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CE354: Transportation Engineering

Module 1: Highway Network Planning

Different modes of transportation, role of highway
transportation, classification, network patterns
Planning surveys, preparation of plans, final report,
master plan, evaluation by saturation system
20 year road development plans, salient features,
determination of road lengths, introduction to
highway economics

CSRK Prasad
Importance of Transportation
Contributes to the economic, industrial, social
and cultural development of any country
Reduce sectionalism
Enhances community development
Facilitate to maintain law and order
Provides connectivity to rural areas & access
to education, health care, employment
centers, market areas, etc.
Different Modes of Transportation
Roadways or Highways
Belt conveyors
Cable cars
aerial ropeways
Monorails, etc
Comparison of Transportation Modes
Criteria Airways Waterways Railways Highways

Product options Narrow Broad Narrow Very broad

Accessibility Very low Low Moderate High

Relative Speed Very high Slow Moderate Moderate

Cost Very high Very low / low Low / medium Medium

Capacity Very low Very high Moderate Low

Intermodal Moderate Very high Very high Very high

Reliability Very good Limited Good Good

Flexibility Medium Low Low High

Trip Lengths Long Long Medium to long Short to

Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography , Hofstra University, New York,
USA. The Geography of Transport Systems.
Comparison of Transportation Modes
Mode Advantages Disadvantages

Airways Available to & from more countries More expensive

Carry high value items High cost of transportation
Fast speed & reliable Limited network
Limited losses Restricted loading capacity
Long distances
Easy tracking & tracing

Waterways Transport bulky product; large quantities Depend weather

International transportation Slow
Economical - Very low cost Restricted network
Long distances Loss of material
Not flexible

Railways Transport bulky goods High investment

Medium to Long distances Long construction periods
Flexible Limited & fixed infrastructure
Minimal times and costs; Economical Delays, transhipment, inflexible, tracking

Highways Extensive network Short distances

Relatively fast High cost
Max. Flexibility in route, direction, time & speed Blocked during rainy seasons
of travel
No transshipment; Direct delivery
Efficient for short & medium distances
Low investment
Characteristics of Road Transport
Various types of road vehicles
Relatively small investment
Flexibility of changes location, direction,
speed and timings of travel
Efficient mode for short distance travel
High degree of accidents
Provide accessibility to nook & corner of the
World Development Indicators 2014, THE WORLD BANK
Motor vehicles Passenger cars Road density
per 1,000 Per kilometer km. of road per 100
Country per 1,000 people
people of road sq. km of land area
2011 2011 2011 2011
Australia 703 19 559 11
Belgium 562 40 491 504
Brazil 210 25 179 19
Canada 608 14 420 14
China 69 23 54 43
France 582 36 482 192
Germany 588 75 531 180
India 18 5 11 143
Italy 682 80 605 162
Japan 588 222 455 90
Mexico 278 85 195 19
Netherlands 531 64 471 331
New Zealand 708 33 597 35
Norway 591 31 480 29
Sweden 525 9 466 129
Switzerland 573 63 526 173
United Kingdom 516 77 454 172
United States 786 37 403 67
World 168 32 123 33
Highway Development in India
Roads in ancient India
Mohenjo-daro and Harappa 25 to 35 centuries BC
Aryan period 4th century BC (Arthasastra by
Kautilya Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya)
5th Century AD Emperor Ashoka
Roads in Mughal Period
Roads in Nineteenth Century (British rule)
PWD formed by Lord Dalhousie in 1865
Highway Development in India
Jayakar Committee, 1927-28: Recommendations
The road development in the country should be
considered as a national interest
Central Road Fund: An extra tax on petrol
A semi-official technical body should be formed
A research organisation
Highway Development in India
Central Road Fund, 1st March 1929
20%: Central Reserve Meeting expenses on the
administration of the road fund, road experiments
and research on road and bridge projects
80%: Allotted to various states based on actual petrol
consumption or revenue collected.
Indian Roads Congress (IRC), 1934
Motor Vehicle Act, 1939 (Revised in 1988)
Regulate road traffic : traffic laws, ordinances &
regulations driver, vehicle ownership & operation
Highway Development in India
Nagpur Road Plan (First Twenty Year Road
Development Plan): 1943-63
Central Road research Institute (CRRI), 1950
National Highway Act, 1956
Bombay Road Plan (Second Twenty Year Road
Development Plan): 1961-81
Highway Research Board (HRB), 1973
National Transport Policy Committee, 1978
Highway Development in India
Lucknow Road Plan (Third Twenty Year Road
Development Plan): 1981-2001
Golden Quadrilateral (NHDP Phase I) - 2001
Fourth Twenty Year Road Development Plan:
Road Development Plan Vision 2021
Rural Road Development Plan: Vision 2025 - 2005
National Transport Development Policy
Committee, 2014 (Rakesh Mohan Committee):
India Transport Report Moving India to 2032
Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, 2013. The Geography of Transport Systems, Third
Edition. Dept. of Global Studies & Geography , Hofstra University, New
York, USA.
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