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Int. J. Electron. Commun.

(AE) 83 (2018) 8894

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Electronics and


Communications (AE)
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/aeue

Regular paper

A compact metamaterial loaded monopole antenna with offset-fed


microstrip line for wireless applications
Samson Daniel R , Pandeeswari R, Raghavan S
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A compact metamaterial loaded monopole antenna with offset-fed microstrip line is proposed for
Received 12 May 2017 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), Worldwide interoperability for Microwave
Accepted 20 August 2017 Access (WiMAX), and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) wireless applications. The proposed antenna
is printed on a 19.18  22.64  1.6 mm3 FR-4 substrate having a dielectric constant (er ) of 4.4. The
antenna radiating element consists of split ring structure and CSRR for generating multiband character-
Keywords: istics, which is fed by offset microstrip line. A split in the outer vertical arm creates a lower order reso-
CSRR
nance at 2.1 GHz and the Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR) in the monopole antenna is used to
Metamaterial
Negative permeability
generate a new resonance frequency of 3.45 GHz. The precise equivalent circuit design equations are used
Negative permittivity to analyze the CSRR resonance frequency. Also, the band characteristics of a split ring structure and CSRR
Offset-fed are enlightened in detail to verify the metamaterial property. Simulated results are verified with mea-
Split ring sured results. The measured azimuthal plane (H-Plane) exhibits omnidirectional radiation pattern and
elevation plane (E-plane) represents a bidirectional radiation pattern.
2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction CSRR embedded ground plane was used to achieve multiband


[11] and gain enhancement [12]. Multiband antenna was designed
Several printed monopole antennas have been designed for using bulky size, complicated structure and poor impedance
multiband operations. This can be achieved by truncated radiating matching.
patch [1], fractal structures [2], introducing slots [3], and mean- In this paper, a compact multiband antenna is designed using
dered monopole [4]. Apart from multiband, the antenna requires simple radiating structure and with good impedance matching.
compact, efficient and cost effectiveness. Recently, electromagnetic The size miniaturization is achieved by using metamaterial ele-
metamaterials have got great attention in multiband antenna ments such as split ring structure and CSRR. The negative perme-
design because of their extraordinary electro-magnetic properties. ability characteristics of split ring structure and negative
These unusual material properties have been used to improve the permittivity characteristics of CSRR are studied for generation of
performances of antenna such as good impedance matching [5], new resonance frequencies. The proposed antenna has a compact
bandwidth improvement [6], and miniaturization [7]. The Split size compared with already existing antenna [910,1317].
Ring Resonator (SRR) and Complementary Split Ring Resonator
(CSRR) are the basic elements of metamaterials that exhibit nega-
2. Proposed antenna geometry and simulated results
tive permeability and negative permittivity, respectively. The geo-
metrical parameters of these structures greatly affect the
The design steps of proposed antenna are shown in Fig. 1. Con-
orientation of the EM wave propagation and create a new resonant
figuration A shows an inverted U-shaped slot embedded monopole
frequency [8,9]. Generally, SRR is used for designing small anten-
antenna with a partial ground plane. It is fed by a 50 O, offset-fed
nas due to quasi-static resonant nature, so the wavelength of res-
microstrip line, which is used to create a higher order resonance
onant frequency is smaller than its own size. Dual band antenna
around 5 GHz. In configuration B, a split is introduced at the center
was designed by loading SRR to achieve wide bandwidth [10].
of the outer vertical arm, which is used to induce magnetic reso-
nance and in turn creates a lower resonance frequency of
Corresponding author. 2.1 GHz, due to its capacitance effect of split ring structure. As
E-mail addresses: samson.rapheal@gmail.com (R Samson Daniel), rpands@nitt. shown in configuration C, CSRR is introduced inside the monopole
edu (R Pandeeswari), raghvan@nitt.edu (S Raghavan). antenna, to achieve middle resonance frequency of 3.45 GHz,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2017.08.030
1434-8411/ 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
R Samson Daniel et al. / Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 83 (2018) 8894 89

Fig. 1. Design steps of proposed antenna.

corresponding to the CSRR geometrical parameters. The geometry


of the proposed antenna for triple band operation is shown in
Fig. 2. The parameters of the antenna are listed in Table 1. The
snapshot of the fabricated antenna is shown in Fig. 3.
The simulated return loss characteristics of the three configura-
tions is shown in Fig. 4. As figure shows, configuration A has a sin-
gle band resonance at 5 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of
490 MHz (4.785.27 GHz). The split ring structure (configuration
B) changes the monopole current path and in turn creates a lower
resonance at 2.1 GHz. Also, it shifts the resonance frequency of
55.17 GHz. In configuration C, CSRR is introduced at the center

Fig. 2. Proposed antenna geometry and its side view.

Table 1
Parameters of the proposed antenna.

Parameter Dimension (mm) Parameter Dimension (mm)


Ws 22.64 W3 1
Ls 19.18 W4 1
Wp 13.04 L1 5.58
Lp 9.58 L2 3.58
Wf 2 S 1
Lf 5.51 S1 0.5
W1 8.04 Lg 5
Fig. 4. Simulated return loss characteristics of the three different configuration of
W2 6.04
proposed antenna.

Fig. 3. Snapshot of the fabricated proposed antenna (top view and bottom view).
90 R Samson Daniel et al. / Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 83 (2018) 8894

Fig. 5. Simulated surface current distributions at (a) 2.1 GHz, (b) 3.45 GHz, (c) 5.43 GHz.

of the rectangular monopole, which yields a middle resonance at of the antenna for various ground plane lengths (Lg ) are shown
3.45 GHz. The quarter wave length of the CSRR plays an important in Fig. 7. Length (Lg ) is varied from 2 mm to 5 mm in steps of
role in determining the middle frequency. Also, it is observed that 1 mm. The second and third frequency bands affect more due to
there is a shift in resonant frequency of 5.175.43 GHz. The pro- impedance mismatch. However, the better impedance matching
posed antenna exhibits a triple band resonance centred at for all resonance frequencies is observed for a length of 5 mm.
2.1 GHz, 3.45 GHz and 5.43 GHz with a 10 dB impedance band-
width of 80 MHz (2.092.17 GHz), 110 MHz (3.393.5 GHz) and
670 MHz (4.95.57 GHz).
This simulated surface current distribution at 2.1 GHz, 3.45 GHz
and 5.43 GHz are shown in Fig. 5(a)(c), respectively. At 2.1 GHz,
the current distribution is concentrated around the split ring struc-
ture, at 3.45 GHz the current is concentrated along the CSRR, and at
5.43 GHz the current is concentrated along the CSRR slit gap and
the offset-fed microstrip line. It clearly shows that, the metamate-
rial element split ring structure and CSRR changes the current flow
to enhance the bandwidth. The proposed antenna yields a frac-
tional bandwidth of 2.4%, 3.2% and 12.1% in 2.1 GHz, 3.45 GHz
and 5.43 GHz bands respectively.

3. Parametric study

The parameters of the antenna are optimized by studying


return loss characteristics of the various microstrip feed position,
ground plane length (Lg ) and antenna with CSRR. To achieve good
impedance matching, the microstrip feed position is studied for
various offset-fed which is depicted in Fig. 6. It clearly shows that,
left offset-fed offers 50 X characteristic impedance for realizing
good impedance matching. Simulated return loss characteristics
Fig. 7. Simulated return loss for various length of the ground plane (Lg).

Fig. 8. Simulated return loss for antenna with double square conductors and
Fig. 6. Simulated return loss characteristics of various microstrip feed position. antenna with CSRR.
R Samson Daniel et al. / Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 83 (2018) 8894 91

Fig. 9. CSRR and its equivalent circuit model.

Next, the parametric study is focused on the antenna with CSRR 4. Equivalent circuit analysis of CSRR
and antenna with double square conductors, which is depicted in
Fig. 8. It is clearly understood that, antenna with double square The resonance frequency of CSRR is investigated by equivalent
conductors is not producing electric resonance for creating a new circuit model [18], as explained in Fig. 9. The slit bounded by the
resonance frequency. However, antenna with CSRR induces a pass slot, constructs the capacitance effect (CCSRR ) and slot bounded by
band (S11) in the S-parameters due to presence of narrow electric the slit, constructs the inductance effect (LCSRR ). Thus, the CSRR res-
resonance. Thus, it is responsible for generating a new resonance onance frequency is evaluated by [19,20].
frequency of 3.45 GHz.
1
f CSRR p 1
2p LCSRR C CSRR

N1
C CSRR 2L  2N  1W SC 0
2
p
K 1  K 2 S=2
C 0 e0 and k
Kk W S=2

   
0:98
LCSRR 4l0 L  N  1S W ln 1:84q
q

N  1W S
q
1  N  1W S
Here, number of CSRRs (N = 2), L is the average length of the
second ring CSRR, slot width (W) = 0.5 mm, spacing between two
CSRR slots (S) = 0.5 mm and K is the elliptic integral of the first kind

Fig. 10. (a) Simulated transmission coefficients (S21) of configuration B with split
and with inverted U-shaped slot, (b) Effective permeability of the split ring Fig. 11. Simulated reflection coefficients (S11) of configuration B with split and with
structure. inverted U-shaped slot.
92 R Samson Daniel et al. / Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 83 (2018) 8894

K (k). This mathematical equations are evaluated by the MATLAB 5. Split ring analysis
code to execute the inductance (LCSRR ) and capacitance (CCSRR ) val-
ues of CSRR. The classical waveguide setup is used to analyze the split ring
For, N = 2 (Second ring CSRR) L = L2 W 2
2
= 4.81 mm structure and CSRR [21]. The split ring is used to create band notch
Hence, LCSRR = 2.6321  1008 (Henry) and CCSRR = 8.0701  frequency in UWB antenna design due to its stop band characteris-
1014 (Farad). Therefore, the resonance frequency of the proposed tics [22]. Pass band of split ring is responsible for creating a new
CSRR is f CSRR = p
1 = 3.45 GHz. Thus, the CSRR in the mono- resonance frequency. Fig. 10(a) illustrates the transmission charac-
2p LCSRR CCSRR
teristics (S21) of configuration B with split and with inverted U-
pole antenna generates a resonance frequency of 3.45 GHz and shaped slot. It is found that, antenna with inverted U-shaped slot
which is analyzed by equivalent circuit design equations. has no stop band, but antenna with split has stop band at
1.72 GHz. This stop band accounts for the band notch in the return
loss characteristics. An effective permeability (m) of the split ring
structure is shown in Fig. 10(b), where the permeability (m) is neg-
ative at 1.72 GHz due to stop band behaviour of the split ring
structure.

Fig. 13. Simulated and measured return loss characteristics of proposed antenna.

Table 3
Comparison of simulated and measured values of the proposed antenna.

Proposed Resonant frequency Return loss Bandwidth


antenna (GHz) (dB) (MHz)
Simulated 2.1 15 80
3.45 19 110
5.43 23 670
Measured 1.96 14 50
3.21 14 100
Fig. 12. (a) S-parameters (S11 and S21) of CSRR, (b) Permittivity characteristics of 5.45 14 430
CSRR.

Table 2
Comparisons of the existing antennas with the proposed antenna.

Reference Dimensions L  W Frequency (GHz) Fractional bandwidth Equivalent circuit analysis Metamaterial property
(mm2) of CSRR verification
[9] 34  30 2.4, 3.3, and 5.2 13%, 17% and 16% Not Computed Not Verified
[10] 40  25 2.4, and 3.76.7 10% and 58% Not Computed Not Verified
[13] 66.4  66.4 0.68, 1.33, and 1.41 3%, 4.6% and 2.1% Not Computed Not Verified
[14] 50  40 1.65, 1.93, and 2.20 4.24%, 3.11% and 12.73% Not Computed Not Verified
[15] 40.5  28.5 2.9, 5.91, 6.76, 8.33, 10.38, 13.73, 2.2%, 4.14%, 6.7%, 6.5%, 3.5% Not Computed Not Verified
and 16.1 and 4.2%
[16] 30  30 1.94 71% Not Computed Not Verified
[17] 40  70 1.54, 1.63, 2.25, and 3.69 0.65%, 0.62%, 11.5% and 5.9% Not Computed Not Verified
[22] 25  20 3.65.3, 5.899.2 38% and 58% Not Computed Not Verified
Proposed 19.18  22.64 2.1, 3.45, and 4.95.57 2.4%, 3.2% and 12.1% Computed Verified
antenna
R Samson Daniel et al. / Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 83 (2018) 8894 93

Similarly, Fig. 11 depicts the reflection coefficient (S11) of con- 3.45 GHz satisfies the equivalent circuit design equation of
figuration B with split and with inverted U-shaped slot. It clearly f CSRR = p
1 . Thus, it assigns to the first order pass band,
2p LCSRR CCSRR
shows that, antenna with split creates a narrow resonance of
2.1 GHz. This narrow resonance generates the new resonance fre- defined to be f 0 . Similarly, the second order pass band is achieved
quency of 2.1 GHz in the proposed antenna. at 2 f 0 , as explained in [19]. The first order pass band is an unique
interest, because it equals to the resonance frequency of CSRR at
6. CSRR analysis 3.45 GHz. Metamaterial property of the CSRR is shown in Fig. 12
(b). It shows a negative permittivity (e) at 3.45 GHz due to a first
Also, the band characteristics of CSRR are described in Fig. 12(a). order pass band of the CSRR. The negative permittivity (e) exhibits
It shows two pass bands (S11) at 3.45 GHz and 7 GHz. Here, where the antenna has revealed a new resonance in the return loss

Fig. 14. Radiation Patterns of proposed antenna at (a) 1.96 GHz, (b) 3.21 GHz and (c) 5.45 GHz.
94 R Samson Daniel et al. / Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 83 (2018) 8894

and fabricated, with a compact size of 19.18  22.64  1.6 mm3.


The split ring structure and CSRR in the monopole antenna
accounts for multiband characteristics. Stop band and pass band
characteristics of metamaterial elements are explored by a classi-
cal waveguide theory to verify the metamaterial property of a split
ring structure at 1.72 GHz and CSRR at 3.45 GHz. The proposed
antenna exhibits dipole radiation pattern in elevation plane and
omnidirectional radiation pattern in azimuthal plane. Due to small
size and multiband characteristics, the proposed antenna is appli-
cable for UMTS (1.96 GHz), WiMAX (3.21 GHz) and WLAN
(5.45 GHz) wireless applications.

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