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Contents

Background knowledge
Handover
Power Control
Capacity & Coverage

1
LTE Standard Specifications
Freely downloadable from
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm

Description of Specification
TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements: Terminals, base stations, and
repeaters

TS 36.2xx Physical layer

TS 36.3xx Layers 2 and 3: Medium access control, radio link


control, and radio resource control

TS 36.4xx Infrastructure communications (UTRAN) including base


stations and mobile management entities

TS 36.5xx Conformance testing


2
System Architecture Evolution

3
Network Architecture

4
Protocol Architecture

5
OFDM vs SC-FDMA

6
Channel Bandwidth

7
Basic Time Unit Ts

8
Frame Structure

9
Frame Structure (cont.)

10
UL/DL Resource Grid

11
Call Connection & Channel

12
3GPP LTE Physical Channels
DL
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) QPSK

Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) QPSK

Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) QPSK

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) BPSK

Reference Signal (RS), Synchronization Signal


UL
Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) BPSK, QPSK

Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)


Sounding Reference Signal (SRS)

13
3GPP LTE Transport Channels
Transport channels offer information transfer to medium access control
(MAC) and higher layers

DL
Broadcast Channel (BCH)

Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)

Paging Channel (PCH)

Multicast Channel (MCH)

UL
Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)

Random Access Channel (RACH)

14
3GPP LTE Logical Channels
Logical channels are offered by the MAC layer

Control Channels: Control-plane information


Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)

Paging Control Channel (PCCH)

Common Control Channel (CCCH)

Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)

Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

Traffic Channels: User-plane information


Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)

Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)

15
System Information

16
MIMO Manifestation

17
MIMO Transmission Modes
TM1: SISO (Single antenna port; port 0)
DCI format 1 or 1A

TM2: Transmit diversity (SFBC)


DCI format 1 or 1A

TM3: Transmit diversity or Open loop spatial multiplexing


DCI format 1A or 2A

TM4: Transmit diversity or Closed loop spatial multiplexing


DCI format 1A or 2

TM5: Transmit diversity or Multi User MIMO


DCI format 1A or 1D

TM6: Transmit diversity or Closed loop spatial multiplexing with 1 layer


DCI format 1A or 1B

TM7: Transmit diversity or Beam-forming (Single antenna port; port 5)


DCI format 1A or 1

18
DCI / UCI Format

19
CQI Table

[LTE CQI Table : 1/3 Turbo Coding + Rate matching(Functuring & Repetition)] [Typical Different Modulation and Coding Schemes]
Modulation Approximate Efficiency Modulation Approximate Efficiency
CQI index Modulation Modulation
Order code rate bits/symbol Order code rate bits/symbol
0 No Trans. - - -
1 QPSK 2 0.076 0.1523
2 QPSK 2 0.12 0.2344
3 QPSK 2 0.19 0.3770
4 QPSK 2 0.3 0.6016
5 QPSK 2 0.44 0.8770 QPSK 2 1/3 0.333 0.6667
6 QPSK 2 0.59 1.1758 QPSK 2 1/2 0.500 1.0000
QPSK 2 2/3 0.667 1.3333
QPSK 2 4/5 0.800 1.6000
7 16QAM 4 0.37 1.4766 16QAM 4 1/3 0.333 1.3333
8 16QAM 4 0.48 1.9141
9 16QAM 4 0.6 2.4063 16QAM 4 1/2 0.500 2.0000
16QAM 4 2/3 0.667 2.6667
16QAM 4 4/5 0.800 3.2000
10 64QAM 6 0.45 2.7305 64QAM 6 1/3 0.333 2.0000
11 64QAM 6 0.55 3.3223 64QAM 6 1/2 0.500 3.0000
12 64QAM 6 0.65 3.9023
13 64QAM 6 0.75 4.5234 64QAM 6 2/3 0.667 4.0000
14 64QAM 6 0.85 5.1152 64QAM 6 4/5 0.800 4.8000
15 64QAM 6 0.93 5.5547

20
Downlink frame Structure
f

CH BW
(3~20MHz)

DC
6RB
(BW 1.4M)

1RB
(180KHz)

1slot (0.5ms)
1 Radio frame (10ms)
t
1sub frame (1ms) 21
Uplink frame Structure
f

System BW

1RB (180KHz)

1slot (0.5ms) t
1sub frame (1ms) 1 Radio frame (10ms)

PUCCH PRACH
22
Handover
Outline
Handover
Classification
Procedure
Interruption Time
Contents related to Handover Success
Reference Signal Positioning (PCID Planning)
Better CINR
PDCCH Aggregation Level
Robust PDCCH detection
Power Option
Enhanced Channel Estimation Ability

24
Handover Classification
Intra-RAT Handover
Intra-eNB Handover

Inter-eNB Handover over X2

Inter-eNB Handover over S1 (Intra-MME)

Inter-eNB Handover over S1 (Inter-MME)

Inter-RAT Handover
CDMA2000, GERAN, UTRA, etc.

25
Handover Procedure [signaling]

26
Handover Procedure [event-triggering]

27
Handover Procedure [measurement]
RSRP [dBm] : Reference Signal Received Power
Absolute value, not related to Payload
RSSI [dBm] : Received Signal Strength Indicator
Received power of center 6RB (1.08MHz)
Directly proportional to Payload
RSRQ [dB] : RSRP/RSSI ratio
Inversely proportional to Payload
Using for handover of cell loading

RS carrier data carrier RSRP [dBm] : carrier power

frequency

0
RSSI [dBm] : 6RB power
(6RB=72subcarrier=1.08MHz)

BW = 10MHz 28
Handover Interruption Time

29
RS positioning [PCID]
Physical Cell IDentity
Primary Sync. Signal : 0, 1, 2
3 possible sequences to identify physical layer identity
Zadoff-Chu sequence, 1 sequence identically sent every 5msecs
Position
FDD: The last OFDM symbol of slot 1 and 11
TDD: The 3rd OFDM symbol of subframe 1 and 6

Secondary Sync. Signal : 0,,167


168 possible sequences to identify physical layer cell identity group
Binary sequence, 2 concatenated sequences interleaved over 10msecs
Position
FDD: The last - 1 OFDM symbol of slot 1 and 11
TDD: The last OFDM symbol of subframe 0 and 5

PCID = 3 * SSS + PSS : 0,,503

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RS positioning [mapping to RE]
Resource Element used for Reference Signal transmission

31
RS positioning [mapping to RE (cont.)]
Mapping of DL Reference Signals (Normal cyclic prefix)

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RS positioning [cell-specific freq. shift]
<PSS 0>

<PSS 1>

<PSS 2>
33
RS positioning [Example M company at LV, SIMO]

<PCID>

34
RS positioning [Example M company at LV, SIMO]

<RSRP> <CINR>

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PDCCH Aggregation Level

36
PDCCH Aggregation Level (cont.)

37
Power Option

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Power Option (cont.)
Boosting Reference Signals
1 Tx 2 Tx 4 Tx SIMO (1 Tx) MIMO (2 Tx)
Index
Value [dB] Value [dB] Value [dB] Pa Pb Pa Pb
0 0 -3 -6 Index Value Index Value Index Value Index Value
1 -1.77 -4.77 -6 0 1 0 5/5 0 1 1 4/4
2 -3 -6 -6 1 3/2 1 4/5 1 3 2 3/4
2 2 1 4/5 2 4 3 2/4
Examples
If the Tx power of each RB with a data layer is 12, each RE has the power as follows Total / RB
-. SIMO, 0dB boosting
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12
-. SIMO, 1.77dB boosting
3/2 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 3/2 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 11
-. SIMO, 3dB boosting
2 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 2 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 12
-. MIMO, 3dB boosting (each data layer has the power as follows)
2 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 12
-. MIMO, 4.77dB boosting (each data layer has the power as follows)
3 3/4 3/4 0 3/4 3/4 3 3/4 3/4 0 3/4 3/4 12
-. MIMO, 6dB boosting (each data layer has the power as follows)
4 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 4 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 12 39
Power Option (cont.)

40
Power Control
Outline
Power Control Overview

Open Loop Power Control


Random Access Channel Power Control

Closed Loop Power Control


Function of Closed Loop Power Control
PUSCH/SRS/PUCCH

Actual Operation
Shared Channel: Closed Loop Power Control with SRS

Case Study: SRS_SINR Low/Max, P0_nominal_PUSCH Up/Down

Control Channel: Closed Loop Power Control with PUCCH

42
Power Control Overview
DL Tx Power
eNB Tx Attenuation
Power Option (PA, PB)
UL Tx Power
Open Loop Power Control
Compensate Pass Loss
Closed Loop Power Control
Compensate Fading
Outer Loop Power Control
Compensate BLER (ACK/NACK_Count comparing with Threshold)
Power Head-Room
Compensate UE_Tx_Power_limit

43
Open loop Power Control _ RACH

Pinit = PreambleInitialRecivedTargetPower {-120 ~ -90dBm} + Delta_Preamble


+ PathLoss (Reference Signal power {-60 ~ +50dBm} Filtered_RSRP)

Preamble Delta
Format Value
0 0 dB
1 0 dB
2 -3 dB
PowerRampingStep {0,2,4,6 dB}
3 -3 dB
4 8 dB
PRACH PRACH PRACH PDCCH PUSCH

PPRACH = min { Pmax, PTX}


PTX = PINIT + Counter*Pstep

44
Closed loop Power Control _ PUSCH
Power level of PUSCH is calculated in sub-frame i based on the following formula

Maximum allowed UE power PUSCH


Combination of Cell-specific Downlink path loss
in this particular cell, transport
and UE-specific parameter estimate
but at maximum +23 dBm format
given by SIB2

PPUSCH(i)= min { Pcmax ,10log10(MPUSCH(i))+PO_PUSCH(j)+a(j)PLDL+ TF(i)+f(i)}

Transmit power for PUSCH Number of Cell-specific parameter Power control adjustment
in subframe i in dBm allocated resource given by SIB2 derived from TPC command
blocks (RB) received in subframe (i-4)

Bandwidth factor Basic open-loop starting point Dynamic offset (closed loop)

45
Closed loop Power Control _ SRS
Power level of SRS is calculated in sub-frame i based on the following formula

PSRS(i)= min { PCMAX, PSRS_OFFSET +10log10(MSRS)+PO_PUSCH(j)+a(j)PLDL+f(i)}

The parameters as defined in


Power Control_PUSCH

MSRS is the BW of the SRS transmission in subframe I


expressed in number of resource blocks

For Ks = 1.25, PSRS_OFFSET is a 4-bit UE specific parameter semi-statically configured by


SIB2 with 1dB step size in the range [-3, 12] dB
For Ks = 0, PSRS_OFFSET is a 4-bit UE specific parameter semi-statically configured by
SIB2 with 1.5dB step size in the range [-10.5, 12] dB
KS is given by the UE specific parameter DeltaMCS-Enabled provided by SIB2.

46
Closed loop Power Control _ PUCCH
Power level of PUCCH is calculated in sub-frame i based on the following formula

Maximum allowed UE power Power control adjustment


Downlink path loss Cell-specific parameter i derived from TPC command
in this particular cell,
estimate received in subframe (i-4)
but at maximum +23 dBm

PPUCCH(i)= min {PCMAX , PO_PUCCH + PLDL + h(nCQI , nHARQ)+ F_PUCCH(F)+g(i)}

Transmit power for PUCCH Combination of Cell-specific Cell-specific parameter


in subframe i in dBm and UE-specific parameter given by SIB2
given by SIB2

Basic open-loop starting point Dynamic offset (closed loop)

47
Closed loop Power Control PUSCH by SRS

48
CLPC Operation

49
CLPC Case study: SRS_Th_low up

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CLPC Case study: SRS_Th_max down

51
CLPC Case study: P0nominal_PUSCH up

52
CLPC Case study: P0nominal_PUSCH down

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Closed loop Power Control PUCCH

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Capacity & Coverage
Outline
DL/UL Peak Throughput
System Bandwidth
UE Category
Contents related to Capacity and Coverage
Timing Adjustment
PDCCH Aggregation Level, PCID planning
Call Setup Coverage
Message Overhead
Traffic Coverage
DL/UL Mismatch
Power Head-Room

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Peak Throughput Downlink, 64QAM

57
Peak Throughput Uplink, 64QAM

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Peak Throughput Uplink, 16QAM

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Peak Throughput UE Category

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PRACH timing

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Timing Adjustment

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Zero Correlation Zone (Ncs)

Preamble format 0~3 Preamble format 4


ZeroCorrelation
Unrestricted Set Restricted Set
ZoneConfig NCS us TA
NCS us TA NCS us TA
0 0 0.000 0.000 15 14.303 27.461 2 1.918 3.683
1 13 12.396 23.800 18 17.163 32.954 4 3.837 7.367
2 15 14.303 27.461 22 20.977 40.277 6 5.755 11.050
3 18 17.163 32.954 26 24.791 47.600 8 7.674 14.734
4 22 20.977 40.277 32 30.513 58.584 10 9.592 18.417
5 26 24.791 47.600 38 36.234 69.569 12 11.511 22.101
6 32 30.513 58.584 46 43.862 84.215 15 14.388 27.626
7 38 36.234 69.569 55 52.443 100.692 N/A N/A N/A
8 46 43.862 84.215 68 64.839 124.492 N/A N/A N/A
9 59 56.257 108.015 82 78.188 150.123 N/A N/A N/A
10 76 72.467 139.138 100 95.352 183.076 N/A N/A N/A
11 93 88.677 170.261 128 122.050 234.338 N/A N/A N/A
12 119 113.468 217.861 158 150.656 289.260 N/A N/A N/A
13 167 159.237 305.737 202 192.610 369.814 N/A N/A N/A
14 279 266.031 510.783 237 225.983 433.891 N/A N/A N/A
15 419 399.523 767.090 - - - N/A N/A N/A
*. 1 TA = 16 * TS = 16 * 1/(15000*2048) = 0.52083 us

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Call Setup Coverage

64
Call Setup Coverage (cont.)

65
DL/UL Coverage Mismatch

66
Power Head-Room

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DL/UL Coverage Mismatch [Example M company at LV, SIMO]

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- END -