You are on page 1of 19

# fiziks

Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
NET/JRF (JUNE-2011)

Q1. Consider the energy level diagram (as shown in the figure below) of a typical three level
ruby laser system with 1.6  1019 Chromium ions per cubic centimeter. All the atoms
excited by the 0.4 μm radiation decay rapidly to level E2 , which has a lifetime  = 3 ms.
E3
0.4  m

E2
0.7  m
E1

## A. Assuming that there is no radiation of wavelength 0.7 μm present in the pumping

cycle and that the pumping rate is R atoms per cm3, the population density in the level N2
builds up as:
(a) N2 (t) = R(et/ –1) (b) N2 (t) = R(1 – e-t/)

(c) N 2 t  
Rt 2

1  e 
t / 
(d) N2 (t) = R t

Ans: (b)
Solution: N 2  t   R 1  et / 

B. The minimum pump power required (per cubic centimeter) to bring the system to
transparency, i.e. zero gain, is
(a) 1.52 kW (b) 2.64 kW (c) 0.76 kW (d) 1.32 kW
Ans: (c)
Solution: The Minimum Power required to achieve zero gain is
N hv N hc 1.6  1019 6.6  10 34  3  10 8
P     754 W cm 3
2  2  2 6
0.7  10  3  10 3

## P  0.76kW per cubic centimeter

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

NET/JRF (DEC-2011)
Q2. Given that the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom is –13.6 eV, the ground state
energy of positronium (which is a bound state of an electron and a positron) is
(a) + 6.8 eV (b) – 6.8 eV (c) – 13.6 eV (d) – 27.2 eV
Ans: (b)
13.6
Solution: The energy expression for Positronium atom is E n   eV 
2n 2
 13.6
For n = 1, E1  eV   6.8eV ,  E1  6.8 eV
2
Q3. A laser operating at 500 nm is used to excite a molecule. If the Stokes line is observed at
770 cm-1, the approximate positions of the Stokes and the anti-Stokes lines are
(a) 481.5 nm and 520 nm (b) 481.5 nm and 500 nm
(c) 500 nm and 520 nm (d) 500 nm and 600 nm
Ans:
Solution: Given 0  500 nm  5  105 cm , v stoke  770 cm 1   0  20,000cm 1

## Q4. If the hyperfine interaction in an atom is given by H  a S e  S p where S e and S p denote

the electron and proton spins, respectively, the splitting between the 3 S1 and 1 S 0 state is

## (a) a 2 / 2 (b) a 2 (c) a 2 / 2 (d) 2a 2

Ans: (b)
       1

Solution: Total spin is S  S e  S p  S 2  S e2  S p2  2 S e  S p  S e  S p  S 2  S e2  S p2
2

 
 
 H  aS e  S p  S  S e2  S p2 where S e2  S p2  S S  1 2   2
a 2
2
3
4
a  2 3 2 3 2  a  2 3 2
H   S       S   
2 4 4  2 2 

## For 3 S1 : S  1  S 2  S S  1 2  2 2 , For 1 S 0 : S  0  S 2  S S  1 2  0 2

a 3 a a 3 3 2
 H1   2   2   2 for 3 S1 and H 2   0   2  a for 1 S 0
2 2 4 2 2 4

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

1 3
 The splitting between 3 S1 and 1 S 0 is H  H 1  H 2    a 2  a 2
4 4
Q5. The ratio of intensities of the D1 and D2 lines of sodium at high temperature is
(a) 1:1 (b) 2:3 (c) 1:3 (d) 1:2
Ans: (d)
Solution: The electronic transition for D2 and D1 line is
3
2 1
I  D2  2 J 2  1 2 4 2
D2 : 2P3/ 2  2S1/ 2 , D1 : 2P1/ 2  2S1/ 2     
I D1  2 J 1  1 1 2 1
2 1
2
Q6. An atom of mass M can be excited to a state of mass M    by photon capture. The
frequency of a photon which can cause this transition is
c 2 c 2 2 c 2 c 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)   2M 
2h h 2Mh 2Mh
Ans: (d)
Solution: The conservation law of energy and momentum give

Mc 2  h  M    c 4  p 2 c 2
2
1/ 2
and
h
c
 p

## M 2 c 4  h 2 2  2 Mc 2 h  M 2 c 4  2 c 4  2 Mc 4  h 2 2  2Mc 2 h  2 c 4  2Mc 4

   c 2    c 2
 2Mc h  2Mc 1 
2
  
4
1       2M  .
 2M  h  2M  2Mh

NET/JRF (JUNE-2012)
12
Q7. The first absorption spectrum of C16O is at 3.842 cm-1 while that of 13
C16O is at
3.673 cm-1. The ratio of their moments of inertia is
(a) 1.851 (b) 1.286 (c) 1.046 (d) 1.038
Ans: (c)
Solution: For 12 C 16O : 2 B1  3.842 cm 1  B1  1.921 cm 1

For 13
2 B 2  3.673 cm 1
C 16 O :  B 2  1.8365 cm 1
h I 2 B1 1.921
Where, B  2     1.046
8 IC I1 B2 1.8365

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Q8. The spin-orbit interaction in an atom is given by H  aL  S , where L and S denote the
orbital and spin angular momenta, respectively, of the electron. The splitting between the
levels 2P3/2 and 2P1/2 is
3 2 1 2 5 2
(a) a (b) a (c) 3a 2 2 (d) a
2 2 2
Ans. : (a)
    
Solution: Given H  aL  S where J  L  S .
  1
 
 a

 J 2  L2  S 2  2 L  S  L  S  J 2  L2  S 2  H  J 2  L2  S 2
2 2
 
1 3
For 2P3/ 2 : S  which gives S 2  S  S  1  2   2
2 4

## L = 1 which gives L2  LL  1 2  2 2

3 15 a 15 3
which gives J 2  J  J  1 2   2  H1    2    2   2
a
J
2 4 2 4 4 2

1 3
For 2P1/ 2 : S  which gives S 2  S S  1 2   2
2 4
L = 1 which gives L2  LL  1 2  2 2

1 3 a 3 3 
J which gives J 2  J  J  1 2   2  H 2    2   2    a 2
2 4 2 4 4 
a 2 3
H  H1  H 2    a 2  a 2
2 2
Q9. The spectral line corresponding to an atomic transition from J = 1 to J = 0 states splits in
a magnetic field of 0.1 Tesla into three components separated by 1.6  10-3 Ǻ. If the zero
field spectral line corresponds to 1849 Ǻ, what is the g-factor corresponding to the J = 1
hc
state? (You may use  2  10 4 cm)
0
(a) 2 (b) 3/2 (c) 1 (d) 1/2
Ans: (c)
Solution: The Zeeman splitting is E   gM J  B B   g B B for MJ = +1

2
Given, Zeeman splitting separations,     1.6  10 3 Å
c

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

c 3  10 8
   2    1.6  10 1  0.1404  1010
 
1849  10 10 2

E 6.625  10 34  0.1404  1010
g    1.00
B B 9.27  10  24  0.1

NET/JRF (DEC-2012)
Q10. Consider the energy level diagram shown below, which corresponds to the molecular
nitrogen laser. 2
R  21

1
1
0
20 -3 -1
If the pump rate R is 10 atoms cm s and the decay routes are as shown with
 21  20 ns and  1  1s , the equilibrium populations of states 2 and 1 are, respectively,
(a) 1014 cm-3 and 2  1012 cm-3 (b) 21012 cm-3 and 1014 cm-3.
(c) 21012 cm-3 and 2  10 6 cm-3 (d) zero and 1020 cm-3
Ans: (b)
dN 2 N dN1 N 2 N 1
Solution:  R  2 and   .
dt  21 dt  21  1
dN 2 dN1
Under equilibrium condition  0
dt dt
 N 2   21 R  1020  20  109  2  1012 cm3

 1 N 2 10 6  2  1012 cm 3
 N1    1014 cm 3
 21 20  10 9

Q11. Consider a hydrogen atom undergoing a 2 P  1S transition. The lifetime tsp of the 2P
state for spontaneous emission is 1.6 ns and the energy difference between the levels is
10.2 eV. Assuming that the refractive index of the medium n0 = 1, the ratio of Einstein
coefficients for stimulated and spontaneous emission B21   / A21   is given by
(a) 0.683 × 1012 m3J-1s-1 (b) 0.146 × 10-12 Jsm-3 .
(c) 6.83 × 1012 m3J-1s-1 (d) 1.463 × 10-12 Jsm-3 .

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Ans: (a)
B21  2 c 3  2 2 c 3
Solution: n 0  1 , E  10.2 eV and    0.67  1012 .
A21  3 n03  E 3 n03

Q12. Consider a He-Ne laser cavity consisting of two mirrors of reflectivities R1 = 1 and
R2 = 0.98. The mirrors are separated by a distance d = 20 cm and the medium in between
has a refractive index n0 = 1 and absorption coefficient α = 0. The values of the
separation between the modes  and the width  p of each mode of the laser cavity are:

## (c)   750MHz,  p  2.4 MHz (d)   2.4MHz,  p  750MHz

Ans: (c)
c
Solution: Mode separation    750 MHz
2dn0

## where c  3  10 8 m / sec , d  20  102 m and n0  1 .

1 2n 0 d
Width of each mode  p  where t c  .
2t c  1 
c ln  2d

 R1 R2 e 
Note: In this question, there is no need to calculate  p . Since in the given options there

is only one option with   750 MHz and i.e., option (c). You can calculate  p without

## calculator so use your common sense.

NET/JRF (JUNE-2013)
Q13. A muon  
 from cosmic rays is trapped by a proton to form a hydrogen-like atom.
Given that a muon is approximately 200 times heavier than an electron, the longest
wavelength of the spectral line (in the analogue of the Lyman series) of such an atom will
be
o o o o
(a) 5.62 A (b) 6.67 A (c) 3.75 A (d) 13.3 A
Ans: (b)
m m p
Solution: In case of muonic atom, the reduce mass is m '   180me
m  m p

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

m E
'
E
E n'    21  180 21 where, E1  13.6eV
 me  n n

## For first excited state of muonic atom n=2, E 2'  45 E1

The longest wavelength of the photon corresponds to the transition between first and ground state
of muonic atom.
The energy difference between first excited and ground state is
E  E 2'  E1'  135E1  1836eV  2938  10 19 J
In term of wavelength
hc hc 6.63  10 34  3  10 8 o
 
10
E  hv    6. 67  10 m  6.67 A
 E 2938  10 19
Q14. Consider the hydrogen-deuterium molecule HD. If the mean distance between the two
atoms is 0.08 nm and the mass of the hydrogen atom is 938 MeV / c 2 , then the energy
difference E between the two lowest rotational states is approximately
(a) 10 1 eV (b) 10 2 eV (c) 2  10 2 eV (d) 10 3 eV
Ans: (b)
h2
Solution: Rotational energy expression E  J  J  1  AJ  J  1
8 2 I
Difference between two lowest energy levels is E  2 A
h2 2
where A   and I  r 2
8 I
2
2I
MHMD M  2M H 2 2
Here,    H  MH ,    938 MeV/c2
M H  M D M H  2M H 3 3
1
  1.01  1034  J -sec   1.01  1034   1019  eV -sec   6.3  1016  eV -sec 
1.6

 E 
2

6.3  10 16 eV  sec 2

##  9.2  103 eV  102 eV

I 2
3

 938  10 6 eV / c 2  0.08  10 9 m 2

Q15. The electronic energy levels in a hydrogen atom are given by E n  13.6 / n 2 eV. If a

selective excitation to the n  100 level is to be made using a laser, the maximum
allowed frequency line-width of the laser is
(a) 6.5 MHz (b) 6.5 GHz (c) 6.5 Hz (d) 6.5 kHz
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Ans: (b)
2  13.6 2  13.6
Solution: E n  13.6 / n 2  E n  3
eV  h   1.6  10 19    6.5 GHz .
n n3
Q16. Consider the laser resonator cavity shown in the figure.
If I1 is the intensity of the radiation at R1  1 R2  R
l
mirror M 1 and  is the gain coefficient of the
medium between the mirrors, then the energy
x
density of photons in the plane P at a
P
distance x from M 1 is M1 M2

(a)  I1 / c  e  x (b)  I1 / c  e x

## (c)  I1 / c   e x  e x  (d)  I1 / c  e2 x

Ans: (c)
NET/JRF (DEC-2013)
Q17. A perturbation V pert  aL2 is added to the Hydrogen atom potential. The shift in the

energy level of the 2 P state, when the effects of spin are neglected up to second order in
a , is
3 2 4
(a) 0 (b) 2a 2  a 2  4 (c) 2a 2 (d) a 2  a 
2
Ans: (c)
Solution: For 2 P state, L=1
The shift in the energy due to perturbation V pert  aL2 is

## E  aL( L  1) 2  a1(1  1) 2  2a 2

Q18. A gas laser cavity has been designed to operate at   0.5 m with a cavity length of 1 m .
With this set-up, the frequency is found to be larger than the desired frequency by 100 Hz.
The change in the effective length of the cavity required to retune the laser is
(a)  0.334  10 12 m (b) 0.334  10 12 m (c) 0.167  10 12 m (d)  0.167  10 12 m
Ans: (d)
c c  c  c
Solution:   m    m 2 L   2 L  2 L   L  L
2L 2L c 2L L L
 L 0.5  106  1  100
 L     0.167  1012 m
c 3  108
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Q19. The spectroscopic symbol for the ground state of 13 Al is 2 P1/ 2 . Under the action of a

strong magnetic field (when L  S coupling can be neglected) the ground state energy
level will split into
(a) 3 levels (b) 4 levels (c) 5 levels (d) 6 levels
Ans: (c)
Solution: In extremely strong magnetic field coupling between L-S breaks down. J is no longer a
valid quantum number.
The ground state energy level will have  2S  1 2 L  1  6 states, but 2 states are

## degenerate. Therefore, total energy levels will be 5 .

NET/JRF (JUNE-2014)
Q20. A spectral line due to a transition from an electronic state p to an s state splits into three
Zeeman lines in the presence of a strong magnetic field. At intermediate field strengths
the number of spectral lines is
(a) 10 (b) 3 (c) 6 (d) 9
Ans: (a)
Solution: For p state: l  1, s  1/ 2 : j  1/ 2 & 3 / 2 .
This gives two spectral terms 2P3/2 & 2P1/2
For s state: l= 0, s = 1/2: j = 1/2 : This gives spectral terms 2S1/2
The terms 2P3/2 and 2S1/2 corresponding to J = 3/2 & J = 1/2 will break into 2J+1 Zeeman
levels, which is 4 and 2 respectively.
For 2P3/2 Mj = - 3/2 -1/2 +1/2 +3/2
For 2S1/2 Mj = -1/2 +1/2
The selection rule is ∆MJ = 0, ± 1 (MJ = 0 → MJ = 0 If ∆J = 0)
∆MJ = 0 gives π component, ∆MJ = ±1 gives σ component
Number of π component = 2, Numbers of + components = 2
Number of - components = 2
The terms 2P1/2 and 2S1/2 corresponding to J = 1/2 & J = 1/2 will break into 2J+1 Zeeman
levels, which is 2 & 2 respectively.
For 2P1/2 Mj = -1/2 +1/2, For 2S1/2 Mj = -1/2 +1/2

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com

fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

The selection rule is ∆MJ = 0, ± 1 (MJ = 0 → MJ = 0 If ∆J = 0)
∆MJ = 0 gives π component, ∆MJ = ±1 gives σ component
Number of π component = 2, Numbers of + components = 1
Number of - components = 1
Thus, total number of Zeeman component = 10
Q21. A double slit interference experiment uses a laser emitting light of two adjacent
frequencies v1 and v 2 v1  v 2  . The minimum path difference between the interfering
beams for which the interference pattern disappears is
c c c c
(a) (b) (c) (d)
v 2  v1 v 2  v1 2v 2  v1  2v 2  v1 
Ans: (c)
Solution: The condition of maximum intensity for interfering laser beam is: d sin   n
 1
The condition of dark intensity for interfering laser beam is: d sin    n  
 2
For interference pattern to vanish, the minimum path difference should be /2
c c 2
The spectral bandwidth of laser is defined as, v  2  
 v 
For two closely spaced line of wavelength 1 and 2
c 2  1 c c
  1 2   
v  1  2 1 1

c c  2  1

2 1 2 1
Since, for interference pattern to vanish for two closely spaced line of wavelength 1 and
 c c
2, the minimum path difference should be =  
2 2v 2 2   1 

Q22. How much does the total angular momentum quantum number J change in the transition
of Cr 3d 6  atom as it ionize to Cr 2 3d 4 ?
(a) Increases by 2 (b) Decreases by 2 (c) Decreases by 4 (d) Does not change
Ans: (c)

 
Solution: In Cr 3d 6 state

M L  2  1 0  1  2

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
10
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

1
In this configuration, S  4   2 and L  2
2
This is the case of more than half filled subshell, thus state with highest J value will
have the lowest energy.
The highest J - value is J  L  S  y

## Thus, the ground state spectral term for this configuration is 5 D4 .

 
Now in Cr 2 3d 4
M L  2  1 0  1  2

1
In this configuration, S  4   2 and L  2
2
Since this is the case of less than half filled subshell, thus, state with lowest J value will
have the lowest energy.
The lowest J - value is J  L  5  2  2  0 .
Thus the ground state spectral term for this configuration is the J - value decreases from
J  4 to J  0 .
Thus correct answer is option (c).
NET/JRF (DEC-2014)
Q23. An atomic transition 1 P  1S in a magnetic field 1 Tesla shows Zeeman splitting. Given
that the Bohr magneton  B  9.27  10 24 J / T , and the wavelength corresponding to the
transition is 250 nm, the separation in the Zeeman spectral lines is approximately
(a) 0.01 nm (b) 0.1 nm (c) 1.0 nm (d) 10 nm
Ans: (a)
Solution: This is the case of Normal Zeeman effect. The Zeeman separation in terms of
 B
frequency,   B , where  B is Bohr magneton
h
2  2 B B
In terms of wavelength,     
c c h

##  250 10 m    9.27 10 J / T  1T   3 10

2
9 24

  12
m  0.003 nm
 3 10 m / s  6.625 10 Js 
8 34

None of the answer is matching correctly. But best suitable answer is option (a)
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
11
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Q24. If the leading anharmonic correction to the energy of n th vibrational level of a diatomic
2
 1
molecule is  xe  n    with xe  0.001 , the total number of energy levels possible
 2
is approximately
(a) 500 (b) 1000 (c) 250 (d) 750
Ans: (a)
2
 1  1
Solution: The energy of anharmonic oscillator is Ev   v     xe  v   
 2  2
where v  0, 1, 2, .....vmax is vibrational quantum number v  vmax
dEv  1 
Now,  0    2 xe  vmax     0
dv v  vmax
 2 E

 1 1 1 1 1
 1  2 xe  vmax    vmax      500
 2  2 xe 2 2 xe 2  0.001 
 
Q25. The effective spin-spin interaction between the electron spin S e and the proton spin S p
 
in the ground state of the Hydrogen atom is given by H   aS e  S p . As a result of this

## interaction, the energy levels split by an amount

1 2 3 2
(a) a (b) 2a 2 (c) a 2 (d) a
2 2
Ans: (c)
 
Solution: The Hamiltonian is given as H  aSe  S p where Se and S p are electron and proton spin.

The coupling between Se and S p gives net resultant spin angular momentum
       1
S  Se  S p , S 2  Se2  S p2  2Se  S p  Se  S p   S 2  Se2  S p2 
2 Sp
S
 H
2

a 2
S  Se2  S p2 
Se
where S 2  S  S  1  2 , Se2  Se  Se  1  2 , S p2  S p  S p  1  2 F 1
1 2
a
1 1 4
Since Se  and S p   S  0, 1 12 s1/2
2 2 3
 a 2
4
F 0
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
12
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

a 3 3 3
For S  0 (singlet state), H1   0     2   a 2
2 4 4 4
a 3 2 3 2 1 2
For S  1 (Triplet state), H 2   2       a
2 4 4  4
1 2 3 2
 H  H 2  H1  a  a  H  a 2
4 4

NET/JRF (JUNE-2015)
Q26. Of the following term symbols of the np 2 atomic configurations, 1 S0 ,3 P0 ,3 P1 ,3 P2 and
1
D2 which is the ground state?
(a) 3 P0 (b) 1 S0 (c) 3 P2 (d) 3 P1
Ans. (a)
Solution: According to Hund’s rules
(i) State with highest multiplicity has lowest energy
(ii) State with same multiplicity, the state with highest L will have lowest energy
(iii) State with same multiplicity and L value. The state with lowest J has lowest energy
(only if subshell is less than half filled) from the given states 1 S0 ,3 P0 ,3 P1 ,3 P21 D2

## The 3 P0 will have the lowest energy

 1
Q27. A diatomic molecule has vibrational states with energies Ev    v   and rotational
 2

## states with energies E j  Bj  j  1 , where v and j are non-negative integers . consider

the transitions in which both the initial and final states are restricted to v  1 and j  2
and subject to the selection rules v  1 and j  1 . Then the largest allowed energy
of transition is
(a)   3B (b)   B (c)   4 B (d) 2  B
Ans. (c)
 1
Solution: E    v    BJ  J  1
 2
For vibrational transition with v  1 and rotational transition with J   we get
E  Einitial  Efinal    2 B  J  1

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
13
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

where J is lowest quantum number
According to question in rotational states, two transition is possible, one for
J  0  J  1 and second for J  1  J  2
But, second transition will have photon of higher energy
 For J  1  J  2
E    2 B 1  1    4 B

NET/JRF (DEC-2015)
Q28. The LS configurations of the ground state of 12Mg , 13
Al , 17Cl and 18
Ar are respectively,

## (c) 1 S0 , 2 P1/ 2 , 2 P3 / 2 and 1 S0 (d) 1 S0 , 2 P3 / 2 , 2 P1/ 2 and 3 S1

Ans.: (c)
Solution: 12 Mg :1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2

Ground state: 1 S0
13
Al :1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p1
the terms are 2 p1/ 2 and 2 p3/ 2 . Since its less than half filled. Thus

## Ground state: 2 p1/ 2

17
Cl :1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 5
The terms are 2 p1/ 2 and 2 p3/ 2 . Since it shell is more than half filled.

## Thus Ground state: 2 p3/ 2

18
Ar :1s 2 2s 2 2 p 6 3s 2 3 p 6

Ground state: 1 S0

Q29. For a two level system, the population of atoms in the upper and lower levels are 3 1018
and 0.7 1018 , respectively. If the coefficient of stimulated emission is
3.0  105 m3 / W -s 3 and the energy density is 9.0 J / m3 -Hz , the rate of stimulated
emission will be
(a) 6.3 1016 s 1 (b) 4.1  1016 s 1 (c) 2.7  1016 s 1 (d) 1.8  1016 s 1
Ans.: None of the answer is matching.

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
14
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Solution: The rate of stimulated emission is
dN 2
 N 2 B21 u  w 
dt
m3 m3
where N 2  3 1018 , B21  3  105  3  10 5

W  s3 J  s2
J s
and u  w   9.0 J / m3  Hz  9.0
m3
dN 2 m3 J s
 3 1018  3 105  9 3  8.11024 s 1
dt J s 2
m
Q30. The first ionization potential of K is 4.34 eV , the electron affinity of Cl is 3.82 eV
and the equilibrium separation of KCl is 0.3 nm . Then energy required to dissociate a
KCl molecule into a K and a Cl atom is
(a) 8.62 eV (b) 8.16 eV (c) 4.28 eV (d) 4.14 eV
Ans.: (c)
Solution: Energy required to dissociate KCl is  KCl  K   Cl  

 
2
1 q1q2  9 Nm 
2 1.6  1019 c
V   9  10 2 
 7.7  1019 J  4.79 eV
4 0 r12  c  0.3 10 m9

The band dissociation energy is the energy required to dissociate a molecule into its
component atom KCl  K  Cl
To find the energy required to dissociate KCl into K and Cl , we must add an electron
to the K  ion, which releases the atomic potassium ionization energy. Remove one
electron from Cl  ion which requires the atomic chlorine electron affinity energy
Given ionization energy of K  Eie  4.34 eV

## Electron affinity of Cl  Eai  3.82 eV

Thus the energy gained in the transformation from ion to atom is
 Eie  Eai  4.34  3.82  0.52 eV

## Thus dissociation energy  4.79  0.52  4.27 eV

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
15
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

NET/JRF (JUNE-2016)
Q31. The ground state electronic configuration of 22 Ti is  Ar  3d 2 4s 2 . Which state, in the

## standard spectroscopic notations, is not possible in this configuration?

(a) 1 F3 (b) 1 S0 (c) 1 D2 (d) 3 P0
Ans: (a)
Solution: The spectroscopic term for d 2 are obtained as
l1  2, l2  2  L  4,3, 2,1, 0

1 1
s1  , s2   S  0,1
2 2
Now, S  0, L  4  J  4, 1G4

S  0, L  2  J  2, 1 D2

S  0, L  0  J  0, 1S0

S  1, L  3  J  4,3, 2, 3
F4 , 3F3 , 3F2

S  1, L  1  J  2,1, 0, 3 P2 , 3 P1 ,3 P0
Thus 1 F3 is not possible spectroscopic term of  Ar  3d 2 4 S 2

Q32. In a normal Zeeman Effect experiment using a magnetic field of strength 0.3 T , the
splitting between the components of a 660 nm spectral line is
(a) 12 pm (b) 10 pm (c) 8 pm (d) 6 pm
Ans: (d)
 2 eB  660 10 
2
9
1.6  1019  0.3
Solution:      6.09  1012 m  6 pm
c 4 m 3  108 4  9.110 31

Q33. The separation between the energy levels of a two-level atom is 2 eV . Suppose that

4  1020 atoms are in the ground state and 7  1020 atoms are pumped into the excited state
just before lasing starts. How much energy will be released in a single laser pulse?
(a) 24.6 J (b) 22.4 J (c) 98 J (d) 48 J
Ans: (d)
Solution: N 2  N1  3  1020

 N  N1  3  1020
Energy of laser pulse, E   2  h   2 1.6 1019 J  E  48 J
 2  2
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
16
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

NET/JRF (DEC-2016)
Q34. In the L  S coupling scheme, the terms arising from two non-equivalent p -electrons are

## (c) 1S , 3S , 3P, 3D (d) 1S , 3S , 1P, 3P, 1D, 3D

Ans. : (d)
Solution: For pp configuration
1 1
s1  , s2   S  0,1
2 2
l1  1, l2  1  L  0,1, 2
Thus
S  0, L  0  J  0 ; 1S0 or 1S

S  0, L  1  J  1 ; 1 P1 or 1 P

S  0, L  2  J  2 ; 1 D2 or 1 D

S  1, L  0  J  1 ; 3 S1 or 3 S

S  1, L  1  J  0,1, 2 ; 3 P0,1,2 or 3 P

S  1, L  2  J  1, 2,3 ; 3 D1,2,3 or 3 D

## Thus spectroscopic terms are 1 S ,3 S ,1 P,3 P 1 D, 3 D

Q35. The total spin of a hydrogen atom is due to the contribution of the spins of the electron
and the proton. In the high temperature limit, the ratio of the number of atoms in the spin-
1 state to the number in the spin- 0 state is
1 1
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) (d)
2 3
Ans. : (b)
Solution: F  1 (when spins are parallel)
2
S1/ 2
F  0 (when spins are anti-parallel)

## The degeneracy of quantum level is 2 F  1 .

2 F1  1 3
Thus,  3
2 F0  1 1

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
17
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Q36. A two level system in a thermal (black body) environment can decay from the excited
state by both spontaneous and thermally stimulated emission. At room temperature
 300 K  , the frequency below which thermal emission dominates over spontaneous

emission is nearest to
(a) 1013 Hz (b) 108 Hz (c) 105 Hz (d) 1011 Hz
Ans. : (d)
Solution: At thermal equilibrium, the ratio of the number of spontaneous to stimulated emission
is given by

A21  1.054  1034 J .S
 e kT  1 ; where   2.551014 sec
B21 u   23
kT 1.38  10 J / K  300 K

## Now, for v  1013 Hz    6.3 1013 rad / sec ,

A21
 e1.6  1  5  1  4
B21u  
For v  1011 Hz    6.3 1011 rad / sec ,
A21 3
  e1.610  1  1.03  1  0.03
B21u  
This ratio is less than one, thus stimulated thermal emission dominates over spontaneous
emission below all frequency of 1011 Hz
NET/JRF (JUNE-2017)
Q37. An atomic spectral line is observed to split into nine components due to Zeeman shift. If
the upper state of the atom is 3D2 then the lower state will be

## (a) 3F2 (b) 3F1 (c) 3P1 (d) 3P2

Ans. : (c)
Solution: The possible zeeman component for different transitions are:
(i) 3D2  3 F2 : Total zeeman components are 12

## (iii) 3D2  3P2 : Total zeeman components are 12

3
F1 state is not allowed because for 3F , possible ‘ J ’ values are 2, 3 and 4.

## Only 3 D2  3 P1 transition gives 9 components. Therefore, ground state is 3P1 .

Thus, correct option is (c).
H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
18
fiziks
Institute for NET/JRF, GATE, IIT‐JAM, M.Sc. Entrance, JEST, TIFR and GRE in Physics

Q38. If the coefficient of stimulated emission for a particular transition is 2.1 1019 m3W 1s 3
0
and the emitted photon is at wavelength 3000 A , then the lifetime of the excited state is
approximately
(a) 20 ns (b) 40 ns (c) 80 ns (d) 100 ns
Ans. : (c)
A21 8 h 3 1 c3 3
Solution:  . Life time     
B21 c3 A21 8 h 3 B21 8 hB21

 
 3000 10  10 3

## 8  6.6 10 J .s. 2.1 10

34 19
m3 w1s 3 

2.7  1020
  7.7 108 sec  80n sec
3.5  1013
Q39. If the binding energies of the electron in the K and L shells of silver atom are 25.4 keV
and 3.34 keV , respectively, then the kinetic energy of the Auger electron will be
approximately
(a) 22 keV (b) 9.3keV (c) 10.5 keV (d) 18.7 keV
Ans. : (d)
Solution: K .E. Auger electron is K .E   EK  EL   EL

 EK  2 EL Auger electorn
e
  25.4  2  3.34  keV
Vacuum level
 18.7keV
L

h

H.No. 40‐D, Ground Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT, Hauz Khas, New Delhi‐110016
Phone: 011‐26865455/+91‐9871145498
Website: www.physicsbyfiziks.com  | Email: fiziks.physics@gmail.com
19