You are on page 1of 47

Building a

twinning
programme
between French and
British data clusters

ODI-WP-2017-002
April 2017

This is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0


International license
Table of contents
Executive summary 03
Introduction 04
City twinning: from cultural rapprochement to economic partnerships 05
A brief history of city twinning 05
The economic value of city twinning 06
Activities of city twinning programmes 06
Common criticisms of twinning programmes 08
City twinning in technology 09
New city twinning programmes in the tech sector 09
Established city twinning programmes pivot towards tech 10
Existing data networks between France and the UK 11
The importance of European projects 11
The impact of Brexit on existing data networks 12
The data cluster landscape in France and the UK 13
Why focus on clusters? 13
The difficulty of measuring data clusters 13
Identifying data clusters in France and the UK 14
Case studies: three leading data clusters in France and the UK 15
Rennes a leader in open data in France 15
Toulouse leading the way in IoT and Aerospace 18
Lyon a key cog in the Rhones-Alpes innovation system 20
Manchester leading IoT in the UK 23
Brighton a collaborative, creative data hub 26
Bristol digital tech and a centre for Aerospace 29
Candidate clusters for data twinning 32
Manchester and Rennes linked by the Internet of Things 32
Bristol and Toulouse aerospace hubs as well as data centres 32
Conclusion and recommendations 33
Recommendations for central government 33
Recommendations for cities 34
About this report 36
Appendix 37
Bibliography 45

Authors: Tom Hunter, Tom Forth and Peter Wells


Editing: Anna Scott, Jamie Fawcett and Charlotte Fleming
Design: Christie Brewster
With thanks to Marta Tondera and Gillian Whitworth for research support

2 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Executive summary

In July 2016, the UK-France Data Taskforce developed a series of recommendations for data-
driven growth. One of these was the establishment of a data twinning programme amongst
British and French data clusters cities and regions with common industries and strong
startup communities.

In this report, we explore this recommendation. By analysing data clusters in France and the
UK, we are able to identify cities that appear to be good candidates for twinning. These include
Rennes and Manchester, who have strong Internet of Things (IoT) communities; and Bristol
and Toulouse, who are both strong data centres and aerospace hubs.
Our report also suggests a number of actions for central government and cities to ensure
successful twinning between UK and France data clusters.

Central government should take steps to :


create an environment where twinning programmes between data clusters can be
built from the bottom up
provide guidance to cities to help them to identify suitable twinning partners
broaden the scope of existing data forums to focus on all data (not just open data)
show and demonstrate the value of engaging in twinning programmes
consider re-branding twinning with a more modern equivalent

Cities and local government should take steps to :


build partnerships on top of existing networks of activity
ensure the choice of partner is based not just on similarity of industries, but also
on how far their value chains complement each other
choose a narrow focus for twinning programmes, with a small amount of core
activities
consider partnerships between multiple data clusters, rather than two-way
twinning programmes
share lessons around data interoperability and success stories

As existing data networks between France and the UK often depend on European projects,
twinning could be an excellent way of ensuring networks between data clusters in France and
the UK remain strong post-Brexit. By following the recommendations detailed in this report,
central and city governments can initiate a new form of regional collaboration and connect
data innovators across the two countries.

3 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Introduction

In July 2016, the UK-France Data Taskforce prompted two world-leading countries in the area
of open data to explore opportunities for collaboration. The taskforces subsequent report
included a number of recommendations to develop a creative, dynamic data ecosystem to
stimulate growth and job creation.

This report explores one of these recommendations: the establishment of a twinning programme
amongst British and French data clusters. But what exactly is twinning? And how do we define
data clusters?

Also called sister cities, or jumelage in French, twinning refers to broad-based, long-term
partnerships between communities in two countries. These relationships offer the flexibility to
form connections that are mutually beneficial and address issues that are most relevant to both
partners. They tend to fall into one of three categories: cultural, educational and economic.
This report focuses on the latter.

Though industry clusters do not have such a clear, standard definition, their importance to the
economies of both the UK and France is clear. They are both a major contributor to growth, a
hub for well-paid jobs and a source of soft business advantages through a virtuous cycle of
networks and connections (Centre for Cities, 2014).

There are, however, common themes to the descriptions of industry clusters. This report
adopts the definition provided by UK innovation charity NESTA in 2016, which underlines four
characteristics to a cluster: where businesses choose to locate, the local supply of talent, the
volume of industry-relevant research and the extent of networking activity (Mateos-Garcia
Bakhshi, 2016).

According to this definition, a data cluster is therefore a geographical area that combines the
following four elements:

High number of data-led businesses and organisations


Large supply of talent in data science and data handling
Large volume of data-related research and academic output
High levels of networking activity amongst data-driven organisations

4 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
These definitions help establish the scope of the report, which addresses a number of key
questions on twinning between data clusters: what makes a twinning programme successful?
Where are the leading data clusters in the UK and France? Which clusters seem like ideal
candidates for twinning? This report also invites further discussion on the key elements of a
data twinning programme, and how existing partnerships between cities could incorporate
data into their activities.

City twinning: from cultural rapprochement to economic


partnerships

A brief history of city twinning

City twinning goes back a long way. The earliest form identified in Europe was between the
German city of Paderborn and the French city of Le Mans in 836. But the practice really took
off after the Second World War as a way of bringing European people closer to one another
and heal the wounds of a devastated continent. Coventry twinned with Dresden as an act
of peace and reconciliation after both cities were heavily bombed during the war. It is not
surprising that the nations with most city partnerships are those that were left devastated by
WWII or those with historic cultural links.

Table 1 Which countries have the most city partnerships?

1. The United Kingdom and France 602 city partnerships

2. The United States and Japan 392 city partnerships

3. France and Germany 369 city partnerships

Source: Kopf (2015)

City twinning has developed to move beyond cultural understanding and exchange, towards
focusing on mutual economic benefits. President Eisenhowers Sister Cities International, the
national membership organisation that facilitates sister city relationships between U.S. and
foreign cities, has come to focus on trade between partnered cities. In late 2013, for example,
Chicago and Mexico City entered into a city-to-city trade agreement that was the first of its
kind.

5 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Adam Kaplan, Membership Director of Sister Cities International, confirms this evolution:
Over the last five years there has been significant interest from our members as to how these
partnerships can be expanded towards economic development (Ballantine, 2014).

While city twinning has traditionally been developed for diplomatic, cultural or educational
purposes, in todays economic climate many cities are looking to expand and leverage twinning
for mutual economic benefit.

The economic value of city twinning

The economic benefits of city twinning include access to new markets and expanded business
networks. These are often difficult to quantify, but evidence of their value, even without hard
numbers, is becoming clearer to communities. Wim Kok, former president of the Club of
Madrid, stresses the importance of twinning as a way to meaningfully contribute to the global
economy (Club de Madrid, 2014). A. T. Kearney, the leading consultancy that publishes the
Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook, uses the number of sister city agreements as
an indicator of potential growth and economic success.

In a more robust academic study, the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (2003)
found that sister city partnerships with China and the United States have delivered tangible
benefits for New Zealand firms, including reducing transaction costs, establishing business
contacts and increasing their international reputation. These benefits are particularly valuable
for cities with shared industries, where transfer of technologies and knowledge-sharing can
aid commercial success in both locations. Economic analysis commissioned by Sister Cities
International (2015) also concludes that sister city programmes contribute over $525 million to
the U.S. economy each year.

Activities of city twinning programmes

There are thousands of twinning programmes in the world and no standard template. Generally
speaking, however, they can be grouped into three broad types: cultural, educational and
economic. This report focuses on the latter, and Table 2 presents activities of city twinning
programmes that focus on economic benefits and exchange.

6 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Table 2 Activities of city twinning programmes

Activity Description

Internships Provide young participants with the opportunity to work in another city to
gain practical experience and exposure to the different ways in which that
city structures and carries out its work.

Best practice Twinning allows companies and trade associations to learn from each
exchange others activities. In Japan and the US for example, twinning programmes
highlight best practice for coordinating public and private resources
around specific disasters (PeaceWinds, 2010).

Collaboration Twinned cities sometimes submit common European project proposals,


on for example, collaboration on programmes funded by Horizon 2020.
transnational
projects

Annual Annual meetings offer the opportunity to reflect on the twinning


meetings programme and make refinements and changes to it for the year ahead.

Training Occurs when a person from one city who is experienced in a specific
exchanges aspect is invited to provide training to the partner city.

Startup Informal twinning arrangements between incubators offer startups office


exchange space and introductions in both countries.

Collaboration These initiatives involve two cities agreeing to work together to establish
on technical a specific programme or to address an issue that affects them both.
initiatives

Delegations Delegations between the two twinned cities, usually seeking to attract
(trade or further investment and trade from one another.
otherwise)

Personnel Used principally for economic development, this involves one city
exchange temporarily offering its workers and their expertise to another.

Creation In certain cases, twinned regions create previously nonexistent


of direct commercial routes, such as train routes or port-to-port marine routes.
commercial
routes

Mentoring Twinning programmes sometimes offer distance mentoring, for example


to offer an introduction to a new market from local experts.
Source: ODI Qualitative analysis

7 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Common criticisms of twinning programmes

Despite providing benefits, city twinning programmes have their critics. One of the most
common criticisms is the difficulty in measuring and proving value for money. While certain
partnerships have led to added value such as the creation of direct commercial routes or
city-to-city trade deals others have had more difficulty demonstrating return on investment.
Several councils in the UK have already voted to end their twinning arrangements (BBC, 2012).

Interviews with the business community and trade associations also revealed another concern:
that twinning programmes can be promotional platforms for local politicians, rather than long-
term partnerships that truly benefit businesses in both cities.

Councils and local government should keep these concerns in mind when designing their own
twinning programmes. In a climate of Europe-wide austerity, twinning programmes need to
demonstrate value in a quantifiable way.

8 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
City twinning in technology

City twinning programmes have grown considerably since the end of WWII, and moved
away from cultural exchange to focus more specifically on economic benefits. It is therefore
unsurprising to see the growth of twinning in technology and digital; industries that play an
increasingly large role in our economies.

These new technology-led twinning programmes fall into two categories. The first are brand
new tech twinning programmes developed because of the specific needs of two communities.
The second are existing twinning programmes that have made the choice to focus more
explicitly on tech.

New city twinning programmes in the tech sector

In Israel and Germany, the programme Twin Tech Towns (TTT) stimulates the exchange of
resources, talent and tech deal flow between Berlin and Tel Aviv. Zoe Adamovicz, cofounder
of TTT, highlights the similarity and complementarity of the startup ecosystems and venture
capital scenes, both having emerged about 15 years ago. In the words of Eden Shochat,
partner at venture capital fund Aleph VC: Germany is the 4th largest GDP in the world and only
an hour timezone away from Israel, and yet most Israeli entrepreneurs strive to collaborate with
San Francisco, with 10 hours difference, and 20 hours flight. This is silly. (Adamovicz, 2015).

The partnership between the tech clusters in Germany and Israel is also strengthened by
the Digital International Partnership between Cologne and Tel Aviv, which connects leading
startups, investors and innovators. Its programme has a clear, narrow focus providing
mentorship and co-working space in both cities.

A couple of lessons are interesting here. First, timezones matter. In a world where decisions
are made at lightning speed, it helps to be connected to partners in a similar time zone. Second,
complementarity is just as important as similarity of industry. The reason the partnership
has blossomed is because Berlin has an excess of deal flow1, whereas Tel Aviv has lots of
companies. Skill-wise, Berlin provides designers, UX specialists and marketers; Tel Aviv is
the city of CTOs. Third, the focus and simplicity of the offering is what makes it a success.
In their own words, Twin Tech Towns offers three easy things: networking, mentorship and
news (Twin Tech Towns, 2017).

1 Number of investment opportunities available at a given time

9 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
In the past 10 years there has also been a rise in international exchanges between startups
across the world. For example, Startup Exchanges facilitate international development for
startups in incubators, who benefit from one month of free office space and introductions
to key players in the local ecosystem. The Startup Exchange Programme a mentor-driven
exchange programme designed to scale up startups selects the most resourceful, creative
and disruptive startups to move to a European tech hub for four to six weeks, supported by a
local incubator and co-working space.

Established city twinning programmes pivot towards tech

Alongside brand new twinning programmes, it is worth noting that established city twinning
programmes are increasingly focused on tech and digital. In France, for example, Toulouse and
Atlanta are celebrating their 40-year relationship as sister cities by putting together a startup
exchange programme. In China and the US, San Francisco has twinned with Shanghai since
1979, and now provides programmes such as ChinaSF and Tech Sandbox free platforms
that facilitate Chinese tech companies access and integration into the San Francisco tech
community.

10 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Existing data networks between France and the UK

The importance of European projects

There are no official data twinning programmes between France and the UK, but a number
of networks have developed between data clusters and data-led organisations in the two
countries. While some of these networks were built informally, interviews with members of
local government, trade associations and private sector companies, reveal the importance of
European funding in building links between French and UK cities.

The role of Horizon 2020 was underlined by all. H2020 is the largest ever European funding
programme for research and innovation, and its budget of 79 billion euros has funded a number
of projects that have built strong networks between data clusters in the UK and France .
Opticities, for example, has given birth to a partnership between Lyon and Birmingham through
its programme on the interoperability of IT solutions. Likewise, the Sharing Cities Programme
has fostered city partnerships and international collaboration across Europe, including between
London and Bordeaux.

Eurocities, whose members are the elected local and municipal governments of major
European cities,also stood out as a source of data networks. With 26 member cities from the
UK and 21 from France, the forum has fostered notable city-to-city collaborations between
the two countries.

11 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
The impact of Brexit on existing data networks

As EU-funded projects play such an important role in building data networks between France
and the UK, it is necessary to consider the impact of the UKs referendum on European Union
membership.

While the referendum result has no immediate effect on those applying to or participating
in Horizon 2020, the longer-term future of UK access to European research and innovation
funding remains uncertain. Non-EU organisations can take part in Horizon projects through
the international participation scheme but funding opportunities are more limited and tend to
be reserved for developing nations.

What is clear is the desire of those working in these city-to-city communities to retain the links
they have been building with their European partners. For Andrew Collinge from the Greater
London Authority it is incumbent upon us, whatever happens and whatever form Brexit takes,
that cities find a way of working together on things that are of mutual advantage to us (Hoare,
2016).

It seems likely that post-2020, the UKs departure from the EU will reduce its involvement in
EU-funded projects. In this environment, twinning becomes an important way of ensuring data
networks between France and the UK remain strong post-Brexit.

12 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
France and the UK: the data cluster landscape

Why focus on clusters?

As mentioned in the introduction, this report defines data clusters as geographical areas that
combine four traits: i) high number of data-led organisations, ii) large supply of talent, iii) large
volume of data-related research and academic output, and iv) high networking activity.

We choose to pay particular attention to clusters because they present undeniable economic
benefits:

They are a major contributor to growth.


Research from Centre for Cities (2014) in the UK shows that its 31 economically
significant clusters contain 8% of the UKs businesses, but generate 20% of UK
output (gross value added).

They are an important sources of well-paid jobs.


The UKs top 31 economically significant clusters together employ four million
people one in seven of the working population and they offer average salaries
that are typically higher than those in the surrounding region (Centre for Cities, 2014).

They bring soft business advantages that cannot easily be replicated.


Economically significant clusters are ecosystems buzzing with soft knowledge
across many networks and connections, which promote a better understanding
of what customers want and support emerging innovations. This virtuous circle
is difficult to create by design, and therefore such clusters can represent a
competitive advantage for the UK (Centre for Cities, 2014).

The difficulty of measuring data clusters

Identifying data clusters using macroeconomic data is not a straightforward task. Sufficiently
granular and up-to-date data on local industrial activity does not yet exist at useful quality in
either the UK or France, although both the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the National
Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) are working on collecting and opening up
more data.

13 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Companies such as Early Metrics and Growth Intel, and products such as Data City, have
developed methodologies that use alternative sources of data to identify and understand
complex networks of industrial activity. Growth Intel, for example, were involved with the tech
industry cluster mapping for the Tech Nation study we use in this report.

The same approaches could be used to identify data industry clusters in both France and the
UK. Such a system is beyond the scope and budget of this report but should be considered
in the future.

Identifying data clusters in France and the UK

For this report, we began by using publically available data to map the number of data-related
businesses in British and French cities against each citys population. This allowed us to
identify cities that over index on data-related business activity.2

This approach provided a useful starting point but only focused on one of the four characteristics
of a data cluster. While developing this quantitative approach further could be useful, a lack
of available data and resources meant we relied primarily on desk research, interviews with
stakeholders, and existing expertise to effectively identify data clusters.

Note that while Paris and London are clearly huge data clusters in France and the UK, they are
covered extensively elsewhere, and this report therefore focuses on other data clusters.

Through our research, we begin to identify data clusters in France and the UK. Nice, Rennes,
Nantes, Toulouse, Lyon and Grenoble have a clear concentration of data-related employees.
Lille, Marseille and Strasbourg, on the other hand, underperform given their relatively large
populations. It is useful to note that pairs of high-performing clusters are often neighbours.
Rennes and Nantes are in close proximity, as are Lyon and Grenoble.

In the UK, Manchester, Leeds and Bristol are notable high performers amongst large cities.
Of smaller cities, Brighton, Reading, Bournemouth, Edinburgh and Milton Keynes have the
highest concentration of data-related businesses. All are identified as tech clusters in the Tech
Nation 2016 report.

2 For a more detailed overview of this quantitative methodology, please see the appendix.

14 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Case studies: three leading data clusters in France

For the first of our three case studies, we select Rennes, noting that Nantes is nearby and that
the two cities share institutions such as Tlcom Bretagne. For our second city, we will look at
Toulouse, in part because of its very high investment in R&D. For our third city, Lyon stands
out as a key cog in the Rhones-Alpes innovation system with a high concentration of data-led
businesses (see Appendix). Its links with Grenoble give it additional weight.

Rennes a leader in open data in France

Rennes metropole hosts one of the leading open data platforms in France. Additionally, the
STAR transport data platform, built in collaboration with Keolis, provides many lessons for UK
cities trying to catch up on public transport.

Rennes has an extremely strong radio technologies and communication data sector. It
hosts a campus of the world-famous Tlcom Bretagne and is a key centre of research and
development for Orange.

Rennes company, Kerlink manufacture some of the best gateways for IoT technology and
supply most of those used in Things Manchester, part of The Things Network, which has since
spread across Northern England.

Rennes is not yet part of The Things Network, which may be because it has long had a
comprehensive LoRaWAN network, which uses the same technology. Through the LoRa
FABIAN project, people and companies in the city have solved many problems in the city.

15 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Table 3 Data-led organisations in Rennes

Organisation Description

Telecom A renowned graduate engineering school training future professionals for


Bretagne a career in research and development.

Rennes The open data portal for the city of Rennes.


Metropole en
Acces Libre

Kerlink A company specialising in network solutions for the Internet of Things.

Orange An international telecommunications corporation, with a focus on mobile,


landline, internet and IPTV services.

STAR Bus and metro service provider for the city of Rennes which shares data
about their services online.

La French A publicly funded initiative created to accelerate and promote French


Tech startups under one brand. Rennes and Saint-Malo are one of nine
territories with La French Tech bases.

16 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Rennes
a data city

Universit Insa Rennes


De Rennes 1
French Tech
Rennes St. Malo Kerlink

Orange

Telecom
Bretagne

Star
Astellia Rennes
Metropole
Tessi En Accs
Libre

OpenStreetMap contributors. Tiles courtesy of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team

17 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Toulouse leading the way in IoT and Aerospace

Toulouse has the highest research and development density of any French city outside of
Paris. It is home to one of Europes top startups, SigFox, who are valued at around 600m and
recently raised 150m in venture capital. Sigfox aim to build a global network that powers the
Internet of Things.

The citys strength in IoT and the industrial data applications that make use of it are concentrated
in the IoT Valley project. This project, supported by business and government, is accelerating
IoT, data and software excellence, and boasts an impressive list of startups and supporters.
Much of Toulouses success in R&D is built upon on the world leading excellence and talent
at Airbus, whose global headquarters and considerable research and assembly facilities are
in the city.

Table 4 Data-led organisations in Toulouse

Organisation Description

Airbus One of the largest aeronautics and space companies in Europe, building
planes and helicopters for commercial, civil and military use. The
corporations headquarters are in Toulouse.

Telespazio A specialist company that provides solutions and services in the space,
oil and gas, navigation, and defence industries.

Magellium Founded in Toulouse, the company provides services around earth


observation, GIS and mapping, geo-intelligence, and computer vision and
robotics.

EdiSys Company that aids the electronic management of tenders for


construction companies.

SigFox Startup providing communications solutions for the Internet of Things.

IOT Valley Association based on the outskirts of Toulouse that supports startups
with resources, capacity building and an acceleration programme, Le
Connected Camp.

Koncept Computer systems and software consultancy company specialising in IT


management and development.

Infomil IT company providing software solutions to help retailers manage and


respond to changes in the national and international market.

18 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Toulouse
a data city

Airbus

French Tech
Toulouse

Koncept

Cnes

Lot
Valley
Infomil

Universit Sigfox
Toulouse III
Telespazio Edisys
Magellium

OpenStreetMap contributors. Tiles courtesy of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team

19 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Lyon a key cog in the Rhones-Alpes innovation system

Lyon is the heart of Frances second-largest metropolitan region, central in the country, and
extremely well-connected by high-speed rail. It has a diverse and successful economy which
includes many data-related companies.

Although the national importance of bank, Crdit Lyonnais has declined in recent decades,
and they are now owned by Crdit Agricole in Paris, they remain prominent and the citys
financial data-related industries are strong. AVeM are a notable employer in this area. Having
recently expanded through mergers and acquisitions, their work now varies from running cash
machines to managing huge amounts of financial data. Large software developers and cloud
service providers such as Cegid and Ciril also contribute to the vibrancy of the ecosystem.
Another interesting company in Lyon is DATAFIRST, a world-leader in software solutions for
vehicles, dealers and service-centres via their Datacar products.

The International Criminal Police Organization, INTERPOL, is also headquartered in Lyon, and
is a major, data driven institution. Lyon has several notable universities such as The cole
Normale Suprieure de Lyon and the cole Centrale de Lyon, providing talent and research
output and expertise.

Lyons data-related economy is further bolstered by its position as the key city in the Rhnes-
Alpes innovation system and specifically its proximity to Grenoble. Grenoble is a key cluster
of higher education and research in France and home to a large number of technology
companies. In data, Atos Worldgrid, a leader in smart energy and smart grid technology, and
ProbaYes who specialise in applied data science to many industries, including smart energy
are of particular interest.

20 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Table 5 Data-led organisations in Lyon

Organisation Description

Dimo Software Software company providing innovative and integrated solutions for
businesses to manage their systems.

Avem IT consulting company with expertise around automation, e-commerce


and electronic banking.

Ecole Centrale Research university based in Lyon that is renowned for its research
Lyon and education in applied science and engineering, in particular
nanotechnology.

ENS de Lyon One of Frances most prestigious universities, training researchers in


the sciences and humanities.

Geolid Company providing communications and IT solutions to help


organisations capture new business and customers on the Internet.

Cegid Company that provides cloud-based and international solutions to help


companies connect their commerce and provide streamlined shopping
experience for customers.

Universit One of Lyons three public universities, focusing on the study of science
Claude Bernard and medicine.
Lyon 1

Ciril Software publisher and cloud host providing technology, software,


information systems and business portals that help clients share
information.

Data First Company that develops software solutions around management,


marketing and sales for automotive distribution.

ProbaYes Machine-learning experts that provide data science services and


solutions for clients.

Hardis Group Consultancy company that provides support for implementing digital
transformation strategies.

Atos Worldgrid Global leader in smart energy management.

Interpol International organisation that facilitates cooperation amongst national


police forces, with headquarters in Lyon.

21 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Lyon
a data city

Geolid
Cegid Group

Interpol

Universit
De Lyon 1

Ciril

Datafirst

Dimo
Software

cole
Centrale Lyon

Grenoble
Avem Ens De Lyon ProBaYes
Hardis Atos

OpenStreetMap contributors. Tiles courtesy of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team

22 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Case studies: three leading data clusters in the UK

Of the larger cities in the UK, Manchester has a high density of data-driven businesses and
collaborates well with its neighbours in Leeds and Bradford. Brighton stands out as a good
candidate for a case study because of its high density of data-driven businesses per person.
Bristol performed well in our metrics and has well-known links to South-West France as the
headquarters of Airbus UK.

Manchester leading IoT in the UK

Manchester is one of the five core cities in the UK governments Northern Powerhouse strategy
to promote economic growth in the north of England. It hosts the largest airport outside of
London and is home to Tech North a UK body promoting tech success and collaboration
across the North of England.

In data technologies, collaborating Northern English cities are already bearing fruit.
Manchesters IoT community, led by projects bringing together partners such as CityVerve and
Things Manchester, works closely with Leeds world-leading data industry cluster, including
large banks such as FirstDirect, companies like Sky and Skybet, and small data and digital
agencies like Bloom (recently acquired by Jaywing). Co-op Digital in Manchester are widely
seen as leaders in digital and data-led service provision in the UK.

The city and its neighbours have a particular strength in Internet of Things. Nearby Bradford
is home to a branch of the UKs national Digital Catapult Centre, Leeds is home to Premier
Farnell, distributors of the rapidly growing The Things Network.

Manchester and its neighbours universities and research institutes have good reputations
and include Manchester University, Manchester Metropolitan University and other world-class
universities in Liverpool, Leeds, and Sheffield, that attract and train talent to fuel this cluster of
excellence.

23 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Table 6 Data-led organisations in Manchester

Organisation Description

Digital Catapult Supports the practical application of digital innovation and culture,
working with organisations in digital manufacturing and the creative
industries.

Things Open, free and community-owned IoT data network for Calderdale.
Calderdale

CityVerve Brings together organisations in the IoT space to help deliver a smart,
more connected Manchester.

Co-op Family of companies providing a range of services, including food,


insurance, electrical, funeralcare, legal services and banking.
CoopDigital is working on the digital future of the network.

Things MCR Crowdsourcing an Internet of Things network for Great Manchester.

Premier Farnell Leeds-based company providing electronic products.

ODI Leeds Not-for-profit organisation encouraging the people of Leeds to engage


and innovate with open data. A pioneer node of the ODI network.

TechNorth Government-backed initiative that accelerates the growth of digital


businesses.

24 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Manchester
a data city

Things Leeds & Bradford


Things Odileeds
Calderdale
University
Farnell of Leeds
Digital
Catapult University
Co
Centre of Bradford
Op

Hello Soda

Things Mcr

BBC
R&D
Manchester
Metropolitan
University

Tech North The University


Cityverve of Manchester

OpenStreetMap contributors. Tiles courtesy of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team

25 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Brighton a collaborative, creative data hub

Brighton is a strong player in the creative and digital industries. The city hosts large businesses
like American Express, and the density of small data-related businesses is nearly double that
of other top performers like London and Reading (Appendix).

In addition to data-driven small companies such as Brandwatch and Brilliant Noise, Brighton
is home to large data-driven companies. American Express has its European Headquarters in
the city.

Geography is also to Brightons advantage. With excellent connections to London, it taps into
the international connectivity of that city Gatwick Airport is more accessible from Brighton
than London while tempting talent and events out from the capital.

Brighton can access pools of talent, investment, and institutions in London but also develops
much of its own. Alongside two universities, The University of Sussex and the University of
Brighton, the Sussex Innovation Centre and Wired Sussex provide hubs for talent and ideas.
A branch of the UKs national Digital Catapult Centre is testament to the citys importance and
helps to focus activity in the city.

26 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Table 7 Data-led organisations in Brighton

Organisation Description

Rapidata Supports charities, not-for-profits and commercial companies


with the collection, administration and processing of direct debit
payments.

Brilliant Noise Consultancy that advises brands on how to change and grow
using a data-led strategy, creative planning and action.

Brandwatch Company offering data insight, analytics and communications


platforms.

American Express International financial corporation offering credit card and


travellers cheque services.

University of Brighton Public university with five campuses based in Brighton, with a
specific focus on professional education and qualifications.

University of Sussex Public university situated near Brighton, with a focus on


promoting excellence in research.

Sussex Innovation Centre providing a range of services to support innovation in


Centre business. Works with startups, SMEs and corporations.

Digital Catapult Supports the practical application of digital innovation and


culture, working with organisations in digital manufacturing and
the creative industries.

WiredSussex Works with digital media companies, helping them to develop


and grow.

CDO A growing data and analytics consultancy that look at practical


applications for data.

27 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Brighton
a data city

Rapidata

CDO

Wiredsussex

Digital
Catapult
Centre
Sussex
Innovation
Centre
Brilliant
Noise Brandwatch University
American of Sussex
Express
University
of Brighton

OpenStreetMap contributors. Tiles courtesy of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team

28 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Bristol digital tech and a centre for Aerospace

Bristols most famous data-related company is the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). It is one
of the largest publicly-accessible database of film, TV and actor information. Now a part of
Amazon, IMDb retain a strong presence in the city. Other multinational data related companies
such as Broadcom, who focus on radios and information transmission and now a part of
Avago, HP Labs and Intel have significant research and development presences in the city.

Bristol City Council, the Connecting Bristol project and ODI Bristol are just some
of the public sector initiatives that make Bristol a leading city in data use. Its two
major universities, The University of Bristol and University of the West of England attract and
train talent and generate excellence and spin-offs through world-class research.

Bristol benefits from its position as the largest of a central of a group of nearby cities including
Cardiff, Bath, and Newport. The interconnectedness of the innovation and talent pools in the
area is increasingly being recognised officially with efforts such as The Great Western Cities
initiative. Cardiff is home of the Welsh government and the innovative Y Lab project sponsored
by the UKs innovation agency, Nesta, ,and the University of Cardiff. This project, along with
ODI Cardiff, is delivering data powered public service innovation. Nearby Newport is home to
the UKs Office of National Statistics and will soon host the UKs data science campus.

Last but not least, Bristol is home to Airbus UK, a hub around which companies small and large
congregate. Many small companies work with Airbus directly, or acquire knowledge indirectly
via meetups, communities and events.

29 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Table 8 Data-led organisations in Bristol

Organisation Description

Xmos Semiconductor company with products including voice and


audio microcontrollers.

IMDb The Internet Movie Database is an online database collecting


information on films, television programmes and video games.

BluWireless Company providing wi-fi technology for high bandwidth


communication systems in the semiconductor and systems
market.

Bristol City Council The local authority for the city of Bristol, renown for innovation

ODI Bristol A collaboration between the University of Bristol and Bristol City
Council. A node of the ODI network.

University of Bristol Highly selective and well-regarded research university located in


Bristol.

UWE Bristol The University of the West of England is a public university


located in and around Bristol with strong research.

HP Labs Bristol Research and development facilities for the international software
company Hewlett Packard. The labs in Bristol are the companys
second-largest central research centre globally.

Airbus UK One of the largest aeronautics and space companies in Europe


which builds planes and helicopters for commercial, civil and
military use. The company has two plants in the UK, including
one near Bristol.

Broadcom Designs, develops and supplies a range of digital and analogue


semiconductor connectivity solutions.

30 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Bristol
a data city

Broadcom

Airbus

Hp Labs

University of the
West of England

University of
Bristol

Xmos

IMDB

Bluwireless

Bristol City
Council ODI Bristol

OpenStreetMap contributors. Tiles courtesy of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team

31 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Candidate clusters for data twinning

Twinning programmes tend to fare better when developed organically and from the bottom
up, rather than imposed from the top. Nevertheless, certain profiles from the data clusters
identified seem to have the right type of profile for twinning.

Manchester and Rennes linked by the Internet of Things

The existing strong link between the IoT community in Manchester and Rennes suggest the
two cities would make beneficial partners in a more formal twinning arrangement. The Things
Networks main distribution partner, Premier Farnell, is in Leeds, and since Things Manchester
has expanded across the North of England this is an excellent chance to position Rennes as a
partner, not only for Manchester, but for a number of cities who already work together closely.
The UK body, Tech North, focuses on the North of England and promotes these same cities,
much as a UK equivalent to the Rennes-based French Tech.

Bristol and Toulouse aerospace hubs as well as data centres

As the UKs main hub for Airbus, Bristol already enjoys strong links with Toulouse. Its Connecting
Bristol work is widely-seen as leading in the UK. Many of the companies in Bristol that supply
or spin-out from Airbus have strong connections to Toulouse. Other companies like HP Labs
(HPs largest research centre outside of the USA) add to Bristols excellence in data innovation.
Bristols stated ambition to work with its near neighbours in Newport and Cardiff via the Great
Western Cities project is likely to boost its success with data.

32 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Conclusion and recommendations

Twinning is not just a tool for building cultural understanding; it also provides mutual economic
benefits such as access to new markets and expansion of business networks.
As data networks between France and the UK are often built through European projects, the
UKs decision to leave the European Union creates a real need for new strategies to ensure
these networks are not weakened post 2020. Twinning could be one of these solutions.

Our research identified a number of data clusters in France and the UK, and allowed us to
pinpoint cities that seem suited to partnerships. Rennes and Manchester have strong IoT
communities and Bristol and Toulouse are not only strong data centres, but also aerospace hubs.

However, any twinning programme must address concerns around value for money and
perceptions that they exist only as promotional platform that benefit politicians, rather than
partnerships that benefit communities over the long term.

To fight this scepticism, and ensure successful twinning programmes between data clusters,
central and city government should follow a number of recommendations.

Recommendations for central government

Central governments role is to create an environment where twinning programmes


between data clusters can be built from the bottom up
Successful twinning programmes tend to be built from the bottom up rather than imposed in a
top down fashion. Central government should facilitate the coming together of city government,
civil society, the business community and trade associations. To do this effectively they should:

Seek data protection adequacy when negotiating the UKs departure from the EU
Free data flows with the EU are key to ensure the data networks between both
countries remain strong once the UK exits the Union. An adequacy finding should
be a key goal for the negotiations.

Provide guidance and tools to allow cities to identify suitable twinning partners
While cities do not want twinning programmes imposed from the top, they do
appreciate guidance. Central government could assist cities by providing a tool
allowing them to identify suitable partners. Companies such as Early Metrics and
Growth Intel, and products such as Data City, already use alternative sources of data
to identify and understand complex networks of industrial activity.

33 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Consider re-branding twinning with a more modern equivalent
Twinning is perceived as old-fashioned, 20th century terminology. Using alternatives
such as partnerships will reposition it as a tool for todays age, and one that goes
beyond two-way bilateral relationships.

Broaden the scope of existing data forums to focus on all types of data (not
just open)
Existing forums such as Eurocities often include data working groups that focus on
open data. Broadening the scope to focus on data from across the Data Spectrum
will engage a wider audience and increase their impact.

Demonstrate the value of engaging in twinning programmes


Central government can help alleviate concerns on the lack of impact of twinning
programmes. Case studies and impact evaluations (some of which are referenced in
this report) are both ways of demonstrating the value of twinning programmes.

Recommendations for cities

Cities that constitute data clusters should actively seek partnerships with international
counterparts
Building formal partnerships on top of existing informal networks and industry connections
can maximise the impact of data on cities economies. City governments, businesses and civil
society groups should take action to create effective international partnerships. To do this they
should:

Build partnerships on top of existing informal networks and connections


Existing networks of activity between French & British data clusters, often built
through collaboration on European and transnational projects, already provide a
great foundation for twinning programmes.
Ensure the choice of partner is based not just on similarity of industries, but
also on complementarity of value chains
Similarly strong industries, such as Toulouse and Bristol in aerospace, provide an
obvious reason to twin. However, complementary value chains also provide great
value: in IoT, partnerships between clusters that develop the technology, and those
that manufacture the products that host it, can lead to a multiplication of business
links between clusters.

34 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Choose a narrow focus for twinning programmes, with a small amount of core
activities
The best twinning programmes do not spread themselves too thin. Twinning between
clusters could focus on activities such as shared training taking advantage of leading
universities, data interoperability and startup exchanges between the two cities.

Consider partnerships between multiple data clusters, rather than simply two-
way twinning programmes
Partnerships between multiple clusters may be a more practical way to connect
data innovators than traditional two-way twinning. It also ensures that knowledge is
shared more widely, and spreads the cost of the programme.

Share learnings around interoperability, as well as successes and failures


This should include lessons of what works, and what didnt, should be published
openly and shared widely. Cities will develop their data capabilities faster if they can
learn from each other.

Twinning could be an excellent way of ensuring networks between data clusters in France
and the UK stay strong post-Brexit. Central Government has a role to play in fostering these
partnerships and supporting their development.

35 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
About this report

The Open Data Institute (ODI) helps governments and businesses around the world to get data
to people who need it. It is independent, nonprofit and nonpartisan, founded in 2012 by
Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Sir Nigel Shadbolt. From its headquarters in London and via its global
network of startups, members and nodes, the ODI offers training, research and strategic advice
for organisations looking to explore the possibilities of data.

This report was produced with support from the Cabinet Office and the Department for Culture,
Media & Sport, working in partnership with the Ministre de lconomie et des Finances in France.

36 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Appendix

List of interviewees

Julian Tait, Instigator at The Things Network and co-founder of the Garden in Manchester
Bertrand Ruiz, Head of business at IoT Valley in Toulouse
Yannick Delibie, Chief Technical Officer and owner at Kerlink in Rennes
Norbert Friant, Responsable du Service Numrique Rennes Mtropole
Christophe Collinet, Directeur de lamnagement numrique chez Mairie de Bordeaux
Adrian Slatcher, Senior Policy Officer, Manchester City Council

Using business registries as a workaround to identify


data clusters
As a workaround to identify data clusters, we used business databases in France (Sirene) and the
UK (SIC codes) that list details of all registered businesses in both countries. We then extracted
companies that operate in sectors that are heavily data-related, even in part,. These included
industries such as wired, wireless and satellite telecommunications, IT consultancy, data processing,
hosting and related activities (See the Appendix for a full list of the industries considered).

It should be noted that this methodology is not perfect: it over-emphasises the first aspect
of a data cluster definition, the location of data-led businesses and organisations, and in
identifying data based businesses it does not identify a definitive criteria; one could argue
that all businesses are data-businesses. Nevertheless, it provides a useful quantitative frame
for our analysis, and R&D spend and tech clusters identified in previous reports such as Tech
Nation 2016 broadly confirm our results.

37 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Methodology for uncovering longlist of data clusters and
data companies in France
The Sirene database lists details of all registered businesses in France. Using the latest release,
we have extracted those companies that operate, even in part, in any of the following industry
sectors.

NAF code Best English translation


6110Z Wired telecommunications activities

6120Z Wireless telecommunications activities

6130Z Satellite telecommunications activities

6190Z Other telecommunications activities

6201Z Computer programming activities

6202A Hardware and software consultancy

6202B Third party maintenance of computer systems and applications

6203Z Computer facilities management activities

6209Z Other information technology and computer service activities

6311Z Data processing, hosting and related activities

6312Z Web portals

6391Z News agency activities

6399Z Other information service activities n.e.c.


French NAF codes which we have defined as data-related industries for this research.

Next we take 96 departments of Metropolitan France and remove all of those in le-de-France.
The Paris area is undoubtedly a centre of French and European tech and data industries and
can be most usefully dealt with separately.

38 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
City Business Employee Population Data-related Data-related
(dpartement) count count businesses employees
per 1,000 per 1,000
population population

Paris (le-de- 65,163 220,060 12,116,367 5.38 18.16


France)
Lyon 6,306 25,519 1,812,196 3.48 14.08

Marseille and 5,369 12,780 2,022,604 2.65 6.32


Aix
Lille 4,754 18,785 2,635,494 1.80 7.13

Bordeaux 4,036 11,674 1,536,448 2.63 7.60

Nice 3,999 11,524 1,096,741 3.65 10.51

Toulouse 3,772 21,492 1,325,392 2.85 16.22

Nantes 3,456 16,582 1,364,453 2.53 12.15

Montpellier 3,194 8,066 1,111,881 2.87 7.25

Grenoble 2,830 9,081 1,263,850 2.24 7.19

Strasbourg 2,313 6,323 1,128,825 2.05 5.60

Rennes 2,121 12,433 1,047,873 2.02 11.86


French Cities (defined by department except for Paris) with over 2000 data-related
businesses.

39 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Number of data-related employees in the department vs. the population of the department.
Labelled by the largest city where a department has more than 5000 employees.

The data shows that Nice, Rennes, Nantes, Toulouse and Lyon do better than expected
and have a clear concentration of data-related employees. Lille, Marseille and Strasbourg
underperform.

It is useful to note that pairs of high-performing departments are often neighbours. Rennes
and Nantes and close together, as are Lyon and Grenoble. Indeed data-startup probaYes in
Grenoble, recently acquired by La Poste, specifically mention the Rhone-Alpes rich innovation
ecosystem.

For each of these cities, plus Paris, we have prepared a long-list of the largest and most
interesting data-related companies. These are included in a separate spreadsheet.

40 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
For a company to make it onto the long list, it must fulfill either of the following criteria:

1. It has over 200 employees. If it is a multinational or national company these 200


employees should represent more than 10% of the total employment in France.
This eliminates small offices of widely dispersed companies which generally
do not contribute to a cluster of excellence. These are things like Orange and
SFR phone shops, or small offices of software consultancies who do their work
elsewhere.

2. It has over 20 employees and is a local business. Local is defined as over half
of the businesses employees in France being in this location. This is important
because a large number of these mid-size enterprises are often the core of a
cluster of excellence. Employees move between companies, work on projects
together and innovate.

41 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Methodology for uncovering longlist of data clusters and
data companies in the UK
We can use an approach similar to that used for France to identify clusters of data-related
industries in the UK. The SIC codes are very similar to the NAF codes used in France.

SIC Code Description


61100 Wired telecommunications activities

61200 Wireless telecommunications activities

61300 Satellite telecommunications activities

61900 Other telecommunications activities

62011 Ready-made interactive leisure and entertainment software


development
62012 Business and domestic software development

62020 Information technology consultancy activities

62030 Computer facilities management activities

62090 Other information technology service activities

63110 Data processing, hosting and related activities

63120 Web portals

UK SIC codes which we have defined as data-related industries for this research.

42 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Of large cities Manchester, Leeds and Bristol are notable high performers. Of smaller cities,
Brighton, Reading, Bournemouth, Edinburgh and Milton Keynes are notable high performers.

All are identified as tech clusters in the Tech Nation 2016 report which lists notable tech firms
in each city. UK data on firm size is less easily available and so we have not been able to
produce a graph taking into account employee numbers.

43 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
City (Primary Business Population Data-related businesses
Urban Area) Count per 1000 population

London 75,992 8,112,352 0.94

Manchester 8,090 2,364,679 0.34

Birmingham 6,959 2,419,500 0.29

Brighton 5,902 334,551 1.76

Reading 3,325 310,078 1.07

Bristol 3,325 691,001 0.48

Bournemouth 3,131 466,054 0.67

Leeds 3,035 751,485 0.40

Glasgow 2,660 963,700 0.28

Edinburgh 2,536 476,600 0.53

Milton Keynes 2,437 248,821 0.98

Nottingham 2,108 640,791 0.33

Portsmouth 2,024 519,943 0.39

Sheffield 1,826 809,978 0.23

Coventry 1,635 316,960 0.52

Blackpool 1,579 217,822 0.72

Southampton 1,471 362,081 0.41

Newcastle 1,423 629,105 0.23

Leicester 1,351 479,924 0.28

Slough 1,300 140,205 0.93

Southend 1,276 256,945 0.50

Aldershot 1,266 179,951 0.70

Northampton 1,154 212,069 0.54

Liverpool 1,136 612,308 0.19

Swindon 1,134 209,156 0.54

Bradford 1,073 522,452 0.21


UK Cities (defined using Primary Urban Area method) with over 1,000 data-related
businesses.

44 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Bibliography

Adamovicz, Z. (2015). Berlin and Tel Aviv Should Work Better Together. , [online] TechCrunch.
Available at: https://techcrunch.com/2015/05/30/with-only-4-hours-between-berlin-and-tel-
aviv-the-cities-should-work-better-together/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Adwar, C. (2014). Why Sister Cities Matter More Than You Think Business Insider, [online].
Available at: http://www.businessinsider.com/why-sister-cities-matter-more-than-you-think-
2014-5?IR=T [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

A.T. Kearney. (2014). Global Cities, Present and Future; 2014 Global Cities Index and Emerging
Cities Outlook. [online]. Available at: https://www.atkearney.com/research-studies/global-
cities-index/full-report [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Ballantine, J. (2014). How sister city partnerships can play a new role in a global economy.
[online] Cities Today. Available at: https://cities-today.com/how-sister-city-partnerships-can-
play-a-new-role-in-a-global-economy/ [Accessed 22 Mar. 2017].

Centre for Cities. (2014). Industrial revolutions; new report looks at the potential of clusters for
growth across the country., [online]. Available at: http://www.centreforcities.org/publication/
industrial-revolutions/ [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Club de Madrid. (2014). Wim Kok in China: Sister cities offer economic, cultural, environmental
and social benefits., [online]. Available at: http://www.clubmadrid.org/es/noticia/wim_kok_in_
china_sister_cities_offer_economic_cultural_environmental_and_social_benefits [Accessed
22 March 2017].

Hoare, S. (2016). Will Brexit stall the UKs smart city programme?. [online] Cities Today.
Available at: https://cities-today.com/will-brexit-stall-uks-smart-city-programme/ [Accessed
23 Mar. 2017].

Kaltenbrunner, A., Aragon, P., Laniado, D. and Volkovich, Y. (2013). Not all paths lead to Rome:
Analysing the network of sister cities. Barcelona Media Foundation [online]. Available at: https://
arxiv.org/pdf/1301.6900v1.pdf [Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Kane & Mathur. (2015). Measures that matter: a study on the economic benefits of sister city
relationships in the US and their impact on the global economy 2014-2015. [online] Sister
Cities International and value ideas . Available at: http://sistercities.org/sites/default/files/
Measures%20that%20Matter.pdf [Accessed 22 Mar. 2017].

45 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017
Kelly, J. (2012). Why are towns un-twinning?. BBC News Magazine, [online]. Available at: http://
www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16408111 [Accessed 27 March 2017].

Kopf, D. (2015). Why do we have sister cities?. [online] Priceonomics Available at: https://
priceonomics.com/why-do-we-have-sister-cities/ [Accessed 22 Mar. 2017].

Mateos-Garcia, J. and Bakhshi, H. (2016). The Geography of Creativity in the UK. [online] NESTA.
Available at: https://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/the_geography_of_creativity_in_the_
uk.pdf [Accessed 22 Mar. 2017].

New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. (2003). The economic benefits of Sister City
relationships [online]. Available at: https://nzier.org.nz/static/media/filer_public/fc/9a/fc9a5619-
3d9a-46ef-913b-4a5d18a07ad0/4084_economic_benefits_of_sister_city_relationships.pdf
[Accessed 22 Mar. 2017].

Tech Nation. (2016). Tech Nation 2016; Transforming UK Industries [online]. Available at: http://
www.techcityuk.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Tech-Nation-2016_FINAL-ONLINE-1.pdf
[Accessed 23 Mar. 2017].

Twin Tech Towns website. (2017). Available at: http://www.twintechtowns.com/ [Accessed 23


Mar. 2017].

46 Building a twinning programme between French and British data clusters | Open Data Institute 2017