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Module 7 2.

Available from 12:05am Tue 31 Aug
2010 to 11:55pm Mon 06 Sep 2010

NSTP Module 7 - 1st Semester a slide of a large mass of dirt and rock
down a mountain or cliff or massive and outward
AY: 2010-2011 movement of slope forming materials. It has its

Disaster driving and resisting force causes of which is

excessive rain producing floods, earthquake and

Awareness &
other forces unseen by a naked eye underneath
but can or might only be seen with scientific
Preparation 3. tsunami
Lesson 1: Introduction & Disasters
it is a series of waves that is created when large
Lesson 2: Hailing & First Aid
volume of a body of water such as ocean is
rapidly displaced.
“The Philippines ranked first worldwide in the 4. meteorological hazards
most number of disasters that hit a country. . .”
- the center for research and epidemiology these are tropical cyclones, monsoon, floods and
disasters (CRED) alike.

The Philippines is part of the Pacific Belt zone, B. MAN-INDUCED

commonly known as the “pacific ring of fire”,
which made our country prone to many natural This second type of disaster, as the name itself
disasters like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, implies, is helped or caused by human
tropical cyclones/typhoons and floods. intervention

1. accidents
1. What is a disaster? Fire, chemical, vehicular

2. environmental
Disasters are progressive or sudden events
brought about by natural or human-induced
Red tide, pollution, epidemic
hazards that cause losses and sufferings the
consequence of which results to people and
3. conflict
communities undertaking extra-ordinary
measures to cope with their impacts.
mass actions, war, terrorism
Types of disaster
A. natural disasters, be natural or man-induced, cause a
lot of damage not only on properties and lost of
B. man-induced a life, oftentimes its effects will affect even
longer than just the time the incident happened.
trivia: It can happen anytime to anyone. What we need
there are 22 active and 88 inactive volcanoes int to do is be aware and be prepared.
the country.
Structural triage

1. earthquake A rapid assessment of buildings during a CSSR

(collapsed structure search and rescue)
a weak violent shaking of the ground operation, for the purpose of selecting those
produced by the sudden movement of rock structures in which there is a greater likelihood
materials below the earth’s surface. of finding, accessing, and rescuing live victims.

Search and rescue:

There are 2 types of earthquakes: tectonic
and volcanic Composition of search squad:

1. squad leader
members listen and attempt to pin-point the
responsible for searching plan, drawing location of any noises being made in response to
diagrams, keeping documentation and making the directions.
recommendations to the incident commander,
performs the duties of the safety officer and is Hailing directions given to potential victims:
responsible for monitoring security during the
search operation. This method has a higher success rate when
potential victims are told to yell and knock on
2. rescuers something solid between 3 and 5 times at the
same time.
They physically carry out the search operations
as outlined by the squad leader. The collapse pattern, building materials and a
multitude of other variables can cause voices to
Basic equipment required for physical search be heard clearer than knocking and sometimes
1. complete set of personal protective knocking can be heard clearer than voices.
equipment (PPE) and emergency
medical kit. Known location of entrapped victims
2. minimum personal supplies required to
function unassisted for at least 12 The search team should take the safest and
hours: most direct route to that location to verify the
location of the victims.
drinking h2o, food, proper clothing, basic tools,
radio equipment (walkie-talkie); bldg and work After locating the victims the search team may
site marking supplies (paint, chalk, flags, cones, take any one of the following actions based on
markers); warning and alert their current assignment and stage of the rescue
devices(megaphones, whistle, hammer, flanges, operation.
horn); reconnaissance and vision; search
diagrams, pencils, color pens, clipboards; The victims may be rescued by the search team
technical search equipment, specialized or if the rescue can be easily accomplished.
improvised; hazardous gas detector of/and
hazardous materials response guide manual. The search team requests appropriate resources
to extricate severely entrapped victims.
The search team notifies the CSSR team about
Void space the location of the victim(s) and then continue
A physical space in a collapsed structure where to conduct a search of the entire building.
a person trapped within could remain alive for a

Search and locating techniques First aid is the temporary help given to an
1. physical void search injured or a sick person before professional
medical treatment
to be effective the physical in void search must
be organized and conducted in a logical and Open wounds
systematic manner to reduce duplication of 1. Expose the entire injury site.
effort and to locate as many victims as possible 2. clean the surface of the wound
in the shortest amount of time while visually (blood, debris, loose particles)
assessing all accessible void spaces. to prevent contamination
3. control bleeding using clean
2. hailing search method cloth, dressing and bandage. If
avulsion injury, return skin
Since the ability to locate victims by actually flap to original position. For
seeing them during a void space search is abdominal wound, cover the
limited, the hailing search method is also used expose organ using bulky
during the physical search. dressing and secure with
This method can be used by CSSR members 4. cover the patient with blanket
working in teams of two during the physical void (shoulder to toes)
search or by several CSSR team members in a 5. treat for shock- elevate the
coordinated fashion as an array of listeners legs max. of 12inches provided
deployed in an encircling or grid pattern around he has no fractures on the
the collapse site. lower extremities, no open
wounds in the abdomen,
The area is quieted and a bullhorn or other heart.
hailing method is used to provide direction to
potentially trapped victims. CSSR team Suspected fracture, dislocation
1. treat for wounds and control bleeding- General treatment for trapped victims
cover with dressing, avoid direct
pressure over broken bone ends. Use 1. do not remover the source of pressure
pressure points as needed if bone ends until treatment has begun.
protrude from injury, use caution not to 2. check for ABC’s (airway, breathing,
allow bone ends tore-enter wound. circulation)
2. prepare your splinting materials. 3. protect the patient from possible
Carefully splint individual injuries ( or hazards resulting from the rescue
immobilize the whole body on a long attempt
spine board) 4. administer oxygen
3. important: reassess pulse, motor 5. immobilize the neck and spine
function and sensation (P.M.S.) 6. maintain body temperature
4. treat for shock. 7. protect the patient from the
Elbow injury 8. monitor the patient cardiac state
1.important:splint In position ground, do 9. allow qualified medical personnel to
not attempt to straighten. provide the required treatment
2. sign and symptoms: pai ,swelling, 10. place the patient on the stretcher,
deformity immobilize and proceed with removal
3. treatment: if arm is bent at elbow, splint from the site using correct procedure
with sling and saw the alternate is pillow 11. remember the protocols for contact
and blanket. If below is straight, splint with victims
entire arm, armpit to fingertips, both sides.
immobilizing patient on a backboard
Splinting the lower extremities
1. sign and symptoms: pain, deformity,
rigidity, shortened limb. 1. stabilizing the patient’s head
2. treatment: if you fins the leg in a 2. place the cervical collar
straight position-use two padded 3. roll the patient onto the backboard
boards- one along inner thigh from 4. inspect the patient’s back
groin to the foot, the other along the 5. center the patient on the backboard
outer thigh from the armpit to the foot. 6. immobilize the patient onto the
Secure with cravats. backboard
7. check pulse, motor function and
How to control external bleeding sensation after immobilizing the patient
a. direct pressure 8. transport ASAP in treatment area

place clean cloth over the injured site and happy conclusion
fingertip pressure directly to the point of
bleeding. If does not stop, remove the dressing disaster awareness and preparedness
and apply direct pressure with your fingertips to education is very timely more than ever. Its
the point of bleeding. vital role is to lessen the loss of life.
Preservation of life is important. Disasters
b. elevation may come as a challenge that may bring
out the best in us by saving lives and
elevate the arm or leg above the level of the showing compassion to others in need.
heart to slow the flow of blood and aid in These trials produce new heroes, diminish
clotting. if extremity is painful, swollen or the social stratification and unite the people.
deformed indicating fracture or joint injury, do
not elevate the extremity. Knowing how to respond and protect
yourself is crucial to survival. . . only then
c. pressure points you can go on saving others.

for bleeding in the upper extremity, use the

brachial pressure points.
For bleeding in the lower extremity, use femoral LGNOTES<3AiShiteru
pressure points using the heel of the hand.

d. Tourniquet method

Last resort when all other methods to control

bleeding have failed but can cause damage to
nerves and blood vessels. It can result to the
loss of an extremity. Be sure to record the time
you did the tourniquet method.