at home (e.g. by turning the heating down
Disagree Agree
disagree agree or turning the air conditioning up or down or by turning off the
01 02
lights when leaving a room) to protect the environment.

I carefully observe their reactions.

01 02 03 04 I choose certain products for ethical or environmental reasons,
even if they are a bit more expensive. 01 02

I frequently check that we

are understanding each other
01 02 03 04
correctly. I sign environmental or social petitions online.
01 02

I listen carefully to what they say. I keep myself informed about world events via <Twitter> or
01 02 03 04
<Facebook>. 01 02

I choose my words carefully. I boycott products or companies for political, ethical or

01 02 03 04
environmental reasons. 01 02

I give concrete examples to

explain my ideas. 01 02 03 04 I participate in activities promoting equality between men and
women. 01 02

I explain things very carefully.

01 02 03 04 I participate in activities in favour of environmental protection.
01 02

If there is a problem with

communication, I nd ways I regularly read websites on international social issues (e.g. poverty,
around it (e.g. by using gestures, 01 02 03 04 human rights). 01 02

re-explaining, writing etc.).

Construct: Students engagement (with others) regarding global issues
Construct: Awareness of intercultural communication

54 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 55

How well does each of the following statements below describe you? How well does each of the following statements below describe you?
(Please select one response in each row.) (Please select one response in each row.)

Very Very
Mostly Somewhat Not much Not at all Mostly Somewhat Not much Not at all
much like much like
like me like me like me like me like me like me like me like me
me me

I want to learn how people live in I respect people from other

different countries. 01 02 03 04 05 cultures as equal human beings. 01 02 03 04 05

I want to learn more about the I treat all people with respect
religions of the world. 01 02 03 04 05 regardless of their cultural
01 02 03 04 05
I am interested in how people
from various cultures see the I give space to people from other
01 02 03 04 05
world. cultures to express themselves. 01 02 03 04 05

I am interested in nding out I respect the values of people

about the traditions of other from different cultures. 01 02 03 04 05
01 02 03 04 05

Construct: Interest in learning about other cultures I value the opinions of people
from different cultures. 01 02 03 04 05

Construct: Respect for people from other cultural backgrounds

Do you have contact with people from other countries?
(Please select one response in each row.)

Yes No

In your family
01 02

At school
01 02

In your neighbourhood
01 02

In your circle of friends

01 02

Construct: Contact with people from other countries

56 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 57

To what extent do you agree with the following statements? People are increasingly moving from one country to another. How much
do you agree with the following statements about immigrants?
(Please select one response in each row.)
(Please select one response in each row.)
Strongly Strongly
Disagree Agree
disagree agree Strongly Strongly
Disagree Agree
disagree agree
I think of myself as a citizen of the
world. 01 02 03 04 Immigrant children should have
the same opportunities for
When I see the poor conditions education that other children in the 01 02 03 04

that some people in the world live country have.

under, I feel a responsibility to do 01 02 03 04
something about it. Immigrants who live in a country
for several years should have the
01 02 03 04
opportunity to vote in elections.
I think my behaviour can impact
people in other countries. 01 02 03 04
Immigrants should have the
opportunity to continue their own
01 02 03 04
It is right to boycott companies customs and lifestyle.
that are known to provide poor
workplace conditions for their 01 02 03 04
Immigrants should have all the
employees. same rights that everyone else in
01 02 03 04
the country has.
I can do something about the
problems of the world. 01 02 03 04 Construct: Attitudes towards immigrants

Looking after the global

environment is important to me. 01 02 03 04
How many languages, including the language(s) you speak at home,
Construct: Global mindedness
do you and your parents speak well enough to converse with others?
(Please select one response in each row.)

One Two Three Four or more

01 02 03 04

Your mother
01 02 03 04

Your father
01 02 03 04

Construct: Number of languages spoken

58 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 59

How many foreign languages do you learn at your school this school Thinking about teachers in your school: to how many of them do the
year? following statements apply?
(Please enter a number. Enter 0 (zero) if you do not have any foreign language courses this (Please select one response in each row.)
school year.)
To none or To all or
Number of foreign languages ____________ 01 To some of To most of
almost none almost all of
them them
of them them
Construct: Number of foreign languages learnt at school
They have misconceptions about
the history of some cultural
01 02 03 04
Do you learn the following at school?
(Please select one response in each row.) They say negative things about
people of some cultural groups. 01 02 03 04

Yes No They blame people of some

cultural groups for problems faced
01 02 03 04
by <country of test>.
I learn about the interconnectedness of countries economies.
01 02
They have lower academic
expectations for students of some
01 02 03 04
cultural groups.
I learn how to solve conicts with other people in our classrooms.
01 02
Construct: Intercultural attitudes of teachers

I learn about different cultures.

01 02

We read newspapers, look for news on the internet or watch the

news together during classes. 01 02

I am often invited by my teachers to give my personal opinion

about international news. 01 02

I participate in events celebrating cultural diversity throughout the

school year. 01 02

I participate in classroom discussions about world events as part of

the regular instruction. 01 02

I analyse global issues together with my classmates in small groups

during class. 01 02

I learn that how people from different cultures can have different
perspectives on some issues. 01 02

I learn how to communicate with people from different

backgrounds. 01 02

Construct: Global competence activities at school

60 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 61

62 OECD 2018 OECD 2018 63
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