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Distribution

ED01 English

Jaeho, Lee

Customer Training Center


Contents

Chanel information
Physical channel structure
Basic procedure between eNB and UE

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Chanel information

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LTE/SAE Architecture

SAE (System Architecture Evolution)


SAE = LTE packet core Network
(Evolved Packet Core : EPC)

MME / S-GW MME / S-GW

LTE (Long Term Evolution)

LTE = evolved UMTS Radio Access Network


S1

S1

Use flat architecture without specific


radio network controller
S1

S1

X2 LTE Base station = eNB


eNB eNB (eNB = evolved node B)
X2

X2

E-UTRAN
eNB

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User Plane Protocol Stack
PDCP/RLC/MAC sublayers terminated in eNB on the network side

Header compression
In-sequency delivery at handover
Duplicate detection
Ciphering for user/control plane
Integrity protection for control plane
UE eNB

PDCP PDCP AM/UM/TM


ARQ
RLC RLC (Re-)segmentation
Concatenation
In-sequence delivery
MAC MAC Duplicate detection

PHY PHY
Logical - transport channel mapping
Multiplexing/demultiplexing
Traffic volume measurement
* PDCP : Packet Data Convergence Protocol
RLC : Radio Link Control HARQ
MAC : Medium Access Control Priority handling
(H)ARQ : (Hybrid) Automatic Repeat Request Transport format selection

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Control Plane Protocol Stack

Broadcast, Paging
RRC connection setup
Radio bearer control
Mobility functions
UE measurement control

UE eNB MME

NAS NAS

RRC RRC

PDCP PDCP
EPS bearer management
Authentication
RLC RLC
ECM_IDLE mobility handling
Paging originated in ECM_IDLE
MAC MAC
Security Control
PHY PHY

* RRC : Radio Resource Control


NAS : Non Access Stratum
EPS : Evolved Packet System
ECM : EPS Connection Management

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Layer-2 Structure for Downlink

Radio Bearers

ROHC ROHC ROHC ROHC


PDCP
Security Security Security Security

Segm. Segm. Segm. Segm.


RLC ... ...
ARQ etc ARQ etc ARQ etc ARQ etc CCCH BCCH PCCH

Logical Channels

Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC Multiplexing UE1 Multiplexing UEn

HARQ HARQ

Transport Channels

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Layer-2 Structure for Uplink

Radio Bearers

ROHC ROHC
PDCP
Security Security

Segm. Segm.
RLC ...
ARQ etc ARQ etc
CCCH

Logical Channels

Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC Multiplexing

HARQ

Transport Channels

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Logical Channel/Transport Channel/Physical Channel

Logical channel
Between RLC & MAC
Established per radio bearer
Defined by what kind of information is carried within

Transport channel
Between MAC&PHY
Used to define how traffics are processed (MCS level, TB size, CRC size)

Physical channel
Physical layer for the real transmission
7 types channels

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Channel Mapping - Downlink
Common
Control Info
System Info. Paging Dedicated Dedicated
at no RRC
Control Traffic
Connection

BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH Downlink


Logical Channels

BCH MCH PCH DL-SCH


Downlink
Transport channels

Downlink
Physical channels
PBCH PMCH PDSCH PDCCH
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Channel Mapping - Uplink

Uplink
CCCH DCCH DTCH
Logical Channels

UL-SCH RACH
Uplink
Transport channels

Uplink
Physical channels
PUSCH PRACH PUCCH

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Logical Channel/Transport Channel/Physical Channel

BCCH/BCH/P-BCH
System information (MIB)
No PDCP, RLC TM, transparent MAC

BCCH/DL-SCH/PDSCH
System information (SIBs)
No PDCP, RLC TM, transparent MAC

PCCH/PCH/PDSCH
Paging message
No PDCP, RLC TM, transparent MAC

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Logical Channel/Transport Channel/Physical Channel

CCCH/UL(DL)-SCH/PUSCH(PDSCH)
Initial RRC messages, fixed size in UL
Transmitted during random access
No PDCP, RLC TM, Transparent MAC

DCCH/UL(DL)-SCH/PUSCH(PDSCH)
RRC message (including NAS message coming from/going to MME)
PDCP/RLC AM/non-transparent MAC

DTCH/UL(DL)-SCH/PUSCH(PDSCH)
Normal user traffic
PDCP/RLC AM or UM/non-transparent MAC

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Example Attach Procedure

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Physical Channels and Signals
Physical Downlink Channel (eNB UE)
PBCH (Physical broadcast channel)
DL bandwidth, system frame number, PHICH configuration transmission
PCFICH (Physical control format indicator channel)
Transmit the number of OFDM symbols with PDCCH on downlink subframe to UE
Transmit every subframe
PDCCH (Physical downlink control channel)
Transmit downlink resource allocation on downlink traffic and paging signal
Transmit Uplink scheduling grant
PDSCH (Physical downlink shared channel)
Transmit downlink traffic and paging signal (eNB -> UE)
PHICH (Physical hybrid ARQ indicator channel)
Transmit ACK/NACK for Uplink data(PUSCH)

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Physical Channels and Signals
Physical Uplink Channel (UE eNB)
PUSCH (Physical uplink shared channel)
Transmit uplink traffic
PUCCH (Physical uplink control channel)
Transmit ACK/NACK on Downlink data(PDSCH)
Transmit Scheduling request, downlink channel info.(CQI)
PRACH (Physical random access channel)
Transmit random access preamble when It need Initial access, re-access,
requesting UL resources
Signal
Synchronization signal (primary, secondary)
Use it when UE get the synchronization with Base station
DL/UL reference signal
DL CQI measurement and DL / UL channel estimation
UL SRS (Sounding reference signal)
UE is periodically upload to eNB for checking the uplink channel status.
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Physical channel structure

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DL Frame Structure

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DL Frame Structure

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DL Physical Channels & Signals
Physical channels
A set of Resource Elements carrying information originating from higher
layers
Physical Downlink Shared Channel, PDSCH
Physical Broadcast Channel, PBCH
Physical Multicast Channel, PMCH
Physical Control Format Indicator Channel, PCFICH
Physical Downlink Control Channel, PDCCH
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel, PHICH

Physical Signals
A set of Resource Elements NOT carrying information originating from
higher layers
Reference signal
Synchronization signal

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Downlink Resource Grid

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Downlink Resource Grid
Physical resource block parameters
Number of symbols per slot

Number of RBs

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RS Pattern and Control Channel Region

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Initial Access
LTE Initial access procedure
Cell search
Receive System information
Attach

Power Cell Search Receive System User data


ON and Selection Information Attach
Tx/Rx

Initial Access procedure

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Cell Search
Cell search
Find a cell to connect and estimate frame timing
Provide the primary and secondary synchronization signals on the
downlink to assist
Cell-specific sequences are inserted in synchronization signals
Support 504 unique physical-layer identities; NIDcell (168 unique physical-
layer cell-identity groups; NID(1), each group containing three unique
identities; NID(2))
Physical-layer identity

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Synchronization Signals (FDD)

PSS (primary synchronization signal)


Estimate 5 msec timing and physical-layer identity
Channel estimation information for SSS
SSS (secondary synchronization signal)
Physical-layer identity (Cell ID) is obtained
Mapped to one of 168 cell ID groups (168 ID groups for 504 Cell IDs)
Radio-frame timing (10msec) identification
Max # of hypotheses;336 hypotheses (2 for half frame x 168 for ID groups )
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Downlink Reference Signal (RS)
Three types of downlink reference signal
Cell-specific reference signals, associated with non-MBSFN transmission
(unicast RS)
MBSFN reference signals, associated with MBSFN transmission
UE-specific reference signals (Dedicated RS)

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Cell-specific Reference Signal

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Dedicated RS
Three types of downlink reference signal
UE-specific reference signals are supported for single-antenna-port
transmission of PDSCH (transmitted on antenna port 5)

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PBCH
PBCH
Master information block of system information
Use QPSK modulation
System information (14 bits) is included
DL system bandwidth (3 bits)
System frame number (SFN: MSB 8 bits explicit, LSB 2 bits implicit)
PHICH duration (1 bit)
PHICH resource (2 bits)
No explicit bits in PBCH to signal the number of TX antennas at the eNB
(1, 2, or 4)
Transmit 4 subframes with interval time(40 ms)
Transmit every Subframe #0
40 ms timing is blind detection on UE

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PCFICH
Use CFI (control format indicator) Transmission
Information about the number of OFDM symbols used for transmission of
PDCCH in a subframe is included
Transmit first OFDM symbol
The number of OFDM symbols using PDCCH
NRBDL > 10 : 1, 2, 3
NRBDL <= 10 : 2, 3, 4

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PDCCH
Transmit Scheduling assignment(physical downlink control channel)
Transmit the aggregation of one or several control channel element
(CCE)
1 CCE = 9 REGs = 36 REs
1 PDCCH = 1, 2, 4, 8 CCEs
Possible to send several PDCCH in a subframe

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PDCCH
Resource Element Group (REG)
Basic RE mapping unit for downlink control information

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PDCCH

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PDCCH
DCI formats
DCI format 0 : UL-SCH assignments
DCI format 1 : DL-SCH assignments for SIMO operation
DCI format 1A : compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword and for downlink
transmission of paging, RACH response and dynamic BCCH scheduling
DCI format 1B :used to support closed-loop single-rank transmission with
possibly contiguous resource allocation
DCI format 1C : downlink transmission of paging, RACH response and dynamic
BCCH scheduling
DCI format 1D : compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding
and power offset information
DCI format 2 : scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in closed-loop spatial
multiplexing mode
DCI format 2A : scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in open loop spatial
multiplexing mode
DCI format 3 : transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH and PUSCH with 2-
bit power adjustments
DCI format 3A : transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH and PUSCH with
single bit power adjustments

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PHICH
Transmit hybrid-ARQ ACK/NACK for PUSCH transmission
PHICH group
1 PHICH group = 8 PHICHs (normal CP)
1 PHICH group = 4 PHICHs (extended CP)
The amount of PHICH resource is transmitted with 2 bits of PBCH
Nh = 1/6, 1/2, 1, 2
The number of
PHICH group N

PHICH mapping

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PHICH

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Uplink Numerology
One uplink slot T slot

Number of symbols per slot

UL
N symb SC-FDMA symbols

Resource block
UL RB
N symb N sc resource elements

subcarriers
Bandwidth and number of RBs

subcarriers
Resource element ( k , l )

RB
N RB N sc

RB
N sc
UL

UL
l 0 l N symb 1
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Uplink Basic Mapping Structure
Resource block (RB)

PUSCH mapping

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Uplink Physical Channels and Signals
Physical Channels (Uplink)
Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

Physical Signals (Uplink)


Demodulation Reference Signal
Sounding Reference Signal

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Mapping of Uplink Physical Channels
PUCCH: frequency edge
PUSCH: between PUCCH RBs
Demodulation reference signal : center symbol in each slot
Sounding reference signal : last symbol in a subframe
RB
Frequency

Slot PUSCH
(0.5ms)
PUSCH RS
Sub-frame
(1ms) SRS

PUCCH

SC-FDMA
symbol

One example configuration for normal CP

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SC-FDMA for LTE UL
Equivalent to DFT-Precoded OFDMA
Low PAPR Its proper to Uplink

Lower symbol rate

Higher symbol rate

Overall spectrum size

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PUSCH Transmission

Localized transmission Hopping transmission

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PUCCH
Format 1 (SR only with On-off Keying (OOK)) PUCCH (format 2)
PUCCH (format 1)
Format 1a and 1b (ACK/NACK only)
Format 1a: BPSK ACK/NACK for 1 Codeword PUSCH

Format 1b: QPSK ACK/NACK for 2 Codewords

Format 2 (CQI only) PUCCH (format 1)


PUCCH (format 2)
Format 2a and 2b (CQI + ACK/NACK)

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PUCCH format 1
PUCCH format 1 in RB (normal CP)
Cyclic shifts : 12 EA
Orthogonal cover sequence : 3 EA
Total available PUCCH format 1 resource in 1 RB = 36 EA
Decide available PUCCH format 1 resource as the value of
Ex) = 2 , can be used 18 PUCCH format 1 resources in 1 RB

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PUCCH format 2
PUCCH format 2 resources in RB (normal CP)
Cyclic shifts : 12 EA
No orthogonal cover sequence for PUCCH format 2
Total available PUCCH format 2 resource in 1 RB = 12 EA
Decide available PUCCH format 2 resource as the value of
Ex) = 2, can be used 6 PUCCH format 2 resources in 1 RB

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Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)
UE is periodically upload to eNB for checking the uplink channel
status.
Use checking of UL channel status for the bandwidth transmitted SRS to UE.

SRS cell-specific Configuration Binary


Configuration Period Transmission offset
(subframes) (subframes)

Configuration 0 0000 1 {0}


1 0001 2 {0}
2 0010 2 {1}
3 0011 5 {0}
4 0100 5 {1}
5 0101 5 {2}
6 0110 5 {3}
7 0111 5 {0,1}
8 1000 5 {2,3}
9 1001 10 {0}
10 1010 10 {1}
11 1011 10 {2}
12 1100 10 {3}
13 1101 10 {0,1,2,3,4,6,8}
14 1110 10 {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,8}
15 1111 Inf N/A

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Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)
SRS transmission bandwidths
Multiple SRS BW trees are predefined for each uplink system operating bandwidth

Cell-specific 3 bits are used to indicate one of 8 SRS BW configurations


One SRS BW configuration has Max. SRS BW and predefined SRS BW trees

UE specific 2 bits are given via higher layers to indicate one of 4 SRS
BWs
For each SRS BW configurations, there exist 1~4 SRS BWs

SRS bandwidth configuration and SRS bandwidth for 40~60 RB uplink system BW

SRS SRS-Bandwidth SRS-Bandwidth SRS-Bandwidth SRS-Bandwidth


bandwidth BSRS 0 BSRS 1 BSRS 2 BSRS 3
configuration
CSRS mSRS,0 N0 mSRS,1 N1 mSRS,2 N2 mSRS,3 N3
0 48 1 24 2 12 2 4 3
1 48 1 16 3 8 2 4 2
2 40 1 20 2 4 5 4 1
3 36 1 12 3 4 3 4 1
4 32 1 16 2 8 2 4 2
5 24 1 4 6 4 1 4 1
6 20 1 4 5 4 1 4 1
7 16 1 4 4 4 1 4 1

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Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)
Configuration Cell-specific SRS
SRS bandwidth configuration
SRS subframe configuration
Report the possibility for simultaneously transmission ACK/NACK and SRS

SRS Configuration per UE


SRS Transmission bandwidth
SRS hopping bandwidth
Cyclic shift
Frequency domain position
Comb
SRS Periods and offset per UE

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PRACH Structure
The number of RB for PRACH transmission = 6 RB
Transmit the subframe and frequency offset of PRACH using system information

Preamble format

CP Sequence

TCP TSEQ

Preamble format TCP TSEQ


0 3168 Ts 24576 Ts
1 21024 Ts 24576 Ts
2 6240 Ts 2 24576 Ts
3 21024 Ts 2 24576 Ts
4
448 Ts 4096 Ts
(frame structure type 2 only)

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DL/UL Subframe Architecture
DL Subframe Architecture

UL Subframe Structure

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Basic procedure between
eNB and UE

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Basic procedure between eNB and UE
The procedure for synchronization and obtaining of system Info.
eNB

PSS DL Reference
SSS PBCH PDSCH
Signal

UE
ID 0~2 Cell ID Cell specific RS System System
Group 0~167 (Using cell ID info.) Information (MIB) Information (SIB)

Cell ID Detection 0~503


Broadcast Information
MIB : system frame number, DL bandwidth, PHICH information are included
SIB : Cell specific information are included for system operation except MIB
information
SIB1: cell access configuration, frequency band indicator, scheduling
information for syst other SIBs and systemInfoValueTag
SIB2: radio configuration information are included (PUCCH, PUSCH, SRS etc)

* MIB: Master Information Block


* SIB: System Information Block
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Basic procedure between eNB and UE
Call-Access procedure
UL Timing Advance
eNB
PDCCH PDSCH
PRACH PUSCH PDCCH PDSCH PDCCH PUSCH
DATA
RACH +Msg 3 DATA DATA DATA
allocation
info.
UE
Msg 1 Msg 2 Msg 3 Msg 4 Msg 5
(Random Access (Random Access (RRC Connection (RRC Connection (RRC Connection
Preamble) Response) Request) Setup) Setup Complete)

UE specific resource allocation information in Msg 4 (RRC Connection Setup) are


transmitted
CQI Resorce index, Transmit period and subframe offset
SR Resource index, Transmit period and subframe offset
SRS Transmission bandwidth, Frequency location, comb, cyclic shift
* CQI: Channel Quality Indicator (DL channel Quality index)
* SR: Scheduling Request (Using it when UE reports that UE has transmit data to eNB)
* SRS: Sounding Reference Signal (Using it when UE transmit it periodically for checking uplink-channel status data)
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Basic procedure between eNB and UE
DL data-Transmission Procedure
DL Scheduling and With there is ACK/NACK or not,
Link Adaptation HARQ retransmission or new data transmission
eNB

PUSCH or PUCCH PDCCH PDSCH PUSCH or PUCCH PDCCH PDSCH


DL Reference
Signal CQI CQI DATA ACK/NACK DATA
DL allocation info. DL allocation info.

UE
DL CQI Estimation PDSCH Detection

UE transmit periodically CQI(channel quality indicator) which is DL channel


status after receiving CQI resource allocation per UE.
eNB allocates PDSCH considering DL channel status of a UE and DL buffer status
Transmit the information of PDSCH allocation per specific subframe with
PDCCH.
When CRC is OK on PDSCH detection result in UE, transmit ACK to eNB.
Transmit ACK info. on PUSCH when PUSCH is allocated.
In other cases, Transmit ACK info on PUCCH .

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Basic procedure between eNB and UE
UL data-Transmission Procedure
UL Scheduling and
UL Channel Quality Estimation
Link Adaptation
eNB

PUCCH PDCCH PUSCH PDCCH PHICH PUSCH


SRS SRS SR DATA DATA
UL allocation info. + BSR UL allocation info. ACK

UE
Transmit SRS periodically0 Transmit HARQ
the buffer status of UE

UE transmit periodically SRS signal after receiving SRS resource allocation per
UE.
eNB allocates PUSCH resource considering UL channel status of a UE and BSR.
When CRC is OK on PUSCH detection result in UE, transmit ACK to eNB.
Transmit ACK using PHICH (Downlink direction)

BSR: Buffer Status Report


Transmit the buffer status of uplink data to eNB

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Basic procedure between eNB and UE
Handover Procedure
Target
cell
DL RS
Serving
cell
PDSCH PUSCH
PUSCH PRACH PDSCH
Handover Handover
DL RS MR RACH RAR
Command Complete

UE
Measurement
Report Transmission

UE sends measurement report to serving cell with the condition of comparing


Neighbors cell signal and Serving cell signal.
If serving cell transmits handover command message to UE, UE orders target
cell to be handover.
After UE receives Handover command, UE will proceed the transmission of
RACH ,Handover procedure, to target cell.
* Handover Command : RRC connection reconfiguration
* Handover Complete : RRC connection reconfiguration complete
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