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NEURO FUZZY MODELING OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

Centro de Ingeniera y Desarrollo Industrial CIDESI, Av Pie de La Cuesta 702. Des. San Pablo.

Quertaro, Qro, Mxico

gorrostieta@iteso.mx jpedraza@cidesi.mx

system, we counted only with the input-output data

The analysis of the models is carried out starting that describes the system. Hence, we must consider a

from experimental data of a multivariable system black box with several inputs and outputs.

MISO (Many Input Single Output). The models In order to obtain the fuzzy modeling of dynamical

implementation was made using fuzzy logic. In fuzzy systems, we must remember that these systems are

logic, the cluster technique was used to decrease the generally modeled by a state function, like in eq. 1

number of rules to use in the identification. This

technique is opposed to the conventional method which

requires a considerable number of fuzzy inference

y (k ) f ( y (k n), u (k )) (1)

rules to approach the model. In the consequence of

fuzzy model, different techniques are used to

implement Takagi-Sugeno type rules. By other hand, where f is denominated the transition state function.

we implemented the Neuro-fuzzy modeling methods, This function is used by the fuzzy dynamic model. The

which let represent the non-linear system and at the most common function utilized in this case is the ARX

same time a system with some learning degree using (Auto Regressive eXogenous), which is shown in eq.

different topologies. By comparison the goodness of 2; where y(k) is the system output, u(k) represents the

each method is obtained. system inputs, e(k) represents a white noise signal, and

n is the models order [3].

1. Introduction n n (2)

INSIDE the control of engineering systems, one of

y (k ) a

j 1

j y ( k j ) b j u ( k j ) e( k )

j 0

the most important tasks is the control systems

modeling. At the present time, there are many forms to

do this modeling. During the past years, the

improvement of the expert systems has allowed to

incorporate new methods to conventional techniques, The Takagi-Sugeno model has a very particular

such like the neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic structure, mainly in the consequent part; therefore this

algorithms. In the year of 1965 Lofti Zadeh in the structure can be represented by:

University of California makes the first publication on

fuzzy logic in the Journal of Information and Control, If X is Ai then yi=Fi(x)

titled Fuzzy Set [1]. This publication was the

beginning of many later works related to the The left part corresponds to the antecedent, and for this

application of the fuzzy logic in the control systems. particular case it is evaluated if the input variable X has

Without a doubt, one of the most relevant works was the value assigned by the diffuse variable A, which can

the one of the Takagi-Sugeno, whom drew up the be a linguistic variable that is used in the fuzzy

directive of the fuzzy systems modeling [2]. systems. However, the value of the Y variables cant

be a linguistic value. Function F which corresponds to

the consequent has a defined structure, as can be seen

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)

0-7695-2505-9/06 $20.00 2006 IEEE

in eq. 3, which is very similar for all the rules and the Then, the fuzzy function expressed with the new

only one changing values are in the input vector X. assignment is represented by the vector multiplying as

Also, the F value can be simply a constant. shown in eq. 7

As we can see, the structure of the consequent could Where Tis defined by eq. 8 and [n(x) is defined by

correspond to eq. 2, and this similarity is an advantage eq. 9

to relate the ARX model with the Takagi-Sugeno

technique.

T [a11, a12 , a1n ] (8)

An inconvenience of using ARX is that this model n

[ n ( x) [[1 , [ 2 x,[ n x ] (9)

represents a linear relationship, and for the particular

case of a system that represents a non-linear

relationship it is necessary to built many ARX To know the values of the constants from the T

structures. Finally, in the last part of this paper a vectorthe least squares method is used due to the

Neuro-fuzzy model is proposed by using a Neural form the function adopts [4][5][6].

Network to approximate the results of the model to the

real system. Once the structure is defined, we face the problem

of defining the number of necessary rules to obtain the

2. Fuzzy Model system model. The number of necessary rules is a

function of the number of fuzzy partitions made in

The fuzzy system of the type Takagi- Sugeno[2] is each linguistic variables. This number of rules can be

represented by the eq. 4 obtained from eq. 10. [7]

k

Pi (aiT x bi ) Kr nf v (10)

y i 1

k

(4)

i 1

Pi

Where Kr is the number of rules, nf is the number

of linguistic terms or partitions from the fuzzy variable

Another way to express this equation is by and v is the number of the variables from the system.

separating the membership functions of the For instance, if we consider a system with 3 partitions

denominator and leave the corresponding for each or fuzzy subsets and 2 variables, the number of rules

numerator, remember that in this structure the changes will be Kr=9, by increasing a fuzzy partition in each

are due to the variables that represent the present variable, the number of rules will increase until 16. If

inputs, the outputs and the previous inputs. On we want our model to have a better approximation to

equation 5, the same fuzzy function is represented with the real system, we have to increase the fuzzy

this new order. partitions in each variable and consequently the

number of the rules will increase exponentially

P i ( x ) ai 0 P i ( x ) ai1 x1 P ( x) a x (5) according to eq. 10.

y k

k i k in n

i 1 P i ( x ) i 1 P i ( x ) i 1 P i ( x )

By other hand we define a part of the eq. 5 that does To optimize the number of rules, we must group the

not include the constants and the variables, as shown in data obtained in the regions where the elements show

eq. 6. By simplifying the original fuzzy function into a some similar characteristics. The theory groups

more simple expression we could define the values of (cluster) help us to prepare the data, and it determines

the constants to their corresponding rules. the number of c partitions to use in the model, which

must be less than the calculated by eq. 10.

Pi ( x) (6)

[i n

i 1 Pi ( x) The algorithm required to find the c partitions

from the set of data corresponding to the number of

rules is shown in the next 7 steps:

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)

0-7695-2505-9/06 $20.00 2006 IEEE

1) Select the number of partitions from the sample weight required to multiply in the next layers of the

universe A. The possible values of the partition are net.

between two and the maxim number of data contained

in the sample. The value of c is defined.

2) Initialize the Mfc matrix with random data.

3) Choose the allowed limit of the error e between

the matrix Mfc(0) and Mfc( r). A value between 0.01 and

0.001 is desirable.

4) Select the m value starting from 1. We consider a

value of m=2.

5) Calculate the centers {vi ( 0)} for each group defined

in the step 1).

6) Generate matrix Mfc( r) using the next information

and the eq. 11

Figure. 1 Neural network applied in the first part of

1

the fuzzy system.

c ( 0 ) 2 m 1

d ik

(r )

P ik (r ) (11)

j 1 d jk The data required to train the net was obtained from

the fuzzy group in the Mfc array, where the data

corresponds to each exit value of the network.

7) If the comparison between Mfc(0) and Mfc( r) is less

than the stipulated error on step 3, then we have found The second Neuro-fuzzy model consider a Neural

the groups that belongs to the given data; otherwise, it Network in the next level. To train this network, the

is necessary to update the matrix Mfc(0) and go back to elements belongings only to one group were used; to

step 5). do this model three Neural Networks were trained in

accordance with the model showed in [5]. The fuzzy

With the above described algorithm, we can find process was the same than in the previous section. The

the c partitions of the set; but this lead us to the next structure is shown in equation 13.

question: which one of all the partitions is the best

one to carry out the model?. On eq. 12, the selected If x1, x2, x3 and x4 belongs to S, Y=NN(x1,x2,x3)

criteria is shown on [8] and [9], to find the number of

necessary rules to build our fuzzy model. To analyze In this structure, the data group required to train the

this value, it is necessary to review; the m weight network does not require a similar treatment, due to the

(initially considered m=2), the centers of the group v, short size of it; this is the reason why it is possible to

the membership degree P the data and the average apply a more simple neural network than the one

value of the data.

applied in a neural model.

n c 2

2 In the third procedure (neuralfuzzy procedure),

S (c ) ( Pik ) m ( xk vi vi x ) (12)

k 1 i 1

the structure applies the bias of a fuzzy model, where it

is possible to find the three components of a fuzzy

Therefore, we must find the minimum value of eq. system. The corresponding parameters to every

12 varying m to know which is the best number of function into the structure are the unknown variable,

rules [9][10]. and the same condition exists to the corresponding

constants to each one of the next values; under this

3. Neuro- Fuzzy Model Application. condition a lineal relationship between input and exit

values can be structured. First, we do a treatment to

Three possibilities are available to build the Neuro- the whole fuzzy system in a similar way to a Neural

fuzzy model, in order to join the fuzzy system with the Network, using some method to train the net and

neural network. In any case, the main objective is to define the function parameters 13]. Next, a back

find an advantage according to the problem propagation method was applied [12] to find the center

and size of the membership functions. The most used

The first Neuro-fuzzy method uses a Neural function was the Gauss function.[5].

Network in the first part of the structure to get the

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)

0-7695-2505-9/06 $20.00 2006 IEEE

4. Study Case

To prove the structure using several cases, a

combustion system is proposed. Here we have 7

variables at the enter and given that the nature of the

burner element, we can easily note that it has a non-

linear behavior

calculator layer in order to avoid the system

divergence.

similar way that the training of a Neural Network

under supervisory conditions. This condition implies

that the input data in the first layer of the net must be Figure 3 The Neuro-fuzzy2 model

shown, and the output data will be assigned to

evaluate the parameters along the Neuro-fuzzy layers

have the Takagi-Sugeno structure:

i

R n 1 uj cj 2

b (u ) j 1 exp( (

i 1 i

2 Vj i

) )

(13)

f (u / T ) y' i

R n 1 uj cj 2

i 1 j 1

exp( (

2 V ij

) )

one can be a constant and the second one a lineal Figure 4 The Neuro-fuzzy2 error.

relationship between the variables at real time and the

previous moments. In this condition bi adopts the form The Neuro-fuzzy model 2 and their respective error

used in the eq. 2. plots are shown on figures 3 and 4; in this case a

variation of r 10 degrees is maintained respect to the

The criteria to minimize the error was expressed in 900 or 1000 from the burner operation.

equation 6; this is the reason why em is expressed for

14 [3][12] as next:

1

em [ f (u m / T ) y m ]2 (14)

2

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)

0-7695-2505-9/06 $20.00 2006 IEEE

case, was called Fuzzy2, also the result obtained for an

identification model using the traditional least mean

squares (lms) method was included.

Model W

Neuro-fuzzy1 7.1

Neuro-fuzzy2 5.9

Neuro-fuzzy3 7.2

lms 12.8

Table 1 Comparison of the models

.

Figure 5 The Neuro-fuzzy3 model. 6. Conclusions

On section 5, we have some results from the system

modeling using different modeling techniques. It can

be observed that a first order classic model presents a

bigger error than the fuzzy models. The fuzzy

modeling by cluster reduces in great number the rules

of inference which are used in the system modeling.

By other hand, the fuzzy logic model in combination

with the neural networks could represent a very good

option in the case of non-linear systems.

with similar characteristics. Considering the reported

values, the most recommendable model is the Neuro-

fuzzy2 with the smallest value in the performance,

Figure 5 The Neuro-fuzzy3 error. which means that in general has a better approximation

to the real system.

In figure 4, the Neuro-fuzzy 3 output is shown. In One good conclusion is the inference of the most

this graph a data -different from the ones used to build relevant variable, which corresponds to the previous

the model- is used to build the model. The goal is to values of temperature. Also the models where all the

validate the model performance. In figure 5, the error variables were included with the model were

in the output data is shown. compared, later it was constructed from this variable

and the results were identical.

5. Results

The performance of the w models is calculated

according to eq. 15 [5] where y* is the data from the 7. References

real output, y is the data from the output of the model

and n is the number of total data. [1] Tanaka K., An introduction to Fuzzy Logic for Practical

Applications, Ed. Springer, U.S.A, 1991, pp. 1-13.

*

1 n yi yi

w y * *100

ni1

(15) [2] Berkan R. and Trubatch S.. Fuzzy System Design

i Principles, Ed. IEEE press, U.S.A, 1996. pp. 83-131.

The comparison that was made is about the [3] Aguado B. Alberto, Temas de Identificacin y

performance of each one model respect to the w Control Adaptable. Instituto de Ciberntica,

variable. On table 1, the values for w are shown for Matemticas y Fsica. La Habana,2000.

each Neuro-fuzzy model; the used model in the first

technique described was called Fuzzy1, for the second

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)

0-7695-2505-9/06 $20.00 2006 IEEE

[4] Gorrostieta, E, Pedraza, C and Rosete J. Fuzzy

Modeling of Systems, Methos and Models in Robotics

29 Agust 1 September 2005, Miedzyzdroje, Poland.

pp.100

Addison-Wesley, U.S.A., 1998 pp.221-286

Fuzzy Modeling and Control of no linear System

Using Multidimensional Fuzzy Set Laboratoire

Danalyse et Darchitectura des Systemes LASS,

Francia. , 1998

Takagi-Sugeno Modelling and Identification.

www.csc.umist.ac.uk.

Fifth IEEE International Conference Fuzzy Systems,

Vol 1, 1996, pp. 640-646.

on Fuzzy System, Vol1, 1993.1-31.

Modeling and Control, Ed. Kluwer Academic

Publishers, U.S.A, 1998.pp. 74-75

Approaches in Engineering, Ed. Wiley and Son,

U.S.A., 1998. pp. 449-467

Control Applied for Free Gait on a Six Legged Robot

, 3er. WSEAS International Conference on Signal

Processing, Robotics and Automation (ISPRA 2004)

ISBN 960-8052-95-5, 2004,February 13-15, Salzburg,

Austria,

Networks for Nolinear Process Modeling

Transactions on Neural Networks, vol 10 No 2 March.

IEEE, 1999

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)

0-7695-2505-9/06 $20.00 2006 IEEE

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