You are on page 1of 11

December 11 2017

Young Pharmacists Scholars


NEWSLETTER Week 2. Vol.1 (2)

..YPS WEEK 2, December 11, 2017


In This Issue
.We welcome you to YPS week 2 research mentorship lessons, and we
YPS WEEK-2
hope you had a great learning experience in the previous week.
YPS PPW WEEK-2

INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
The week-2 is packaged with exciting topics from our resourced members.
The lessons are meant to assist and prepare you to know about research in
YPS PROPOSAL WRITING
general, research proposal writing and tips on successful thesis writing.
TIPS ON THESIS WRITING
OUR PEOPLE In this issue also we introduce a section personality profile of the week
LEARNING EXPERIENCE a value-added section to recognize and motivate our membersEach
CONTACT INFORMATION member will be hosted as we move through the coming weeks..

Details of the lecture notes and other exciting information can be accessed
via our websites at www.youngpharmacistscholars.weebly.com

We also welcome your comments and suggestions

..Happy reading!

Pharm Ibrahim Jatau


The YPS Co-ordinator

Young Pharmacists Scholars (YPS) is a mentorship


network that provides support, mentoring, resources and
training to pharmacists with a keen interest in research
and career development.

MOHAMMED Mustapha

Place of work: Department of Clinical

Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice,

Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria

Research interests: Infectious diseases


Links to scholarship opportunities
particularly pharmaceutical care and free online certificates courses
interventions in HIV, TB and Malaria now available on our website at
www.youngpharmarcistscholars.com
View on YPS: YPS shall be a result

oriented forum of great interdisciplinary

scholars and mentors with like minds. May

Allah help us.


INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH

Kabiru Abubakar Gulma


Axios Foundation, Katsina State, Nigeria

What is Research? rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new


form (e.g., summarized or classified).
Research can be defined in a number of ways as
follows: Original research can take a number of forms,
depending on the discipline it pertains to. In
Definition of research is given by John W. Creswell,
experimental work, it typically involves direct or
who states that "Research is a process of steps used to
indirect observation of the researched subject(s), e.g.,
collect and analyze information to increase our
in the laboratory or in the field, documents the
understanding of a topic or issue." It consists of three
methodology, results, and conclusions of an
steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the
experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel
question, and present an answer to the question.
interpretation of previous results. In analytical work,
Encarta Dictionaries define research as methodical
there are typically some new (for example)
investigation into a subject in order to discover facts,
mathematical results produced, or a new way of
to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of
approaching an existing problem. In some subjects
action based on the facts discovered.
which do not typically carry out experimentation or
The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular
research in more detail as "a studious inquiry or way existing understanding is changed or re-
examination; especially investigation or interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the
experimentation aimed at the discovery and researcher.
interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or
The degree of originality of the research is among
laws in the light of new facts, or practical application
major criteria for articles to be published in academic
of such new or revised theories or laws."
journals and usually established by means of peer
A broad definition of research is given by Godwin review. Graduate students are commonly required to
Colibao: "In the broadest sense of the word, the perform original research as part of a dissertation.
definition of research includes any gathering of data,
Scientific research: Is a systematic way of
information, and facts for the advancement of
gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research
knowledge."
provides scientific information and theories for the
Types of Research explanation of nature and the properties of the world.
It makes practical applications possible. Scientific
Original research: Is research that is not
research is funded by public authorities, by charitable
exclusively based on a summary, review or synthesis
organizations and by private groups, including many
of earlier publications on the subject of research. This
companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into
material is a primary source character. The purpose of
different classifications according to their academic
the original research is to produce new knowledge,
and application disciplines. Scientific research is a
widely used criterion for judging the standing of an Identification of research problem
academic institution, but some argue that such is an Literature review
inaccurate assessment of the institution because the Specifying the purpose of research
quality of research does not tell about the quality of Determining specific research questions
teaching (these do not necessarily correlate). Specification of a conceptual framework,
usually a set of hypotheses
Research in the humanities: Involves different
Choice of a methodology (for data collection)
methods such as for example hermeneutics and
Data collection
semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search
Verifying data
for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but
Analyzing and interpreting the data
instead, explore the issues and details that surround
Reporting and evaluating research
it. Context is always important, and context can be
Communicating the research findings and,
social, historical, political, cultural, or ethnic. An
possibly, recommendations
example of research in the humanities is historical
research, which is embodied in a historical method. Methods of Conducting Research
Historians use primary sources and other evidence to
The goal of the research process is to produce new
systematically investigate a topic, and then to write
knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or
histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other
issue. This process takes three main forms (although,
studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of
as previously discussed, the boundaries between them
behaviours in societies and communities, without
may be obscure):
particularly looking for reasons or motivations to
1. Exploratory research, which helps to identify
explain these. These studies may be qualitative or
and define a problem or question.
quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, such
2. Constructive research, which tests theories
as a queer theory or feminist theory.
and proposes solutions to a problem or
Artistic research: Also seen as 'practice-based
question.
research,' can take form when creative works are
3. Empirical research, which tests the feasibility
considered both the research and the object of
of a solution using empirical evidence.
research itself. It is the debatable body of thought
There are two major types of empirical research
which offers an alternative to purely scientific
design: qualitative research and quantitative research.
methods in research in its search for knowledge and
Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative
truth.
methods according to the nature of the research topic
Steps in Conducting a Research
they want to investigate and the research questions
Research is often conducted using the hourglass they aim to answer:
model structure of research. The hourglass model
Qualitative research
starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in
This involves understanding human behaviour and
on the required information through the method of
the reasons that govern such behaviour, by asking a
the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then
broad question, collecting data in the form of words,
expands the research in the form of discussion and
images, video et cetera that is analyzed, and searching
results. The major steps in conducting research are:
for themes. This type of research aims to investigate a
question without attempting to quantifiably measure using observation and experimentation. As such, the
variables or look to potential relationships between non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems
variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing using existing knowledge as its source. This, however,
hypotheses because it can be expensive and time- does not mean that new ideas and innovations cannot
consuming and typically limited to a single set of be found within the pool of existing and established
research subjects. Qualitative research is often used as knowledge. Non-empirical research is not an absolute
a method of exploratory research as a basis for later alternative to empirical research because they may be
quantitative research hypotheses. Qualitative research used together to strengthen a research approach.
is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance Neither one is less effective than the other since they
of social constructionism. have their particular purpose in science. Typically,
empirical research produces observations that need to
Social media posts are used for qualitative research.
be explained; then theoretical research tries to explain
Quantitative research
them, and in so doing generates empirically testable
This involves systematic empirical investigation of hypotheses; these hypotheses are then tested
quantitative properties and phenomena and their empirically, giving more observations that may need
relationships, by asking a narrow question and further explanation; and so on. See Scientific method.
collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing
A simple example of a non-empirical task is the
statistical methods. The quantitative research designs
prototyping of a new drug using a differentiated
are experimental, correlational, and survey (or
application of existing knowledge; another is the
descriptive). Statistics derived from quantitative
development of a business process in the form of a
research can be used to establish the existence of
flowchart and texts where all the ingredients are from
associative or causal relationships between variables.
established knowledge. Much of cosmological
Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical
research is theoretical in nature. Mathematics
and theoretical stance of positivism.
research does not rely on externally available data;
Non-empirical research rather, it seeks to prove theorems about mathematical
objects.
Non-empirical (theoretical) research is an approach
that involves the development of theory as opposed to *This article is culled from Wikipedia.

..I have learnt the concept of eating the big frog (starting with
most important activity while dealing tasks) in the last YPS week-1
lesson. It really helped me in planning my routine
activities Abubakar Shaaban. Penang Malaysia
YPS-PROPOSAL WRITING
Pharm Mustapha Mohammed
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria

3. Justification for the proposed research


Research Proposal Writing
One page is usually sufficient for this. The writer needs
to tell the reader that the research will justify along
A research proposal is a document of usually three to
four main criteria:
seven pages that inform others of a proposed piece of
The size of the industry/area involved
research. This proposed research is usually a
The gaps in the literature that demand attention
project/thesis/dissertation, but it can also be work for
The unusual or improved methodology being used
a corporate purpose. Individuals/team usually write
The benefits in terms of policy and practice
research proposals for academics who may eventually
supervise the work based on the proposal.
4. Preliminary literature review
A research proposal is an important part of the
This is where you provide more detail about what
research process because the success of any research
others have done in the area, and what you propose to
depends on forwarding planning and organization. A
do. You need to write around two pages in which you
good proposal is based on careful thought about how
cover the following:
the research will be conducted and involves the kind of
The major issues or schools of thought
advance planning that is required if the research work
Gaps in the literature (in more detail than is
is to run smoothly.
provided in the introduction)
A research proposal can be rejected as unsuitable or
Research questions and/or hypotheses which are
poorly designed and on the basis of this, a piece of
connected carefully to the literature reviewed
research can be rejected. The proposal is, therefore, an
Definitions of key terms, provided when you
important document; one that is worth spending some
introduce each idea, or in a definition sub-section
time on to get it right. Another reason to get the
Questions arising from the gaps that can be the
proposal right is that this can save you time in the long
focus of data collection or analysis
run. If the proposal is well-designed, it can form an
outline of the research to follow, and ideally, can be
5. Theoretical/Conceptual framework
mapped onto various parts of the final project.
The theoretical framework usually forms the final part
of the literature review section. It describes the model
The elements (structure) of a research
that you are going to use in the research to
proposal
demonstrate your point. This implies drawing on the
1. Introduction
different theories you have identified in your literature
The introduction should be as brief as possible (a
review, you need to identify which theoretical approach
paragraph or two). Whatever you do, dont ramble on
(or approaches) will be employed in your research and
for pages; you need to make this part of the proposal
why.
clear and crisp. In the introduction, you start with the
general idea of the research. You then narrow it down
6. Contribution of the research
to the specific area of your concern. This should lead
In this section, you outline how your research will
logically to the gap in the research that you intend to
make a change to an area of study. This is different
fill. When the gap is identified, a research question can
from the justification of your research. The justification
then be raised. The answer to this question is called the
explains why the research should be done. The
research statement.
contribution section explains how what you will do will
lead to certain outcomes.
2. The research question
You need to outline:
The research question may not be a question as such,
but rather a statement of a problem to be investigated. The importance of the research outcome(s)
It is a statement of what needs to be investigated. The practical or theoretical nature of the outcome(s)
However, it could also be phrased in the form of a The limitations of research section in some cases, can
question or formal hypothesis. go in this section
7. Proposed research methodology worth pursuing if you can identify literature in the field
This section should be about 1-2 pages. You do not and demonstrate that you understand it. It makes a
have to describe the methodology to be used in great very strong impact if you can identify where there is a
detail, but you should justify its use over other research gap in the literature that your proposal hopes
methodologies. For example, you could explain the to fill. This is your contribution to the scholarly
reasons for using: conversation.
A certain paradigm or theory In-text references should be provided for all sections of
Qualitative or quantitative research the proposal with the exception of the research plan
A case study of a specific kind and timetable.
Surveys, correlational experiments etc.
Sample size calculation and sampling 11. Cover page
technique This is essential it identifies:
Data collection The research area via a tentative or proposed title; It
Statistical data analysis should be a short, concise phrase
Operational definitions of key terms with The name, contact details, and qualifications of the
appropriate citations. principal investigator
The investigators affiliation with full address
8. Research plan (Timeline/Gantt chat) Co-investigators/Supervisors details
The research plan or outline can be designed in The project/degree level being attempted
conjunction with a research timetable. However, a little
difference exists between the two. The research plan 12. Table of contents
outlined a list of tasks to be covered in a particular time A table of contents should:
frame throughout the proposed research. This helps List the research proposal sections in a hierarchical
the researcher as well as the reader in the following way, using titles and subtitles
way: Give accurate page references for each section
It provides a framework for the direction of 13. Abstract
proposed research. An abstract for a proposal should include the topic,
Viability of finishing the research in a stipulated aims of your study, who will be involved in the
time research, the methods and the timeframe. It is usually
It shows how the proposed is well-organized and concluded with a statement that explains the relevance
achievable in the time available. of the research (why it is needed). Abstracts for
9. Research timetable proposals are generally in the future tense (you outline
The timetable should indicate the weighting of each what you intend to do).
part of the proposed research in percentage terms, the
topics covered, approximate word limit and, Relationship between the proposal and final
importantly, the approximate length of time it will take project
to complete them. You might consider providing a Note finally that while the proposal can be mapped
graph for convenience. Example: onto the final thesis, much work needs to be done. The
proposal merely provides a shell and the thesis fills in
Chapter Topic % Words Months the details. Parts of the proposal are not required in a
1 Introduction 5 3,500 3 final thesis (for example, resources and evaluation, and
2 Review 30 21,000 6 timetable). The order and arrangement of each
3 Methodology 20 14,000 4 document are slightly different too as the diagram
4 Data analysis 25 17,500 5 below shows.
5 Conclusions 20 14,000 6
and References
Implications 1. Krathwohl, D.R. and Smith, N.L. (2015). How
Total 100 70,000 24 to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal:
Suggestions
10. List of references for Students in Education and the Social and
This must be provided in the usual scholarly fashion. It Behavioral Sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse
helps to convince your reader that your proposal is University Press (Chapters 13).
2. Locke, L.F., Spirduso, W.W. and Silverman,
Proposal Project Final Project
S.J. (2016). Proposals that Work: A Guide for
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Planning Dissertations and Grant Proposals.
1.1 General area 1.1 General area
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (Chapter 1)
1.2 Specific topic 1.2 Specific topic
3. Perry, C. (2013). Research Proposal Structure
1.3 Gap 1.3 Gap
Keyed into the Thesis Structure. Handbook for
1.4 Research Question 1.4 Research
PhD Scholars. McGills. UK.
Question
http://www.usq.edu.au/library/PG_Toolbox/P
1.5 Thesis Statement 1.5 Thesis
hD%20proposal
Statement
4. Philips, E. and Pugh, D. (2005). How to get a
2. Literature Review 1.6 Contribution
PhD: A Handbook for Students and their
3. Theoretical 1.7 Thesis
Supervisors. Open Uni Press, Milton Keynes.
Framework outline/Limitations
5. Punch, K. (2016). Developing Effective
4. Methodology 2. Literature
Research Proposals. Thousand Oaks, C: Sage
Review
(Chapter 2).
5. Contribution 3. Methodology
6. Royce, T. (2009). Writing a research proposal.
6. Research 4. Data Analysis
ELSSA. Cytec Centre, UTS
Plan/Timetable/Budget
7. References 5. Conclusions and
Implications
8. Glossary 6. References
7. Appendices
8. Glossary
Others are:
1. Cover page 1. Cover page
2. Table of content 2. Table of content
3. Abstract 3. Abstract

..I have learned new things about managing my time and planning
my activities from the YPS week-1 lesson..it is very interesting!
Mustapha Mohammed, Zaria, Nigeria.

3
QUICK TIPS FOR WRITING THESIS

Pharm Anas Haruna

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Kaduna State University

Background topic such as; what has been known about the topic, the
An academic thesis is a long piece of writing based on current knowledge, indicates a gap in knowledge, states
students own ideas and research on a particular subject the aim of your research and how it fits into the gap, the
done as a requirement for an award of a university study hypotheses; significance of the study, and
degree. It is often described as complex documents with justification/rational of the study.
varying structure, page and words limits based on
4. Methods
students university requirements. In most cases, the
Methods are the section of a thesis that describes; what,
student is required to defend his thesis to a panel of
when, where, how and why you did what you did to get
examiners at the end of this degree.
results of a study. The method should be re-producible,
Structure of a thesis feasible and clearly written. All the materials used should
The thesis is written based on Institutions be stated, other methods or instruments adopted from
recommendation for thesis writing. Each institution has the previous study should be appropriately cited.
its own style of thesis writing. A structured style is the Statistical analysis used and software used in the analysis
commonly used thesis structure recommended by many should also be stated. Statements on ethical approval
institutions. However, variation exists from institution to should be stated in case of studies involving human and
other on the format. A structured thesis consists of animals
sections with headings and sub-headings Normally: title
Results
page, abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of
The results section of a thesis outlines what you found
tables, introduction, materials and methods, results,
out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses.
discussion, conclusions, recommendations,
Results are presented in form of text, figures, table,
acknowledgements, references, appendices.
picture and graphics.
Title Page Results contain the facts of your research. Often you will
The title of a thesis should be catchy, informative and include a brief comment on the significance of key
descriptive in a sentence form that will convey the results, with the expectation that more generalised
research idea as well as of interest to the reader. It seems comments about results will be made in the discussion
an easy part of a thesis but many students make mistakes. section. Some Universities recommends combining
Always consult your supervisor when developing a title. results and discussion in a single heading.
Depending on the requirements for thesis writing by the
students university, other items to be in the title page Discussion
includes the name of the institution, the name of the The discussion section of a thesis is meant for
student and another supervisor (s), faculty/department, interpretation of results/findings of a study in a wider
year of submission. context. It explains what your results mean; indicates
which results were expected or unexpected; provides
Abstract explanations for unexpected results; comparison with
The abstract is a summary of the thesis with word limits other studies. In some cases, it highlights implication of
in most cases between 400-500 words. The abstracts the research findings, recommendations, future
highlight a brief background on the research including directions and limitations of the study.
the gap between knowledge and main aim. It also
provides a summary of the key findings (results) and Conclusion
conclusion. This section is where the key message/findings of the
study are summarized. It explains the achievement of
Introduction the study aims and objectives.
The introduction provides background information to the
Acknowledgements Be cautious about copy and paste syndrome. Cite the
This section acknowledges people who helped the thesis as appropriate if you use an idea from the thesis.
student in conducting the study apart from the (Remember the implication of plagiarism). Plagiarism
supervisors. These include those who assisted them will discuss details in the coming YPS lessons
experimentation, data collection, statistical analysis,
supplies of materials, and those who helped them Get a buddy: Find a colleague, your partner, a friend
intellectually and financially. who is willing to support you. Someone who can discuss
your research with, or a group of liked minds, example
YPS forum.
References
This section consists of a list of sources of information Get supports: Use some Microsoft Words Add-ins that
cited in the thesis. The format and style are always supports writing easily and efficiently. Example include
based on institution. Thesaurus, page breaks, split, inserting table of
contents, insert table and figures, cross-referencing and
Quick Tips on Thesis Writing lots more (It will be discussed in details in upcoming
YSP lessons)
Study yourself: First, is to study yourself; reading and
Coffee break: Many students write, study and think
writing habits, available time and resource, working
more efficient after taking coffee..
tools (Laptop, printer, internet data access, electricity
etc). Develop a plan on how best you can write within Share your write up with friends: Send a draft
the available resources. copy of your write up to your colleague for editing, it
helps. Many mistakes can be detected by someone that
Planning the structure of your thesis carefully with read your work. It is also an avenue to get other peoples
your supervisor. view on your writing and how they understand the
information you are trying to communicate.
Write sooner: Start writing your thesis as early as
Deal with distractors: Identify your distractors such
possible. The thesis is a project that will be reviewed
as chatting, Facebook and other social media while
rigorously by your supervisor(s) and your examiners, writing.
and your graduation depends on your successful
completion and defence. So, the longer you delay Tips on writing are not exhaustive, every individual
writing, the more difficult it will be to actually start the has a unique style of writing! The take-home message
process. is Study yourself, and start writing

Reference
Write continually. Once you start writing, dont stop!
Of course, you need to continue to read, study and take Postgraduate life. Available from
notes. Before writing, read what you have written https://www.postgrad.com/advice/
previously. Many mistakes can be detected in this way.

If you get stuck, move to another section: If you


get bored, or lost direction in a section, leave and move
to another section that you have more interest. Take a
stroll as well when fell stressed.

Stay on task: Identify the time that you are more


productive. Use it effectively to read and write your
thesis. Remember the previous lesson eat your frog

Set deadlines: Deadlines force you to achieve more in


a stipulated time. Set realistic deadlines and stick to
them. Deadlines produce results, and results lead to
completed writing projects.

Use a previous thesis as a template: Use a previous


thesis in your field from your University as a template.
OUR PEOPLE!
Ibrahim Jatau Abubakar
BPharm (ABU), MSc, PhD (in view) Australia.
Pharmacists Council of Nigeria, Abuja
Research interest: Pharmacoepidemiology (Atrial fibrillation)
My view on YPS: .. to support upcoming pharmacists to become world-class
researchers Insha Allah!

Abubakar Shaaban
BPharm (ABU), MSc, PhD (in view) Malaysia.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Personalised Medicine(Pharmacometabonomics)

Kabiru Abubakar Gulma


BPharm (ABU), MSc, PhD (in view). India
Development Work (International Non-Governmental Organization)
Research interest: Public Health (HIV/AIDS)
View on YPS: To get the opportunity to meet with a diverse pool of scholars that will
add value to my research interest.

Zayyan Shitu
BPharm (Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi. India), MSc (in view) Malaysia
Research interest: Drug safety and Toxicology
..To improve my research skills and share experiences and opportunities available
with my fellow colleagues of similar discipline.

Idris Yusuf Abubakar


BPharm (ABU), MSc (in view) Nigeria
Nigerian MRA, NAFDAC with expertise in Assessment of Quality of medicines both small
molecules and Biologics.
Research interest: Regulatory Science, Pharmacoepidemiology and General Public
Health.
..To network, share and gain knowledge

Khalid Garba Mohammed


BPharm (ABU), MSc, PhD (in view) Italy
Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria
Drug formulations
To get inspired and to inspire others.

Abubakar Sadiq Wada


BPharm (ABU), MSc, PhD (in view) Nigeria
Jigawa State Ministry of Health
Research interest: Neuro-ethnopharmacology
To be inspired
MOHAMMED Mustapha.
BPharm (ABU), MSc (Near University) PhD (in view) Nigeria
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Ahmadu Bello University
Research interests: Infectious diseases particularly pharmaceutical care interventions in
HIV, TB and Malaria
YPS shall be a result oriented forum of great interdisciplinary scholars and mentors
with like minds. May Allah help us

Anas Haruna
BPharm (ABU), MSc, PhD (in view) Nigeria
Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Kaduna State University
Research interests: Natural Product Chemistry.
To learn from my senior learned colleagues and to contribute my own quota to the
upliftment of the group

Mubarak Hussaini Ahmad


BPharm (ABU), MSc (in view) Nigeria
Pharmacy technician department at Aminu Dabo College of Health Science & Technology
Kano state.
Research interest: Toxicology and Neuropharmacology.
The initiative is great and we hope 2 sustain the forum to the maximum level we can.

Sagir Mustapha
BPharm (ABU), MSc PhD (in view) Nigeria
Department of pharmacology Abu, Zaria.

Safiya Abdulkadir Shehu


BPharm. Igbinedion University. MSc (in view) Nigeria
Kano State Ministry of Health
Research interest: General Pharmacology
. I'm happy to be part of this group and I believe we'll all benefit a lot from each
other...

Young Pharmacists Scholars can be contacted via


www.youngphamacistscholars.weebly.com
bicola1120@gmail.com
42, Regent Street, Hobart 7005, Tasmania, Australia