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Section 4 - Main Shafting

Section 4

Main Shafting

A. General plant are subject to the Society's Rules for Materials
and must be tested. This requirement also covers
1. Scope metal propeller shaft liners. Where propeller shafts
The following Rules apply to standard and running in seawater are protected against seawater
established types of main shafting. Novel designs penetration not by a metal liner but by plastic
require the Society's special approval. coatings, the coating technique used must be
approved by the Society.
In the case of ships with ice classes, the
strengthening factors given in Section 13 are to be
complied with. The Society reserves the right to call
for propeller shaft dimensions in excess of those
specified in this Section if the propeller arrangement C. Shaft Dimensions
results in in-creased bending stresses.
1. General
2. Documents for approval
All parts of the shafting are to be dimensioned in ac-
General drawings of the entire shafting, from the cordance with the following formulae in compliance
main engine coupling flange to the propeller and with the requirements relating to torsional vibrations
detail drawings of the shafts, couplings and other set out in Section 16. The dimensions of the shafting
component parts transmitting the propelling engine shall be based on the total rated installed power. Where
torque, are each to be submitted to the Society in the geometry of a part is such that it cannot be
triplicate1) for approval. The drawings must contain dimensioned in accordance with these formulae,
all the data necessary to enable the stresses to be special evidence of the mechanical strength of the part
evaluated. or parts concerned is to be furnished to the Society.

2. Minimum diameter
The minimum shaft diameter is to be determined by
B. Materials applying formula (1).
1. Approved materials
Propeller, intermediate and thrust shafts together Pw
d F·k· · Cw da
with flange and clamp couplings are to be made of
forged steel; where appropriate, couplings may be n·1 di

made of cast steel. Rolled round steel may be used
for plain, flangeless shafts. da
In general, the tensile strength of steels used for
d [mm] required outside diameter of shaft
shafting ( shaft, flange coupling, bolts/fitted bolts)
shall be between 400 N/mm 2 and 800 N/mm2.
However, the value of Rm used for calculation the d [mm] diameter of shaft bore, where
material factor Cw in accordance with formula (2) for
propeller shafts shall not be greater than 600 N/mm2. present. If the bore in the shaft is
0,4 . d, the expression
Where in special cases wrought copper alloys
resistant to seawater are to be used for the shafting,
1 4
the consent of BKI shall be obtained. di
2. Testing of materials da 1,0 may be applied
All component parts of the shafting which assist in da [mm] actual shaft diameter
transmitting the torque from the ship's propulsion

PW [kW] rated power transmitted by shaft
n [Rpm] rated shaft speed

2.22. the propeller shaft runs in oil. Rm [N/mm2] Tensile strength of the shaft k =1. For intermediate shafts. Design from the end of the keyway. such shafts can be reduced to a diameter 1. the well within the seating of the propeller boss. the holes whose diameter is not greater radius at forged flanges is to be at least 0. on to the F [-] factor for the type of propulsion tapered end of the propeller shaft installation using a method approved by the a) Intermediate and thrust shafts Society. and also for water-lubricated = 100 propeller shafts which are protected for all types of installations against the penetration of seawater in accordance with D.22 for propeller shafts from the area of The outside diameter of the threaded end for the the aft stern tube or shaft bracket propeller retaining nut should not be less than 60 % bearing to the forward load-bearing of the calculated major taper diameter. k =1.08 d. if the shaft Rm 160 inside the stern tube is lubricated with grease. is used.40 for propeller shafts in the area 560 (2) specified for k = 1. See Section 6 for details of 1. Changes in diameter are to be effected by tapering k =1.15 for propeller shafts forward portion material (see also B.0. the forward end of the keyway should be k =1. C W [-] material factor k =1.15 for intermediate shafts designed as spoon-shaped. tapers for securing flange couplings which longitudinal slots where the length are jointed with adjusting springs should have conicity and width of the slot do not exceed of between 1: 12 and 1: 20. that than 0. d D.2 .0 for intermediate shafts with integral stern tube can be reduced to the size forged coupling flanges or with of the line shaft.5 d. shrink-fitted keyless coupling flanges k =1.10 for intermediate shafts with radial or ample radiusing. or near the axial bearings be so designed that the forward end of the groove where an antifriction bearing design makes a gradual transition to the full shaft section. In addition. without key. At a distance of at least 0.25 d respectively. k =1.4-2 Section 4 .26 for propeller shafts in the area electric propulsion installations specified for k= 1. or if the propeller is bolted = 95 to a flange forged on the propeller for turbine installations. if the propeller is . if the propeller = 100 is keyed to the tapered propeller for all other propulsion installations shaft and the propeller shaft runs in b) Propeller shafts oil.10 for thrust shafts near the plain 2. The edges of the keyway at the multi-splined shafts where d is the surface of the shaft taper for the propeller may not outside diameter of the splined shaft.20 for intermediate shafts with In general. face of the propeller boss subject to a 3.1). be sharp. Propeller shaft protection minimum of 2. installations with slip couplings and k =1. The forward end of the keyway must lie Outside the splined section. shafts can be reduced to a diameter Threaded holes to accommodate the securing screws corresponding to k = 1.Main Shafting shrink fitted. for propeller keys should be located only in the aft half or the keyway (see Fig. k =1. propeller shaft tapers on the propeller side. at the aft propeller shaft flange at least 0.17 d and 0. General cor-responding to k = 1. Shaft tapers and propeller nut threads bearings on either side or the thrust Keyways in the shaft taper for the propeller should collar.22. 4.125 d. The portion of the propeller shaft located forward of the k = 1. engine shaft.3.0.10 for intermediate shafts where the coupling flanges are mounted on the ends of the shaft with the aid of keys.1) of shafts to where they emerge from k [-] Factor for the type of shaft the stern tube.3 d.

75 · s.2.03 · d 7. Couplings the the calculated diameter of the shaft in question.3 Minimum wall thickness of shaft liners provided. 4.1 Propeller shafts which are not made of In the case of continuous liners.1 The thickness of forged coupling flanges on Where propellers are attached to a forged flange on intermediate and thrust shafts and on the forward end the propeller shaft. Rules of Classification and Survey. In the case of classification standard IW. Only with Propeller shaft running in oil or grease are to be fitted the express consent of the Society may particularly with seal of proven efficiency and approved by BKI at long liners be made up of two parts. provided that.2.1 Design of keyway in propeller shaft 4. after the stern tube ends (see also the requirements fitting.1 is to be determined protected against the ingress of seawater. Section 4 . For protection of the sealing a rope guard should be 3. Fig. 3.2.2 Shaft liners d [mm] shaft diameter under the liner 3.2 Metal liners in accordance with 3. the abutting edges are made watertight by a applicable to the external sealing of the stern tube in method approved by the Society and the area of the the context of the propeller shaft survey prescribed in joint is subjected to special testing. Volume I).2.Main Shafting 3. the flange must have a thickness of the propeller shaft must be equal to at least 20 % of equal to at least 25 % of the Rule diameter. seawater are to be protected against contact with seawater by seawater-resistant metal liners or other liners ap-proved by the Society and by seals of proven efficiency at the propeller. 4. The minimum wall thickness s [mm] of metal shaft The propeller boss seating is to be effectively liners in accordance with 3. . the seal must s 0. The seal at using the following formula: the propeller can be dispensed with if the propeller shaft is made of corrosion-resistant material.5 (3) be fitted with device by means of which the play of the where bearing can be measured the vessel is afloat. the wall thickness corrosion-resistant material and which run in between the bearings may be reduced to 0.1 Sealing 3.1 which run in seawater must be made in a single piece.2.

the maximum clearence is to be based on the = 2.2 The bolts used to connect flange couplings are A 2 normally to be designed as fitted bolts. p [N/mm2] interface pressure of shrink fits 4.5 projected tolerances on fit and the necessary interface pressure p [N/mm²] in the shrunk-on joint is to be for all other applications determined by applying formulae (6) and (7). (6).4 The minimum thread root diameter dk of the connecting bolts used for clamp-type couplings is to ds [mm] diameters of fitted bolts be determined using the formula: dk [mm] root diameter of plain bolts 6 D [mm] diameter of pitch circle of bolts d 12 · 10 · P w (5) k E [N/mm2] modulus of elasticity n · d · z · Rm f [-] coefficient for shrink-fitted joints 4. d [mm] shaft diameter in area of clamp-type coupling 4.Main Shafting These flanges may not be thinner than the Rule for dry shrink fits diameter of the fitted bolts if these are based on [-] half conicity of shaft ends same tensile strength as that of the shaft material. the use of = difference in tapers diameters fitted bolls is not feasible.9 times the Q [N] peripheral force at the mean joint thread root diameter. in special circumstances.0 With regard to the margin of safety against slippage of between motor and gear the joint. the following symbols are used: 4.6 Where shafts are coupled together without Pw [kW] rated power of the propulsion motor adjusting spring by shrink-fitted coupling flanges or s [mm] flange thickness in area of bolt coupling sleeves.3 Where. the diameter of a shrink fit bolted connection is also required to transmit considerable additional forces. . T [N] propeller thrust 2 2 2 2 2 p ·T f · (c ·Q T ) ± ·T z [-] number of fitted or plain bolts A·f (6) Rm [N/mm2] tensile strength of fitted or plain bolt material µ [-] coefficient of static friction + sign following the root applies to shrunk o joints without an axial stop to absorb astern = 0.18 . sign following the root if the shrunk joint has an axial stop to absorb astern thrust. the Society may agree lo length of tapers the use of an equivalent frictional resistance trans- mission.5 The shank of necked-down bolls can be de- signed to a minimum diameter of 0. besides the torque.15 thrust. and (7). The [mm ] effective area of shrink-fit seating minimum diameter ds of fitted bolts at the coupling c [-] coefficient for shrink-fitted joints flange faces is to be determined by applying the = 1. the size of the bolts n [Rpm] shaft speed must be increased accordingly. = 3.2 n · D · z · Rm for direct oil engine drives C [-] conicity of shaft ends 4. for hydraulic shrink fits = 0. =C/2 In the formulae (4).4-4 Section 4 . If. (5). the dimensions of these shrink fits f1 should be such that the maximum von Mises pitch circle equivalent stress in the component parts does not S [-] safety factor against slipping of exceed 80 % of the yield strength of the coupling shrink fits in the shafting material in question.0 formula: for geared oil engine and turbine 6 ds 16 · w drives 10 · P (4) = 1.

5 x da and 1. Section 4 .5 x da where the contact load. lubricated grey cast iron bearings shall not exceed 2.8 Mpa in the case of max shafts supported on white metal bearings and 0. when the plant is hot and for grease-lubricated.2 Stern tube bearings ensure that no undue transverse forces or bending moments are exerted on the crankshaft or gear shafts 5. n [rpm] shaft speed 5. if the bearing is shown by means of bench tests to lubricated stern tube bearings have adequate load-bearing capacity. grey. between bearings lmax [mm] can be determined The length of the after stern tube bearing may be using formula (8): reduced to 1.Main Shafting ! $ made for the shafting system. iron bearings and for rubber each bearing is subjected to positive reaction forces.2 Where the propeller shaft inside the stern tube by displacement or wear of the bearings themselves. in which case at least one free-standing journal are not appreciably affected should the alignment of bearing should be provided.1 Arrangement of shaft bearings bearings Shaft bearings both inside and outside the stern tube = 5200 are to be so disposed that. avoid excessive loads due to bending vibrations. rubber or K1 = 450 plastic approved for use in water -lubricated stern for oil-lubricated white metal tube bearings. grey cast irrespective of the condition of loading of the ship. Shafting bearings for oil-lubricated white metal 5. In short ciently far apart.5 x da. of the bearing length may be approved for grey cast iron.4 Where the propeller shaft runs in grease- = 280 . = 280 A reduction.2.3 Where the propeller shafts inside the stern tube runs in bearings made of lignum vitae. In borderline cases a bending stress analysis should be 5. cast iron bushes the lengths of the after and forward stern tube bearings should be for water-lubricated rubber approximately 2.4 m/s maximum accordance with formula (10) be observed in order to respectively. the lengths of the after and forward alignment of the shafting.5 Where propeller shafts are to run in anti- .3 m/s maximum and that of propeller shafts in Where the shaft speed exceeds 350 rpm it is water-lubricated rubber and lignum vitae bearings recommended that the maximum bearing spacing in shall not exceed 6 m/s and 3 .2.2.8 x da Guide values for the maximum permissible distance respectively. steps are also to be taken to ensure stern tubes the forward bearing may be dispensed that the reaction forces of line or gear shaft bearings with. " %$ # d (9) lmax K2 · (7) n K = 8400 2 5. grease. 5. which is (8) calculated from the static load allowing for the weight l K1 · d of the propeller is less than 0. runs in oil-lubricated white metal bearings or in In borderline cases it is advisable to check the synthetic rubber or reinforced resin or plastic materials approved for use in oil-lubricated stern reaction forces of the bearing by calculating the tube bearings. bearings should be approximately 2 x da and 0. care is to be taken to 5.0 x da respectively. alignment of the shafting in relation to the coupling flange at the engine or gearing. one or more bearings be altered by hull deflections or 5.1 Inside the stern tube the propeller shaft should when the plant is hot.350 lubricated.2. bearings inside stern tubes and tail By appropriate spacing of the bearings and by the shaft brackets. By spacing the bearings suffi.6 Mpa d [mm] diameter of shaft between bearings in the case of bearings made of synthetic materials. the length of the after bearing should equal approximately 4 x da and of the forward stern bearings tube bearing 1.2. bearings in stern tubes and shaft brackets (upper values for special The peripheral speed of propeller shafts in grease- designs only).5 . normally be supported by two bearings.

With grease lubrication. cast stern tubes are to be less than 400 mm in diameter the stern tube oil subjected to a hydraulic tightness test at 2 bar temperature in the vicinity of the after stern tube pressure. effects. Alternatively.3 Bearing lubrication approved companies in the presence of a BKI Surveyor. header tank is to be fitted at a sufficient height above the ship's load line. Wherever possible.Main Shafting friction bearings inside the stern tube.1 % inclination of the shaft relative to the bearing axis without adverse stern tube bearing in place of the filling connection. a to a hydraulic tightness test at 2 bar pressure. Prior to fitting but as far as possible in the finish- machined condition. for Automation. Oil-lubricated stern tubes are to be fitted with filling.2 Lubricating oil or grease must be introduced issued by the manufacturer of the cast resin. into the stern tube in such a way as to ensure a reliable supply of oil or grease to the forward and after stern tube bearings. Shaft liners driven by the shaft is to be used to secure a continuous supply of grease. . the forward and after E. after fitting. bearings with cambered rollers or races and with Where the propeller shaft runs in seawater. Facilities are to be provided for checking the level of oil in the tank at any time. The camber must be flushing line is to be fitted in front of the forward large enough to accommodate a 0. block on cast resin parts is to be carried out by 5. In the case of ships with automated machinery. A further tightness test is to be carried out bearing may be monitored.3. it is sufficient to test for tightness during the pressure test applied to the hull spaces traversed by 5.1 The lubrication and matching of the materials Only BKI-approved cast resins may be used for used for journal and anti-friction bearings in the seatings. 2. Stern tubes The temperature of the after stern tube bearing is to Prior to fitting but as far as possible in the finish- be monitored. Note is to be taken of the installation instruction 5.3. a increased bearing clearance. 5. these should testing and drainage connections as well as with a wherever possible take the form of cylindrical roller vent pipe. Volume VII is to be complied with.4 Stern tube connections the stern tube.4-6 Section 4 .5 Cast resin mounting Self-aligning roller bearings may only be used for The mounting of stern tubes and stern tube bearings the propeller shaft if provision is made for adjusting made of cast resin and also the seating of plummer the axial setting of these bearings. Rules For stern tubes fabricated from welded steel plates. shaft liners are to be subjected Where the shaft runs in oil within the stern tube. with propeller shafts machined condition. Pressure Tests bearings are each to be provided with a grease connection. a grease pump 1. 5. shafting system must satisfy the requirements of marine service.