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# Digital design

Sequential circuits
Sequential circuits

## Circuits with feedback

Outputs = f(inputs, past inputs, past outputs)
Basis for building "memory" into logic circuits
Door combination lock is an example of a sequential circuit
State is memory
State is an "output" and an "input" to combinational logic
Combination storage elements are also memory
new equal reset
value
C1 C2 C3
mux comb. logic
multiplexer
control
comparator state clock

equal open/closed
Circuits with feedback

## How to control feedback?

What stops values from cycling around endlessly

X1 Z1
X2 Z2
switching
network

Xn Zn
Simplest circuits with feedback

## Two inverters form a static memory cell

Will hold value as long as it has power applied

"1"

"stored value"
"0"

## How to get a new value into the memory cell?

Selectively break feedback path
"remember"

"data"
Memory with cross-coupled gates
Cross-coupled NOR gates
Similar to inverter pair, with capability to force output to 0
(reset=1) or 1 (set=1)
R Q
Q
R
S Q'
Cross-coupled NAND gates S

## Similar to inverter pair, with capability to force output to 0

(reset=0) or 1 (set=0)

S' Q
Q
S'
R' Q'
R'
Timing behavior

R Q

S Q'

## Reset Hold Set Reset Set 100 Race

R
S
Q
\Q
State behavior of R-S latch

## Truth table of R-S latch behavior

Q Q' Q Q'
0 1 1 0
S R Q
0 0 hold
0 1 0
Q Q'
1 0 1
0 0
1 1 unstable

Q Q'
1 1
Theoretical R-S latch behavior

SR=10
SR=00 SR=00
SR=01 SR=10
Q Q' SR=01 Q Q'
0 1 1 0
SR=01 SR=10
SR=11
State diagram
States: possible values Q Q'
SR=11 0 0 SR=11
Transitions: changes
based on inputs SR=00
SR=00 SR=11
SR=01 SR=10

## possible oscillation Q Q'

between states 00 and 11 1 1
Observed R-S latch behavior

## Very difficult to observe R-S latch in the 1-1 state

One of R or S usually changes first
Ambiguously returns to state 0-1 or 1-0
A so-called "race condition"
Or non-deterministic transition
SR=10
SR=00 SR=00
SR=01 SR=10
Q Q' SR=01 Q Q'
0 1 1 0
SR=01 SR=10
SR=11

Q Q'
SR=11 0 0 SR=11
SR=00 SR=00
R-S latch analysis
Break feedback path
R Q Q(t)

S Q(t+)

S Q' R

S R Q(t) Q(t+)
0 0 0 0 S
hold
0 0 1 1
0 0 X 1
0 1 0 0 reset
0 1 1 0 Q(t) 1 0 X 1
1 0 0 1 set
R
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 X not allowed characteristic equation
1 1 1 X Q(t+) = S + R Q(t)
Gated R-S latch

## Control when R and S

inputs matter R' R
Q
Otherwise, the
slightest glitch on R enable'
or S while enable is Q'
S' S
low could cause
change in value
stored
Set Reset
100

S'
R'
enable'
Q
Q'
Clocks

## Used to keep time

Wait long enough for inputs (R' and S') to settle
Then allow to have effect on value stored
Clocks are regular periodic signals
Period (time between ticks)
Duty-cycle (time clock is high between ticks - expressed as
% of period)
duty cycle (in this case, 50%)

period
Clocks(Cont.)

## Controlling an R-S latch with a clock

Can't let R and S change while clock is active
(allowing R and S to pass)
Only have half of clock period for signal changes
to propagate
Signals must be stable for the other half of clock
period

R' R
Q stable changing stable changing stable
R' and S'
clock'
Q' clock
S' S

## Connect output of one latch to input of another

How to stop changes from racing through chain?
Need to control flow of data from one latch to the
next
Advance from one latch per clock period
Worry about logic between latches (arrows) that is
too fast
R R Q' R Q'

S S Q S Q

clock
Master-Slave structure
Break flow by alternating clocks (like an air-lock)
Use positive clock to latch inputs into one R-S latch
Use negative clock to change outputs with another R-S latch
View pair as one basic unit
master-slave flip-flop
twice as much logic
output changes a few gate delays after the falling edge of clock
but does not affect any cascaded flip-flops

## master stage slave stage

P'
R R Q' R Q'

S S Q S Q
P
clock
The 1s catching problem

## In first R-S stage of master-slave FF

0-1-0 glitch on R or S while clock is high "caught"
by master stage
Leads to constraints on logic to be hazard-free
1s master stage slave stage
Set Reset catch R R Q' P' R Q'
S S S Q S Q
P
R clock
CLK
P Master
P' Outputs
Q Slave
Q' Outputs
D flip-flop

## Make S and R complements of each other

Eliminates 1s catching problem
Can't just hold previous value (must have new value ready
every clock period)
Value of D just before clock goes low is what is stored in
flip-flop
Can make R-S flip-flop by adding logic to make D = S + R' Q

## master stage slave stage

P'
R Q' R Q' Q'

D S Q S Q Q
P
clock
10 gates
Edge-triggered flip-flops
More efficient solution: only 6 gates
sensitive to inputs only near edge of clock signal
(not while high)
D D
holds D' when negative edge-triggered D
clock goes low flip-flop (D-FF)
0
4-5 gate delays
R
Q must respect setup and hold time
constraints to successfully
clock=1 capture input
Q
S
0
holds D when characteristic equation
clock goes low
D Q(t+1) = D
D
Edge-triggered flip-flops(Cont.)

Step-by-step analysis
D D D D

D D
R R
Q Q

Clk=0 Clk=0

S S
D D

D D new D D
new D old D
when clock goes high-to-low when clock is low
data is latched data is held
Edge-triggered flip-flops(Cont.)

0
1
0 1
0 The edge of the clock is used to
1
0
sample the "D" input & send it to
"Q (positive edge triggering).
At all other times the output Q
is independent of the input D
(just stores previously sampled
value).
The input must be stable for a
short time before the clock
edge.
Edge-triggered flip-flops(Cont.)

Positive edge-triggered
Inputs sampled on rising edge; outputs change after
rising edge
Negative edge-triggered flip-flops
Inputs sampled on falling edge; outputs change after
falling edge
100

D
CLK
Qpos
positive edge-triggered FF
Qpos'
Qneg
negative edge-triggered FF
Qneg'
Comparison of latches and flip-flops

D Q

CLK D

positive
edge-triggered
flip-flop CLK

Qedge

D Q
G Qlatch
CLK
transparent
(level-sensitive)
latch behavior is the same unless input changes
while the clock is high
Comparison of latches and flip-flops(Cont.)

## Type When inputs are sampled When output is valid

unclocked always propagation delay from input change
latch

## level-sensitive clock high propagation delay from input change

latch (Tsu/Th around falling or clock edge (whichever is later)
edge of clock)
master-slave clock high propagation delay from falling edge
flip-flop (Tsu/Th around falling of clock
edge of clock)
negative clock hi-to-lo transition propagation delay from falling edge
edge-triggered (Tsu/Th around falling of clock
flip-flop edge of clock)
Clock skew

The problem
Correct behavior assumes next state of all storage
elements determined by all storage elements at the same
time
This is difficult in high-performance systems because time
for clock to arrive at flip-flop is comparable to delays
through logic
Effect of skew on cascaded flip-flops:
100

In
CLK1 is a delayed
Q0 version of CLK0
Q1
CLK0
CLK1

original state: IN = 0, Q0 = 1, Q1 = 1
due to skew, next state becomes: Q0 = 0, Q1 = 0, and not Q0 = 0, Q1 = 1
Meta-stability and asynchronous inputs

## Clocked synchronous circuits

Inputs, state, and outputs sampled or changed in relation to a
common reference signal (called the clock)
E.g., master/slave, edge-triggered
Asynchronous circuits
Inputs, state, and outputs sampled or changed independently of
a common reference signal (glitches/hazards a major concern)
E.g., R-S latch
Asynchronous inputs to synchronous circuits
Inputs can change at any time, will not meet setup/hold times
Dangerous, synchronous inputs are greatly preferred
Cannot be avoided (e.g., reset signal, memory wait, user input)
Synchronization failure

## Occurs when FF input changes close to clock edge

FF may enter a meta-stable state neither a logic 0 nor 1
May stay in this state an indefinite amount of time
Is not likely in practice but has some probability
logic 1

logic 0
logic 0 logic 1

## small, but non-zero probability oscilloscope traces demonstrating

that the FF output will get stuck synchronizer failure and eventual
in an in-between state decay to steady state
Dealing with synchronization failure

## Probability of failure can never be reduced to 0, but it

can be reduced
slow down the system clock: this gives the synchronizer
more time to decay into a steady state; synchronizer
failure becomes a big problem for very high speed systems
use fastest possible logic technology in the synchronizer:
this makes for a very sharp "peak" upon which to balance
cascade two synchronizers: this effectively synchronizes
twice (both would have to fail)

asynchronous D Q synchronized
D Q
input input
Clk

synchronous system
Handling asynchronous inputs

## Never allow asynchronous inputs to fan-out to

more than one flip-flop
Synchronize as soon as possible and then treat as
synchronous signal
Clocked Synchronizer
Synchronous
System
Async Q0 Async Q0
Input D Q Input D Q D Q

Clock Clock

Q1 D Q Q1
D Q

Clock Clock
Handling asynchronous inputs(Cont.)

## What can go wrong?

Input changes too close to clock edge (violating
setup time constraint)

In
In is asynchronous and
fans out to D0 and D1
Q0
one FF catches the
signal, one does not
Q1
inconsistent state may
be reached!
CLK
Flip-Flop features
Reset (set state to 0) R
Synchronous: Dnew = R' Dold (when next clock edge arrives)
Asynchronous: doesn't wait for clock, quick but dangerous
Preset or set (set state to 1) S (or sometimes P)
Synchronous: Dnew = Dold + S (when next clock edge arrives)
Asynchronous: doesn't wait for clock, quick but dangerous
Both reset and preset
Dnew = R' Dold + S (set-dominant)
Dnew = R' Dold + R'S (reset-dominant)
Selective input capability (input enable/load) LD or EN
Multiplexer at input: Dnew = LD' Q + LD Dold
Load may/may not override reset/set (usually R/S have priority)
Complementary outputs Q and Q'
Registers

## Collections of flip-flops with similar controls and

logic
Stored values somehow related (e.g., form binary
value)
Share clock, reset, and set lines
Similar logic at each stage
Examples
OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4
Shift registers
"0"
Counters
R S R S R S R S
D Q D Q D Q D Q
CLK

## IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4

We often use registers to hold values for multiple clocks
Wait until needed
Used multiple times
How do we modify our D flipflop so that it holds the value till we are
done with it?
A very simple FSM En State Next
0 Q Q
1 Q D

D Q

D Q

clk
enable enable
clk
Registers with clock gating
Load signal is used to enable the clock signal to pass through if 1 and
prevent the clock signal from passing through if 0.
Example: For Positive Edge-Triggered or Negative Pulse Master-Slave Flip-
flop:

Clock

Gated Clock to FF
What logic is needed for gating? Gated Clock = Clock + Load
What is the problem? Clock Skew of gated clocks with respect to clock or
each other

1 0

clock R31 R0
Shift register

## Holds samples of input

Store last 4 input values in sequence
4-bit shift register:

## OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4

IN D Q D Q D Q D Q
CLK
Operation:
cycle 1: load x, output x0
cycle i: output xi

Each stage:
XI

Q(I-1) if (shift==0 )
Q(I)
else from previous stage.

clk

shift=1
shift=0
4-bit version:
X3 X2 X1 X0

IN Q(0)

clk

??
??
x3 ??
x3
x2 x3
??
x2
x1 x1
x2
x3
x0

X3 X2 X1 X0

## Q(3) Q(2) Q(1)

IN Q(0)

clk
Parallel-to-serial converter
Also, works as Serial-to-parallel converter, if q values are connected out.
Also get used as controllers (ala ring counters)
Universal shift register

Holds 4 values
Serial or parallel inputs
Serial or parallel outputs
Permits shift left or right
Shift in
new values from left or right
output
clear sets the register contents
and output to 0
left_in right_out
left_out Universal right_in s1 and s0 determine the shift function
clear
s0 shift register clock s0 s1 function
s1 0 0 hold state
0 1 shift right
1 0 shift left
input
Universal shift register(Cont.)
Design of universal shift register

## Consider one of the four flip-flops

New value at next clock cycle:

Nth cell
to N-1th to N+1th
cell Q cell
D
CLK

## clear s0 s1 new value CLEAR

1 0
0 0 0 output 0 1 2 3 s0 and s1
control mux
0 0 1 output value of FF to left (shift right)
0 1 0 output value of FF to right (shift left) Q[N-1] Q[N+1]
0 1 1 input (left) (right)
Input[N]
Universal shift register(Cont.)
Shift register application

## Parallel-to-serial conversion for serial

transmission parallel outputs

## Universal Unversal Universal Universal

shift registeer shift reagister shift register shift register

parallel inputs

serial transmission
Register file
Asel
Bsel
Din
R0
Dsel

R1

Multiplexor
decoder

multiplexor
1 R2
Bout
Aout

R31
ld
Frequency divider

DFF DFF
D Q D Q CLK
Q Q CLK_4
CLK
CLK_4

## Divide clock frequency by 3

DFF DFF
D Q D Q CLK
Q Q CLK_3
CLK_3
CLK
Pattern recognizer

## Combinational function of input samples

In this case, recognizing the pattern 1001 on the
single input signal

OUT

## OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4

IN D Q D Q D Q D Q
CLK
Counters
Counters are sequential circuits which "count" through a specific state sequence.
They can count up, count down, or count through other fixed sequences.
Examples:
binary counter: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111, 000, 001,
gray code counter:
000, 010, 110, 100, 101, 111, 011, 001, 000, 010, 110,
one-hot counter: 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000, 0001, 0010,
BCD counter: 0000, 0001, 0010, , 1001, 0000, 0001
pseudo-random sequence generators: 10, 01, 00, 11, 10, 01, 00, ...

## Two distinct types are in common usage:

Ripple Counters
Clock is connected to the flip-flop clock input on the LSB bit flip-flop
For all other bits, a flip-flop output is connected to the clock input, thus
circuit is not truly synchronous
Output change is delayed more for each bit toward the MSB.
Resurgent because of low power consumption
Synchronous Counters
Clock is directly connected to the flip-flop clock inputs
Logic is used to implement the desired state sequencing
Counters(Cont.)
What are they used for?
Examples:
Clock divider circuits

16MHz 64

Delays, Timing

Protocols

## Counters simplify controller design

More on this later
Ripple counter
How does it work? D A
When there is a positive
Clock
edge on the clock input R

of A, A complements
The clock input for flip- D B
flop B is the complemented
output of flip-flop A R
When flip A changes Reset
from 1 to 0, there is a
positive edge on the
CP
clock input of B
causing B to
complement A

B
0 1 2 3 0 1
Ripple counter(Cont.)

## The arrows show the CP

cause-effect relation-
ship from the prior A
slide =>
B
The corresponding
0 1 2 3 0 1
sequence of states =>
(B,A) = (0,0), (0,1), (1,0), (1,1), (0,0), (0,1),
Each additional bit, C, D, behaves like bit B, changing half as
frequently as the bit before it.
For 3 bits: (C,B,A) = (0,0,0), (0,0,1), (0,1,0), (0,1,1),
(1,0,0), (1,0,1), (1,1,0), (1,1,1), (0,0,0),
Ripple counter(Cont.)

## These circuits are called ripple counters because each edge

sensitive transition (positive in the example) causes a change
in the next flip-flops state.
The changes ripple upward through the chain of flip-flops, i.
e., each transition occurs after a clock-to-output delay from
the stage before.
To see this effect in detail look at the waveforms on the next
slide.
Ripple counter(Cont.)

## Starting with C = B = A = 1, equivalent to (C,B,A) = 7 base

10, the next clock increments the count to (C,B,A) = 0 base
10. In fine timing detail:
The clock to output delay
tPHL causes an increasing
delay from clock edge for tPHL
each stage transition. CP
Thus, the count ripples tPHL
from least to most A
significant bit.
For n bits, total worst case tpHL
delay is n tPHL. B

C
Discouraged
Know it exists
Dont use it
Synchronous counters
To eliminate the "ripple" effects, use a common clock
for each flip-flop and a combinational circuit to
generate the next state.
For binary counters (most common case) incrementer
circuit would work,

register
Synchronous counters(Cont.)

## OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4

D Q D Q D Q D Q c b a c+ b + a+
0 0 0 0 0 1
CLK 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 1 0
"1" 1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 0
Synchronous counters(Cont.)

D Q 0
1

D Q 1

D Q 2

D Q 3

Carry
Output CO
Clock
counters with enable to count
Count
Count Enable D Q 0

D Q 1

Count Action
D Q 2

## 0 Hold stored value

1 Count up stored value

D Q 3

Carry
Output CO
Clock

Count
D 0 D Q 0

## Add path for input data

disable count logic for Load = 1 D 1 D Q 1

## disable feedback from outputs

enable count logic for Load = 0
and Count = 1 D Q
2 D 2

## The resulting function table:

0 0 Hold Stored Value D 3 D Q 3

## 0 1 Count Up Stored Value

Output CO
Clock
Four-bit binary synchronous up-counter

## Standard component with many applications

Positive edge-triggered FFs w/ sync load and clear inputs
Parallel load data from D, C, B, A
Enable inputs: must be asserted to enable counting
RCO: ripple-carry out used for cascading counters
high when counter is in its highest state 1111
implemented using an AND gate

EN
(2) RCO goes high
D
C RCO
B
(3) High order 4-bits A QD
QC
CLK QA
CLR
(1) Low order 4-bits = 1111
Offset counters

## Starting offset counters use of

"1" EN
"0" D QD
e.g., 0110, 0111, 1000, 1001, 1010, "1" C QC
"1" B QB
1011, 1100, 1101, 1111, 0110, . . . "0" A QA

CLK
comparator for ending value "0" CLR

## e.g., 0000, 0001, 0010, ..., 1100, 1101,

0000
Combinations of the above (start
"1" EN
and stop value) RCO
"0" D QD
"0" C QC
"0" B QB
"0" A QA
CLK
CLR

c b a c + b + a+
0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 1
1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 1
1 Down-count
1 1 1 1 0
Other counters

## Sequences through a fixed set of patterns

In this case, 1000, 0100, 0010, 0001
If one of the patterns is its initial state (by loading or
set/reset) OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4

IN D Q D Q D Q D Q
CLK

## Mobius (or Johnson) counter

In this case, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111, 0111, 0011,
0001, 0000 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4

IN D Q D Q D Q D Q
CLK
Sequential logic implementation
Sequential circuits
Primitive sequential elements
Combinational logic
Models for representing sequential circuits
Finite-state machines (Moore and Mealy)
Representation of memory (states)
Changes in state (transitions)
Basic sequential circuits Inputs Outputs
Shift registers Combinational
Counters Storage logic
Design procedure Elements
State diagrams
State transition table Next
Next state functions State State
Abstraction of state elements

## Divide circuit into combinational logic and state

Localize feedback loops and make it easy to
break cycles
Implementation of storage elements leads to
various forms of sequential logic
Inputs Outputs
Combinational
Logic

## State Inputs State Outputs

Storage Elements
Forms of sequential logic

## Asynchronous sequential logic state changes

occur whenever state inputs change (elements
may be simple wires or delay elements)
Synchronous sequential logic state changes
occur in lock step across all storage elements
(using a periodic waveform - the clock)
Combinational Combinational
logic logic

Clock
Synchronous circuit

Combinational
Logic

clk

time
Synchronous circuit(Cont.)
clock input

## input CL reg CL reg output

option feedback

output
Combinational Logic Blocks (CL)
Acyclic clock
no internal state (no feedback) distributed to all flip-flops
output only a function of inputs ALL CYCLES GO THROUGH A REG!
Registers (reg)
collections of flip-flops
Finite state machine representations

## States: determined by possible values in sequential

storage elements
Transitions: change of state
Clock: controls when state can change by controlling
storage elements
001 010 111
In = 1 In = 0
In = 0
100 110
In = 1
Sequential logic
Sequences through a series of states
Based on sequence of values on input signals
Clock period defines elements of sequence
Example : finite state machine diagram

ERR
closed

## not equal not equal

& new not equal
& new & new
S1 S2 S3 OPEN
closed closed closed
reset open
mux=C1 equal mux=C2 equal mux=C3 equal
& new & new & new

## not new not new not new

Can any sequential system be represented
with a state diagram?
Shift register OUT1 OUT2 OUT3

## Input value shown IN D Q D Q D Q

on transition arcs CLK
Output values shown
within state node
1
100 110
1 0 1 1
1

## 0 000 1 010 101 0 111 1

0
0 1 0
0
001 011
0
Counters are simple finite state machines

Counters
Proceed thru well-defined state sequence in response to
enable
Many types of counters: binary, BCD, Gray-code
3-bit up-counter: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111, 000,
...
3-bit down-counter: 111, 110, 101, 100, 011, 010, 001, 000,
111, ...
001 010 011

## 111 110 101

How do we turn a state diagram into
logic?
Counter
Three flip-flops to hold state
Logic to compute next state
Clock signal controls when flip-flop memory can change
Wait long enough for combinational logic to compute new value
Don't wait too long as that is low performance
OUT1 OUT2 OUT3

D Q D Q D Q
CLK

"1"
FSM design procedure
Simple because output is just state
Simple because no choice of next state based on input
State diagram to state transition table
Tabular form of state diagram
Like a truth-table
State encoding
Decide on representation of states
For counters it is simple: just its value
Implementation
Flip-flop for each state bit
Combinational logic based on encoding
FSM design procedure: State diagram to
encoded state transition table
Tabular form of state diagram
Like a truth-table (specify output for all input
combinations)
Encoding of states: easy for counters just use
value current state next state
0 000 001 1
001 010 011 1 001 010 2
2 010 011 3
3 011 100 4
000 100
4 100 101 5
3-bit up-counter
5 101 110 6
6 110 111 7
7 111 000 0
111 110 101
Implementation
D flip-flop for each state bit
Combinational logic based on encoding
notation to show
function represent
C3 C2 C1 N3 N2 N1 input to D-FF
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 1 0 N1 := C1'
0 1 0 0 1 1 N2 := C1C2' + C1'C2
0 1 1 1 0 0 := C1 xor C2
N3 := C1C2C3' + C1'C3 + C2'C3
1 0 0 1 0 1 := C1C2C3' + (C1' + C2')C3
1 0 1 1 1 0 := (C1C2) xor C3
1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 0 0
N3 C3 N2 C3 N1 C3
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

C1 0 1 0 1 C1 1 0 0 1 C1 0 0 0 0

C2 C2 C2
Another example

Shift register
Input determines next state
100 1 110
In C1 C2 C3 N1 N2 N3 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 000 1 010 101 0 111 1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
001 011
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 N1 := In
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 N2 := C1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 N3 := C2
1 0 1 1 1 0 1 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3
1 1 0 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 IN D Q D Q D Q
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
CLK
More complex counter example
Complex counter
Repeats five states in sequence
Not a binary number representation
Step 1: derive the state transition diagram
Count sequence: 000, 010, 011, 101, 110
Step 2: derive the state transition table from the
state transition diagram
Present State Next State
000 110 C B A C+ B+ A+
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 1
010 101 0 1 1 1 0 1
1 0 0
1 0 1 1 1 0
011 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 1
note the don't care conditions that arise from the unused state codes
More complex counter example(Cont.)

## Step 3: K-maps for Next State Functions

C+ C B+ C A+ C
0 0 0 X 1 1 0 X 0 1 0 X

A X 1 X 1 A X 0 X 1 A X 1 X 0

B B B

C+ := A

B+ := B' + A'C'

A+ := BC'
Self-Starting counters(Cont.)

## Re-deriving state transition table from don't

C+
care assignment
C B+ C A+ C
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0

A 1 1 1 1 A 1 0 0 1 A 0 1 0 0

B B B

## Present State Next State 111 001

C B A C+ B+ A+
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 000 110
0 1 0 0 1 1 100
0 1 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 1 1 0 010 101
1 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 0 0
011
Self-Starting counters
Start-up states
At power-up, counter may be in an unused or invalid state
Designer must guarantee it (eventually) enters a valid
state
Self-starting solution
Design counter so that invalid states eventually transition
to a valid state
May limit exploitation of don't cares
111 111 implementation 001
001 on previous slide

100 100

## 010 101 010 101

011 011
State machine model

## Values stored in registers represent the state of

the circuit
Combinational logic computes:
Next state
Function of current state and inputs
Outputs
Function of current state and inputs (Mealy machine)
Function of current state only (Moore machine)
output Outputs
logic
Inputs
next state Next State
logic

Current State
State machine model(Cont.)

output Outputs
logic
Inputs
next state Next State
logic
States: S1, S2, ..., Sk
Inputs: I1, I2, ..., Im Current State

## Outputs: O1, O2, ..., On

Transition function: Fs(Si, Ij)
Output function: Fo(Si) or Fo(Si, Ij)
Next State

State
Clock 0 1 2 3 4 5
Example: ant brain
Sensors: L and R antennae, 1 if in
touching wall
Actuators: F - forward step, TL/TR - turn
left/right slightly
Goal: find way out of maze
Strategy: keep the wall on the right
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Ant behavior

## A: Following wall, touching B: Following wall, not touching

Go forward, turning Go forward, turning right
left slightly slightly

## D: Hit wall again

C: Break in wall Back to state A
Go forward, turning
right slightly

## E: Wall in front F: ...we are here, same as

Turn left until... state B

## G: Turn left until...

LOST: Forward until we
touch something
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Designing an ant brain
State diagram
L+R L R

## LOST L+R E/G L A

(F) (TL) (TL, F)

L R L R R
R
L R

B C
R
(TR, F) (TR, F)
R
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Synthesizing the ant brain circuit
Encode states using a set of state variables
Arbitrary choice - may affect cost, speed
Use transition truth table
Define next state function for each state variable
Define output function for each output
Implement next state and output functions using
combinational logic
2-level logic
Multi-level logic
Next state and output functions can be optimized
together
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Transition truth table

## Using symbolic states

L+R L R
and outputs LOST L + R E/G L A
(F) (TL) (TL, F)

L R L R R
R
L R
state L R next state outputs B C
LOST 0 0 LOST F (TR, F) (TR, F) R
LOST 1 E/G F R
LOST 1 E/G F
A 0 0 B TL, F
A 0 1 A TL, F
A 1 E/G TL, F
B 0 C TR, F
B 1 A TR, F
... ... ... ... ...
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Synthesis

## 5 states : at least 3 state variables

required (X, Y, Z) LOST - 000
E/G - 001
State assignment (in this case, arbitrarily A - 010
B - 011
chosen) C - 100
state L R next state outputs it now remains
X,Y,Z X', Y', Z' F TR TL to synthesize
000 0 0 000 1 0 0 these 6 functions
000 0 1 001 1 0 0
... ... ... ... ...
010 0 0 011 1 0 1
010 0 1 010 1 0 1
010 1 0 001 1 0 1
010 1 1 001 1 0 1
011 0 0 100 1 1 0
011 0 1 010 1 1 0
... ... ... ... ...
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Synthesis of next state and output functions

## state inputs next state outputs

X,Y,Z L R X+,Y+,Z+ F TR TL
000 0 0 000 1 0 0
000 - 1 001 1 0 0
000 1 - 001 1 0 0
001 0 0 011 0 0 1
001 - 1 010 0 0 1 e.g.
001 1 - 010 0 0 1
TR = X + Y Z
010 0 0 011 1 0 1
010 0 1 010 1 0 1 X+ = X R + Y Z R = R TR
010 1 - 001 1 0 1
011 - 0 100 1 1 0
011 - 1 010 1 1 0
100 - 0 100 1 1 0
100 - 1 010 1 1 0
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Circuit implementation
Outputs are a function of the current state only - Moore machine

output F
TR
logic
TL
L next state Next State
R logic
X+ Y+ Z+

Current State
X Y Z
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Dont cares in FSM synthesis
What happens to the "unused" states (101, 110, 111)?
Exploited as don't cares to minimize the logic
If states can't happen, then don't care what the functions
do
if states do happen, we may be in trouble
L R
L+R L R
000 L+R 001 L 010
(F) (TL) (TL, F)

101
L R R
R
L R

011 100
110 (TR, F) (TR, F) R
R
111
Ant is in deep trouble
if it gets in this state
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
State minimization
Fewer states may mean fewer state variables
High-level synthesis may generate many
redundant states
Two state are equivalent if they are impossible to
distinguish from the outputs of the FSM, i. e., for
any input sequence the outputs are the same

## Two conditions for two states to be equivalent:

Output must be the same in both states
Must transition to equivalent states for all input
combinations
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
Ant brain revisited

L+R L R

## LOST L+R E/G L A

(F) (TL) (TL, F)

L R L R R
R
L R

B C
R
(TR, F) (TR, F)
R
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
New improved brain
Merge equivalent B and C states
Behavior is exactly the same as the 5-state
brain
We now need only 2 state variables rather
than 3 L+R L R

## LOST L+R E/G L A

(F) (TL) (TL, F)

L R L R R
L R

B/C
R
(TR, F)
Example: ant brain(Cont.)
New brain implementation

## state inputs next state outputs

X+ X Y+ X
X,Y L R X',Y' F TR TL
0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
00 0 0 00 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
00 - 1 01 1 0 0 R R
0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
00 1 - 01 1 0 0 L L
0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
01 0 0 11 0 0 1 Y Y
01 - 1 01 0 0 1
01 1 - 01 0 0 1
X X X
10 0 0 11 1 0 1 F TR TL
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
10 0 1 10 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
10 1 - 01 1 0 1 R R R
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
11 - 0 11 1 1 0 L L L
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
11 - 1 10 1 1 0
Y Y Y
Mealy vs. Moore machines
Moore: outputs depend on current state only
Mealy: outputs depend on current state and inputs
Ant brain is a Moore Machine
Output does not react immediately to input change
We could have specified a Mealy FSM
Outputs have immediate reaction to inputs
As inputs change, so does next state, doesnt commit until
clocking event

L R / TL, F
L / TL
A
react right away to leaving the wall

L R / TR, F
Specifying outputs for a Moore machine
Output is only function of state
Specify in state bubble in state diagram
Example: sequence detector for 01 or 10
current next
reset input state state output
0
1 A
1 0 0 A B 0
B/0 D/1
0 1 A C 0
0 0 0 B B 0
0
reset 0 1 B D 0
A/0 1 0
0 0 C E 0
1 0 1 C C 0
1
0 0 D E 1
C/0 E/1 0 1 D C 1
0
0 0 E B 1
1 0 1 E D 1
Specifying outputs for a Mealy machine

## Output is function of state and inputs

Specify output on transition arc between states
Example: sequence detector for 01 or 10
0/0 current next
reset input state state output
B 1 A 0
0 0 A B 0
0/0
0 1 A C 0
reset/0 0 0 B B 0
A 0/1 1/1
0 1 B C 1
0 0 C B 1
1/0
0 1 C C 0
C

1/0
Comparison of Mealy and Moore
machines
Mealy machines tend to have less states
Different outputs on arcs (n^2) rather than states (n)
Moore machines are safer to use
Outputs change at clock edge (always one cycle later)
In Mealy machines, input change can cause output change
as soon as logic is done a big problem when two
machines are interconnected asynchronous feedback
Mealy machines react faster to inputs
React in same cycle don't need to wait for clock
In Moore machines, more logic may be necessary to
decode state into outputs more gate delays after
logic for
inputs inputs outputs
combinational outputs
logic for
next state logic for combinational
R outputs logic for R
outputs
next state

## state feedback state feedback

Mealy and Moore examples

## Recognize A,B = 0,1

Mealy or Moore?
A
out
D Q
B
clock
Q

A
D Q out

B
D Q
clock
Q
Mealy and Moore examples(Cont.)

## Recognize A,B = 1,0 then 0,1

Mealy or Moore? out

A
D Q

B
D Q

Q
clock

out

A
D Q D Q

Q Q

B
D Q D Q

Q Q

clock
Registered Mealy machine(Really Moore)

## Synchronous (or registered) Mealy machine

Registered state AND outputs
Avoids glitchy outputs
Easy to implement in PLDs
Moore machine with no output decoding
Outputs computed on transition to next state rather than
after entering
View outputs as expanded state vector

output Outputs
Inputs logic
next state
logic

Current State
Example: vending machine

## Release item after 15 cents are deposited

Single coin slot for dimes, nickels
No change
Reset

N
Vending Open
Coin Machine Release
Sensor FSM Mechanism
D

Clock
Example: vending machine(Cont.)

## Suitable abstract representation

Reset
Tabulate typical input sequences:
3 nickels
nickel, dime S0
dime, nickel N D
two dimes
Draw state diagram: S1 S2

Inputs: N, D, reset N D N D
Output: open chute S4 S5 S6
S3
Assumptions: [open] [open] [open]

## Assume N and D asserted N

for one cycle
Each state has a self loop S7
[open]
for N = D = 0 (no coin)
Example: vending machine(Cont.)

## Reset present inputs next output

state D N state open
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 5 0
0 1 0 10 0
1 1
N 5 0 0 5 0
0 1 10 0
5 D 1 0 15 0
1 1
N 10 0 0 10 0
0 1 15 0
D 10 1 0 15 0
1 1
N+D 15 15 1

## 15 symbolic state table

[open]
Example: vending machine(Cont.)

## Uniquely encode states

present state inputs next state output
Q1 Q0 D N D1 D0 open
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0
1 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1
1 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 0
1 0 1 1 0
1 1
1 1 1 1 1
Example: vending machine(Cont.)

Mapping to logic
D1 Q1 D0
0 1 1 0
Q1 Open Q1
0 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 N N N
X X X X X X X X
D X X X X D D
0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1
Q0 Q0 Q0

D1 = Q1 + D + Q0 N

D0 = Q0 N + Q0 N + Q1 N + Q1 D

OPEN = Q1 Q0
Example: vending machine(Cont.)

One-hot encoding
present state inputs next state output
Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 D N D3 D2 D1 D0 open
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 D0 = Q0 D N
0 1 0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 - - - - - D1 = Q0 N + Q1 D N
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 D2 = Q0 D + Q1 N + Q2 D N
1 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 - - - - -
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 D3 = Q1 D + Q2 D + Q2 N + Q3
0 1 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 OPEN = Q3
1 1 - - - - -
1 0 0 0 - - 1 0 0 0 1
Example: vending machine(Cont.)

## OPEN = Q1Q0 creates a combinational delay after Q1 and Q0 change

This can be corrected by retiming, i.e., move flip-flops and logic through
each other to improve delay
OPEN = reset'(Q1 + D + Q0N)(Q0'N + Q0N' + Q1N + Q1D)
= reset'(Q1Q0N' + Q1N + Q1D + Q0'ND + Q0N'D)
Implementation now looks like a synchronous Mealy machine
Common for programmable devices to have FF at
end of logic
Equivalent Mealy and Moore state
diagrams
Moore machine
Mealy machine
outputs associated with state
outputs associated with
transitions
Reset N D + Reset Reset/0 (N D + Reset)/0

0
N D 0 N D/0
[0]
N N/0

D 5 D/0
N D 5 N D/0
[0]
N N/0
10
D N D D/1 10 N D/0
[0]
N+D N+D/1
15
Reset 15 Reset/1
[1]
Example: traffic light controller
A busy highway is intersected by a little used farmroad
Detectors C sense the presence of cars waiting on the farmroad
with no car on farmroad, light remain green in highway direction
if vehicle on farmroad, highway lights go from Green to Yellow to Red, allowing
the farmroad lights to become green
these stay green only as long as a farmroad car is detected but never longer
than a set interval
when these are met, farm lights transition from Green to Yellow to Red,
even if farmroad vehicles are waiting, highway gets at least a set interval as
green
Assume you have an interval timer that generates:
a short time pulse (TS) and
a long time pulse (TL),
in response to a set (ST) signal.
TS is to be used for timing yellow lights and TL for green lights
Example: traffic light controller(Cont.)

car sensors

highway
Example: traffic light controller(Cont.)

## Tabulation of inputs and outputs

inputs description outputs description
reset place FSM in initial state HG, HY, HR assert green/yellow/red highway lights
C detect vehicle on the farm road FG, FY, FR assert green/yellow/red highway lights
TS short time interval expired ST start timing a short or long interval
TL long time interval expired

## Tabulation of unique states some light configurations

imply others
state description
S0 highway green (farm road red)
S1 highway yellow (farm road red)
S2 farm road green (highway red)
S3 farm road yellow (highway red)
Example: traffic light controller(Cont.)

## State diagram (TLC)' Reset

S0
TLC / ST TS / ST
S0: HG
S1: HY TS' S1 S3 TS'
S2: FG
S3: FY TS / ST TL+C' / ST
S2

(TL+C')'
Example: traffic light controller(Cont.)

## Generate state table with symbolic states

Consider state assignments
output encoding similar problem
to state assignment
(Green = 00, Yellow = 01, Red = 10)

## Inputs Present State Next State Outputs

C TL TS ST H F
0 HG HG 0 Green Red
0 HG HG 0 Green Red
1 1 HG HY 1 Green Red
0 HY HY 0 Yellow Red
1 HY FG 1 Yellow Red
1 0 FG FG 0 Red Green
0 FG FY 1 Red Green
1 FG FY 1 Red Green
0 FY FY 0 Red Yellow
1 FY HG 1 Red Yellow

SA1: HG = 00 HY = 01 FG = 11 FY = 10
SA2: HG = 00 HY = 10 FG = 01 FY = 11
SA3: HG = 0001 HY = 0010 FG = 0100 FY = 1000 (one-hot)
Example: traffic light controller(Cont.)

## Logic for different state assignments

SA1
NS1 = CTL'PS1PS0 + TSPS1'PS0 + TSPS1PS0' + C'PS1PS0 + TLPS1PS0
NS0 = CTLPS1'PS0' + CTL'PS1PS0 + PS1'PS0
ST = CTLPS1'PS0' + TSPS1'PS0 + TSPS1PS0' + C'PS1PS0 + TLPS1PS0
H1 = PS1 H0 = PS1'PS0
F1 = PS1' F0 = PS1PS0'
SA2
NS1 = CTLPS1' + TS'PS1 + C'PS1'PS0
NS0 = TSPS1PS0' + PS1'PS0 + TS'PS1PS0
ST = CTLPS1' + C'PS1'PS0 + TSPS1
H1 = PS0 H0 = PS1PS0'
F1 = PS0' F0 = PS1PS0
SA3
NS3 = C'PS2 + TLPS2 + TS'PS3 NS2 = TSPS1 + CTL'PS2
NS1 = CTLPS0 + TS'PS1 NS0 = C'PS0 + TL'PS0 + TSPS3

## ST = CTLPS0 + TSPS1 + C'PS2 + TLPS2 + TSPS3

H1 = PS3 + PS2 H0 = PS1
F1 = PS1 + PS0 F0 = PS3
Finite state machine optimization

State minimization
Fewer states require fewer state bits
Fewer bits require fewer logic equations
Encodings: state, inputs, outputs
State encoding with fewer bits has fewer equations to
implement
However, each may be more complex
State encoding with more bits (e.g., one-hot) has simpler
equations
Complexity directly related to complexity of state diagram
Input/output encoding may or may not be under designer
control
State minimization
Algorithmic approach
Goal identify and combine states that have equivalent behavior
Equivalent states:
Same output
For all input combinations, states transition to same or equivalent
states
Algorithm sketch
1. Place all states in one set
2. Initially partition set based on output behavior
3. Successively partition resulting subsets based on next state
transitions
4. Repeat (3) until no further partitioning is required
states left in the same set are equivalent
Polynomial time procedure
State minimization(Cont.)
State minimization example

## Sequence detector for 010 or 110

Input Next State Output
Sequence Present State X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1

Reset S0 S1 S2 0 0
0 S1 S3 S4 0 0
1 S2 S5 S6 0 0
00 S3 S0 S0 0 0
01 S4 S0 S0 1 0
10 S5 S0 S0 0 0
11 S6 S0 S0 1 0

S0
0/0 1/0

S1 S2
0/0 1/0 0/0 1/0

S3 S4 S5 S6
1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0
0/0 0/1 0/0 0/1
State minimization(Cont.)
Method of successive partitions
Input Next State Output
Sequence Present State X=0 X=1 X=0 X=1

Reset S0 S1 S2 0 0
0 S1 S3 S4 0 0
1 S2 S5 S6 0 0
00 S3 S0 S0 0 0
01 S4 S0 S0 1 0
10 S5 S0 S0 0 0
11 S6 S0 S0 1 0

( S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 )
S1 is equivalent to S2
( S0 S1 S2 S3 S5 ) ( S4 S6 )
S3 is equivalent to S5
( S0 S3 S5 ) ( S1 S2 ) ( S4 S6 ) S4 is equivalent to S6
( S0 ) ( S3 S5 ) ( S1 S2 ) ( S4 S6 )
State minimization(Cont.)
Minimized FSM

## State minimized sequence detector for 010 or

110 Input
Sequence
Next State
Present State X=0 X=1 X=0
Output
X=1

## Reset S0 S1' S1' 0 0

0+1 S1' S3' S4' 0 0
X0 S3' S0 S0 0 0
X1 S4' S0 S0 1 0

S0

X/0

S1
0/0 1/0

S3 S4
X/0 0/1 1/0
State minimization(Cont.)
More complex state minimization

## Multiple input example

inputs here

00 10
S0 00 S1
[1] [0]
01 present next state output
10 11 state 00 01 10 11
11
00 01 S0 S0 S1 S2 S3 1
00 01 S1 S0 S3 S1 S4 0
S2 S3 S2 S1 S3 S2 S4 1
[1] 01 [0] S3 S1 S0 S4 S5 0
10
10 11 11 S4 S0 S1 S2 S5 1
01
S5 S1 S4 S0 S5 0
10 10

00 S4 11 S5 00
[1] [0]
symbolic state
01 transition table
11
State minimization(Cont.)
Minimized FSM
Implication chart method
Cross out incompatible states based on outputs
Then cross out more cells if indexed chart entries are
S1 present next state output
state 00 01 10 11
S0-S1
S0' S0' S1 S2 S3' 1
S1-S3 S1 S0' S3' S1 S3' 0
S2
S2-S2 S2 S1 S3' S2 S0' 1
S3-S4 S3' S1 S0' S0' S3' 0
S0-S1
S3 S3-S0
S1-S4
S4-S5 minimized state table
S0-S0 S1-S0 (S0==S4) (S3==S5)
S4 S1-S1 S3-S1
S2-S2 S2-S2
S3-S5 S4-S5
S0-S1 S1-S1
S5 S3-S4 S0-S4
S1-S0 S4-S0
S4-S5 S5-S5
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
State minimization(Cont.)
Minimizing incompletely specified FSMs
Equivalence of states is transitive when machine is fully specified
But its not transitive when don't cares are present
e.g., state output
S0 0 S1 is compatible with both S0 and S2
S1 1 but S0 and S2 are incompatible
S2 1

## No polynomial time algorithm exists for determining best grouping of

states into equivalent sets that will yield the smallest number of final
states
State minimization(Cont.)
Minimizing states may not yield best circuit

## Example: edge detector - outputs 1 when last

two input changes from 0X toQ1 Q Q Q 1 0 1
+
0
+

X 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
00 X
0 1 1 0 0
[0]
1 0 0 0 1
01 1 0 1 1 1
X X [1] 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
11 X
[0]
Q1+ = X (Q1 xor Q0)
X
Q0+ = X Q1 Q0
Another implementation of edge detector

fast X

00
X [0] X

X
10 01
[0] [1]
X

X 11 X
[0]

X
State assignment

## Choose bit vectors to assign to each symbolic state

With n state bits for m states there are 2n! / (2n m)!
[log n <= m <= 2n]
2n codes possible for 1st state, 2n1 for 2nd, 2n2 for 3rd,

Huge number even for small values of n and m
Intractable for state machines of any size
Heuristics are necessary for practical solutions
Optimize some metric for the combinational logic
Size (amount of logic and number of FFs)
Speed (depth of logic and fanout)
Dependencies (decomposition)
State assignment(Cont.)
State assignment strategies
Possible strategies
Sequential just number states as they appear in the
state table
Random pick random codes
One-hot use as many state bits as there are states
(bit=1 > state)
Output use outputs to help encode states
Heuristic rules of thumb that seem to work in most
cases
No guarantee of optimality another intractable
problem
State assignment(Cont.)
One-hot state assignment
Simple
Easy to encode, debug
Small logic functions
Each state function requires only predecessor state bits as input
Good for programmable devices
Simple functions with small support (signals its dependent upon)
Impractical for large machines
Too many states require too many flip-flops
Decompose FSMs into smaller pieces that can be one-hot encoded
Many slight variations to One-hot
One-hot + all-0
State assignment(Cont.)
Heuristics for state assignment
Adjacent codes to states that share a common next state
Group 1's in next state map a b
I Q Q+ O i/j i/k
c=i*a + i*b
i a c j c
i b c k

## Adjacent codes to states that share a common ancestor state

Group 1's in next state map a
I Q Q+ O i/j k/l
b=i *a
i a b j c=k*a
k a c l b c

## Adjacent codes to states that have a common output behavior

Group
I
1'sQ in Qoutput
+ O
map
j=i *a+ i *c a c
i a b j b=i*a i/j i/j
i c d j d=i*c
b d
State assignment(Cont.)
General approach to heuristic state
assignment
All current methods are variants of this
1) Determine which states attract each other (weighted pairs)
2) Generate constraints on codes (which should be in same cube)
3) Place codes on Boolean cube so as to maximize constraints
satisfied (weighted sum)
Different weights make sense depending on whether we are
optimizing for two-level or multi-level forms
Can't consider all possible embeddings of state clusters in
Boolean cube
Heuristics for ordering embedding
To prune search for best embedding
Expand cube (more state bits) to satisfy more constraints
State assignment(Cont.)
Output-Based encoding
Reuse outputs as state bits - use outputs to help
distinguish states
Why create new functions for state bits when output can
serve as well
Fits in nicely with synchronous Mealy implementations
Inputs Present State Next State Outputs
C TL TS ST H F
0 HG HG 0 00 10
0 HG HG 0 00 10
1 1 HG HY 1 00 10
0 HY HY 0 01 10
1 HY FG 1 01 10
1 0 FG FG 0 10 00
0 FG FY 1 10 00
1 FG FY 1 10 00
0 FY FY 0 10 01
1 FY HG 1 10 01

## HG = ST H1 H0 F1 F0 + ST H1 H0 F1 F0 Output patterns are unique to states, we do not

HY = ST H1 H0 F1 F0 + ST H1 H0 F1 F0 need ANY state bits implement 5 functions
FG = ST H1 H0 F1 F0 + ST H1 H0 F1 F0 (one for each output) instead of 7 (outputs plus
HY = ST H1 H0 F1 F0 + ST H1 H0 F1 F0 2 state bits)
State assignment(Cont.)
Current state assignment approaches
For tight encodings using close to the minimum number of
state bits
Best of 10 random seems to be adequate (averages as well as
heuristics)
Heuristic approaches are not even close to optimality
Used in custom chip design
One-hot encoding
Easy for small state machines
Generates small equations with easy to estimate complexity
Common in FPGAs and other programmable logic
Output-based encoding
Most common approach taken by human designers
Yields very small circuits for most FSMs
Sequential logic examples

## Finite state machine concept

FSMs are the decision making logic of digital designs
Partitioning designs into data-path and control
elements
When inputs are sampled and outputs asserted
Basic design approach: 4-step design process
Implementation examples and case studies
Finite-string pattern recognizer
Complex counter
Traffic light controller
Door combination lock
General FSM design procedure

## Determine inputs and outputs

Determine possible states of machine
State minimization
Encode states and outputs into a binary code
State assignment or state encoding
Output encoding
Possibly input encoding (if under our control)
Realize logic to implement functions for states and
outputs
Combinational logic implementation and optimization
Choices in steps 2 and 3 have large effect on resulting logic
Finite string pattern recognizer (Step 1)

## Finite string pattern recognizer

One input (X) and one output (Z)
Output is asserted whenever the input sequence 010 has
been observed, as long as the sequence 100 has never been
seen

## Step 1: understanding the problem statement

Sample input/output behavior:
X: 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
Z: 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
X: 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
Z: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Finite string pattern recognizer(Cont.)

## Step 2: draw state diagram

For the strings that must be recognized, i.e., 010
and 100 reset S0
[0]
Moore implementation 0 1
S1 S4
[0] [0]

1 0

S2 S5
[0] [0]

0 0

S3 S6 0 or 1
[1] [0]
Finite string pattern recognizer(Cont.)

## Exit conditions from state S3: have recognized

010
If next input is 0 then have 0100 = ...100 (state S6)
If next input is 1 then have 0101 = 01 (state S2)
reset S0
[0]
Exit conditions from S1: 0 1
recognizes strings of form 0
0 S1 S4 1
(no 1 seen); [0] ...0 ...1 [0]
loop back to S1 if input is 0 1 0

## Exit conditions from S4: S2 S5

[0] [0]
recognizes strings of form 1 ...01
(no 0 seen); 0 1 0
loop back to S4 if input is 1 S3 S6 0 or 1
...010 [1] ...100 [0]
Finite string pattern recognizer(Cont.)

## S2 and S5 still have incomplete transitions

S2 = 01; If next input is 1,
then string could be prefix of (01)1(00)
S4 handles just this case
S5 = 10; If next input is 1,
then string could be prefix of (10)1(0)
S2 handles just this case reset S0
Reuse states as much as possible [0]
Look for same meaning 0 1
State minimization leads to 0 S1 S4 1
[0] ...0 ...1 [0]
smaller number of bits to
represent states 1 1 0
Once all states have complete
S2 1 S5
set of transitions we have [0] [0] ...10
final state diagram ...01
0 1 0

S3 S6 0 or 1
...010 [1] ...100 [0]
Finite string pattern recognizer(Cont.)

Review of process
Understanding problem
Write down sample inputs and outputs to understand specification
Derive a state diagram
Write down sequences of states and transitions for sequences to be
recognized
Minimize number of states
Add missing transitions; reuse states as much as possible
State assignment or encoding
Encode states with unique patterns
Simulate realization
Verify I/O behavior of your state diagram to ensure it matches
specification
Complex counter

## Synchronous 3-bit counter has a mode control M

When M = 0, the counter counts up in the binary sequence
When M = 1, the counter advances through the Gray code
sequence
binary: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111
Gray: 000, 001, 011, 010, 110, 111, 101, 100
Valid I/O behavior (partial)

## Mode Input M Current State Next State

0 000 001
0 001 010
1 010 110
1 110 111
1 111 101
0 101 110
0 110 111
Complex counter(Cont.)

## Deriving state diagram

One state for each output combination
Add appropriate arcs for the mode control

reset S0 0 S1 0 S2 0 S3 0 S4 0 S5 0 S6 0 S7
[000] [001] [010] [011] [100] [101] [110] [111]
1
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
Traffic light controller as two
communicating FSMs
Without separate timer
TS'
S0 would require 7 states
S1 would require 3 states S1 S1a
S2 would require 7 states TS/ST
S1b
S3 would require 3 states
S1 and S3 have simple transformation S1c
S0 and S2 would require many more arcs /ST
C could change in any of seven states
By factoring out timer
Greatly reduce number of states traffic light
Counter only requires seven or eight states ST
12 total instead of 20 TS TL
timer
Communicating finite state machines
One machine's output is another machine's
input
X
CLK
FSM 1 FSM 2
Y FSM1 A A B

## Y==0 X==0 FSM2 C D D

Y==0 X==0
A C Y
[1] [0]
Y==1 X==1
D machines advance in lock step
B initial inputs/outputs: X = 0, Y = 0
[0] [1]
X==0
X==1
Data path and control
Digital hardware systems = data-path + control
Data-path: registers, counters, combinational
functional units (e.g., ALU), communication (e.g.,
busses)
Control: FSM generating sequences of control signals
that instructs data-path what to do next
"puppeteer who pulls the strings"
control

status control
info and state signal
inputs outputs

data-path
"puppet"
Digital combinational lock

## Door combination lock:

Punch in 3 values in sequence and the door opens; if there
is an error the lock must be reset; once the door opens the
lock must be reset

## Inputs: sequence of input values, reset

Outputs: door open/close
Memory: must remember combination or always have it
available

## Open questions: how do you set the internal combination?

Hardwired via switches set by user
Digital combinational lock(Cont.)
Implementation in software
integer combination_lock ( ) {
integer v1, v2, v3;
integer error = 0;
static integer c[3] = 3, 4, 2;

## while (!new_value( ));

if (v1 != c[1]) then error = 1;

## while (!new_value( ));

if (v2 != c[2]) then error = 1;

## while (!new_value( ));

if (v2 != c[3]) then error = 1;

## if (error == 1) then return(0); else return (1);

}
Digital combinational lock(Cont.)
Determining details of the specification

## How many bits per input value?

How many values in sequence?
How do we know a new input value is entered?
What are the states and state transitions of the
system?
new value reset

clock

open/closed
Digital Combinational Lock(Cont.)
Digital combination lock state diagram
States: 5 states
Represent point in execution of machine
Each state has outputs
Transitions: 6 from state to state, 5 self transitions, 1
global
Changes of state occur when clock says its ok
Based on value of inputs
Inputs: reset, new, results of comparisons ERR
closed
Output: open/closed
C1!=value
C2!=value C3!=value
& new
& new & new
S1 S2 S3 OPEN
reset closed closed closed open
C1=value C2=value C3=value
& new & new & new

## not new not new not new

Digital combinational lock(Cont.)
Data-path and control structure
Data-path
Storage registers for combination values
Multiplexer
Comparator
Control
Finite-state machine controller
Control for data-path (which value to compare)

C1 C2 C3 new reset
4 4 4 mux
multiplexer
control
4 controller
value comparator clock
4 equal

open/closed
Digital combinational lock(Cont.)
State table for combination lock

Finite-State machine
Refine state diagram to take internal structure into
account
next
reset new equal state state mux open/closed
1 S1 C1 closed
0 0 S1 S1 C1 closed
0 1 0 S1 ERR closed
0 1 1 S1 S2 C2 closed
...
0 1 1 S3 OPEN open
...
Digital combinational lock(Cont.)
Encodings for combination lock
Encode state table
State can be: S1, S2, S3, OPEN, or ERR
Needs at least 3 bits to encode: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100
And as many as 5: 00001, 00010, 00100, 01000, 10000
Choose 4 bits: 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000, 0000
new reset
Output mux can be: C1, C2, or C3 mux
Needs 2 to 3 bits to encode control
Choose 3 bits: 001, 010, 100 controller
clock
Output open/closed can be: open or closed equal
Needs 1 or 2 bits to encode
open/closed
Choose 1 bit: 1, 0
next
reset new equal state state mux open/closed
1 0001 001 0 mux is identical to last 3 bits of state
0 0 0001 0001 001 0 open/closed is identical to first bit of state
0 1 0 0001 0000 0 therefore, we do not even need to implement
0 1 1 0001 0010 010 0 FFs to hold state, just use outputs
...
0 1 1 0100 1000 1
Design register with set/reset
S R

D Q

## Set forces state to 1

Reset forces state to 0

Design

## A single input X single output Z synchronous sequential

circuit will give a 1 output when the input sequence starting
from reset up to present time includes odd number of 1s,
otherwise the circuit will give a 0 output.
Design a clock synchronous sequential circuit with two inputs
A, B and a single output Z that is 1 if:
A had the same value at each of the two previous clock
ticks, or
B has been 1 since the last time that the first condition
was true.
Otherwise, output should be 0.
Digital design

## Other flip-flop types

Other flip-flop types
J-K and T flip-flops
Behavior
Implementation
Basic descriptors for understanding and using
different flip-flop types
Characteristic tables
Characteristic equations
Excitation tables
For actual use, see Reading Supplement -
Design and Analysis Using J-K and T Flip-Flops
J-K flip-flop
Behavior
Same as S-R flip-flop with J analogous to S and K analogous to R
Except that J = K = 1 is allowed, and
For J = K = 1, the flip-flop changes to the opposite state
As a master-slave, has same 1s catching behavior as S-R flip-flop
If the master changes to the wrong state, that state will be passed
to the slave
E.g., if master falsely set by J = 1, K = 1 cannot reset it during the
current clock cycle
J-K flip-flop(Cont.)

Implementation Symbol
To avoid 1s catching
behavior, one solution
used is to use an J Q
edge-triggered D as
the core of the flip-flop
K

J D Q

K
T flip-flop
Behavior
Has a single input T
For T = 0, no change to state
For T = 1, changes to opposite state
Same as a J-K flip-flop with J = K = T
As a master-slave, has same 1s catching behavior as J-K
flip-flop
Cannot be initialized to a known state using the T input
Reset (asynchronous or synchronous) essential
T flip-flop(Cont.)

Implementation Symbol
To avoid 1s catching
behavior, one solution T Q
used is to use an
edge-triggered D as
the core of the flip-flop

D Q
T
Basic flip-flop descriptors
Used in analysis
Characteristic table - defines the next state of
the flip-flop in terms of flip-flop inputs and
current state
Characteristic equation - defines the next state
of the flip-flop as a Boolean function of the
flip-flop inputs and the current state
Used in design
Excitation table - defines the flip-flop input
variable values as function of the current state
and next state
D flip-flop descriptors
Characteristic Table
D Q(t + 1) Operation
0 0 Reset
1 1 Set
Characteristic Equation
Q(t+1) = D

Excitation Table
Q(t +1) D Operation
0 0 Reset
1 1 Set
T flip-flop descriptors
Characteristic Table
T Q(t + 1) Operation

0 Q ( t) No change
1 Q ( t) Complement

Characteristic Equation
Q(t+1) = T Q

Excitation Table
Q(t +1) T Operation

Q ( t) 0 No change
Q ( t) 1 Complement
S-R flip-flop descriptors
Characteristic Table S R Q(t + 1) Operation

0 0 Q ( t) No change
0 1 0 Reset
1 0 1 Set
1 1 ? Undefined

Characteristic Equation
Q(t+1) = S + R Q, S.R = 0
Excitation Table
Q(t) Q(t+ 1) S R Operation

0 0 0 X No change
0 1 1 0 Set
1 0 0 1 Reset
1 1 X 0 No change
J-K flip-flop descriptors
Characteristic Table J K Q(t + 1) Operation

0 0 Q ( t) No change
0 1 0 Reset
1 0 1 Set
1 1 Q ( t) Complement
Characteristic Equation
Q(t+1) = J Q + K Q

Excitation Table
Q(t) Q(t + 1) J K Operation

0 0 0 X No change
0 1 1 X Set
1 0 X 1 Reset
1 1 X 0 No Change
Flip-flop behavior
Use the characteristic tables to find the output waveforms for the flip-
flops shown:

Clock

D,T

D Q

T Q
Flip-flop behavior(Cont.)

Use the characteristic tables to find the output waveforms for the flip-
flops shown:

Clock

S,J

R,K

S QSR ?

J QJK

K
Implement D Flip-flop by T Flip-flop
Q Q 0 1
D 0 1 T

0 0 1
0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0
1

T = D Q + D Q
D
D

Q
T
Q
Implement JK Flip-flop by D Flip-flop
Q
0 1 Q 0 1
JK JK D Q+
00 0 1 00 0 1
01 0 0 01 0 0 0 0

11 1 0 11 1 0 1 1

10 1 1 10 1 1

D = J Q + K Q

J
Q
D
K Q
Implement JK Flip-flop by T Flip-flop
Q Q+
Q 0 1
0 1 JK Q+
JK JK
T Q+
00 0 1 00 0 0 00 Q
01 0 0 01 0 1 Q
01 0 0
11 1 0 11 1 1 10 1 1 Q
10 1 1 10 1 0 11 Q

T = J Q + K Q

J
Q
T
K Q
Implement T Flip-flop by JK Flip-flop
Q
T 0 1 J K
Q Q+

0 0 1 00 0 X
1 1 0 01 1 X
10 X 1
11 X 0

Q Q
T 0 1 T 0 1

0 X 0 X 0
0
1 1 X 1 X 1

J=T K=T
Sequential circuit analysis
thanks
digital design