You are on page 1of 62

Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

CE 4111

Seismic Design
of Structures
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Shiraz University of Technology

S.M. Dehghan
Fall 2015

Steel Seismic
Force Resisting
Systems

Dr. Dehghan 1
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

Steel SFRS
Steel Seismic Force Resisting Systems will be
covered in Five Parts:
1. Ductile Design / Structural Steel
2. General Requirements
3. Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF)
A. Behavior
B. Design
4. Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF)
5. Eccentrically Braced Frame (EBF)

Steel Seismic
Load Resisting
Systems
Moment Resisting
Frames - Design

Dr. Dehghan 2
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

Moment
Resisting Frames
Outline

Topics
Description and Behavior
of Moment Resisting
Frames
Beam-to-Column
Connections
Panel Zone Behavior

AISC Seismic Provisions


Special MRF
Intermediate MRF
Ordinary MRF

Dr. Dehghan 3
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

References
ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures
AISC 360-10, Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings
AISC 341-10, Seismic Provisions for
Structural Steel Buildings
NIST GCR 09-917-3, Seismic Design of
Steel Special Moment Frames
AISC 358-10, Prequalified Connections for
SMRF for Seismic Application

Moment
Resisting Frames
AISC Seismic Provisions

Dr. Dehghan 4
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

AISC Seismic Provisions


AISC 341-10

Chapter E Moment-Frame Systems


E1. Ordinary Moment Frames (OMF)
o Have a low R-factor: R=3.5 for OMF
E2. Intermediate Moment Frames (IMF)
o Have a moderate R-factor: R=4.5 for IMF
E3. Special Moment Frames (SMF)
o Have the highest level of ductile detailing requirements
o Expected to be capable of sustaining very large levels of
inelastic deformation
o Can be designed with lower levels of lateral strength
o Have a high R-factor: R=8 for SMF

10

AISC Seismic Provisions


AISC 341-10

All Seismic Load Resisting Systems (SLRS) must satisfy


requirements in Chapters A to D of the Seismic Provision
Thus, moment frame systems must satisfy the
requirements of Chapters A, B, C, D, and J

Section E3 covers the requirements for Special Moment


Frames design
Note that many of the detailing requirements are related to
the beam-column joint region
We will now cover selected highlights of Section E3

Dr. Dehghan 5
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

11

AISC Seismic Provisions


Section E3
1. Scope
2. Basis of Design
3. Analysis no additional analysis requirements
4. System Requirements
4a. Moment Ratio
4b. Stability Bracing of Beams
4c. Stability Bracing at Beam-to-Column Connections
5. Members
5a. Basic Requirements
5b. Beam Flanges
5c. Protected Zones

12

AISC Seismic Provisions


Section E3
6. Connections
6a. Demand Critical Welds
6b. Beam-to-Column Connections
6c. Conformance Demonstration
6d. Required Shear Strength
6e. Panel Zone
6f. Continuity Plates
6g. Column Splices

Dr. Dehghan 6
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

13

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.1 Scope

Special moment frames (SMF) must satisfy all the


applicable requirements of Chapters A, B, C, D, I and J
of these Provisions, as well as the requirements in
Section E3

14

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.2 Basis of Design

SMF are expected to provide


significant inelastic deformations through
flexural yielding of the SMF beams
limited yielding of column panel zones
flexural yielding of columns at the base is permitted

Dr. Dehghan 7
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

15

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.2 Basis of Design
It is expected that most of the inelastic deformation will take
place as rotation in beam hinges, with limited inelastic
deformation in the panel zone of the column
The beam-to-column connections for SMR are required to be
qualified based on tests that demonstrate that the connection can
sustain a story drift angle of at least 0.04 rad based on a
specified loading protocol
Other provisions are intended to limit or prevent excessive panel
zone distortion, column hinging, and local buckling that may lead to
inadequate frame performance
AISC 358-10 provides requirements for six prequalified
connections that are permitted to be employed in SMF systems
If connection types to be used in the structure do not meet the
configurations or limitations, they are required to be prequalified
per Section K1, or qualified per Section K2

16

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4 System Requirements

E3.4a Moment Ratio

E3.4b Stability Bracing of Beams

E3.4c Stability Bracing at Beam-to-Column Connections

Dr. Dehghan 8
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

17

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4 System Requirements
E3.4a Moment Ratio

This equation requires that the sum of the plastic moment


capacities of columns at a joint must exceed the sum of the
plastic moment capacities of the beams framing into the joints
Columns must be stronger than beams
Purpose of strong column-weak girder (SC/WB) requirement:
Prevent Soft Story Collapse

18

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4a Moment Ratio
The strong-column weak-beam (SC/WB) concept
The real benefit of meeting SC/WB requirements
o the columns are generally strong enough to force flexural
yielding in beams in multiple levels of the frame and
o achieving a higher level of energy dissipation in the system
Weak column frame (with weak or soft stories), are likely
to show an undesirable response at those stories with the highest
column demand to-capacity ratios
Equation E3-1 gives no assurance that columns will not yield
Nonlinear response history analyses have shown
o points of inflection shift and the distribution of moments varies from the
idealized condition
o yielding of beams will predominate yielding of columns
o desired inelastic performance will be achieved in frames with members
sized to meet the requirement in Equation E3-1

Dr. Dehghan 9
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

19

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4a Moment Ratio

20

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4a Moment Ratio

Note
M*pc is based on
minimum specified
yield stress of column
M*pb is based on
expected yield stress
of beam and includes
allowance for strain
hardening

Dr. Dehghan 10
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

21

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4a Moment Ratio
Computing M*pb

Mpr = expected moment


at plastic hinge
= 1.1 Ry Mp
Vbeam = beam shear
(Section E3.6d - beam
required shear strength)
sh = distance from face
of column to beam
plastic hinge location
(AISC 358)
M*pb = Mpr + Vbeam (sh + dcol /2 )

22

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4a Moment Ratio
Computing M*pc
Mpc = nominal plastic
moment capacity of
column, reduced for effect
of axial force
Vcol = column shear from
statics, based on location
of column inflection points
(usually column midheight)
o M*pc is computed at the intersection of the
beam and column centerlines
o In Section E3.4a M*pc= Zc (Fyc - Puc / Ag),
which is the flexural capacity of the column
just outside of the joint (conservative) M*pc = Mpc + Vcol (dbeam /2 )
o It may advantageous to compute M*pc at the
beam centerline for a more economical design

Dr. Dehghan 11
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

23

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4a Moment Ratio - Exceptions

24

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4b Stability Bracing of Beams

Must provide adequate lateral bracing of beams in SMF so that


severe strength degradation due to lateral torsional buckling is
delayed until sufficient ductility is achieved

Dr. Dehghan 12
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

25

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4b Stability Bracing of Beams
Lateral Torsional Buckling
The compression flange of a beam will buckle, and must be
braced laterally
Under cyclic loading, both flanges will see compression
Note that the key slenderness parameter controlling lateral
torsional buckling is Lb/ry
o Lb = distance between
beam lateral braces
o ry = weak axis radius
of gyration

26

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4b Stability Bracing of Beams
Lateral Torsional Buckling

Shows a laboratory cyclic


loading test on a moment frame
specimen
The dark area of the beam
flange indicates where flexural
yielding occurred
The lateral displacement of the
beam flange is clearly visible

Dr. Dehghan 13
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

27

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4b Stability Bracing of Beams
Lateral Torsional Buckling
Shows an RBS test specimen, with lateral torsional displacements of the beam
Like local buckling, lateral torsional buckling (LTB) usually develops gradually
during the cyclic loading for braced beams with seismically compact sections
With each loading cycle, LTB will eventually lead to a decline in the flexural
capacity of the beam

28

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.4b Stability Bracing of Beams
Effect of Lateral Torsional Buckling on Flexural
Strength and Ductility
As the slenderness Lb/ry increases, both the flexural
capacity and ductility are reduced
o For SMF beams, the response
should be similar to the upper
curve
o The slenderness Lb/ry should
be sufficiently low so that the
beam can develop its full plastic
flexural capacity, and maintain Increasing Lb /
that capacity through large ry
inelastic deformations

Dr. Dehghan 14
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

29

AISC Seismic Provisions


D1.2 Stability Bracing of Beams

In addition to providing lateral braces at intervals of


0.086 ry E/Fy (next slide), lateral braces are also
required at plastic hinge locations

30

AISC Seismic Provisions


D1.2b Highly Ductile Members

Note that for typical SMF beams


ry = 40 to 80 mm fy = 250 Mpa E = 200 Gpa
Required spacing of lateral support is Lb = 2700 to 5400 mm

Dr. Dehghan 15
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

31

AISC Seismic Provisions


D1.2b Highly Ductile Members

example of a girder braced


by a gravity beam

example of lateral braces

32

AISC Seismic Provisions


Types of Bracing
AISC 360 Appendix 6

Dr. Dehghan 16
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

33

AISC Seismic Provisions


D1.2c Stability Bracing at Beam-to-Column Connection

Columns of SMF are required to be braced to prevent rotation


out of the plane of the moment frame because of the inelastic
behavior in or near the beam-to-column connection during high
seismic activity

34

AISC Seismic Provisions


D1.2c Stability Bracing at Beam-to-Column Connection

Dr. Dehghan 17
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

35

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.5 Members

E3.5a Basic Requirements

E3.5b Beam Flanges

E3.5c Protected Zones

36

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.5 Members
E3.5a Basic Requirements

Reliable inelastic deformation capacity for highly ductile


members requires that width-to-thickness ratios of projecting
elements be limited to a range that provides a cross section
resistant to local buckling well into the inelastic ranges

Dr. Dehghan 18
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

37

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.5a Basic Requirements

Beam and column sections must satisfy the width-thickness


limitations given in Table D1.1

Beams in SMF must satisfy Highly Ductile Member requirement

Columns in SMF must satisfy Highly Ductile Member requirement

38

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.5b Beam Flanges

Abrupt changes in beam flange area in locations of high strain (plastic


hinge regions of SMF), can lead to fracture by stress concentrations
For connections such as the reduced beam section (RBS), the gradual
flange area reduction, when properly configured and fabricated can
be beneficial to the beam and connection performance

Dr. Dehghan 19
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

39

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.5c Protected Zones

40

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6 Connections

E3.6a Demand Critical Welds


E3.6b Beam-to-Column Connections
E3.6c Conformance Demonstration
E3.6d Required Shear Strength
E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6f Continuity Plates
E3.6g Column Splices

Dr. Dehghan 20
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

41

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6a Demand Critical Welds

42

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6b Beam-to-Column Connections

Note that 0.03 rad plastic rotation is equivalent to


0.04 rad drift angle for frames with an elastic drift
of 0.01 rad

Dr. Dehghan 21
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

43

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6b Beam-to-Column Connections
FEMA 350 recommends two criteria for the qualifying drift
angle (QDA) for special moment frames
The strength degradation drift angle, means the angle where
either failure of the connection occurs, or the strength of the
connection degrades to less than the nominal plastic capacity
The ultimate drift angle capacity is defined as the angle at which
connection damage is so severe
that continued ability to remain
stable under gravity loading is
uncertain
The strength degradation QDA
is set at 0.04 rad and the
ultimate QDA is set at 0.06 rad

44

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6c Conformance Demonstration

Dr. Dehghan 22
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

45

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6c Conformance Demonstration
This provision specifically permits the use of prequalified
connections meeting the requirements of ANSI/AISC 358 to
facilitate and standardize connection design
Connections approved by other prequalification panels may be
acceptable, but are subject to the approval
Use of connections qualified by prior tests or project specific
tests may also be used, although the engineer of record is
responsible for substantiating the connection performance
Published testing, such as that conducted as part of the SAC
project and reported in FEMA 350 and 355 or project-specific
testing, may be used to satisfy this provisions

46

AISC Seismic Provisions


Chapter K - Prequalification and Cyclic Qualification
Testing Provisions
Conformance Demonstration by Testing
Typical connection testing
procedures and testing are
are specified in Chapter K
Prequalified connections
must also have been tested
according to Chapter K before
becoming prequalified

Dr. Dehghan 23
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

47

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Testing Requirements
Test specimens should replicate as closely as practical the
prototype (prototype = actual building)
Beams and columns in test specimens must be nearly full-
scale representation of prototype members (Section K2.3b)
o depth of test beam 0.90 depth of prototype beam
o wt. per ft. of test beam 0.75 wt. per ft. of prototype beam
o depth of test column 0.90 depth of prototype column
Sources of inelastic deformation (panel zone, connection
plates, beam) in the test specimen must similar to prototype

48

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Testing Requirements
Lateral bracing in test specimen should replicate prototype
Connection details used in the test specimen shall represent
the prototype connection details as closely as possible
Welding processes, procedures, electrodes, used for test
specimen must be representative of prototype
See Section K2 for more specifics and other requirements

Dr. Dehghan 24
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

49

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Typical Test Subassemblages
In most cases, connection test specimens are constructed to
represent exterior or interior subassemblies
The boundaries of the test specimen usually coincide with the
approximate location of points of inflection in the frame under
lateral load

50

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Typical Exterior Test
Subassemblages The ends of the column segment and
beam segment are typically pinned
Hydraulic loading ram and a beam
lateral brace are visible

Dr. Dehghan 25
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

51

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Typical Interior Test
Subassemblages
A typical interior subassembly specimen in
the lab with/without concrete composite slab

52

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Testing Requirements - Loading History
Apply the following loading history
o 6 cycles at = 0.00375 rad
o 6 cycles at = 0.005 rad
o 6 cycles at = 0.0075 rad
o 4 cycles at = 0.01 rad
o 2 cycles at = 0.015 rad
o 2 cycles at = 0.02 rad
o 2 cycles at = 0.03 rad
o 2 cycles at = 0.04 rad
o continue at increments of 0.01 rad, with two cycles of loading at
each step
Most specimens remain elastic until a drift angle of 0.01 rad

Dr. Dehghan 26
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

53

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Testing Requirements
- Loading History

Acceptance Criteria for SMF Beam-to-Column Connections


(Section K2.8)
o After completing at least one loading cycle at 0.04 radian, the
measured flexural resistance of the connection at the face of
the column, must be at least 0.80 Mp of the connected beam

54

AISC Seismic Provisions


K2 Cyclic Tests for Qualification of Beam-to-Column
and Link-to-Column Connections
Example of Successful Conformance Demonstration Test
per Section K2

The strength
deterioration seen
in subsequent
loading cycles was
due to local and
lateral buckling of
the beam

Dr. Dehghan 27
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

55

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6d Required Shear Strength

56

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6d Required Shear Strength
The required shear strength Vu, of the beam-to-column joint

Depends on connection type,


but typically assumed to be db/2

Lh
(1.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 0.5 L or (0.9-0.2SDS) D
1.1 Ry Mp 1.1 Ry Mp

Vu Vu
Vu = 2 [ 1.1 Ry Mp ] / Lh + Vgravity

Dr. Dehghan 28
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

57

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone

1) Shear Strength

2) Panel Zone Thickness

3) Panel Zone Doubler Plates

58

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (1) Shear Strength

Dr. Dehghan 29
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

59

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
The required shear strength of the panel zone is the shear
force generated in the panel zone when plastic hinges have
formed in the attached beams
This indicates that the panel zone should not be so weak as to
prevent formation of plastic hinges in the beams

60

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
Mf = Moment at face of column
Mpr = expected moment at plastic hinge = 1.1 Ry Mp or as AISC 358
Vbeam = beam shear (see Section E3.6d - beam shear strength)
sh = distance from face of column to beam plastic hinge(AISC 358)

Mf = Mpr + Vbeam sh

Dr. Dehghan 30
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

61

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
Panel Zone Required Shear Strength, Ru
The column face moment is resolved into
concentrated forces acting at the beam flanges
Note that the shear in the portion of the column
outside of the panel zone Vc will act in a direction
opposite to the panel zone shear
The value of Vc can usually be estimated
from a free body diagram that cuts through
cuts through the beams at the plastic hinge
and the columns at assumed points of
inflection (usually at mid-story height)

Ru
M V
f

d t
b f
c

62

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
Panel Zone Design Requirement
Yielding of the panel zone is not considered to be a limit
state
Intent of AISC Seismic Provisions is to permit limited
yielding of the panel zone when flexural plastic hinges have
formed in the beams
Ru v Rv where v = 1.0
Rv = nominal shear strength, based on a limit state of shear
yielding, as computed per Section J10.6 of the AISC
Specification

Dr. Dehghan 31
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

63

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
Nominal Shear Strength, Rv
Section J10.6 of the AISC Specification

The term outside of the brackets represents the shear yield


strength of the column web (0.6Fy)The term inside of the
brackets represents a contribution of the column flanges to the
shear strength of the panel zone

Not recommended

64

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
Section J10.6 of the AISC Specification
The term outside of the brackets represents the shear yield
strength of the column web (0.6Fy)
The term inside of the brackets represents a contribution of the
column flanges to the shear strength of the panel zone

Dr. Dehghan 32
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

65

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e (1) Shear Strength
Doubler Plate
To satisfy the panel zone shear strength requirements in the AISC
Seismic Provisions, it will sometimes be necessary to weld Doubler
Plates to the column
Doubler plates are provided within the joint region, and increase
the effective web area of the column
Note that tp in Equation J10-11 is the combined thickness of column
web and doubler plates

66

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (2) Panel Zone Thickness

Dr. Dehghan 33
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

67

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (2) Panel Zone Thickness

68

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (3) Panel Zone Doubler Plate

Dr. Dehghan 34
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

69

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (3) Panel Zone Doubler Plate

70

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (3) Panel Zone Doubler Plate

Dr. Dehghan 35
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

71

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6e Panel Zone
E3.6e (3) Panel Zone Doubler Plate

72

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f Continuity Plate
Photo of continuity plates
Note that continuity plates are column stiffeners
They are called continuity plates, because they continue
the beams flanges through the joint region

Continuity
Plates

Dr. Dehghan 36
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

73

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f Continuity Plate

Beam flange continuity plates serve several purposes in moment connections


o they help to distribute beam flange forces to the column web

o they stiffen the column web to prevent web local crippling and web local

yielding under the concentrated beam-flange forces


o they minimize stress concentrations that can occur in the joint between the

beam flange and the column due to nonuniform stiffness of the column flange

74

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f Continuity Plate
E3.6f (1) Continuity Plate Requirements

The AISC Seismic Provisions indicates that the use of


continuity plates should be consistent with
the prequalification requirements for the connection
(AISC 358)
the specimens used to qualify a connection by test

Dr. Dehghan 37
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

75

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (1) Continuity Plate Requirements

76

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (1) Continuity Plate Requirements
Beam flange is welded to the flange of a wide-flange or built-up
I-shaped column
tcf = column flange thickness
If the thickness of the column flange
satisfies both of these equations, then bbf = beam flange width
continuity plates are not required
tbf = beam flange thickness

Continuity
R yb Fyb
tcf 0.4 1.8bbf tbf Plates
R yc Fyc

bbf
and tcf
6

Dr. Dehghan 38
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

77

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (1) Continuity Plate Requirements
When beams are moment connected to
the side plates of boxed wide-flange column sections
the box section columns
continuity plates or cap plates
should always be provided

78

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (2) Continuity Plate Thickness

Dr. Dehghan 39
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

79

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (2) Continuity Plate Thickness

tcp tcp

tbf tbf-1 tbf-2

tcp 1/2 tbf tcp larger of


(tbf-1 and tbf-2 )

80

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (3) Continuity Plate Welding

Dr. Dehghan 40
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

81

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6f (3) Continuity Plate Welding

82

AISC Seismic Provisions


Continuity Plate

An example of a continuity
plate welded to a column
CJP groove welds are used to
attach the plate to the inside
faces of the column flanges
Fillet welds were used to
attach the plate to the
column web
Note the large cut-outs at
the corners of the continuity
plate, to avoid welding in the
k-area of the column.

Dr. Dehghan 41
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

83

AISC Seismic Provisions


Continuity Plate
An example of continuity plates in
the beam-to-column connections
of free free-flange connections
A doubler plate has also been
welded to the column
The top and bottom ends of the
doubler plate end at the continuity
plates
This results is very large welds
where the doubler plate and
continuity plates meet
The small vertical plate at the top
of the joint panel is a shear tab to
connect a framing beam

84

AISC Seismic Provisions


Continuity Plate

Following slides
illustrate the
construction of a
box column with
continuity plates
The small triangular
plates are to hold
the box sides during
fabrication
The two large
continuity plates are
also visible

Dr. Dehghan 42
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

85

AISC Seismic Provisions


Continuity Plate

Three sides of the


box have been
assembled
The continuity plates
can be welded to the
three box sides, while
the box is still open
and accessible to
welders
The continuity plates
are attached to the
inside box faces with
CJP groove welds

86

AISC Seismic Provisions


Continuity Plate
The weld between
the continuity plate
and the final side of
the box must be
made after the box
is closed
This is normally
accomplished using
an Electroslag
welding process
Note the hole in the
side of the box at
the location of the
continuity plate

Dr. Dehghan 43
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

87

AISC Seismic Provisions


Continuity Plate
Once the box is closed, the final
internal continuity plate weld is
made by Electroslag welding
The electrode is passed through
the hole in the box

88

AISC Seismic Provisions


E3.6g Column Splices

Dr. Dehghan 44
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

Moment
Resisting Frames
AISC Prequalified
Connections

90

Prequalified Connections
AISC 358-10

1. General
2. Design Requirements
3. Welding Requirements
4. Bolting Requirements
5. Reduced Beam Section (RBS) Moment Connection
6. Bolted Unstiffened and Stiffened Extended End-Plate
Moment Connection
7. Bolted Flange Plate (BFP) Moment Connection
8. Welded Unreinforced Flange-Welded Unreinforced
Web (WUF-W)Moment Connection

Dr. Dehghan 45
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

91

Prequalified Connections
AISC 358-10

9. Kaiser Bolted Bracket (KBB) Moment Connection


10. CONXTECH CONXL Moment Connection

A. Casting requirements
B. Forging Requirements

COMMENTARY

92

Prequalified Connections
AISC 358-10

Supplement No. 2
2013

Dr. Dehghan 46
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

93

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements

2.2 Connection Stiffness


All connections contained in this Standard shall be
considered fully restrained (Type FR) for the purpose of
seismic analysis
2.3 Members
2.3.1 Rolled Wide-Flange Members
Rolled wide-flange members shall conform to the cross section
profile limitations applicable to the specific connection in this
Standard

94

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements
2.3 Members
2.3.2 Built-up Members
Built-up members having a doubly symmetric, I-shaped cross
section shall meet the following requirements
Flanges and webs shall have width, depth and thickness
profiles similar to rolled wide-flange sections meeting the
profile limitations for wide-flange sections applicable to the
specific connection in this Standard
Webs shall be continuously connected to flanges in
accordance with the requirements of Sections 2.3.2a or
2.3.2b, as applicable

Dr. Dehghan 47
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

95

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements
2.3 Members
2.3.2.a. Built-up Beams
The web and flanges shall be connected using complete-joint-
penetration (CJP) groove welds with a pair of reinforcing fillet
welds within a zone extending from the beam end to a
distance not less than one beam depth beyond the plastic
hinge location, Sh, unless specifically indicated in this
Standard
The minimum size of these fillet welds shall be the lesser of
8 mm and the thickness of the beam web

96

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements
2.3 Members
2.3.2.b Built-up Columns
Transfer of all internal forces and
stresses between elements of the
built-up column shall be through welds
1. I-Shaped Columns
Within a zone extending
from 300 mm above the upper beam flange to 300 mm
below the lower beam flange, the column webs and
flanges shall be connected using CJP groove welds with a
pair of reinforcing fillet welds
The minimum size of the fillet welds shall be the lesser
of 8 mm and the thickness of the column web

Dr. Dehghan 48
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

97

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements
2.3 Members
2.3.2.b Built-up Columns
3. Built-up Box Columns
The width-to-thickness ratio, b/t, of plates used as flanges
shall not exceed, where b shall be taken as not less
than the clear distance between web plates
The width-to-thickness ratio, h/tw, of plates used only as webs
shall conform to requirements of the AISC Seismic Provisions
Within a zone extending from 300 mm above the upper beam
flange to 300 mm below the lower beam flange, flange and web
plates of box columns shall be joined by CJP groove welds
Outside this zone, box column web and flange plates shall be
continuously connected by fillet welds or groove welds

98

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements
2.4 Connection Design Parameters
2.4.1 Resistance Factors
For available strengths calculated in accordance with this
Standard

2.4.2 Plastic Hinge Location


This Standard specifies the presumed location of the plastic
hinge for each prequalified connection type

Dr. Dehghan 49
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

99

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 Design Requirements
2.4 Connection Design Parameters
2.4.3 Probable Maximum Moment at Plastic Hinge
The probable maximum moment at the plastic hinge shall be

100

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 3 Welding Requirements

Points to AISC Seismic Provisions for filler metals and


welding procedures
Requirements for weld tabs and backing bars at beam-
to-column and continuity plate-to-column joints
Requirements for continuity plate welds
Information for prohibited welds
tack welds to connect backing bar to beam flange
including how to repair if welded in error

Dr. Dehghan 50
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

101

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 3 Bolting Requirements

Points to standards for fastener and installation


requirements
Refers to AISC Seismic Provisions for quality control
and quality assurance

102

Prequalified Connections
Example of laboratory
test of an RBS connection
Various stages during a
cyclic load test
Whitewashed connection
prior to testing

Dr. Dehghan 51
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

103

Prequalified Connections
Example of laboratory test of an RBS connection
Connection at 0.02 radian
View of connection after cyclic loading to around 0.02 radian
This about one-half of the way to the acceptance criteria of 0.04 radian
Note that yielding is concentrated in the reduced section
BY this point, the beam has achieved its full plastic strength
There is no local or lateral buckling visible at this point

104

Prequalified Connections
Example of laboratory test of an RBS connection
Connection at 0.03 radian

A small amount of web local


buckling has initiated in the
region of the RBS

Dr. Dehghan 52
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

105

Prequalified Connections
Example of laboratory
test of an RBS connection
Connection at
0.04 radian
Local flange buckling is clearly visible at
this point
There is also a significant degree of web
local buckling, and a limited degree of
lateral torsional buckling at this point
This beam is still resisting a moment of
at least 0.8 Mp at the face of the column
Satisfies the SMF connection
performance requirement

106

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
RBS Concept
Trim Beam Flanges Near
Connection
Reduce Moment at Connection
Force Plastic Hinge Away
from Connection

Dr. Dehghan 53
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

107

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.3 Prequalification Limits
Beam Limitations
Beams shall be rolled wide-flange or
built-up I-shaped members
Beam depth is limited to w36 (W920)
Beam weight is limited to 447 kg/m
Beam flange thickness less than 44 mm
The clear span-to-depth ratio of the
beam shall be limited
For SMF systems, 7 or greater
IMF systems, 5 or greater.
Lateral bracing requirements and
protected zone dimensions specified

108

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.3 Prequalification Limits
Column Limitations
Columns shall be any of the rolled shapes
or built-up sections
The beam shall be connected to the flange
of the column
Rolled shape column depth shall be limited
to W36 (W920)
Built-up box column shall not have a
width/depth exceeding 610 mm

Dr. Dehghan 54
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

109

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.5 Beam Flange-to-Column Flange Weld Limitations
Beam flange to column flange connections shall satisfy the
following limitations
Beam flanges shall be connected to column flanges using
complete-joint-penetration (CJP) groove welds
Beam flange welds shall conform to the requirements for
demand critical welds in the AISC Seismic Provisions
Weld access hole geometry shall conform to the requirements of
the AISC Specification

110

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.6 Beam Web-to-Column Flange Weld Limitations
Beam web to column flange connections shall satisfy the
following limitations for SMF systems
The beam web shall be connected to the column flange using a
CJP groove weld extending between weld access holes
The single plate shear connection shall extend between the weld
access holes as shown
The single plate shear connection shall be permitted to be used
as backing for the CJP groove weld
The thickness of the plate shall be at least 10 mm
Weld tabs are not required at the ends of the CJP groove weld
at the beam web
Bolt holes in the beam web for purpose of erection are permitted

Dr. Dehghan 55
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

111

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection

RBS with welded


web connection

112

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.7 Fabrication of Flange Cut
The reduced beam section shall be made using thermal cutting to
produce a smooth curve
The maximum surface roughness of the thermally cut surface shall
be 13 microns
All transitions between the reduced beam section and the
unmodified beam flange shall be rounded in the direction of the
flange length to minimize notch effects due to abrupt transitions
Thermal cutting tolerances, repair of gouges and notches are
specified

Dr. Dehghan 56
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

113

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection

Lateral brace at center of RBS


- violates Protected Zone

Examples of RBS
Connection

114

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment
Connection
5.8 Design Procedure
STEP-BY-STEP

Dr. Dehghan 57
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

115

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

116

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

Dr. Dehghan 58
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

117

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design
Procedure

118

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

Dr. Dehghan 59
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

119

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

120

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

Dr. Dehghan 60
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

121

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

122

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

Dr. Dehghan 61
Seismic Design of Structures Fall 2015 - Shiraz University of Technology

123

Prequalified Connections
Chapter 2 RBS Moment Connection
5.8 Design Procedure

Dr. Dehghan 62