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FATS & OILS NUTR 214

2017
OUTLINE
What are fats/lipids?
Types of lipids
Common fats used in cooking
Physical properties of fats

http://www.eatthis.com/healthiest-foods-on-planet
Proper Storage
Extraction of Oils
Chemical Properties
Modification of Fats
Functions/Uses in Food
Lower fat cooking techniques
WHAT ARE FATS AND OILS?
Lipids
Fats: solid at room temp; usually from animal sources
Oils: liquid at room temp; usually from plant sources
Exceptions?

Insoluble in water, greasy


Origin: animals, seeds, nuts, some fruits
How do we use fats?
In food preparation (oil for frying), food formulation (as an ingredient), added directly to
finished foods (e.g.. butter on bread, salad dressing)
TYPES OF LIPIDS
1. Triglycerides (aka: triacylglycerides, triacylglycerols)
~95% of lipids
3 fatty acids attached to a glyercol molecule Ester linkage

http://science.halleyhosting.com/sci/ibbio/chem/notes/chpt3/triglyceride1.gif
FATTY ACIDS
Fatty acid = chain of carbons with an organic acid
(carboxyl group) on one end and a methyl group on
the other
Differ in (1) chain length and (2) degree of
saturation
(1) Chain Length
o Most common: 4 - 24 (numbers usually even)

(2) Degree of Saturation


o No double bonds = saturated
o 1 double bond = monounsaturated
o 2+ double bonds = polyunsaturated
https://authoritynutrition.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/saturated-vs-unsaturated-fatty-acids.jpg
FATTY ACIDS
Trans vs cis: describes geometric shape
of unsaturated FAs
Trans: hydrogens are on either side of the
double bond
Behaves like a saturated FA linear
Result of hydrogenation; some naturally occurring
trans FAs in dairy products, beef and lamb

Cis: hydrogens are on the same side of


the double bond
Puts a kink in the FA
Natural form of most unsaturated FAs
FATTY ACIDS
Important
polyunsaturated fatty
acids
Linoleic acid (omega-6)
Alpha-linolenic acid
(omega-3)

Food Sources?

http://www.periodni.com/gallery/omega_fatty_acids.png
(ALA)
FATTY ACID NOTATION
Describes length and position of double bond(s)
Cn:xn-y
n = chain length (number of carbons)
x = number of double bonds
y = position of 1st double bond (counting from methyl end)
Example:
http://archive.canolainfo.org/quadrant/media/health/images/bug-fatchart.gif
TYPES OF LIPIDS
2. Phospholipids
Similar in structure to triglycerides one FA is replaced by a compound containing
phosphate and a nitrogenous base
Small amount in food
Food sources: egg yolks, liver, soybeans,
wheat germ, peanuts, mustard

Important role emulsifying agent

http://myhome.sunyocc.edu/~weiskirl/phospholipid.gif
EMULSIFIERS
EMULSIFIERS
TYPES OF LIPIDS
3. Sterols
Interconnected carbon rings with a variety of side chains
Most famous? Cholesterol
Found only in animal sources meat, poultry, fish and fish roe, organ meats, dairy products,
egg yolk
Not an essential nutrient
Other sterols?
Phytosterols found in many plants (fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, cereals, legumes)
Eg. Campesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol
Health claim re: plant sterols and lowering cholesterol in adults
PLANT STEROL HEALTH CLAIM
Primary health claim statement allowed by Health Canada:
"[serving size from Nutrition Facts table in metric and common household measures] of
[naming the product] provides X% of the daily amount* of plant sterols shown to help
reduce/lower cholesterol in adults."

Two additional statements that can be used:


"High cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease."
"Plant sterols help reduce [or help lower] cholesterol.
https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/food-labelling/health-claims/assessments/
plant-sterols-blood-cholesterol-lowering-nutrition-health-claims-food-labelling.htm l
TYPES OF LIPIDS
4. Waxes
Long fatty acid and alcohol hydrocarbon chains
Have much higher melting points than TGs
Waxy coatings are found on leaves and fruit of many
plants protection
Fruits and vegetables may be waxed to prevent
moisture loss, protect them during shipping and increase
shelf life
COMMON FATS/OILS USED IN
COOKING
Animal Sources Plant Sources
Butter Seed oils
Lard/tallow/suet Fruit oils
Duck fat Nut oils
Margarine
Shortening
Table 22-4 p463
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
FATS & OILS
Degree of Saturation
Saturated solid at room temp (higher MP)
Unsaturated liquid at room temp (lower MP)
Length of fatty acids
Shorter carbon chains more liquid at room temp
(lower MP)
Cis-Trans Configuration
Cis more liquid at room temp (lower MP)
STORAGE

Storage conditions depend on type of fat


Butter, margarine refrigerator
Lard, shortening, most oils room temp, away from light, tightly covered;
will keep longer in the refrigerator (esp. olive oil)
Unrefined, polyunsaturated oils refrigerator, dark glass bottle, airtight
How long to keep?
Refined/monounsaturated fats: ~1 yr
Unrefined/polyunsaturated fats: ~6 mo.
RANCIDITY
Chemical deterioration of fats that gives off-flavours and rancid
odours
TG/fatty acids breakdown into smaller units
Accelerated by light, heat and oxygen oil used for cooking
Two types: hydrolytic and oxidative
HYDROLYTIC RANCIDITY
Exposure to water, catalyzed by heat and lipase enzymes
Bonds in the TG are hydrolyzed smaller subunits
Examples: deep-frying, butter left at room temp
OXIDATIVE RANCIDITY
Exposure to oxygen
More unsaturated the fat, more susceptible
Three steps:
1. Initiation: free radical is formed slow, triggered
by light, heat, salt, food particles in frying oil,
certain metals (Fe, Cu, Ni)
2. Propagation: oxygen combines with the free radical
& peroxide free radical is formed domino effect
until all double bonds have been used
3. Termination: no more hydrogens at double bonds to
react with oxygen
USE OF ANTIOXIDANTS
Natural or commercial
Prevent oxidation by:
1. Being oxidized themselves
2. Donating their hydrogen to a FA
3. Sequestering metals (chelating agent)
Examples: vitamin C, vitamin E (tocopherols), lecithin, beta-carotene, flavonoids,
sulfites, BHA, BHT
Vitamin E: naturally found in many vegetable oils
RECOMMENDATIONS FROM
HEALTH CANADA
I nclude a small amount - 30 to 45mL(2 to 3 tbsp) - of unsaturated
fat each day to get the fat you need. This amount includes oil used
for cooking, salad dressings, margarine and mayonnaise.
Limit butter, hard margarine, lard and shortening
OIL EXTRACTION
Chemical : using solvents (usually hexane)
Advantages: highest yield, therefore highest profit, more affordable (most bottled oils and those sold in
food products)
Disadvantages: loss of nutrients due to heating of oil (to remove solvent), up to 25ppm of solvent often
remains in final product, lower quality oil

Mechanical :
Cold-Pressed : highest quality oil, small yields, more expensive, maintains integrity of oil and other
compounds within it
Expeller-Pressed: very high pressures, therefore more heat generated

Video: How its made Vegetable Oil


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKrY_WjogXk
REFINED VS UNREFINED
Unrefined oils are not processed further after pressing (they are generally
pressed)
Contain other components such as:
pigments (ex: chlorophyll)
odors and flavors
waxes
Can also contain heavy metals and pesticide residues

Refined oils are chemically and physically processed to remove undesirable


components from the oil
Tend to have a higher smoke points
Basic processes include:
Degumming (removal of phosphatides, ex: lecithin)
Neutralization (removal of free fatty acids)
Bleaching (removal of color)
Deodorization (removal of odors, flavors and FFA)
Winterization (removal of waxes)
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MELTING & SMOKE POINTS
Type of Fat Melting Point Smoke Point
Beef Tallow 42C 275C

Ghee (Clarified Butter) 32-35C 250C

Butter 35C 175C


Palm Oil 35C 225C

Coconut Oil (extra virgin) 25C 175C

Rapeseed (Canola) Oil -10C 205C

Olive Oil (Extra Virgin) -6C 160C


Flaxseed Oil -24C 107C

Images: http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ps/fats-oils.html
MODIFICATION OF FATS
Hydrogenation
Interesterification
Winterization
Fractionation
HYDROGENATION
Process used to harden vegetable oils
Catalyst
Refined vegetable oil + H2 (g) Semi-Solid or Solid Oil
(Usually Ni)

http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Biology/2/Lipids/207 http://www.prettyhealthy.co/2014/06/05/the-truth-about-fats-saturated-fats/
INTERESTERIFICATION
The rearrangement of the fatty acid portion in a triglyceride on the glycerol backbone.
Main advantage: can modify the physical properties of a fat without production of
trans-fatty acids
Is it healthy? Insufficient evidence, but possible effects.
WINTERIZATION &
FRACTIONATION
The
separation of oils into two or more fractions based on melting
point
Winterization:
Oils are cooled and kept at low temperatures for some time, liquid and
solids are separated by filtration
Fractionation:
Same principle as winterization however it is a more sophisticated process of
cooling and separating fractions with much greater control
FUNCTIONS/USES IN FOOD
Heat transfer
Shortening
Emulsion
Flavor
Texture
Satiety
Nutrients
TIPS & TRICKS FOR LOW FAT
COOKING
Choice of equipment:
Non-stick frying pans : eliminates need for oil (or at least not as much)
Parchment paper: eliminates need for greasing

Choice of cooking methods:


Steaming
Grilling, Baking, or Poaching instead of Frying
TIPS & TRICKS FOR LOW FAT
COOKING
Choice of ingredients:
Low-fat versions (ex: skim milk vs whole milk)
Lean cuts of meat
Healthier versions (ex: using oils higher in unsaturated fats)
Versions requiring less (ex: stronger tasting cheese so that you use less
overall)
Low-fat replacements (ex: applesauce, mashed bananas)

Preparation:
Trimming visible fat off of meat
Bake pies with only a bottom crust or top crust
REPLACING FAT IN BAKING

Apple Sauce: use in place of oil in cakes, cupcakes and some


cookie recipes

Beans: when mashed and pureed, can work well replacing fat in
brownies (and other items with a fudge-like texture)

Shredded Zucchini: can help lock in moisture in muffins and


breads
REPLACING FAT IN BAKING
Bananas: mashed bananas can help reduce the amount of fat
needed in muffins and cookies

Tofu: Silken tofu can replace cream in recipes, offering a low fat
(and vegan) alternative
http://www.swansonvitamins.com/blog/kaitlins-blog/egg-substitutes

https://www.pinterest.com/explore/canola-oil/
DEMYSTIFYING COCONUT OIL

http://archive.canolainfo.org/quadrant/media/health/images/bug-fatchart.gif
DEMYSTIFYING COCONUT OIL
Very high in saturated fats
Mostly medium-chain fatty acids
48% Lauric (C12) , 8% Decanoic (C10), 7% Caprylic (C8) | 65% MCT
16% Myristic (C14) , 9.5% Palmitic (C16)
6.5% Oleic (C18) monounsaturated*
5% other

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